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Sample records for fuel rich rocket

  1. Combustion characteristics of the LO2/GCH4 fuel-rich preburners for staged combustion cycle rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Fumiei; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masaki

    1991-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of Liquid Oxygen (LO2)/Gaseous Methane (GCH4) fuel rich preburners were experimentally studied using subscale hardware. Three types of preburners with coaxial type propellant injection elements were designed and fabricated, and were used for hot fire testing. LO2 was used as oxidizer, and GCH4 at room temperature was used as fuel. The tests were conducted at chamber pressures ranging from 6.7 to 11.9 M Pa, and oxidizer to fuel ratios ranged from 0.16 to 0.42. The test results, which include combustion gas temperature T(sub c), characteristic velocity C(sup *) and soot adhesion data, are presented. The T(sub c) efficiency and the C(sup *) efficiency were found to be a function of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. These efficiencies are correlated by an empirical correlation parameter which accounts for the effects of oxidizer to fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The exhaust plumes were colorless and transparent under all tests conditions. There was some soot adhesion to the chamber wall, but no soot adhesion was observed on the main injector simulator orifices. Higher temperature igniter gas was required to ignite the main propellants of the preburner compared with that of the LO2/Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) propellants combination.

  2. Development and Characterization of Fast Burning Solid Fuels/Propellants for Hybrid Rocket Motors with High Volumetric Efficiency

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed work is to develop several fast burning solid fuels/fuel-rich solid propellants for hybrid rocket motor applications. In the...

  3. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    In this document I discuss paraffin fuel combustion and investigate the effects of additives on paraffin entrainment and regression. In general, hybrid rockets offer an economical and safe alternative to standard liquid and solid rockets. However, slow polymeric fuel regression and low combustion efficiency have limited the commercial use of hybrid rockets. Paraffin is a fast burning fuel that has received significant attention in the 2000's and 2010's as a replacement for standard fuels. Paraffin regresses three to four times faster than polymeric fuels due to the entrainment of a surface melt layer. However, further regression rate enhancement over the base paraffin fuel is necessary for widespread hybrid rocket adoption. I use a small scale opposed flow burner to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of paraffin. Standard additives such as aluminum combust above the flame zone where sufficient oxidizer levels are present. As a result no heat is generated below the flame itself. In small scale opposed burner experiments the effect of limited heat feedback is apparent. Aluminum in particular does not improve the regression of paraffin in the opposed burner. The lack of heat feedback from additive combustion limits the applicability of the opposed burner. In turn, the results obtained in the opposed burner with metal additive loaded hybrid fuels do not match results from hybrid rocket experiments. In addition, nano-scale aluminum increases melt layer viscosity and greatly slows the regression of paraffin in the opposed flow burner. However, the reactive additives improve the regression rate of paraffin in the opposed burner where standard metals do not. At 5 wt.% mechanically activated titanium and carbon (Ti-C) improves the regression rate of paraffin by 47% in the opposed burner. The mechanically activated Ti C likely reacts in or near the melt layer and provides heat feedback below the flame region that results in faster opposed burner regression

  4. Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Prop...

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Title: Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Propulsion Health Monitoring. Abstract: This article describes the results of applying four...

  5. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  6. Thrust Augmented Nozzle for a Hybrid Rocket with a Helical Fuel Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joel H.

    A thrust augmented nozzle for hybrid rocket systems is investigated. The design lever-ages 3-D additive manufacturing to embed a helical fuel port into the thrust chamber of a hybrid rocket burning gaseous oxygen and ABS plastic as propellants. The helical port significantly increases how quickly the fuel burns, resulting in a fuel-rich exhaust exiting the nozzle. When a secondary gaseous oxygen flow is injected into the nozzle downstream of the throat, all of the remaining unburned fuel in the plume spontaneously ignites. This secondary reaction produces additional high pressure gases that are captured by the nozzle and significantly increases the motor's performance. Secondary injection and combustion allows a high expansion ratio (area of the nozzle exit divided by area of the throat) to be effective at low altitudes where there would normally be significantly flow separation and possibly an embedded shock wave due. The result is a 15 percent increase in produced thrust level with no loss in engine efficiency due to secondary injection. Core flow efficiency was increased significantly. Control tests performed using cylindrical fuel ports with secondary injection, and helical fuel ports without secondary injection did not exhibit this performance increase. Clearly, both the fuel-rich plume and secondary injection are essential features allowing the hybrid thrust augmentation to occur. Techniques for better design optimization are discussed.

  7. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  8. Metallic hydrogen: The most powerful rocket fuel yet to exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvera, Isaac F [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Cole, John W, E-mail: silvera@physics.harvard.ed [NASA MSFC, Huntsville, AL 35801 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Wigner and Huntington first predicted that pressures of order 25 GPa were required for the transition of solid molecular hydrogen to the atomic metallic phase. Later it was predicted that metallic hydrogen might be a metastable material so that it remains metallic when pressure is released. Experimental pressures achieved on hydrogen have been more than an order of magnitude higher than the predicted transition pressure and yet it remains an insulator. We discuss the applications of metastable metallic hydrogen to rocketry. Metastable metallic hydrogen would be a very light-weight, low volume, powerful rocket propellant. One of the characteristics of a propellant is its specific impulse, I{sub sp}. Liquid (molecular) hydrogen-oxygen used in modern rockets has an Isp of {approx}460s; metallic hydrogen has a theoretical I{sub sp} of 1700s. Detailed analysis shows that such a fuel would allow single-stage rockets to enter into orbit or carry economical payloads to the moon. If pure metallic hydrogen is used as a propellant, the reaction chamber temperature is calculated to be greater than 6000 K, too high for currently known rocket engine materials. By diluting metallic hydrogen with liquid hydrogen or water, the reaction temperature can be reduced, yet there is still a significant performance improvement for the diluted mixture.

  9. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are presented (multiport grain and high mixture ratio which aim at reducing negative effects without enhancing regression rate. Furthermore, fuel material changes and nonconventional geometries of grain and/or injector are presented as methods to increase fuel regression rate. Although most of these approaches are still at the laboratory or concept scale, many of them are promising.

  10. Chemicals - potential substances for WMD creation, explosives and rocket fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsova, M.D.; Khakimova, N.U.; Barotov, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    fluoropolymer (teflon) production, in metallurgy, during glass reprocessing and others. Chlorine trifluoride - ClF_3 - has wide range. It is applied for nuclear materials conversion, rocket fuel additive as well as for semiconductors production in military field. ClF_3 is colorless gas and has sweetish smell, toxic and strong oxidizer. In this article just some chemicals of CHW production are presented. Chemicals are also potential components of strong explosives. Explosives are known as: cyclonite, octogen, triamino trinitrobenzol, solid oxidant (for example, ammonium perchlorate) and others. Chemicals are widely used in rocket fuel production: combustible chemicals; solid and liquid oxidants; binding polymers; other additives. Solid fuel - admixture of many chemicals and connecting components and usually consist from oxidant and de oxidizer. Liquid fuel - also admixture of different liquid chemicals. Usually for rocket fuel NH_4ClO_4 is widely used, hydrazine, hydrides monomethyl, aluminium powder, AlH_3, nitrogen oxide, nitric acids. Some words about heavy water - D_2O, which is moderator in nuclear reactors, ensures continuous nuclear chain reaction with use of natural uranium. D_2O - colorless liquid, external view doesn't differ from H_2O and not radioactive. Its density is 10% more than H_2O. Thus, in this article the chemical substances are presented which are used for WMD, explosives and rocket fuel production. That's why control and exact identification of these substances is guarantee of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) non-proliferation.

  11. High energy density additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these...

  12. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  13. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  14. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  15. Production of high-energy substances in the process of thorough treatment of hard rocket fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiman, L.N.; Sobolev, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The high-energy products taken from hard rocket fuel are explored on the sensitivity to a shock, friction, electrostatic discharge, detonation impulse, vibroloads, and capsule-detonator activity. Their chemical stability, thermal stability, and other physicochemical parameters are studied. The field of a recurring effective utilization of gained octogene, ammonium, and potassium perchlorate is shown.

  16. Neutronics Study on LEU Nuclear Thermal Rocket Fuel Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Howe, Steven [CSNR, Idaho (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This has resulted in a non-trivial simplification of the tasks needed to develop such an engine and the quick initial development of the concept. There are, however, a series of key core-design choices that are currently under scrutiny in the field that have to be resolved in order for the LEU-NTR to be fully developed. The most important of these is the choice of fuel: carbide composite or tungsten cermet. This study presents a first comparison of the two fuel types specifically in the neutronic application to the LEU-NTR, keeping in mind the unique neutronic environment and the system requirements of the system. The scope of the study itself is limited to a neutronics study of the two fuels and only a cursory overview of the material properties of the fuels themselves... The results of this study have led to two major conclusions. First of all is that the carbide composite fuel is, from a neutronics standpoint, a much better fuel. It has a low absorption cross-section, is inherently a strong moderator, is able to achieve a higher reactivity using smaller amounts of fissile material, and can potentially enable a smaller reactor. Second is that despite its neutronic difficulties (high absorption, inferior moderating abilities, and lower k-infinity values) the tungsten cermet fuel is still able to perform satisfactorily in an LEU-NTR, largely due to its ability to have an extremely high fuel loading.

  17. Rocket Fuel Synthesis by Fisher-Tropsch Process

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using Fisher Tropsch (FT), a commercial-scale technology that currently produces liquid fuels from syngas (CO &...

  18. Prediction of Non-Equilibrium Kinetics of Fuel-Rich Kerosene/LOX Combustion in Gas Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jung Min; Lee, Chang Jin

    2007-01-01

    Gas generator is the device to produce high enthalpy gases needed to drive turbo-pump system in liquid rocket engine. And, the combustion temperature in gas generator should be controlled below around 1,000K to avoid any possible thermal damages to turbine blade by using either fuel rich combustion or oxidizer rich combustion. Thus, nonequilibrium chemical reaction dominates in fuel-rich combustion of gas generator. Meanwhile, kerosene is a compounded fuel with various types of hydrocarbon elements and difficult to model the chemical kinetics. This study focuses on the prediction of the non-equilibrium reaction of fuel rich kerosene/LOX combustion with detailed kinetics developed by Dagaut using PSR (Perfectly Stirred Reactor) assumption. In Dagaut's surrogate model for kerosene, chemical kinetics of kerosene consists of 1,592 reaction steps with 207 chemical species. Also, droplet evaporation time is taken into account in the PSR calculation by changing the residence time of droplet in the gas generator. Frenklach's soot model was implemented along with detailed kinetics to calculate the gas properties of fuel rich combustion efflux. The results could provide very reliable and accurate numbers in the prediction of combustion gas temperature,species fraction and material properties

  19. Innovative nuclear thermal rocket concept utilizing LEU fuel for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Venneri, Paolo; Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2015-01-01

    Space is one of the best places for humanity to turn to keep learning and exploiting. A Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a viable and more efficient option for human space exploration than the existing Chemical Rockets (CRs) which are highly inefficient for long-term manned missions such as to Mars and its satellites. NERVA derived NTR engines have been studied for the human missions as a mainstream in the United States of America (USA). Actually, the NERVA technology has already been developed and successfully tested since 1950s. The state-of-the-art technology is based on a Hydrogen gas (H_2) cooled high temperature reactor with solid core utilizing High-Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to reduce heavy metal mass and to use fast or epithermal neutron spectrums enabling simple core designs. However, even though the NTR designs utilizing HEU is the best option in terms of rocket performance, they inevitably provoke nuclear proliferation obstacles on all Research and Development (R and D) activities by civilians and non-nuclear weapon states, and its eventual commercialization. To surmount the security issue to use HEU fuel for a NTR, a concept of the innovative NTR engine, Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing Low-Enriched Uranium fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is presented in this paper. The design goal of KANUTER-LEU is to make use of a LEU fuel for its compact reactor, but does not sacrifice the rocket performance relative to the traditional NTRs utilizing HEU. KANUTER-LEU mainly consists of a fission reactor utilizing H_2 propellant, a propulsion system and an optional Electricity Generation System as a bimodal engine. To implement LEU fuel for the reactor, the innovative engine adopts W-UO_2 CERMET fuel to drastically increase uranium density and thermal neutron spectrum to improve neutron economy in the core. The moderator and structural material selections also consider neutronic and thermo-physical characteristics to reduce non-fission neutron loss and

  20. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Design Using LEU Tungsten Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yonghee; Husemeyer, Peter and others

    2013-01-01

    This would then open the possibility for the commercial development and implementation of an NTR. The result was a design for a 114.66 kN thrust rocket engine, with an optimized specific impulse of 801 second, and a thrust-to-weight ratio 5.08. The development and analysis of the reactor was done using an integrated neutronics and thermal hydraulics code that combines MCNP5 using ENDF-B/VI cross sections with a purpose-built thermal hydraulics code. A proof of concept has been proposed for W LEU-NTR design. The current design is built upon traditional NTR design work and implements many of the proven design characteristics and materials from previous designs. Despite the current reactor design being preliminary, it already shows promise in being able to have similar, if not better performance characteristics than current and previous NTR designs. Future work will involve the flattening of radial power profile, optimization of the axial power profile, researching methods to address the full water immersion accident scenario, and further studies regarding the breeding potential in the reactor

  1. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Design Using LEU Tungsten Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yonghee; Husemeyer, Peter and others

    2013-10-15

    This would then open the possibility for the commercial development and implementation of an NTR. The result was a design for a 114.66 kN thrust rocket engine, with an optimized specific impulse of 801 second, and a thrust-to-weight ratio 5.08. The development and analysis of the reactor was done using an integrated neutronics and thermal hydraulics code that combines MCNP5 using ENDF-B/VI cross sections with a purpose-built thermal hydraulics code. A proof of concept has been proposed for W LEU-NTR design. The current design is built upon traditional NTR design work and implements many of the proven design characteristics and materials from previous designs. Despite the current reactor design being preliminary, it already shows promise in being able to have similar, if not better performance characteristics than current and previous NTR designs. Future work will involve the flattening of radial power profile, optimization of the axial power profile, researching methods to address the full water immersion accident scenario, and further studies regarding the breeding potential in the reactor.

  2. Review of fuel element development for nuclear rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taub, J.M.

    1975-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) entered the nuclear propulsion field in 1955 and began work on all aspects of a nuclear propulsion program involving uranium-loaded graphite fuels, hydrogen propellant, and a target exhaust temperature of approximately 2500 0 C. A very extensive uranium-loaded graphite fuel element technology evolved from the program. Selection and composition of raw materials for the extrusion mix had to be coupled with heat treatment studies to give optimum element properties. The highly enriched uranium in the element was incorporated as UO 2 , pyrocarbon-coated UC 2 , or solid solution UC . ZrC particles. An extensive development program resulted in successful NbC or ZrC coatings on elements to withstand hydrogen corrosion at elevated temperatures. Hot gas, thermal shock, thermal stress, and NDT evaluation procedures were developed to monitor progress in preparation of elements with optimum properties. Final evaluation was made in reactor tests at NRDS. Aerojet-General, Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant of Union Carbide Nuclear Company entered the program in the early 1960's, and their activities paralleled those of LASL in fuel element development. (U.S.)

  3. Feasibility study of palm-based fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi Ahmad, M.; Abidin, Razali; Taha, A. Latif; Anudip, Amzaryi

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the combined analysis done in pure palm-based wax that can be used as solid fuel in a hybrid rocket engine. The measurement of pure palm wax calorific value was performed using a bomb calorimeter. An experimental rocket engine and static test stand facility were established. After initial measurement and calibration, repeated procedures were performed. Instrumentation supplies carried out allow fuel regression rate measurements, oxidizer mass flow rates and stearic acid rocket motors measurements. Similar tests are also carried out with stearate acid (from palm oil by-products) dissolved with nitrocellulose and bee solution. Calculated data and experiments show that rates and regression thrust can be achieved even in pure-tested palm-based wax. Additionally, palm-based wax is mixed with beeswax characterized by higher nominal melting temperatures to increase moisturizing points to higher temperatures without affecting regression rate values. Calorie measurements and ballistic experiments were performed on this new fuel formulation. This new formulation promises driving applications in a wide range of temperatures.

  4. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  5. Process for gasifying fuels with the recovery of rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, F

    1921-04-10

    A process for gasifying fuels with recovery of water-free, rich-in-tar gases in a ring-gas-producer characterized by hot-gas-stream arising from the gasification bed of a fresh chamber in the known way is divided. One part is conducted through an old chamber, the other part is led first during the drying through the fresh fuel and with the received water-vapor also through the old chamber and then during the carbonization with the carbonization products is led to the carbonization-gas conduit.

  6. Burning low volatile fuel in tangentially fired furnaces with fuel rich/lean burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xiaolin; Xu Tongmo; Hui Shien

    2004-01-01

    Pulverized coal combustion in tangentially fired furnaces with fuel rich/lean burners was investigated for three low volatile coals. The burners were operated under the conditions with varied value N d , which means the ratio of coal concentration of the fuel rich stream to that of the fuel lean stream. The wall temperature distributions in various positions were measured and analyzed. The carbon content in the char and NO x emission were detected under various conditions. The new burners with fuel rich/lean streams were utilized in a thermal power station to burn low volatile coal. The results show that the N d value has significant influences on the distributions of temperature and char burnout. There exists an optimal N d value under which the carbon content in the char and the NO x emission is relatively low. The coal ignition and NO x emission in the utilized power station are improved after retrofitting the burners

  7. Numerical investigation on the regression rate of hybrid rocket motor with star swirl fuel grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Weihua

    2016-10-01

    Although hybrid rocket motor is prospected to have distinct advantages over liquid and solid rocket motor, low regression rate and insufficient efficiency are two major disadvantages which have prevented it from being commercially viable. In recent years, complex fuel grain configurations are attractive in overcoming the disadvantages with the help of Rapid Prototyping technology. In this work, an attempt has been made to numerically investigate the flow field characteristics and local regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor with complex star swirl grain. A propellant combination with GOX and HTPB has been chosen. The numerical model is established based on the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, combustion, and coupled gas/solid phase formulations. The calculated fuel regression rate is compared with the experimental data to validate the accuracy of numerical model. The results indicate that, comparing the star swirl grain with the tube grain under the conditions of the same port area and the same grain length, the burning surface area rises about 200%, the spatially averaged regression rate rises as high as about 60%, and the oxidizer can combust sufficiently due to the big vortex around the axis in the aft-mixing chamber. The combustion efficiency of star swirl grain is better and more stable than that of tube grain.

  8. Understanding Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarolo, Anna; Kobald, Mario; Schlechtriem, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Liquefying fuels show higher regression rates than the classical polymeric ones. They are able to form, along their burning surface, a low viscosity and surface tension liquid layer, which can become unstable (Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) due to the high velocity gas flow in the fuel port. This causes entrainment of liquid droplets from the fuel surface into the oxidizer gas flow. To better understand the droplets entrainment mechanism, optical investigations on the combustion behaviour of paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuels in combination with gaseous oxygen have been conducted in the framework of this research. Combustion tests were performed in a 2D single-slab burner at atmospheric conditions. High speed videos were recorded and analysed with two decomposition techniques. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and independent component analysis (ICA) were applied to the scalar field of the flame luminosity. The most excited frequencies and wavelengths of the wave-like structures characterizing the liquid melt layer were computed. The fuel slab viscosity and the oxidizer mass flow were varied to study their influence on the liquid layer instability process. The combustion is dominated by periodic, wave-like structures for all the analysed fuels. Frequencies and wavelengths characterizing the liquid melt layer depend on the fuel viscosity and oxidizer mass flow. Moreover, for very low mass flows, no wavelength peaks are detected for the higher viscosity fuels. This is important to better understand and predict the onset and development of the entrainment process, which is connected to the amplification of the longitudinal waves.

  9. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes.

  10. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  11. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy near 5 μm for carbon monoxide sensing in a high-pressure kerosene-fueled liquid rocket combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel D.; Bendana, Fabio A.; Schumaker, S. Alexander; Spearrin, R. Mitchell

    2018-05-01

    A laser absorption sensor was developed for carbon monoxide (CO) sensing in high-pressure, fuel-rich combustion gases associated with the internal conditions of hydrocarbon-fueled liquid bipropellant rockets. An absorption feature near 4.98 μm, comprised primarily of two rovibrational lines from the P-branch of the fundamental band, was selected to minimize temperature sensitivity and spectral interference with other combustion gas species at the extreme temperatures (> 3000 K) and pressures (> 50 atm) in the combustion chamber environment. A scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy technique (1 f-normalized 2 f detection) is utilized to infer species concentration from CO absorption, and mitigate the influence of non-absorption transmission losses and noise associated with the harsh sooting combustor environment. To implement the sensing strategy, a continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser (QCL) was coupled to a hollow-core optical fiber for remote mid-infrared light delivery to the test article, with high-bandwidth light detection by a direct-mounted photovoltaic detector. The method was demonstrated to measure time-resolved CO mole fraction over a range of oxidizer-to-fuel ratios and pressures (20-70 atm) in a single-element-injector RP-2-GOx rocket combustor.

  12. Improving of Hybrid Rocket Engine on the Basis of Optimizing Design Fuel Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriekov, K. M.; Ushkin, M. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the processes intrachamber in hybrid rocket engine (HRE) and the comparative assessment of the use of solid rocket motors (SRM) and HRE for meteorological rockets with a mass of payload of the 364 kg. Results of the research showed the possibility of a significant increase in the ballistic effectiveness of meteorological rocket.

  13. Fuel/propellant mixing in an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.; Wehrmeyer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the mixing of gaseous uranium and hydrogen inside an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket engine (spherical geometry) is presented. The gaseous uranium fuel is injected near the centerline of the spherical engine cavity at a constant mass flow rate, and the hydrogen propellant is injected around the periphery of the engine at a five degree angle to the wall, at a constant mass flow rate. The main objective is to seek ways to minimize the mixing of uranium and hydrogen by choosing a suitable injector geometry for the mixing of light and heavy gas streams. Three different uranium inlet areas are presented, and also three different turbulent models (k-var-epsilon model, RNG k-var-epsilon model, and RSM model) are investigated. The commercial CFD code, FLUENT, is used to model the flow field. Uranium mole fraction, axial mass flux, and radial mass flux contours are obtained. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Optimization of the stand for test of hybrid rocket engines of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the laboratory experimental stand of the hybrid rocket engine of solid fuel to study ballistic parameters of the engine at burning of high-energy materials in flow of hot gas is presented. Mixture of air with nitrogen with a specified content of active oxygen is used as a gaseous oxidizer. The experimental stand has modular design and consists of system of gas supply, system of heating of gas, system for monitoring gas parameters, to which a load cell with a model engine was connected. The modular design of the stand allows to change its configuration under specific objective. This experimental stand allows to conduct a wide range of the pilot studies at interaction of a hot stream of gas with samples high-energy materials.

  15. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  16. Effect of buoyancy on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putre, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis aimed at determining the scaling laws for the buoyancy effect on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine, so conducted that experimental conditions can be related to engine conditions. The fuel volume fraction in a short coaxial flow cavity is calculated with a programmed numerical solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for isothermal, variable density fluid mixing. A dimensionless parameter B, called the Buoyancy number, was found to correlate the fuel volume fraction for large accelerations and various density ratios. This parameter has the value B = 0 for zero acceleration, and B = 350 for typical engine conditions.

  17. Effect of Pu-rich agglomerate in MOX fuel on a lattice calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Namekawa, Masakazu

    2007-01-01

    The effect of Pu-rich agglomerates in U-Pu mixed oxide (MOX) fuel on a lattice calculation has been demonstrated. The Pu-rich agglomerate parameters are defined based on the measurement data of MIMAS-MOX and the focus is on the highly enriched MOX fuel in accordance with increased burnup resulting in a higher volume fraction of the Pu-rich agglomerates. The lattice calculations with a heterogeneous fuel model and a homogeneous fuel model are performed simulating the PWR 17x17 fuel assembly. The heterogeneous model individually treats the Pu-rich agglomerate and U-Pu matrix, whereas the homogeneous model homogenizes the compositions within the fuel pellet. A continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup code, MVP-BURN, is used for burnup calculations up to 70 GWd/t. A statistical geometry model is applied in modeling a large number of Pu-rich agglomerates assuming that they are distributed randomly within the MOX fuel pellet. The calculated nuclear characteristics include k-inf, Pu isotopic compositions, power density and burnup of the Pu-rich agglomerates, as well as the pellet-averaged Pu compositions as a function of burnup. It is shown that the effect of Pu-rich agglomerates on the lattice calculation is negligibly small. (author)

  18. Program ELM: A tool for rapid thermal-hydraulic analysis of solid-core nuclear rocket fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report reviews the state of the art of thermal-hydraulic analysis codes and presents a new code, Program ELM, for analysis of fuel elements. ELM is a concise computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in a nuclear thermal rocket reactor with axial coolant passages. The program was developed as a tool to swiftly evaluate various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations generated for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition which have been used in previous programs. Thus, a consistent comparison of these correlations was performed, as well as a comparison with data from the NRX reactor experiments from the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) project. This report describes the ELM Program algorithm, input/output, and validation efforts and provides a listing of the code

  19. The carbon curse: Are fuel rich countries doomed to high CO2 intensities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, Jörg; Inderwildi, Oliver R.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon curse is a new theory, related to but distinct from the resource curse. It states that fossil-fuel rich countries tend to follow more carbon-intensive developmental pathways than [if they were] fossil-fuel poor countries, due to a hitherto unappreciated syndrome of causal mechanisms. First, fuel rich countries emit significant amounts of CO 2 in the extraction of fuel and through associated wasteful practices such as gas flaring. Second, easy access to domestic fuel in such countries leads to crowding-out effects for their energy mix and economic structure (for example, abundant oil may displace other fuels from the energy mix and lead to the “Dutch Disease”). Third, fuel abundance weakens the economic incentive to invest in energy efficiency. Fourth, governments in fuel rich countries are under considerable pressure to grant uneconomic fuel consumption subsidies, which further augments the carbon intensity of their economic output. Due to the combined effect of these causal mechanisms, it is genuinely difficult for fuel rich countries to evade carbon-intensive developmental pathways. And yet there are remarkable exceptions like Norway. Such positive outliers indicate that the carbon curse is not destiny when appropriate policies are adopted. - Highlights: • Fuel rich countries appear doomed to high carbon intensity, for four reasons. • First, extractive emissions; and, second, fuel-related crowding-out effects. • Third, weaker incentives to invest in improvements of energy efficiency. • Fourth, significant pressure to grant uneconomic fuel consumption subsidies. • But the carbon curse is not destiny, as indicated by positive outliers like Norway

  20. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  1. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature preparation of liquid propellant components (LPC before fueling the tanks of rocket and space technology is the one of the operations performed by ground technological complexes on cosmodromes. Refrigeration of high-boiling LPC is needed to increase its density and to create cold reserve for compensation of heat flows existing during fueling and prelaunch operations of space rockets.The method and results of simulation of LPC refrigeration in the recuperative heat exchangers with heat carrier which is refrigerated by-turn with liquid nitrogen sparging. The refrigerating system consists of two tanks (for the chilled coolant and LPC, LPC and heat carrier circulation loops with heat exchanger and system of heat carrier refrigeration in its tank with bubbler. Application of intermediate heat carrier between LPC and liquid nitrogen allows to avoid LPC crystallization on cold surfaces of the heat exchanger.Simulation of such systems performance is necessary to determine its basic design and functional parameters ensuring effective refrigerating of liquid propellant components, time and the amount of liquid nitrogen spent on refrigeration operation. Creating a simulator is quite complicated because of the need to take into consideration many different heat exchange processes occurring in the system. Also, to determine the influence of various parameters on occurring processes it is necessary to take into consideration the dependence of all heat exchange parameters on each other: heat emission coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, heat flow amounts, etc.The paper offers an overview of 10 references to foreign and Russian publications on separate issues and processes occurring in liquids refrigerating, including LPC refrigeration with liquid nitrogen. Concluded the need to define the LPC refrigerating conditions to minimize cost of liquid nitrogen. The experimental data presented in these publications is conformed with the application of

  2. Rockets two classic papers

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Rockets, in the primitive form of fireworks, have existed since the Chinese invented them around the thirteenth century. But it was the work of American Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) and his development of liquid-fueled rockets that first produced a controlled rocket flight. Fascinated by rocketry since boyhood, Goddard designed, built, and launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in 1926. Ridiculed by the press for suggesting that rockets could be flown to the moon, he continued his experiments, supported partly by the Smithsonian Institution and defended by Charles Lindbergh. T

  3. The development of reactive fuel grains for pyrophoric relight of in-space hybrid rocket thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Matthew Wellington

    This study presents and investigates a novel hybrid fuel grain that reacts pyrophorically with gaseous oxidizer to achieve restart of a hybrid rocket motor propulsion system while reducing cost and handling concerns. This reactive fuel grain (RFG) relies on the pyrophoric nature of finely divided metal particles dispersed in a solid dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) binder, which has been shown to encapsulate air-sensitive additives until they are exposed to combustion gases. An RFG is thus effectively inert in open air in the absence of an ignition source, though the particles encapsulated within remain pyrophoric. In practice, this means that an RFG that is ignited in the vacuum of space and then extinguished will expose unoxidized pyrophoric particles, which can be used to generate sufficient heat to relight the propellant when oxidizer is flowed. The experiments outlined in this work aim to develop a suitable pyrophoric material for use in an RFG, demonstrate pyrophoric relight, and characterize performance under conditions relevant to a hybrid rocket thruster. Magnesium, lithium, calcium, and an alloy of titanium, chromium, and manganese (TiCrMn) were investigated to determine suitability of pure metals as RFG additives. Additionally, aluminum hydride (AlH3), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), lithium borohydride (LiBH4), and magnesium hydride (MgH2) were investigated to determine suitability of metals hydrides as RFG additives or as precursors for pure-metal RFG additives. Pyrophoric metals have been previously investigated as additives for increasing the regression rate of hybrid fuels, but to the author's knowledge, these materials have not been specifically investigated for their ability to ignite a propellant pyrophorically. Commercial research-grade metals were obtained as coarse powders, then ball-milled to attempt to reduce particle size below a critical diameter needed for pyrophoricity. Magnesium hydride was ball-milled and then cycled in a hydride cycling

  4. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

  5. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, J W; Irick, D K [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  6. The Temperature of the Dimethylhydrazine Drops Moving in the Atmosphere after Depressurization of the Fuel Tank Rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work includes the results of the numerical modeling of temperature changes process of the dimethylhydrazine (DMH drops, taking into account the radial temperature gradient in the air after the depressurization of the fuel compartments rockets at high altitude. There is formulated a mathematical model describing the process of DMH drops thermal state modifying when it's moving to the Earth's surface. There is the evaluation of the influence of the characteristic size of heptyl drops on the temperature distribution. It's established that the temperatures of the small size droplets practically completely coincide with the distribution of temperature in the atmosphere at altitudes of up to 40 kilometers.

  7. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  8. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  9. Fuel rich and fuel lean catalytic combustion of the stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames over noble metal disc burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S. Zakhary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic combustion of stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames using Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 disc burners situated in the combustion domain under both fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions was experimentally studied. Commercial LPG fuel having an average composition of: 23% propane, 76% butane, and 1% pentane was used. The thermal structure of these catalytic flames developed over Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 burners were examined via measuring the mean temperature distribution in the radial direction at different axial locations along the flames. Under-fuel-rich condition the flames operated over Pt catalytic disc attained high temperature values in order to express the progress of combustion and were found to achieve higher activity as compared to the flames developed over Pd catalytic disc. These two types of catalytic flames demonstrated an increase in the reaction rate with the downstream axial distance and hence, an increase in the flame temperatures was associated with partial oxidation towards CO due to the lack of oxygen. However, under fuel-lean conditions the catalytic flame over Pd catalyst recorded comparatively higher temperatures within the flame core in the near region of the main reaction zone than over Pt disc burner. These two catalytic flames over Pt and Pd disc burners showed complete oxidation to CO2 since the catalytic surface is covered by more rich oxygen under the fuel-lean condition.

  10. Nitrato-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids as Attractive Hypergolic Rocket Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Shi; Zhang, Wenquan; Liu, Tianlin; Qi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-09-12

    Hypergolic ionic liquids (HILs) as potential replacements for hydrazine derivatives have attracted increasing interest over the last decade. Previous studies on HILs have mostly concentrated on the anionic innovations of ionic liquids to shorten the ignition delay (ID) time, but little attention has been paid to cationic modifications and their structure-property relationships. In this work, we present a new strategy of cationic functionalization by introducing the energetic nitrato group into the cationic units of HILs. Interestingly, the introduction of oxygen-rich nitrato groups into the cationic structure significantly improved the combustion performance of HILs with larger flame diameters and duration times. The density-specific impulse (ρI sp ) of these novel HILs are all above 279.0 s g cm -3 , much higher than that of UDMH (215.7 s g cm -3 ). In addition, the densities of these HILs are in the range of 1.22-1.39 g cm -3 , which is much higher than that of UDMH (0.79 g cm -3 ), showing their higher loading capacity than hydrazine-derived fuels in a propellant tank. This promising strategy of introducing nitrato groups into the cationic structures has provided a new platform for developing high-performing HILs with improved combustion properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Modeling of Rocket Fuel Heating and Cooling Processes in the Interior Receptacle Space of Ground-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Denisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The propellant to fill the fuel tanks of the spacecraft, upper stages, and space rockets on technical and ground-based launch sites before fueling should be prepared to ensure many of its parameters, including temperature, in appropriate condition. Preparation of fuel temperature is arranged through heating and cooling the rocket propellants (RP in the tanks of fueling equipment. Processes of RP temperature preparation are the most energy-intensive and timeconsuming ones, which require that a choice of sustainable technologies and modes of cooling (heating RP provided by the ground-based equipment has been made through modeling of the RP [1] temperature preparation processes at the stage of design and operation of the groundbased fueling equipment.The RP temperature preparation in the tanks of the ground-based systems can be provided through the heat-exchangers built-in the internal space and being external with respect to the tank in which antifreeze, air or liquid nitrogen may be used as the heat transfer media. The papers [1-12], which note a promising use of the liquid nitrogen to cool PR, present schematic diagrams and modeling systems for the RP temperature preparation in the fueling equipment of the ground-based systems.We consider the RP temperature preparation using heat exchangers to be placed directly in RP tanks. Feeding the liquid nitrogen into heat exchanger with the antifreeze provides the cooling mode of PR while a heated air fed there does that of heating. The paper gives the systems of equations and results of modeling the processes of RP temperature preparation, and its estimated efficiency.The systems of equations of cooling and heating RP are derived on the assumption that the heat exchange between the fuel and the antifreeze, as well as between the storage tank and the environment is quasi-stationary.The paper presents calculation results of the fuel temperature in the tank, and coolant temperature in the heat exchanger, as

  12. Numerical Simulations of Flow and Fuel Regression Rate Coupling in Hybrid Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius STOIA-DJESKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid propulsion offers some remarkable advantages like high safety and high specific impulse and thus it is considered a promising technology for the next generation launchers and space systems. The purpose of this work is to validate a design tool for hybrid rocket motors (HRM through numerical simulations.

  13. Calculation for Primary Combustion Characteristics of Boron-Based Fuel-Rich Propellant Based on BP Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wan'e, Wu; Zuoming, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A practical scheme for selecting characterization parameters of boron-based fuel-rich propellant formulation was put forward; a calculation model for primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant based on backpropagation neural network was established, validated, and then was used to predict primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant. The results show that the calculation error of burning rate is less than ± 7 . 3 %; in the formulation rang...

  14. Ignition of alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels and their surrogate mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum derived gasoline is the most used transportation fuel for light-duty vehicles. In order to better understand gasoline combustion, this study investigated the ignition propensity of two alkane-rich FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline test fuels and their corresponding PRF (primary reference fuel) blend in fundamental combustion experiments. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured in two separate facilities at pressures of 10, 20, and 40 bar, temperatures from 715 to 1500 K, and two equivalence ratios. Rapid compression machine ignition delay times were measured for fuel/air mixtures at pressures of 20 and 40 bar, temperatures from 632 to 745 K, and two equivalence ratios. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was also performed on the FACE gasoline fuels, and the results were used to formulate multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling results are presented herein to provide insights into the relevance of utilizing PRF and multi-component surrogate mixtures to reproduce the ignition behavior of the alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels. The two FACE gasoline fuels and their corresponding PRF mixture displayed similar ignition behavior at intermediate and high temperatures, but differences were observed at low temperatures. These trends were mimicked by corresponding surrogate mixture models, except for the amount of heat release in the first stage of a two-stage ignition events, when observed. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  15. Characterization and Performance of a Liquid Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damphousse, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The first time use of a new electro-hydraulic liquid fuel injector was demonstrated to produce consistent atomization properties while allowing for varying fuel injection durations at frequencies up to 50 Hz...

  16. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  17. Jet-stirred reactor oxidation of alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Bingjie

    2016-06-23

    Understanding species evolution upon gasoline fuel oxidation can aid in mitigating harmful emissions and improving combustion efficiency. Experimentally measured speciation profiles are also important targets for surrogate fuel kinetic models. This work presents the low- and high-temperature oxidation of two alkane-rich FACE gasolines (A and C, Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) in a jet-stirred reactor at 10. bar and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2 by probe sampling combined with gas chromatography and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry analysis. Detailed speciation profiles as a function of temperature are presented and compared to understand the combustion chemistry of these two real fuels. Simulations were conducted using three surrogates (i.e., FGA2, FGC2, and FRF 84), which have similar physical and chemical properties as the two gasolines. The experimental results reveal that the reactivity and major product distributions of these two alkane-rich FACE fuels are very similar, indicating that they have similar global reactivity despite their different compositions. The simulation results using all the surrogates capture the two-stage oxidation behavior of the two FACE gasolines, but the extent of low temperature reactivity is over-predicted. The simulations were analyzed, with a focus on the n-heptane and n-butane sub-mechanisms, to help direct the future model development and surrogate fuel formulation strategies.

  18. Linear Stability Analysis of Laminar Premixed Fuel-Rich Double-Spray Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weinberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the stability of a double-spray premixed flame formed when both fuel and oxidizer are initially present in the form of sprays of evaporating liquid droplets. To simplify the inherent complexity that characterizes the analytic solution of multi-phase combustion processes, the analysis is restricted to fuel-rich laminar premixed double-spray flames, and assumes a single-step global chemical reaction mechanism. Steady-state solutions are obtained and the sensitivity of the flame temperature and the flame propagating velocity to the initial liquid fuel and/or oxidizer loads are established. The stability analysis revealed an increased proneness to cellular instability induced by the presence of the two sprays, and for the fuel-rich case considered here the influence of the liquid oxidizer was found to be more pronounced than that of the liquid fuel. Similar effects were noted for the neutral pulsating stability boundaries. The impact of unequal latent heats of vaporization is also investigated and found to be in keeping with the destabilizing influence of heat loss due to droplet evaporation. It should be noted that as far as the authors are aware no experimental evidence is available for (at least validation of the predictions. However, they do concur in a general and reasonable fashion with independent experimental evidence in the literature of the behavior of single fuel spray laminar premixed flames.

  19. Jet-stirred reactor oxidation of alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Bingjie; Togbé , Casimir; Wang, Zhandong; Dagaut, Philippe; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Understanding species evolution upon gasoline fuel oxidation can aid in mitigating harmful emissions and improving combustion efficiency. Experimentally measured speciation profiles are also important targets for surrogate fuel kinetic models. This work presents the low- and high-temperature oxidation of two alkane-rich FACE gasolines (A and C, Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) in a jet-stirred reactor at 10. bar and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2 by probe sampling combined with gas chromatography and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry analysis. Detailed speciation profiles as a function of temperature are presented and compared to understand the combustion chemistry of these two real fuels. Simulations were conducted using three surrogates (i.e., FGA2, FGC2, and FRF 84), which have similar physical and chemical properties as the two gasolines. The experimental results reveal that the reactivity and major product distributions of these two alkane-rich FACE fuels are very similar, indicating that they have similar global reactivity despite their different compositions. The simulation results using all the surrogates capture the two-stage oxidation behavior of the two FACE gasolines, but the extent of low temperature reactivity is over-predicted. The simulations were analyzed, with a focus on the n-heptane and n-butane sub-mechanisms, to help direct the future model development and surrogate fuel formulation strategies.

  20. Performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.M.; Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Harada, Y.; Sakane, A. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-12-15

    This study investigated the engine performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas and ignited by a pilot amount of diesel fuel. The engine was tested for use as a cogeneration engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant pilot injection pressure and pilot quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings without and with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. The engine was tested first without EGR condition up to the maximum possible fuel-air equivalence ratio of 0.65. A maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 1425 kPa and a thermal efficiency of 39% were obtained. However, the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were high. A simulated EGR up to 50% was then performed to obtain lower NOx emissions. The maximum reduction of NOx was 60% or more maintaining the similar levels of IMEP and thermal efficiency. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion.

  1. Experimental evaluation of hybrid propulsion rocket engine operating with paraffin fuel grain and gaseous oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Genivaldo Pimenta dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the hybrid propulsion has been considering as a viable alternative of chemical energy conversion stored in propellants into kinetic energy. This energy is applied in propulsive systems of manned platforms, maneuvering procedures and even in the repositioning process of micro satellites. It presents attractive features and good balance between performance and environmental impact. Paraffin based grains are the hybrid solid fuels appointed as polymeric fuel substitute. The li...

  2. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion and Lunar Liquid Oxygen Derived from FeO-Rich Pyroclasitc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been identified as a key space asset required for the human exploration of Mars. This proven technology can also provide the affordable access through cislunar space necessary for commercial development and sustained human presence on the Moon. It is a demonstrated technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (I(sub sp) approx. 900 s) twice that of today's best chemical rockets. Nuclear lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a propulsion stage using three approx. 16.5-klb(sub f) small nuclear rocket engines (SNREs), an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-are reusable, enabling a variety of lunar missions. These include cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. Even weeklong ''tourism'' missions carrying passengers into lunar orbit for a day of sightseeing and picture taking are possible. The NTR can play an important role in the next phase of lunar exploration and development by providing a robust in-space lunar transportation system (LTS) that can allow initial outposts to evolve into settlements supported by a variety of commercial activities such as in-situ propellant production used to supply strategically located propellant depots and transportation nodes. The use of lunar liquid oxygen (LLO2) derived from iron oxide (FeO)-rich volcanic glass beads, found in numerous pyroclastic deposits on the Moon, can significantly reduce the launch mass requirements from Earth by enabling reusable, surface-based lunar landing vehicles (LLVs)that use liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LO2/LH2) chemical rocket engines. Afterwards, a LO2/LH2 propellant depot can be established in lunar equatorial orbit to supply the LTS. At this point a modified version of the conventional NTR-called the LO2-augmented NTR, or LANTR-is introduced into the LTS allowing bipropellant operation and leveraging the mission benefits of refueling with lunar-derived propellants for Earth return. The bipropellant LANTR

  3. Ignition and Flame Stabilization of a Strut-Jet RBCC Combustor with Small Rocket Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Rocket Based Combined Cycle combustor model is tested at a ground direct connected rig to investigate the flame holding characteristics with a small rocket exhaust using liquid kerosene. The total temperature and the Mach number of the vitiated air flow, at exit of the nozzle are 1505 K and 2.6, respectively. The rocket base is embedded in a fuel injecting strut and mounted in the center of the combustor. The wall of the combustor is flush, without any reward step or cavity, so the strut-jet is used to make sure of the flame stabilization of the second combustion. Mass flow rate of the kerosene and oxygen injected into the rocket is set to be a small value, below 10% of the total fuel when the equivalence ratio of the second combustion is 1. The experiment has generated two different kinds of rocket exhaust: fuel rich and pure oxygen. Experiment result has shown that, with a relative small total mass flow rate of the rocket, the fuel rich rocket plume is not suitable for ignition and flame stabilization, while an oxygen plume condition is suitable. Then the paper conducts a series of experiments to investigate the combustion characteristics under this oxygen pilot method and found that the flame stabilization characteristics are different at different combustion modes.

  4. Fuel efficient hydrodynamic containment for gas core fission reactor rocket propulsion. Final report, September 30, 1992--May 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sforza, P.M.; Cresci, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Gas core reactors can form the basis for advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems capable of providing specific impulse levels of more than 2,000 sec., but containment of the hot uranium plasma is a major problem. The initial phase of an experimental study of hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel cloud in a gas core fission reactor by means of an innovative application of a base injection stabilized recirculation bubble is presented. The development of the experimental facility, a simulated thrust chamber approximately 0.4 m in diameter and 1 m long, is described. The flow rate of propellant simulant (air) can be varied up to about 2 kg/sec and that of fuel simulant (air, air-sulfur hexafluoride) up to about 0.2 kg/sec. This scale leads to chamber Reynolds numbers on the same order of magnitude as those anticipated in a full-scale nuclear rocket engine. The experimental program introduced here is focused on determining the size, geometry, and stability of the recirculation region as a function of the bleed ratio, i.e. the ratio of the injected mass flux to the free stream mass flux. A concurrent CFD study is being carried out to aid in demonstrating that the proposed technique is practical

  5. Quantification of transformation products of rocket fuel unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in soils using SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaikina, Nadezhda V; Kenessov, Bulat; Ul'yanovskii, Nikolay V; Kosyakov, Dmitry S

    2018-07-01

    Determination of transformation products (TPs) of rocket fuel unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) in soil is highly important for environmental impact assessment of the launches of heavy space rockets from Kazakhstan, Russia, China and India. The method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is advantageous over other known methods due to greater simplicity and cost efficiency. However, accurate quantification of these analytes using HS SPME is limited by the matrix effect. In this research, we proposed using internal standard and standard addition calibrations to achieve proper combination of accuracies of the quantification of key TPs of UDMH and cost efficiency. 1-Trideuteromethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole (MTA-d3) was used as the internal standard. Internal standard calibration allowed controlling matrix effects during quantification of 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole (MTA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in soils with humus content < 1%. Using SPME at 60 °C for 15 min by 65 µm Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, recoveries of MTA, DMF and NDMA for sandy and loamy soil samples were 91-117, 85-123 and 64-132%, respectively. For improving the method accuracy and widening the range of analytes, standard addition and its combination with internal standard calibration were tested and compared on real soil samples. The combined calibration approach provided greatest accuracies for NDMA, DMF, N-methylformamide, formamide, 1H-pyrazole, 3-methyl-1H-pyrazole and 1H-pyrazole. For determination of 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, 2-ethyl-1H-imidazole, 1H-imidazole, 1H-1,2,4-triazole, pyrazines and pyridines, standard addition calibration is more suitable. However, the proposed approach and collected data allow using both approaches simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  7. System Sensitivity Analysis Applied to the Conceptual Design of a Dual-Fuel Rocket SSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, John R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of initial efforts to apply the System Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) optimization method to the conceptual design of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle. SSA is an efficient, calculus-based MDO technique for generating sensitivity derivatives in a highly multidisciplinary design environment. The method has been successfully applied to conceptual aircraft design and has been proven to have advantages over traditional direct optimization methods. The method is applied to the optimization of an advanced, piloted SSTO design similar to vehicles currently being analyzed by NASA as possible replacements for the Space Shuttle. Powered by a derivative of the Russian RD-701 rocket engine, the vehicle employs a combination of hydrocarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen propellants. Three primary disciplines are included in the design - propulsion, performance, and weights & sizing. A complete, converged vehicle analysis depends on the use of three standalone conceptual analysis computer codes. Efforts to minimize vehicle dry (empty) weight are reported in this paper. The problem consists of six system-level design variables and one system-level constraint. Using SSA in a 'manual' fashion to generate gradient information, six system-level iterations were performed from each of two different starting points. The results showed a good pattern of convergence for both starting points. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the method, possible areas of improvement, and future work is included.

  8. Rocket Fuel R and D at AFRL: Recent Activities and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    ethanol RP-1 Polars Analysis JFTOT (5 hr., 355°C) Fuel Phenolsmg/L (ppm) Aliphatic ketones mg/L (ppm) Max ΔTDR (Spun) Max ΔP (mmHg) 12366 160 (200) 19...Lubricity & Wear Turbopump and Bearing 3D white light depth of HFRR ball end Ref A RP-1 23DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution

  9. Ignition of Liquid Fuel Spray and Simulated Solid Rocket Fuel by Photoignition of Carbon Nanotube Utilizing a Camera Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    10,11 There has been a recent report on the photoignition of graphene oxide for fuel ignition applications.12 In this report, we will describe the...slide Aluminum foil Glass petri dish Xe flash Camera Sample Black spray paint Figure 2- Schematic and photographs of the experimental setup...Gilje, Sergey Dubin, Alireza Badakhshan, Jabari Farrar, Stephen. A. Danczyk, Richard B. Kaner, “Photothermal Deoxygenation of Graphene Oxide for

  10. Health assessment of children and adolescents living in a residential area of production for the disposal of rocket fuel: according to the results of the medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uiba V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the real prevalence separate nosological forms in the child population living in residential zone installations for the disposal of rocket fuel. Materials and methods. By mobile teams of pediatric physicians there was conducted a comprehensive medical examination of 1621 children in the area of the site location for disposal of rocket engines solid fuel. Results. The surveyed contingent of the most common diseases of the endocrine system, disorders of nutrition and metabolism (21.2% of diagnoses, diseases of the musculoskeletal and connective tissue (19.2 percent, as well as individual symptoms, signs and deviations from the norm by 14.4%. Conclusion. Data indicating the pronounced impact of adverse environmental factors, not identified.

  11. Large eddy simulation of combustion characteristics in a kerosene fueled rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-wei; He, Guo-qiang; Qin, Fei; Cao, Dong-gang; Wei, Xiang-geng; Shi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This study reports combustion characteristics of a rocket-based combined-cycle engine combustor operating at ramjet mode numerically. Compressible large eddy simulation with liquid kerosene sprayed and vaporized is used to study the intrinsic unsteadiness of combustion in such a propulsion system. Results for the pressure oscillation amplitude and frequency in the combustor as well as the wall pressure distribution along the flow-path, are validated using experimental data, and they show acceptable agreement. Coupled with reduced chemical kinetics of kerosene, results are compared with the simultaneously obtained Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes results, and show significant differences. A flow field analysis is also carried out for further study of the turbulent flame structures. Mixture fraction is used to determine the most probable flame location in the combustor at stoichiometric condition. Spatial distributions of the Takeno flame index, scalar dissipation rate, and heat release rate reveal that different combustion modes, such as premixed and non-premixed modes, coexisted at different sections of the combustor. The RBCC combustor is divided into different regions characterized by their non-uniform features. Flame stabilization mechanism, i.e., flame propagation or fuel auto-ignition, and their relative importance, is also determined at different regions in the combustor.

  12. ELM - A SIMPLE TOOL FOR THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF SOLID-CORE NUCLEAR ROCKET FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ELM is a simple computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Written for the nuclear propulsion project of the Space Exploration Initiative, ELM evaluates the various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition. In the past, these correlations were found in different reactor analysis codes, but now comparisons are possible within one program. The logic of ELM is based on the one-dimensional conservation of energy in combination with Newton's Law of Cooling to determine the bulk flow temperature and the wall temperature across a control volume. Since the control volume is an incremental length of tube, the corresponding pressure drop is determined by application of the Law of Conservation of Momentum. The size, speed, and accuracy of ELM make it a simple tool for use in fuel element parametric studies. ELM is a machine independent program written in FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled on an IBM PC compatible running MS-DOS using Lahey FORTRAN 77, a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, and a Sun4 series computer running SunOS UNIX. ELM requires 565K of RAM under SunOS 4.1, 360K of RAM under VMS 5.4, and 406K of RAM under MS-DOS. Because this program is machine independent, no executable is provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ELM is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. ELM was developed in 1991. DEC, VAX, and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  13. Rich-burn, flame-assisted fuel cell, quick-mix, lean-burn (RFQL) combustor and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarek, Ryan J.; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2018-03-01

    Micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cells (mT-FFC) were recently proposed as a modified version of the direct flame fuel cell (DFFC) operating in a dual chamber configuration. In this work, a rich-burn, quick-mix, lean-burn (RQL) combustor is combined with a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (mT-SOFC) stack to create a rich-burn, flame-assisted fuel cell, quick-mix, lean-burn (RFQL) combustor and power generation system. The system is tested for rapid startup and achieves peak power densities after only 35 min of testing. The mT-FFC power density and voltage are affected by changes in the fuel-lean and fuel-rich combustion equivalence ratio. Optimal mT-FFC performance favors high fuel-rich equivalence ratios and a fuel-lean combustion equivalence ratio around 0.80. The electrical efficiency increases by 150% by using an intermediate temperature cathode material and improving the insulation. The RFQL combustor and power generation system achieves rapid startup, a simplified balance of plant and may have applications for reduced NOx formation and combined heat and power.

  14. Synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry study of intermediates in fuel-rich 1,2-dimethoxyethane flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z. K.; Han, D. L.; Li, S. F.; Li, Y. Y.; Yuan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Intermediates in a fuel-rich premixed laminar 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) flame are studied by molecular beam mass spectrometry combined with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. About 30 intermediate species are identified in the present work, and their mole fraction profiles are evaluated. The experimental results show that the formations of intermediates, both hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons, are closely linked to the structure of fuel, which is consistent with the previous reports. Species produced from H atom abstraction and beta scission of DME usually have much higher concentrations than others. The oxygen atoms in DME are considered to act as partitions of the primary intermediates; therefore farther reactions among these primary intermediates are difficult to occur, resulting in absence of most large intermediate species.

  15. Mechanical and Combustion Performance of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive to Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth, K.; Koo, Joseph H.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Paraffin-based solid fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications are recognized as a fastburning alternative to other fuel binders such as HTPB, but efforts to further improve the burning rate and mechanical properties of paraffin are still necessary. One approach that is considered in this study is to use multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as an additive to paraffin wax. Carbon nanotubes provide increased electrical and thermal conductivity to the solid-fuel grains to which they are added, which can improve the mass burning rate. Furthermore, the addition of ultra-fine aluminum particles to the paraffin/MWNT fuel grains can enhance regression rate of the solid fuel and the density impulse of the hybrid rocket. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes also present the possibility of greatly improving the mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength) of the paraffin-based solid-fuel grains. For casting these solid-fuel grains, various percentages of MWNT and aluminum particles will be added to the paraffin wax. Previous work has been published about the dispersion and mixing of carbon nanotubes.1 Another manufacturing method has been used for mixing the MWNT with a phenolic resin for ablative applications, and the manufacturing and mixing processes are well-documented in the literature.2 The cost of MWNT is a small fraction of single-walled nanotubes. This is a scale-up advantage as future applications and projects will require low cost additives to maintain cost effectiveness. Testing of the solid-fuel grains will be conducted in several steps. Dog bone samples will be cast and prepared for tensile testing. The fuel samples will also be analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM will allow for examination of the solid fuel grain for uniformity and consistency. The paraffin-based fuel grains will also be tested using two hybrid rocket test motors located at the Pennsylvania State University s High Pressure

  16. Flow instability tests for a particle bed reactor nuclear thermal rocket fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Timothy J.

    1993-05-01

    Recent analyses have focused on the flow stability characteristics of a particle bed reactor (PBR). These laminar flow instabilities may exist in reactors with parallel paths and are caused by the heating of the gas at low Reynolds numbers. This phenomena can be described as follows: several parallel channels are connected at the plenum regions and are stabilized by some inlet temperature and pressure; a perturbation in one channel causes the temperature to rise and increases the gas viscosity and reduces the gas density; the pressure drop is fixed by the plenum regions, therefore, the mass flow rate in the channel would decrease; the decrease in flow reduces the ability to remove the energy added and the temperature increases; and finally, this process could continue until the fuel element fails. Several analyses based on different methods have derived similar curves to show that these instabilities may exist at low Reynolds numbers and high phi's ((Tfinal Tinitial)/Tinitial). These analyses need to be experimentally verified.

  17. Robotic Manufacturing of 5.5 Meter Cryogenic Fuel Tank Dome Assemblies for the NASA Ares I Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    The Ares I rocket is the first launch vehicle scheduled for manufacture under the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Constellation program. A series of full-scale Ares I development articles have been constructed on the Robotic Weld Tool at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Robotic Weld Tool is a 100 ton, 7-axis, robotic manufacturing system capable of machining and friction stir welding large-scale space hardware. This presentation will focus on the friction stir welding of 5.5m diameter cryogenic fuel tank components; specifically, the liquid hydrogen forward dome (LH2 MDA), the common bulkhead manufacturing development articles (CBMDA) and the thermal protection system demonstration dome (TPS Dome). The LH2 MDA was the first full-scale, flight-like Ares I hardware produced under the Constellation Program. It is a 5.5m diameter elliptical dome assembly consisting of eight gore panels, a y-ring stiffener and a manhole fitting. All components are made from aluminumlithium alloy 2195. Conventional and self-reacting friction stir welding was used on this article. An overview of the manufacturing processes will be discussed. The LH2 MDA is the first known fully friction stir welded dome ever produced. The completion of four Common Bulkhead Manufacturing Development Articles (CBMDA) and the TPS Dome will also be highlighted. Each CBMDA and the TPS Dome consists of a 5.5m diameter spun-formed dome friction stir welded to a y-ring stiffener. The domes and y-rings are made of aluminum 2014 and 2219 respectively. The TPS Dome has an additional aluminum alloy 2195 barrel section welded to the y-ring. Manufacturing solutions will be discussed including "fixtureless" welding with self reacting friction stir welding.

  18. Manufacturing of 5.5 Meter Diameter Cryogenic Fuel Tank Domes for the NASA Ares I Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald E.; Carter, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The Ares I rocket is the first launch vehicle scheduled for manufacture under the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s (NASA s) Constellation program. A series of full-scale Ares I development articles have been constructed on the Robotic Weld Tool at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Robotic Weld Tool is a 100 ton, 7-axis, robotic manufacturing system capable of machining and friction stir welding large-scale space hardware. This presentation will focus on the friction stir welding of 5.5m diameter cryogenic fuel tank components; specifically, the liquid hydrogen forward dome (LH2 MDA) and the common bulkhead manufacturing development articles (CBMDA). The LH2 MDA was the first full-scale, flight-like Ares I hardware produced under the Constellation Program. It is a 5.5m diameter elliptical dome assembly consisting of eight gore panels, a y-ring stiffener and a manhole fitting. All components are made from aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Conventional and self-reacting friction stir welding was used on this article. Manufacturing solutions will be discussed including the implementation of photogrammetry, an advanced metrology technique, as well as fixtureless welding. The LH2 MDA is the first known fully friction stir welded dome ever produced. The completion of four Common Bulkhead Manufacturing Development Articles (CBMDA) will also be highlighted. Each CBMDA consists of a 5.5m diameter spun-formed dome friction stir welded to a y-ring stiffener. The domes and y-rings are made of aluminum 2014 and 2219 respectively. An overview of CBMDA manufacturing processes and the effect of tooling on weld defect formation will be discussed.

  19. Design study of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Shoyama, Hidetoshi; Kanda, Yukinori

    1991-01-01

    A design study was made on a rocket powered by laser fusion. Dependence of its flight performance on target gain, driver repetition rate and fuel composition was analyzed to obtain optimal design parameters of the laser fusion rocket. The results indicate that the laser fusion rocket fueled with DT or D 3 He has the potential advantages over other propulsion systems such as fission rocket for interplanetary travel. (author)

  20. Rocket Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Evera, Bill; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity for designing, building, and launching rockets that provides students with an intrinsically motivating and real-life application of what could have been classroom-only concepts. Includes rocket design guidelines and a sample grading rubric. (KHR)

  1. Calculation for Primary Combustion Characteristics of Boron-Based Fuel-Rich Propellant Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wan'e

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical scheme for selecting characterization parameters of boron-based fuel-rich propellant formulation was put forward; a calculation model for primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant based on backpropagation neural network was established, validated, and then was used to predict primary combustion characteristics of boron-based fuel-rich propellant. The results show that the calculation error of burning rate is less than ±7.3%; in the formulation range (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene 28%–32%, ammonium perchlorate 30%–35%, magnalium alloy 4%–8%, catocene 0%–5%, and boron 30%, the variation of the calculation data is consistent with the experimental results.

  2. Rocket science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Expanding across the Solar System will require more than a simple blast off, a range of promising new propulsion technologies are being investigated by ex- NASA shuttle astronaut Chang Diaz. He is developing an alternative to chemical rockets, called VASIMR -Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasm Rocket. In 2012 Ad Astra plans to test a prototype, using solar power rather than nuclear, on the International Space Station. Development of this rocket for human space travel is discussed. The nuclear reactor's heat would be converted into electricity in an electric rocket such as VASIMR, and at the peak of nuclear rocket research thrust levels of almost one million newtons were reached.

  3. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon materials as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-12-01

    The high cost of the catalyst material used for the oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes is one of the factors limiting practical applications of this technology. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon (MNC), prepared at different temperatures, was examined as an oxygen reduction catalyst, and compared in performance to Pt in MFCs and electrochemical cells. MNC calcined at 800 °C produced a maximum power density of 979 ± 131 mW m-2 in MFCs, which was 37% higher than that produced using MNC calined at 600 °C (715 ± 152 mW m-2), and only 14% lower than that obtained with Pt (1143 ± 54 mW m-2). The extent of COD removal and coulombic efficiencies were the same for all cathode materials. These results show that MNC could be used as an alternative to Pt in MFCs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Robotic Manufacturing of 18-ft (5.5m) Diameter Cryogenic Fuel Tank Dome Assemblies for the NASA Ares I Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald E.; Carter, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The Ares I rocket was the first launch vehicle scheduled for manufacture under the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's Constellation program. A series of full-scale Ares I development articles were constructed on the Robotic Weld Tool at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Robotic Weld Tool is a 100 ton, 7- axis, robotic manufacturing system capable of machining and friction stir welding large-scale space hardware. This paper will focus on the friction stir welding of 18-ft (5.5m) diameter cryogenic fuel tank components; specifically, the liquid hydrogen forward dome and two common bulkhead manufacturing development articles.

  5. Oxidation and combustion of fuel-rich N-butane-oxygen mixture in a standard 20-liter explosion vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolov, S.M.; Basevich, V.Y.; Smetanyuk, V.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Pasman, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on forced ignition of extremely fuel-rich n-butane-oxygen mixture with the equivalence ratio of 23 in the standard 20-liter spherical vessel at elevated initial pressure (4.1 bar) and temperature (500 K) reveal the nonmonotonic influence of the forced ignition delay time on the maximum

  6. A QSAR/QSTR Study on the Environmental Health Impact by the Rocket Fuel 1,1-Dimethyl Hydrazine and its Transformation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Carlsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available QSAR/QSTR modelling constitutes an attractive approach to preliminary assessment of the impact on environmental health by a primary pollutant and the suite of transformation products that may be persistent in and toxic to the environment. The present paper studies the impact on environmental health by residuals of the rocket fuel 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine (heptyl and its transformation products. The transformation products, comprising a variety of nitrogen containing compounds are suggested all to possess a significant migration potential. In all cases the compounds were found being rapidly biodegradable. However, unexpected low microbial activity may cause significant changes. None of the studied compounds appear to be bioaccumulating. Apart from substances with an intact hydrazine structure or hydrazone structure the transformation products in general display rather low environmental toxicities. Thus, it is concluded that apparently further attention should be given to tri- and tetramethyl hydrazine and 1-formyl 2,2-dimethyl hydrazine as well as to the hydrazones of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as these five compounds may contribute to the overall environmental toxicity of residual rocket fuel and its transformation products.

  7. Flame chemistry of alkane-rich gasoline fuels and a surrogate using photoionization mass spectrometry: I. Primary reference fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, H.

    2015-03-30

    Improving the gasoline engines performance requires thorough understanding of their fundamental chemistry of combustion. Since the actual gasoline fuels are difficult to examine, due to the lack of knowledge about their exact composition as well as their numerous fuel components, the approach of using simpler gasoline fuels with limited number of components or using surrogate fuels has become more common. In this study, the combustion chemistry of laminar premixed flame of different gasoline fuels/surrogate has been examined. In this particular paper, the primary reference fuel, PRF84, has been examined at equivalence ratio of 1 and pressure of 20 Torr. The gas analysis was conducted using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

  8. Flame chemistry of alkane-rich gasoline fuels and a surrogate using photoionization mass spectrometry: I. Primary reference fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, H.; Lucassen, A.; Hansen, N.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Improving the gasoline engines performance requires thorough understanding of their fundamental chemistry of combustion. Since the actual gasoline fuels are difficult to examine, due to the lack of knowledge about their exact composition as well as their numerous fuel components, the approach of using simpler gasoline fuels with limited number of components or using surrogate fuels has become more common. In this study, the combustion chemistry of laminar premixed flame of different gasoline fuels/surrogate has been examined. In this particular paper, the primary reference fuel, PRF84, has been examined at equivalence ratio of 1 and pressure of 20 Torr. The gas analysis was conducted using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

  9. Reduction of greenhouse gas emission on a medium-pressure boiler using hydrogen-rich fuel control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.-C.; Jou, Chih-Ju G.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing emission of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuel is believed to be responsible for global warming. A study was carried out to probe the influence of replacing fuel gas with hydrogen-rich refinery gas (R.G.) on the reduction of gas emission (CO 2 and NO x ) and energy saving. Test results show that the emission of CO 2 can be reduced by 16.4% annually (or 21,500 tons per year). The NO x emission can be 8.2% lower, or 75 tons less per year. Furthermore, the use of refinery gas leads to a saving of NT$57 million (approximately US$1.73 million) on fuel costs each year. There are no CO 2 , CO, SO x , unburned hydrocarbon, or particles generated from the combustion of added hydrogen. The hydrogen content in R.G. employed in this study was between 50 and 80 mol%, so the C/H ratio of the feeding fuel was reduced. Therefore, the use of hydrogen-rich fuel has practical benefits for both energy saving and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission

  10. Zr-rich layers electrodeposited onto stainless steel cladding during the electrorefining of EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Mariani, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent nuclear fuels. The initial demonstration of this process is being conducted on U-Zr alloy fuel elements irradiated in the experimental breeder reactor II (EBR-II). We report the first metallographic characterization of cladding hull remains for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent metallic fuel. During the electrorefining process, Zr-rich layers, with some U, deposit on all exposed surfaces of irradiated cladding segments (hulls) that originally contained the fuel alloy that was being treated. In some cases, not only was residual Zr (and U) found inside the cladding hulls, but a Zr-rind was also observed near the interior cladding hull surface. The Zr-rind was originally formed during the fuel casting process on the fuel slug. The observation of Zr deposits on all exposed cladding surfaces is explained with thermodynamic principles, when two conditions are met. These conditions are partial oxidation of Zr and the presence of residual uranium in the hulls when the electrorefining experiment is terminated. Comparisons are made between the structure of the initial irradiated fuel before electrorefining and the morphology of the material remaining in the cladding hulls after electrorefining. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  12. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, MAY 15 (2016), s. 203-213 ISSN 0196-8904 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : waste tires * coal * co-pyrolysis * smokeless fuel * tar * hydrogen -rich gas Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890416300991

  14. Ignition of alkane-rich FACE gasoline fuels and their surrogate mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Kukkadapu, Goutham; Mehl, Marco; Wang, Weijing; Javed, Tamour; Park, Sungwoo; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Farooq, Aamir; Pitz, William J.; Sung, Chihjen

    2015-01-01

    Engines) gasoline test fuels and their corresponding PRF (primary reference fuel) blend in fundamental combustion experiments. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured in two separate facilities at pressures of 10, 20, and 40 bar, temperatures from

  15. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  16. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  17. Ab Initio Enhanced calphad Modeling of Actinide-Rich Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Yang, Yong Austin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-28

    The process of fuel recycling is central to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), where plutonium and the minor actinides (MA) Am, Np, and Cm are extracted from spent fuel and fabricated into new fuel for a fast reactor. Metallic alloys of U-Pu-Zr-MA are leading candidates for fast reactor fuels and are the current basis for fast spectrum metal fuels in a fully recycled closed fuel cycle. Safe and optimal use of these fuels will require knowledge of their multicomponent phase stability and thermodynamics (Gibbs free energies). In additional to their use as nuclear fuels, U-Pu-Zr-MA contain elements and alloy phases that pose fundamental questions about electronic structure and energetics at the forefront of modern many-body electron theory. This project will validate state-of-the-art electronic structure approaches for these alloys and use the resulting energetics to model U-Pu-Zr-MA phase stability. In order to keep the work scope practical, researchers will focus on only U-Pu-Zr-{Np,Am}, leaving Cm for later study. The overall objectives of this project are to: Provide a thermodynamic model for U-Pu-Zr-MA for improving and controlling reactor fuels; and, Develop and validate an ab initio approach for predicting actinide alloy energetics for thermodynamic modeling.

  18. Air-Powered Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

    This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)

  19. On the oxidation and combustion of AlH{sub 3} a potential fuel for rocket propellants and gas generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, Volker; Eisenreich, Norbert; Koleczko, Andreas; Roth, Evelin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Joseph-von-Fraunhoferstrasse 7, 76327 Pfinztal (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Aluminum hydride is a promising candidate for application in energetic materials and hydrogen storages. E.g. an AP/HTPB rocket propellant filled with alane was calculated for a 100 N s kg{sup -1} higher specific impulse compared to the same concentration of aluminum. Different investigations on {alpha}-AlH{sub 3} polyhedra using thermoanalytical methods and X-ray diffraction were performed to receive a better understanding of dehydration at about 450 K, passivation of the remaining porous aluminum particles and further oxidation. A modeling approach to describe these conversions including diffusion processes, Avrami-Erofeev mechanism and Arrhenius type reaction steps of n-th order were introduced. Results were discussed in comparison to experimental investigations under pressure with model propellants on the base of gelled pure nitromethane and also filled with alane or pure aluminum in concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15%. Both alane and aluminum increase the burning rate on a factor of two correlated with a temperature increase up to 500 K and more. A mesa burning effect at 6 to 10 MPa was indicated by the mixtures with alane. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Oxidation of Alkane Rich Gasoline Fuels and their Surrogates in a Motored Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai S B

    2015-03-30

    The validation of surrogates formulated using a computational framework by Ahmed et al.[1]for two purely paraffinic gasoline fuels labelled FACE A and FACE C was undertaken in this study. The ability of these surrogate mixtures to be used in modelling LTC engines was accessed by comparison of their low temperature oxidation chemistry with that of the respective parent fuel as well as a PRF based on RON. This was done by testing the surrogate mixtures in a modified Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine running in Controlled Autoignition Mode (CAI) mode. The engine was run at a constant speed of 600 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the intake temperature at 150 °C and a pressure of 98 kPa. The low temperature reactivity of the fuels were studied by varying the compression ratio of the engine from the point were very only small low temperature heat release was observed to a point beyond which auto-ignition of the fuel/air mixture occurred. The apparent heat release rates of different fuels was calculated from the pressure histories using first law analysis and the CA 50 times of the low temperature heat release (LTHR) were compared. The surrogates reproduced the cool flame behavior of the parent fuels better than the PRF across all compression ratios.

  1. Oxidation of Alkane Rich Gasoline Fuels and their Surrogates in a Motored Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai S B; Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Atef, Nour; Chung, Suk-Ho; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    The validation of surrogates formulated using a computational framework by Ahmed et al.[1]for two purely paraffinic gasoline fuels labelled FACE A and FACE C was undertaken in this study. The ability of these surrogate mixtures to be used in modelling LTC engines was accessed by comparison of their low temperature oxidation chemistry with that of the respective parent fuel as well as a PRF based on RON. This was done by testing the surrogate mixtures in a modified Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine running in Controlled Autoignition Mode (CAI) mode. The engine was run at a constant speed of 600 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the intake temperature at 150 °C and a pressure of 98 kPa. The low temperature reactivity of the fuels were studied by varying the compression ratio of the engine from the point were very only small low temperature heat release was observed to a point beyond which auto-ignition of the fuel/air mixture occurred. The apparent heat release rates of different fuels was calculated from the pressure histories using first law analysis and the CA 50 times of the low temperature heat release (LTHR) were compared. The surrogates reproduced the cool flame behavior of the parent fuels better than the PRF across all compression ratios.

  2. 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    to determine what parameters drive unsteadiness in fuel films, and how these parameters affect wall temperature profiles. Parametric studies performed...temperature profiles. Parametric studies performed in 2D suggest that a Helmholtz resonator exists for simple slot geometries. Frequencies in 3D were...effect on film cooling effectiveness. In general, the heat flux exhibits complex trends and did not scale well with chamber pressure. ∗Aerospace

  3. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  4. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  5. Pu-rich MOX agglomerate-by-agglomerate model for fuel pellet burnup analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    In support of potential licensing of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium and depleted uranium for use in United States reactors, an experiment containing WG-MOX fuel is being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The WG-MOX comprises five percent PuO 2 and 95% depleted UO 2 . Based on the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) observation, the volume fraction (VF) of MOX agglomerates in the fuel pellet is about 16.67%, and PuO 2 concentration of 30.0 = (5 / 16.67 x 100) wt% in the agglomerate. A pressurized water reactor (PWR) unit WG-MOX lattice with Agglomerate-by-Agglomerate Fuel (AbAF) modeling has been developed. The effect of the irregular agglomerate distribution can be addressed through the use of the Monte Carlo AbAF model. The AbAF-calculated cumulative ratio of Agglomerate burnup to U-MAtrix burnup (AG/MA) is 9.17 at the beginning of life, and decreases to 2.88 at 50 GWd/t. The MCNP-AbAF-calculated results can be used to adjust the parameters in the MOX fuel fission gas release modeling. (author)

  6. Numerical and experimental analysis of heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guobiao; Li, Chengen; Tian, Hui

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor by two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations and full-scale firing tests. Long-time working, which is an advantage of hybrid rocket motor over conventional solid rocket motor, puts forward new challenges for thermal protection. Thermal environments of full-scale hybrid rocket motors designed for long-time firing tests are studied through steady-state coupled numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer in chamber head. The motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide (98HP) oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based fuel as the propellants. Simulation results reveal that flowing liquid 98HP in head oxidizer chamber could cool the injector plate of the motor. The cooling of 98HP is similar to the regenerative cooling in liquid rocket engines. However, the temperature of the 98HP in periphery portion of the head oxidizer chamber is higher than its boiling point. In order to prevent the liquid 98HP from unexpected decomposition, a thermal protection method for chamber head utilizing silica-phenolics annular insulating board is proposed. The simulation results show that the annular insulating board could effectively decrease the temperature of the 98HP in head oxidizer chamber. Besides, the thermal protection method for long-time working hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor is verified through full-scale firing tests. The ablation of the insulating board in oxygen-rich environment is also analyzed.

  7. Nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Miller, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. An Interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and FY 1991, discusses the progress to date, and reviews the project plan. Critical technology issues have been identified and include: nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; nuclear system ground test; safety; autonomous system operation and health monitoring; minimum mass and high specific impulse

  8. Data quality objective to support resolution of the organic fuel rich tank safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    During years of Hanford process history, large quantities of complexants used in waste management operations as well as an unknown quantity of degradation products of the solvents used in fuel reprocessing and metal recovery were added to man of the 149 single-shell tanks. These waste tanks also contain a presumed stoichiometric excess of sodium nitrate/nitrite oxidizers, sufficient to exothermically oxidize the organic compounds if suitably initiated. This DQO identifies the questions that must be answered to appropriately disposition organic watchlist tanks, identifies a strategy to deal with false positive or negative judgements associated with analytical uncertainty, and list the analytes of concern to support dealing with organic watchlist concerns. Uncertainties associated with both assay limitations and matrix effects complicate selection of analytes. This results in requiring at least two independent measures of potential fuel reactivity

  9. Rocket Tablet,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-12

    not accustomed to Chinese food, he ran off directly to the home of the Mayor of Beijing and requested two Western cuisine cooks from a hotel. At the...played out by our Chinese sons and daughters of ancient times. The famous Han dynasty general Li Guang was quickly cured of disease and led an army...Union) of China. This place was about to become the birthplace of the Chinese people’s first rocket baby. Section One In this eternal wasteland called

  10. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  11. Sewage sludge based producer gas of rich H{sub 2} content as a fuel for an IC engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwaja, Stanislaw; Cupial, Karol [Czestochowa Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The manuscript presents investigation on hydrogen rich gas combustion in an internal combustion (IC) engine. The gas is obtained from gasification process of sewage sludge which is by-product of waste water treatment in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Recently introduced EU regulations of environmental protection do not allow to use such sludge as a soil fertilizer or substance for landfilling the ground due to its biological toxicity. On another hand, this sludge contains organic content of approximately 45-55% and from this point of view the sludge looks as an attractive material for fuel production through its gasification. This technology, primarily applied for wood gasification, has been also successfully implemented for gasification of sludge. It was found that the producer gas obtained in this way is rich of hydrogen content even up to 25%. This is because of high water content in the sludge that provides favorable conditions for steam reforming resulting in increase of hydrogen in the products of gasification. The high hydrogen content in the producer gas can lead to improper combustion particularly when the combustion takes place in the internal combustion engine. That improper combustion might appear as combustion knock and it is the main problem for the engine in which hydrogen is used as a fuel [1]. Onset of the knock during combustion contributes to rapid increase in heat transfer to the piston crown causing the piston to be quickly overheated that leads to surface erosion and damages. Additionally, engine body vibration coming from the knock significantly shortens engine durability. Conclusions from this investigation provide good premises for combusting the sludge producer gas in the IC engine without any improper combustion anomalies, thus considers this gas as worthy fuel for a stationary engine driven a power generator. The presentation shows results of producer gas combustion in both the spark-ignited and the compression ignition engine with

  12. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... kinetic mechanism was established for methane oxidation, with emphasis on formation of higher hydrocarbons and PAH. A submodel for soot formation was adopted from the work of Frenklach and co-workers without changes. Modeling predictions showed good agreement with experimental results. Reactants, stable...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  13. Correlation of rocket propulsion fuel properties with chemical composition using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by partial least squares regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehimkar, Benjamin; Hoggard, Jamin C; Marney, Luke C; Billingsley, Matthew C; Fraga, Carlos G; Bruno, Thomas J; Synovec, Robert E

    2014-01-31

    There is an increased need to more fully assess and control the composition of kerosene-based rocket propulsion fuels such as RP-1. In particular, it is critical to make better quantitative connections among the following three attributes: fuel performance (thermal stability, sooting propensity, engine specific impulse, etc.), fuel properties (such as flash point, density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, and hydrogen content), and the chemical composition of a given fuel, i.e., amounts of specific chemical compounds and compound classes present in a fuel as a result of feedstock blending and/or processing. Recent efforts in predicting fuel chemical and physical behavior through modeling put greater emphasis on attaining detailed and accurate fuel properties and fuel composition information. Often, one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is employed to provide chemical composition information. Building on approaches that used GC-MS, but to glean substantially more chemical information from these complex fuels, we recently studied the use of comprehensive two dimensional (2D) gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) using a "reversed column" format: RTX-wax column for the first dimension, and a RTX-1 column for the second dimension. In this report, by applying chemometric data analysis, specifically partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we are able to readily model (and correlate) the chemical compositional information provided by use of GC×GC-TOFMS to RP-1 fuel property information such as density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, and so on. Furthermore, we readily identified compounds that contribute significantly to measured differences in fuel properties based on results from the PLS models. We anticipate this new chemical analysis strategy will have broad implications for the development of high fidelity composition-property models, leading to an

  14. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of waste tires/coal mixtures yields mainly smokeless fuel (55–74 wt%). • Alternatively, the smokeless fuel can serve as carbonaceous sorbent. • The obtained tar contained maltenes (80–85 wt%) and asphaltenes (6–8 wt%). • Tar from co-pyrolysis can serve as heating oil or a source of maltenes for repairing of asphalt surfaces. • The hydrogen-rich gas was obtained (61–65 vol% H_2, 24–25 vol% CH_4, 1.4–2 vol% CO_2). - Abstract: The processing of waste tires with two different types of bituminous coal was studied through the slow co-pyrolysis of 1 kg of waste tire/coal mixtures with 15, 30 and 60 wt% waste tires on a laboratory scale. The waste tire/coal mixtures were pyrolysed using a quartz reactor in a stationary bed. The mixtures were heated at a rate 5 °C/min up to the final temperature of 900 °C with a soaking time of 30 min at the required temperature. The mass balance of the process and the properties of the coke and tar obtained were evaluated, further, the influence of the admixture in the charge on the amount and composition of the obtained coke and tar was determined. It was found that the smokeless fuel/carbonaceous sorbent and a high yield of tar for further use can be obtained through the slow co-pyrolysis. The obtained tars contained mostly maltenes (80–85 wt%). FTIR analysis showed that the maltenes from the co-pyrolysis of coal/waste tires exhibited significantly lower aromaticity as compared with that from coal alone. The gas obtained from pyrolysis or co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures contained a high amount of hydrogen (above 60 vol%) and methane (above 20 vol%).

  15. Extending FEAST-METAL for analysis of low content minor actinide bearing and zirconium rich metallic fuels for sodium fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.edu [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge MA 24-204 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Computational models in FEAST-METAL fuel behaviour code have been upgraded to simulate minor actinide bearing zirconium rich metallic fuels for use in sodium fast reactors. Increasing the zirconium content to 20-40 wt.% causes significant changes in fuel slug microstructure affecting thermal, mechanical, chemical, and fission gas behaviour. Inclusion of zirconium rich phase reduces the fission gas swelling rate significantly in early irradiation. Above the threshold fission gas swelling, formation of micro-cracks, and open pores increase material compliancy enhance diffusivity, leading to rapid fuel gas swelling, interconnected porosity development and release of the fission gases and helium. Production and release of helium was modelled empirically as a function of americium content and fission gas production, consistent with previous Idaho National Laboratory studies. Predicted fuel constituent redistribution is much smaller compared to typical U-Pu-10Zr fuel operated at EBR-II. Material properties such as fuel thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and thermal expansion coefficient have been approximated using the available database. Creep rate and fission gas diffusivity of high zirconium fuel is lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to the reference low zirconium fuel based on limited database and in order to match experimental observations. The new code is benchmarked against the AFC-1F fuel assembly post irradiation examination results. Satisfactory match was obtained for fission gas release and swelling behaviour. Finally, the study considers a comparison of fuel behaviour between high zirconium content minor actinide bearing fuel and typical U-15Pu-6Zr fuel pins with 75% smear density. The new fuel has much higher fissile content, allowing for operating at lower neutron flux level compared to fuel with lower fissile density. This feature allows the designer to reach a much higher burnup before reaching the cladding dose limit. On the other

  16. Extending FEAST-METAL for analysis of low content minor actinide bearing and zirconium rich metallic fuels for sodium fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Aydın

    2011-07-01

    Computational models in FEAST-METAL fuel behaviour code have been upgraded to simulate minor actinide bearing zirconium rich metallic fuels for use in sodium fast reactors. Increasing the zirconium content to 20-40 wt.% causes significant changes in fuel slug microstructure affecting thermal, mechanical, chemical, and fission gas behaviour. Inclusion of zirconium rich phase reduces the fission gas swelling rate significantly in early irradiation. Above the threshold fission gas swelling, formation of micro-cracks, and open pores increase material compliancy enhance diffusivity, leading to rapid fuel gas swelling, interconnected porosity development and release of the fission gases and helium. Production and release of helium was modelled empirically as a function of americium content and fission gas production, consistent with previous Idaho National Laboratory studies. Predicted fuel constituent redistribution is much smaller compared to typical U-Pu-10Zr fuel operated at EBR-II. Material properties such as fuel thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and thermal expansion coefficient have been approximated using the available database. Creep rate and fission gas diffusivity of high zirconium fuel is lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to the reference low zirconium fuel based on limited database and in order to match experimental observations. The new code is benchmarked against the AFC-1F fuel assembly post irradiation examination results. Satisfactory match was obtained for fission gas release and swelling behaviour. Finally, the study considers a comparison of fuel behaviour between high zirconium content minor actinide bearing fuel and typical U-15Pu-6Zr fuel pins with 75% smear density. The new fuel has much higher fissile content, allowing for operating at lower neutron flux level compared to fuel with lower fissile density. This feature allows the designer to reach a much higher burnup before reaching the cladding dose limit. On the other

  17. Extending FEAST-METAL for analysis of low content minor actinide bearing and zirconium rich metallic fuels for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahan, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Computational models in FEAST-METAL fuel behaviour code have been upgraded to simulate minor actinide bearing zirconium rich metallic fuels for use in sodium fast reactors. Increasing the zirconium content to 20-40 wt.% causes significant changes in fuel slug microstructure affecting thermal, mechanical, chemical, and fission gas behaviour. Inclusion of zirconium rich phase reduces the fission gas swelling rate significantly in early irradiation. Above the threshold fission gas swelling, formation of micro-cracks, and open pores increase material compliancy enhance diffusivity, leading to rapid fuel gas swelling, interconnected porosity development and release of the fission gases and helium. Production and release of helium was modelled empirically as a function of americium content and fission gas production, consistent with previous Idaho National Laboratory studies. Predicted fuel constituent redistribution is much smaller compared to typical U-Pu-10Zr fuel operated at EBR-II. Material properties such as fuel thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and thermal expansion coefficient have been approximated using the available database. Creep rate and fission gas diffusivity of high zirconium fuel is lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to the reference low zirconium fuel based on limited database and in order to match experimental observations. The new code is benchmarked against the AFC-1F fuel assembly post irradiation examination results. Satisfactory match was obtained for fission gas release and swelling behaviour. Finally, the study considers a comparison of fuel behaviour between high zirconium content minor actinide bearing fuel and typical U-15Pu-6Zr fuel pins with 75% smear density. The new fuel has much higher fissile content, allowing for operating at lower neutron flux level compared to fuel with lower fissile density. This feature allows the designer to reach a much higher burnup before reaching the cladding dose limit. On the other

  18. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale.

  19. The effects of burner stabilization on Fenimore NO formation in low-pressure, fuel-rich premixed CH4/O2/N2 flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Vincent; Sepman, Alexey; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    We investigate the effects of varying the degree of burner stabilization on Fenimore NO formation in fuel-rich low-pressure flat CH4/O-2/N-2 flames. Towards this end, axial profiles of flame temperature and OH, NO and CH mole fractions are measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The

  20. A study of air breathing rockets. 3: Supersonic mode combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuya, G.; Chinzel, N.; Kudo, K.; Murakami, A.; Komuro, T.; Ishii, S.

    An experimental study was made on supersonic mode combustors of an air breathing rocket engine. Supersonic streams of room-temperature air and hot fuel-rich rocket exhaust were coaxially mixed and burned in a concially diverging duct of 2 deg half-angle. The effect of air inlet Mach number and excess air ratio was investigated. Axial wall pressure distribution was measured to calculate one dimensional change of Mach number and stagnation temperature. Calculated results showed that supersonic combustion occurred in the duct. At the exit of the duct, gas sampling and Pitot pressure measurement was made, from which radial distributions of various properties were deduced. The distribution of mass fraction of elements from rocket exhaust showed poor mixing performance in the supersonic mode combustors compared with the previously investigated cylindrical subsonic mode combustors. Secondary combustion efficiency correlated well with the centerline mixing parameter, but not with Annushkin's non-dimensional combustor length. No major effect of air inlet Mach number or excess air ratio was seen within the range of conditions under which the experiment was conducted.

  1. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  2. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  3. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  4. Measurement and Simulation of Spontaneous Raman Scattering Spectra in High-Pressure, Fuel-Rich H2-Air Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    Rotational vibrational spontaneous Raman spectra (SRS) of H2, N2, and H2O have been measured in H2-air flames at pressures up to 30 atm as a first stem towards establishing a comprehensive Raman spectral database for temperatures and species in high-pressure combustion. A newly developed high-pressure burner facility provides steady, reproducible flames with a high degree of flow precision. We have obtained an initial set of measurements that indicate the spectra are of sufficient quality in terms of spectral resolution, wavelength coverage, and signal-to-noise ratio for use in future reference standards. The fully resolved Stokes and anti-Stokes shifted SRS spectra were collected in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm) using pulse-stretched 532 nm excitation and a non-intensified CCD spectrograph with a high-speed shutter. Reasonable temperatures were determined via the intensity distribution of rotational H2 lines at stoichiometry and fuel-rich conditions. Theoretical Raman spectra of H2 were computed using a semi-classical harmonic-oscillator model with recent pressure broadening data and were compared with experimental results. The data and simulation indicated that high-J rotational lines of H2 might interfere with the N2 vibrational Q-branch lines, and this could lead to errors in N2-Raman thermometry based on the line-fitting method. From a comparison of N2 Q-branch spectra in lean H2 low-pressure (1.2 atm) and high-pressure (30 atm) flames, we found no significant line-narrowing or -broadening effects at the current spectrometer resolution of 0.04 nm.

  5. Not just rocket science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAdam, S.; Anderson, R. [Celan Energy Systems, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The paper explains a different take on oxyfuel combustion. Clean Energy Systems (CES) has integrated aerospace technology into conventional power systems, creating a zero-emission power generation technology that has some advantages over other similar approaches. When using coal as a feedstock, the CES process burns syngas rather than raw coal. The process uses recycled water and steam to moderate the temperature, instead of recycled CO{sub 2}. With no air ingress, the CES process produces very pure CO{sub 2}. This makes it possible to capture over 99% of the CO{sub 2} resulting from combustion. CES uses the combustion products to drive the turbines, rather than indirectly raising steam for steam turbines, as in the oxyfuel process used by companies such as Vattenfall. The core of the process is a high-pressure oxy-combustor adapted from rocket engine technology. This combustor burns gaseous or liquid fuels with gaseous oxygen in the presence of water. Fuels include natural gas, coal or coke-derived synthesis gas, landfill and biodigester gases, glycerine solutions and oil/water emulsion. 2 figs.

  6. Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Laboratory, Edwards, CA Abstract In a solid rocket motor (SRM), when the aluminum based propellant combusts, the fuel is oxidized into alumina (Al2O3...34Chemical Erosion of Refractory-Metal Nozzle Inserts in Solid - Propellant Rocket Motors," J. Propulsion and Power, Vol. 25, no.1,, 2009. [4] E. Y. Wong...34 Solid Rocket Nozzle Design Summary," in 4th AIAA Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference, Cleveland, OH, 1968. [5] Nayfeh, A. H.; Saric, W. S

  7. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  8. Some Calculated Research Results of the Working Process Parameters of the Low Thrust Rocket Engine Operating on Gaseous Oxygen-Hydrogen Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, V.; Morozov, I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the calculating results of the combustion products parameters in the tract of the low thrust rocket engine with thrust P ∼ 100 N. The article contains the following data: streamlines, distribution of total temperature parameter in the longitudinal section of the engine chamber, static temperature distribution in the cross section of the engine chamber, velocity distribution of the combustion products in the outlet section of the engine nozzle, static temperature near the inner wall of the engine. The presented parameters allow to estimate the efficiency of the mixture formation processes, flow of combustion products in the engine chamber and to estimate the thermal state of the structure.

  9. On use of hybrid rocket propulsion for suborbital vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam

    2018-04-01

    While the majority of operating suborbital rockets use solid rocket propulsion, recent advancements in the field of hybrid rocket motors lead to renewed interest in their use in sounding rockets. This paper presents results of optimisation of sounding rockets using hybrid propulsion. An overview of vehicles under development during the last decade, as well as heritage systems is provided. Different propellant combinations are discussed and their performance assessment is given. While Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Acid have been widely tested with various solid fuels in flight, Hydrogen Peroxide remains an oxidiser with very limited sounding rocket applications. The benefits of hybrid propulsion for sounding rockets are given. In case of hybrid rocket motors the thrust curve can be optimised for each flight, using a flow regulator, depending on the payload and mission. Results of studies concerning the optimal burn duration and nozzle selection are given. Specific considerations are provided for the Polish ILR-33 "Amber" sounding rocket. Low regression rates, which up to date were viewed as a drawback of hybrid propulsion may be used to the benefit of maximising rocket performance if small solid rocket boosters are used during the initial flight period. While increased interest in hybrid propulsion is present, no up-to-date reference concerning use of hybrid rocket propulsion for sounding rockets is available. The ultimate goal of the paper is to provide insight into the sensitivity of different design parameters on performance of hybrid sounding rockets and delve into the potential and challenges of using hybrid rocket technology for expendable suborbital applications.

  10. Metallic Hydrogen: A Game Changing Rocket Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Isaac F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to produce metallic hydrogen in the laboratory using an innovative approach, and to study its metastability properties. Current theoretical and experimental considerations expect that extremely high pressures of order 4-6 megabar are required to transform molecular hydrogen to the metallic phase. When metallic hydrogen is produced in the laboratory it will be extremely important to determine if it is metastable at modest temperatures, i.e. remains metallic when the pressure is released. Then it could be used as the most powerful chemical rocket fuel that exists and revolutionize rocketry, allowing single-stage rockets to enter orbit and chemically fueled rockets to explore our solar system.

  11. Structural and chemical degradation mechanisms of pure YSZ and its components ZrO2 and Y2O3 in carbon-rich fuel gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Eva-Maria; Kogler, Michaela; Götsch, Thomas; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon

    2016-05-25

    Structural and chemical degradation mechanisms of metal-free yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ-8, 8 mol% Y2O3 in ZrO2) in comparison to its pure oxidic components ZrO2 and Y2O3 have been studied in carbon-rich fuel gases with respect to coking/graphitization and (oxy)carbide formation. By combining operando electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), operando Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the removal and suppression of CH4- and CO-induced carbon deposits and of those generated in more realistic fuel gas mixtures (syngas, mixtures of CH4 or CO with CO2 and H2O) was examined under SOFC-relevant conditions up to 1273 K and ambient pressures. Surface-near carbidization is a major problem already on the "isolated" (i.e. Nickel-free) cermet components, leading to irreversible changes of the conduction properties. Graphitic carbon deposition takes place already on the "isolated" oxides under sufficiently fuel-rich conditions, most pronounced in the pure gases CH4 and CO, but also significantly in fuel gas mixtures containing H2O and CO2. For YSZ, a comparative quantification of the total amount of deposited carbon in all gases and mixtures is provided and thus yields favorable and detrimental experimental approaches to suppress the carbon formation. In addition, the effectivity and reversibility of removal of the coke/graphite layers was comparably studied in the pure oxidants O2, CO2 and H2O and their effective contribution upon addition to the pure fuel gases CO and CH4 verified.

  12. How Does Rocket Propulsion Work? The most common answer to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internal combustion engines. The fuel or propellant is stored in the fuel tank. Here we will consider liquid hydrogen as the fuel. For the combustion to take place in outer space or in the absence of atmospheric oxygen the rocket carries along an oxidizer; here we will consider liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. The oxidizer or in.

  13. Eddie Rocket's Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Vahter, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Eddie Rocket's Franchise - Setting up a franchise restaurant in Helsinki. TIIVISTELMÄ: Eddie Rocket's on menestynyt amerikkalaistyylinen 1950-luvun ”diner” franchiseravintolaketju Irlannista. Ravintoloita on perustettu viimeisen 18 vuoden aikana 28 kappaletta Irlantiin ja Isoon Britanniaan sekä yksi Espanjaan. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tutkia onko Eddie Rocket'silla potentiaalia menestyä Helsingissä, Suomessa. Tutkimuskysymystä on lähestytty toimiala-analyysin, markkinatutkimuksen j...

  14. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  15. Nuclear rocket engine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Covers a new technology of nuclear reactors and the related materials aspects. Integrates physics, materials science and engineering Serves as a basic book for nuclear engineers and nuclear physicists. The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  16. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  17. How High? How Fast? How Long? Modeling Water Rocket Flight with Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashline, George; Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    We describe an easy and fun project using water rockets to demonstrate applications of single variable calculus concepts. We provide procedures and a supplies list for launching and videotaping a water rocket flight to provide the experimental data. Because of factors such as fuel expulsion and wind effects, the water rocket does not follow the…

  18. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y.; Kang, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I sp ) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H 2 /O 2 rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance

  19. The efficient future of deep-space travel - electric rockets; Das Zeitalter der Elektrischen Raketen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choueiri, Edgar Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Electric Propulsion and Plasma Dynamics Lab.

    2010-01-15

    Conventional rockets generate thrust by burning chemical fuel. Electric rockets propel space vehicles by applying electric or electromagnetic fields to clouds of charged particles, or plasmas, to accelerate them. Although electric rockets offer much lower thrust levels than their chemical cousins, they can eventually enable spacecraft to reach greater speeds for the same amount of propellant. Electric rockets' high-speed capabilities and their efficient use of propellant make them valuable for deep-space missions. (orig.)

  20. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  2. Numerical investigations of hybrid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betelin, V. B.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Tyurenkova, V. V.; Stamov, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents the results of numerical studies of hybrid rocket engines operating cycle including unsteady-state transition stage. A mathematical model is developed accounting for the peculiarities of diffusion combustion of fuel in the flow of oxidant, which is composed of oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Three dimensional unsteady-state simulations of chemically reacting gas mixture above thermochemically destructing surface are performed. The results show that the diffusion combustion brings to strongly non-uniform fuel mass regression rate in the flow direction. Diffusive deceleration of chemical reaction brings to the decrease of fuel regression rate in the longitudinal direction.

  3. Production of methane-rich syngas from hydrocarbon fuels using multi-functional catalyst/capture agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Nicholas S; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A; Surdoval, Wayne A

    2014-12-30

    The disclosure provides a gasification process for the production of a methane-rich syngas at temperatures exceeding 700.degree. C. through the use of an alkali hydroxide MOH, using a gasification mixture comprised of at least 0.25 moles and less than 2 moles of water for each mole of carbon, and at least 0.15 moles and less than 2 moles of alkali hydroxide MOH for each mole of carbon. These relative amounts allow the production of a methane-rich syngas at temperatures exceeding 700.degree. C. by enabling a series of reactions which generate H.sub.2 and CH.sub.4, and mitigate the reforming of methane. The process provides a methane-rich syngas comprised of roughly 20% (dry molar percentage) CH.sub.4 at temperatures above 700.degree. C., and may effectively operate within an IGFC cycle at reactor temperatures between 700-900.degree. C. and pressures in excess of 10 atmospheres.

  4. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm -1 , which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs

  5. Co-combustion of sewage sludge and energy-rich waste fuels or forest fuels; Sameldning av roetslam och energirika avfallsbraenslen eller skogsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Kristina [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    In this report literature on incineration of sewage sludge is summarises. In Sweden there is a yearly production of about 0,24 million-ton dry sewage sludge of which 50% is deposited. Recent changes in legislation will restrict and later prohibit the dumping of sewage sludge. Alternative methods for handling the material have not yet been found. In other parts of Europe the problem has been solved by incineration. Sludge incineration can be performed in several ways depending of the pretreatment. The sludge can be raw or digested, dewatered or dried. The sludge can be burnt as single fuel or in mixtures with other fuels. Focus in this work has been on co-combustion with biofuel or waste, as it will make use of existing plants. Digested sludge is also of major interest as 70% of the Swedish sludge is digested. The report describes the situation both in Sweden and in the rest of Europe. Sludge has a varying quality depending on origin and treatment, which affects the combustion properties. Ash and moisture contents differ from other fuels. The heating value of sewage sludge is approximately 20 MJ/kg per dry combustible matter and the amount of organic is around 70%. Compared to forest residue and demolition wood, sludge contains high levels of nitrogen and sulphur, which will cause emissions. The nitrogen level is about 10 times higher and the sulphur level 25 to 50 times higher. Sulphur, in combination with alkali metals, can cause deposit problems in boilers. However, sludge contains low levels of alkali. In the experimental investigation leaching of digested sludge showed low values on water conductivity which indicates a low concentration of sintering ash species in the sludge. A comparison of the aerodynamic properties of dried digested sludge and wood chips from energy coppice showed that sludge has a lower fraction of fines. This indicates that the sewage sludge is not likely to be carried over in the furnace but rather to stay in the fuel and ash bed on the

  6. Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils

    2005-08-01

    Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

  7. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  8. The History of Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the origins and development of rockets mainly from the perspective of warfare. Includes some early enthusiasts, such as Congreve, Tsiolkovosky, Goddard, and Oberth. Describes developments from World War II, and during satellite development. (YP)

  9. The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokor, P.C.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fission product release from nuclear rocket propulsion reactor fuel is an important consideration for nuclear rocket development and application. Fission product data from the last six reactors of the Rover program are collected in this paper to provide as basis for addressing development and testing issues. Fission product loss from the fuel will depend on fuel composition and reactor design and operating parameters. During ground testing, fission products can be contained downstream of the reactor. The last Rover reactor tested, the Nuclear Furnance, was mated to an effluent clean-up system that was effective in preventing the discharge of fission products into the atmosphere

  10. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting method is a normative forecasting technique that allows the designer to quantify the effects of adding new technologies on a given design. This method can be used to assess and identify the necessary technological improvements needed to close the gap that exists between the current design and one that satisfies all constraints imposed on the design. The TIF methodology allows for more design knowledge to be brought to the earlier phases of the design process, making use of tools such as Quality Function Deployments, Morphological Matrices, Response Surface Methodology, and Monte Carlo Simulations.2 This increased knowledge allows for more informed decisions to be made earlier in the design process, resulting in shortened design cycle time. This paper will investigate applying the TIF method, which has been widely used in aircraft applications, to the conceptual design of a hydrocarbon rocket engine. In order to reinstate a manned presence in space, the U.S. must develop an affordable and sustainable launch capability. Hydrocarbon-fueled rockets have drawn interest from numerous major government and commercial entities because they offer a low-cost heavy-lift option that would allow for frequent launches1. However, the development of effective new hydrocarbon rockets would likely require new technologies in order to overcome certain design constraints. The use of advanced design methods, such as the TIF method, enables the designer to identify key areas in need of improvement, allowing one to dial in a proposed technology and assess its impact on the system. Through analyses such as this one, a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-fueled vehicle that meets all imposed requirements can be achieved.

  11. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.

    2008-01-01

    To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts

  12. The genetic manipulation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of converting polysaccharide-rich agricultural crops and industrial waste to single-cell protein and fuel ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pretorius

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The world’s problem with overpopulation and environmental pollution has created an urgent demand for alternative protein and energy sources. One way of addressing these burning issues is to produce single-cell protein (for food and animal feed supplements and fuel ethanol from polysaccharide-rich agricultural crops and industrial waste by using baker’s yeast.

  13. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  14. Cryogenic rocket engine development at Delft aerospace rocket engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, J; Hermsen, R.; Huijsman, R; Akkermans, C.; Denies, L.; Barreiro, F.; Schutte, A.; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current developments regarding cryogenic rocket engine technology at Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE). DARE is a student society based at Delft University of Technology with the goal of being the first student group in the world to launch a rocket into space. After

  15. Particle bed reactor nuclear rocket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.

    1991-01-01

    The particle bed reactor nuclear rocket concept consists of fuel particles (in this case (U,Zr)C with an outer coat of zirconium carbide). These particles are packed in an annular bed surrounded by two frits (porous tubes) forming a fuel element; the outer one being a cold frit, the inner one being a hot frit. The fuel element are cooled by hydrogen passing in through the moderator. These elements are assembled in a reactor assembly in a hexagonal pattern. The reactor can be either reflected or not, depending on the design, and either 19 or 37 elements, are used. Propellant enters in the top, passes through the moderator fuel element and out through the nozzle. Beryllium used for the moderator in this particular design to withstand the high radiation exposure implied by the long run times

  16. Jerusalem artichoke as low-cost fructose-rich feedstock for fossil fuels desulphurization by a fructophilic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T P; Paixão, S M; Roseiro, J C; Alves, L

    2015-03-01

    Through biodesulphurization (BDS) is possible to remove the sulphur present in fossil fuels to carry out the very strict legislation. However, this biological process is limited by the cost of the culture medium, and thus, it is important to explore cheaper alternative carbon sources, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA). These carbon sources usually contain sulphates which interfere with the BDS process. The goal of this work was to remove the sulphates from Jerusalem artichoke juice (JAJ) through BaCl2 precipitation viewing the optimization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulphurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B. Using a statistical design (Doehlert distribution), the effect of BaCl2 concentration (0.125-0.625%) and pH (5-9) was studied on sulphate concentration in hydrolysed JAJ. A validated surface response derived from data indicated that zero sulphates can be achieved with 0.5-0.55% (w/v) BaCl2 at pH 7; however, parallel BDS assays showed that the highest desulphurization was obtained with the juice treated with 0.5% (w/v) BaCl2 at pH 8.73. Further assays demonstrated that enhanced DBT desulphurization was achieved using hydrolysed JAJ treated in these optimal conditions. A total conversion of 400 μmol l(-1) DBT into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in <90 h was observed, attaining a 2-HBP maximum production rate of 28.2 μmol l(-1) h(-1) and a specific production rate of 5.06 μmol(-1) g(-1) (DCW) h(-1) . These results highlight the efficacy of the treatment applied to JAJ in making this agromaterial a promising low-cost renewable feedstock for improved BDS by the fructophilic strain 1B. This study is a fundamental step viewing BDS application at the industrial level as it accounts a cost-effective production of the biocatalysts, one of the main drawbacks for BDS scale-up. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  18. This Is Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical than that offered by Estes Industries, but more basic than the analysis of Nelson et al. In particular, drag is neglected until the very end of the exercise, which allows the concept of conservation of energy to be shown when predicting the rocket's flight. Also, the variable mass of the rocket motor is assumed to decrease linearly during the flight (while the propulsion charge and recovery delay charge are burning) and handled simplistically by using an average mass value. These changes greatly simplify the equations needed to predict the times and heights at various stages of flight, making it more useful as a review of basic physics. Details about model rocket motors, range safety, and other supplemental information may be found online at Apogee Components4 and the National Association of Rocketry.5

  19. The Relativistic Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  20. This "Is" Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical…

  1. ROCKETS: Soar to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Christine E. W.; O'Merle, Mary Jane; White, Gene

    2017-01-01

    This article describes ROCKETS, an after-school program for at-risk youth, and how the university students became involved in this service-learning project. The article discusses the steps that were taken to start the program, what is being done to continue the program, and the challenges that faculty have faced. This program is an authentic…

  2. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  3. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  4. The relativistic rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.

  5. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  6. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  7. Design considerations for a pressure-driven multi-stage rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Steven Craig

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using propellant tank pressurization to eliminate the use of high-pressure turbopumps in multi-stage liquid-fueled satellite launchers. Several new technologies were examined to reduce the mass of such a rocket. Composite materials have a greater strength-to-weight ratio than metals and can be used to reduce the weight of rocket propellant tanks and structure. Catalytically combined hydrogen and oxygen can be used to heat pressurization gas, greatly reducing the amount of gas required. Ablatively cooled rocket engines can reduce the complexity and cost of the rocket. Methods were derived to estimate the mass of the various rocket components. These included a method to calculate the amount of gas needed to pressurize a propellant tank by modeling the behavior of the pressurization gas as the liquid propellant flows out of the tank. A way to estimate the mass and size of a ablatively cooled composite cased rocket engine. And a method to model the flight of such a rocket through the atmosphere in conjunction with optimization of the rockets trajectory. The results show that while a liquid propellant rocket using tank pressurization are larger than solid propellant rockets and turbopump driven liquid propellant rockets, they are not impractically large.

  8. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Simulation in NPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, Michael L.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Four nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) models have been created in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. The models are divided into two categories. One set is based upon the ZrC-graphite composite fuel element and tie tube-style reactor developed during the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) project in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The other reactor set is based upon a W-UO2 ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuel element. Within each category, a small and a large thrust engine are modeled. The small engine models utilize RL-10 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 33.4 kN (7,500 lbf ). The large engine models utilize scaled RL-60 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 111.2 kN (25,000 lbf ). Power deposition profiles for each reactor were obtained from a detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) model of the reactor cores. Performance factors such as thermodynamic state points, thrust, specific impulse, reactor power level, and maximum fuel temperature are analyzed for each engine design.

  9. Soil remediation in the areas affected by space-rocket industry activities in the Central Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study has been carried out to demonstrate that the modified carbon-mineral sorbents based on the schungite material can be effectively used for decontamination of soil polluted by liquid rocket fuel components and its decomposition products.

  10. U.S./CIS eye joint nuclear rocket venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Smetanikov, Vladimir; D'Yakov, Evgenij K.; Pavshuk, Vladimir A.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the significance for U.S. spacecraft development of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) reactor concept that has been developed in the (formerly Soviet) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The CIS NTR reactor employs a hydrogen-cooled zirconium hydride moderator and ternary carbide fuels; the comparatively cool operating temperatures associated with this design promise overall robustness.

  11. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  12. Design and Testing of Digitally Manufactured Paraffin Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Hybrid Rocket Motors

    OpenAIRE

    McCulley, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the application of additive manufacturing techniques for fabricating hybrid rocket fuel grains composed of porous Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene impregnated with paraffin wax. The digitally manufactured ABS substrate provides mechanical support for the paraffin fuel material and serves as an additional fuel component. The embedded paraffin provides an enhanced fuel regression rate while having no detrimental effect on the thermodynamic burn properties of the fuel g...

  13. Rocket + Science = Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris,Bruce; Sullivan, Greg; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    It's a cliche that rocket engineers and space scientists don t see eye-to-eye. That goes double for rocket engineers working on human spaceflight and scientists working on space telescopes and planetary probes. They work fundamentally different problems but often feel that they are competing for the same pot of money. Put the two groups together for a weekend, and the results could be unscientific or perhaps combustible. Fortunately, that wasn't the case when NASA put heavy lift launch vehicle designers together with astronomers and planetary scientists for two weekend workshops in 2008. The goal was to bring the top people from both groups together to see how the mass and volume capabilities of NASA's Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle could benefit the science community. Ares V is part of NASA's Constellation Program for resuming human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, starting with missions to the Moon. In the current mission scenario, Ares V launches a lunar lander into Earth orbit. A smaller Ares I rocket launches the Orion crew vehicle with up to four astronauts. Orion docks with the lander, attached to the Ares V Earth departure stage. The stage fires its engine to send the mated spacecraft to the Moon. Standing 360 feet high and weighing 7.4 million pounds, NASA's new heavy lifter will be bigger than the 1960s-era Saturn V. It can launch almost 60 percent more payload to translunar insertion together with the Ares I and 35 percent more mass to low Earth orbit than the Saturn V. This super-sized capability is, in short, designed to send more people to more places to do more things than the six Apollo missions.

  14. Rocket Assembly and Checkout Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Integrates, tests, and calibrates scientific instruments flown on sounding rocket payloads. The scientific instruments are assembled on an optical bench;...

  15. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  16. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of axisymmetric plume and base flow of film/dump cooled rocket nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. K.; Warsi, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Film/dump cooling a rocket nozzle with fuel rich gas, as in the National Launch System (NLS) Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), adds potential complexities for integrating the engine with the vehicle. The chief concern is that once the film coolant is exhausted from the nozzle, conditions may exist during flight for the fuel-rich film gases to be recirculated to the vehicle base region. The result could be significantly higher base temperatures than would be expected from a regeneratively cooled nozzle. CFD analyses were conduced to augment classical scaling techniques for vehicle base environments. The FDNS code with finite rate chemistry was used to simulate a single, axisymmetric STME plume and the NLS base area. Parallel calculations were made of the Saturn V S-1 C/F1 plume base area flows. The objective was to characterize the plume/freestream shear layer for both vehicles as inputs for scaling the S-C/F1 flight data to NLS/STME conditions. The code was validated on high speed flows with relevant physics. This paper contains the calculations for the NLS/STME plume for the baseline nozzle and a modified nozzle. The modified nozzle was intended to reduce the fuel available for recirculation to the vehicle base region. Plumes for both nozzles were calculated at 10kFT and 50kFT.

  18. Micro-Rockets for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jay S.; Fletcher, Alice S.; Cato, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Compares micro-rockets to commercial models and water rockets. Finds that micro-rockets are more advantageous because they are constructed with inexpensive and readily available materials and can be safely launched indoors. (CCM)

  19. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2012-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities

  20. Experimental investigation of solid rocket motors for small sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksila, Thada

    2018-01-01

    Experimentation and research of solid rocket motors are important subjects for aerospace engineering students. However, many institutes in Thailand rarely include experiments on solid rocket motors in research projects of aerospace engineering students, mainly because of the complexity of mixing the explosive propellants. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a solid rocket motor for total impulse in the class I-J that can be utilised as a small sounding rocket by researchers in the near future. Initially, the test stands intended for measuring the pressure in the combustion chamber and the thrust of the solid rocket motor were designed and constructed. The basic design of the propellant configuration was evaluated. Several formulas and ratios of solid propellants were compared for achieving the maximum thrust. The convenience of manufacturing and casting of the fabricated solid rocket motors were a critical consideration. The motor structural analysis such as the combustion chamber wall thickness was also discussed. Several types of nozzles were compared and evaluated for ensuring the maximum thrust of the solid rocket motors during the experiments. The theory of heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber was discussed and compared with the experimental data.

  1. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  2. Optimization of the rocket mode trajectory in a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered SSTO vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1989-07-01

    The application of rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engines to booster-stage propulsion, in combination with all-rocket second stages in orbital-ascent missions, has been studied since the mid-1960s; attention is presently given to the case of the 'ejector scramjet' RBCC configuration's application to SSTO vehicles. While total mass delivered to initial orbit is optimized at Mach 20, payload delivery capability to initial orbit optimizes at Mach 17, primarily due to the reduction of hydrogen fuel tankage structure, insulation, and thermal protection system weights.

  3. Rocket propulsion elements - An introduction to the engineering of rockets (6th revised and enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, George P.

    The subject of rocket propulsion is treated with emphasis on the basic technology, performance, and design rationale. Attention is given to definitions and fundamentals, nozzle theory and thermodynamic relations, heat transfer, flight performance, chemical rocket propellant performance analysis, and liquid propellant rocket engine fundamentals. The discussion also covers solid propellant rocket fundamentals, hybrid propellant rockets, thrust vector control, selection of rocket propulsion systems, electric propulsion, and rocket testing.

  4. Two-Rockets Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    Let n>=2 be identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1, v2, ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. Let's focus on two arbitrary rockets Ri and Rjfrom the previous n rockets. Let's suppose, without loss of generality, that their speeds verify virocket Rj is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Lj =Lj' C(vj -vi) .(2) But in the reference frame of the astronaut in Rjit is like rocket Rjis stationary andRi moves with the speed vj -vi in opposite direction. Therefore, similarly, the non-proper time interval as measured by the astronaut inRj with respect to the event inRi is dilated with the same factor D(vj -vi) , i.e. Δtj . i = Δt' D(vj -vi) , and rocketRi is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Li =Li' C(vj -vi) .But it is a contradiction to have time dilations in both rockets. (3) Varying i, j in {1, 2, ..., n} in this Thought Experiment we get again other multiple contradictions about time dilations. Similarly about length contractions, because we get for a rocket Rj, n-2 different length contraction factors: C(vj -v1) , C(vj -v2) , ..., C(vj -vj - 1) , C(vj -vj + 1) , ..., C(vj -vn) simultaneously! Which is abnormal.

  5. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  6. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S. G. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H{sub 2}) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I{sub sp}) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance.

  7. Engineering thermal engine rocket adventurer for space nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung H.; Suh, Kune Y.; Kang, Seong G.

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual design for the first-of-a-kind engineering of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventure (TERA) is described. TERA comprising the Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) as the heat resource and the Space Propulsion Reactor Integral System (SPRIS) as the propulsion system, is one of the advanced Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engine utilizing hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant being developed at present time. BORIS in this application is an open cycle high temperature gas cooled reactor that has eighteen fuel elements for propulsion and one fuel element for electricity generation and propellant pumping. Each fuel element for propulsion has its own small nozzle. The nineteen fuel elements are arranged into hexagonal prism shape in the core and surrounded by outer Be reflector. The TERA maximum power is 1,000 MW th , specific impulse 1,000 s, thrust 250,000 N, and the total mass is 550 kg including the reactor, turbo pump and auxiliaries. Each fuel element comprises the fuel assembly, moderators, pressure tube and small nozzle. The TERA fuel assembly is fabricated of 93% enriched 1.5 mm (U, Zr, Nb)C wafers in 25.3% voided Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC). The H 2 propellant passes through these flow channels. This study is concerned with thermohydrodynamic analysis of the fuel element for propulsion with hypothetical axial power distribution because nuclear analysis of TERA has not been performed yet. As a result, when the power distribution of INSPI's M-SLHC is applied to the fuel assembly, the local heat concentration of fuel is more serious and the pressure of the initial inlet H 2 is higher than those of constant average power distribution applied. This means the fuel assembly geometry of 1.5 mm fuel wafers and 25.3% voided SLHC needs to be changed in order to reduce thermal and mechanical shocks. (author)

  8. A research on polyether glycol replaced APCP rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tianyou; Bao, Chun Jia; Wang, Yiyang

    2017-08-01

    Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid rocket propellant used in rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants by the nature of how it is processed. APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing it with black powder. This provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which are necessary requirements for use in the aerospace industry. For traditional APCP, ingredients normally used are ammonium peroxide, aluminum, Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene(HTPB), curing agency and other additives, the greatest disadvantage is that the fuel is too expensive. According to the price we collected in our country, a single kilogram of this fuel will cost 200 Yuan, which is about 35 dollars, for a fan who may use tons of the fuel in a single year, it definitely is a great deal of money. For this reason, we invented a new kind of APCP fuel. Changing adhesive agency from cross-linked htpb to cross linked polyether glycol gives a similar specific thrust, density and mechanical property while costs a lower price.

  9. Combustion of metal agglomerates in a solid rocket core flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Filippo; Dossi, Stefano; DeLuca, Luigi T.

    2013-12-01

    The need for access to space may require the use of solid propellants. High thrust and density are appealing features for different applications, spanning from boosting phase to other service applications (separation, de-orbiting, orbit insertion). Aluminum is widely used as a fuel in composite solid rocket motors because metal oxidation increases enthalpy release in combustion chamber and grants higher specific impulse. Combustion process of metal particles is complex and involves aggregation, agglomeration and evolution of reacting particulate inside the core flow of the rocket. It is always stated that residence time should be enough in order to grant complete metal oxidation but agglomerate initial size, rocket grain geometry, burning rate, and other factors have to be reconsidered. New space missions may not require large rocket systems and metal combustion efficiency becomes potentially a key issue to understand whether solid propulsion embodies a viable solution or liquid/hybrid systems are better. A simple model for metal combustion is set up in this paper. Metal particles are represented as single drops trailed by the core flow and reacted according to Beckstead's model. The fluid dynamics is inviscid, incompressible, 1D. The paper presents parametric computations on ideal single-size particles as well as on experimental agglomerate populations as a function of operating rocket conditions and geometries.

  10. Guided Rocket Weapon,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-11

    nyn;tei% (fuel/propellant ir, extruded trent the tanks by *C Cc:’ njie d g a. Work liquid-propellant engines on the same principle, as on the ~c~A t...82052705 PAGE 44-- Fig. 26. Starting/launcing of the guided winged missile * Snack ". Page 49.1 Ballistic short-range missiles. The most widely used short

  11. Theodore von Karman - Rocket Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seminal contributions to several areas of fluid and solid mechanics, as the first head of ... nent position in Aeronautics research, as a pioneer of rocket science in America ... toral work, however, was on the theory of buckling of large structures.

  12. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  13. Easier Analysis With Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing rocket engines is one of Marshall Space Flight Center's specialties. When Marshall engineers lacked a software program flexible enough to meet their needs for analyzing rocket engine fluid flow, they overcame the challenge by inventing the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which was named the co-winner of the NASA Software of the Year award in 2001. This paper describes the GFSSP in a wide variety of applications

  14. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  15. Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

    2014-06-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

  16. A Multiconstrained Ascent Guidance Method for Solid Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a multiconstrained ascent guidance method for a solid rocket-powered launch vehicle, which uses a hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV as payload and shuts off by fuel exhaustion. First, pseudospectral method is used to analyze the two-stage launch vehicle ascent trajectory with different rocket ignition modes. Then, constraints, such as terminal height, velocity, flight path angle, and angle of attack, are converted into the constraints within height-time profile according to the second-stage rocket flight characteristics. The closed-loop guidance method is inferred by different spline curves given the different terminal constraints. Afterwards, a thrust bias energy management strategy is proposed to waste the excess energy of the solid rocket. Finally, the proposed method is verified through nominal and dispersion simulations. The simulation results show excellent applicability and robustness of this method, which can provide a valuable reference for the ascent guidance of solid rocket-powered launch vehicles.

  17. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ganji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM and least square method (LSM were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a parametric study is performed here which includes the effect of exhaust velocity (Ce, burn rate (BR of fuel and diameter of cylindrical rocket (d on the motion of a sample rocket, and contours for showing the sensitivity of these parameters are plotted. The main results indicate that the rocket velocity and altitude are increased with increasing the Ce and BR and decreased with increasing the rocket diameter and drag coefficient.

  18. Gas-Generator Augmented Expander Cycle Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An augmented expander cycle rocket engine includes first and second turbopumps for respectively pumping fuel and oxidizer. A gas-generator receives a first portion of fuel output from the first turbopump and a first portion of oxidizer output from the second turbopump to ignite and discharge heated gas. A heat exchanger close-coupled to the gas-generator receives in a first conduit the discharged heated gas, and transfers heat to an adjacent second conduit carrying fuel exiting the cooling passages of a primary combustion chamber. Heat is transferred to the fuel passing through the cooling passages. The heated fuel enters the second conduit of the heat exchanger to absorb more heat from the first conduit, and then flows to drive a turbine of one or both of the turbopumps. The arrangement prevents the turbopumps exposure to combusted gas that could freeze in the turbomachinery and cause catastrophic failure upon attempted engine restart.

  19. Preliminary design study for a carbide LEU-nuclear thermal rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, P.F.; Kim, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear space propulsion is a requirement for the successful exploration of the solar system. It offers the possibility of having both a high specific impulse and a relatively high thrust, allowing rapid transit times with a minimum usage of fuel. This paper proposes a nuclear thermal rocket design based on heritage NERVA rockets that makes use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. The Carbide LEU Nuclear Thermal Rocket (C-LEU-NTR) is designed to fulfill the rocket requirements as set forth in the NASA 2009 Mars Mission Design Reference Architecture 5.0, that is provide 25,000 lbf of thrust, operate at full power condition for at least two hours, and have a specific impulse close to 900 s. The neutronics analysis was done using MCNP5 with the ENDF/B-VII.1 neutron library. The thermal hydraulic calculations and size optimization were completed with a finite difference code being developed at the Center for Space Nuclear Research. (authors)

  20. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    ... to light gases then steam reform the light gases into hydrogen rich stream. This report documents the efforts in developing a fuel processor capable of providing hydrogen to a 3kW fuel cell stack...

  1. Karl Poggensee - A widely unknown German rocket pioneer - The early years 1930-1934 - A chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrwild, Karlheinz

    2017-09-01

    The rediscovered estate of Karl Poggensee allows to reproduce chronologically his rocket tests of the period 1930-1934 almost completely for the first time. Thrilled by the movie ;The Woman in the Moon; for the idea of space travel, he started as a student of Hinderburg-Polytechnikum (IAO), Oldenburg, to build his first solid-fuel rocket, producing his own propellant charges. Being a coming electrical engineer his main goal was not set up new record heights, but to provide his rockets with automatic measuring instruments, camera and parachute release systems. The optimization of this sequence was his main focus.

  2. Yes--This is Rocket Science: MMCs for Liquid Rocket Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelley, J

    2001-01-01

    The Air Force's Integrated High-Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies (IHPRPT) Program has established aggressive goals for both improved performance and reduced cost of rocket engines and components...

  3. Wake effect in rocket observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Multi-Rocket Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    We consider n>=2 identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1 ,v2 , ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. (1) If we consider the observer on earth and the first rocket R1, then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with the factor D(v1) : or Δt = Δt' D(v1) (1) But if we consider the observer on earth and the second rocket R2 , then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with a different factor D(v2) : or Δt = Δt' D(v2) And so on. Therefore simultaneously Δt is dilated with different factors D(v1) , D(v2), ..., D(vn) , which is a multiple contradiction.

  5. A study on the amount of pilot injection and its effects on rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture for a CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang Lin; Wanhua Su [Tianjin University (China). State Key Laboratory of Engines

    2003-07-01

    A sequential port injection, lean-burn, fully electronically-controlled compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual-fuel engine has been developed based on a turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. During the optimisation of engine overall performance, the effects of pilot diesel and premixed CNG/air mixture equivalence ratio on emissions (CO, HC, NO{sub x}, soot), knocking, misfire and fuel economy are studied. The rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture versus engine load are also provided, considering the acceptable values of NO{sub x} and THC emissions, respectively. It is interesting to find that there is a critical amount of pilot diesel for each load and speed point, which proved to be the optimum amount of pilot fuel. Any decrease in the amount of pilot diesel from this optimum amount results in an increase of NO{sub x} emissions, because the premixed CNG/air mixture must be made richer, otherwise THC emissions would increase. However, the soot emissions remain almost unchanged at a very low level. (author)

  6. Rocket Science 101 Interactive Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Dennis; Funkhouse, Deborah; DiMarzio, Donald

    2007-01-01

    To better educate the public on the basic design of NASA s current mission rockets, Rocket Science 101 software has been developed as an interactive program designed to retain a user s attention and to teach about basic rocket parts. This program also has helped to expand NASA's presence on the Web regarding educating the public about the Agency s goals and accomplishments. The software was designed using Macromedia s Flash 8. It allows the user to select which type of rocket they want to learn about, interact with the basic parts, assemble the parts to create the whole rocket, and then review the basic flight profile of the rocket they have built.

  7. Combustion Performance of a Staged Hybrid Rocket with Boron addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lee, C.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of boron on overall system specific impulse was investigated. Additionally, a series of combustion tests was carried out to analyze and evaluate the effect of boron addition on O/F variation and radial temperature profiles. To maintain the hybrid rocket engine advantages, upper limit of boron contents in solid fuel was set to be 10 wt%. The results also suggested that, when adding boron to solid fuel, it helped to provide more uniform radial temperature distribution and also to increase specific impulse by 3.2%.

  8. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  9. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  10. Pegasus Rocket Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A small, desk-top model of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus winged rocket booster. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable

  11. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  12. Multivariable optimization of liquid rocket engines using particle swarm algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel Ray

    Liquid rocket engines are highly reliable, controllable, and efficient compared to other conventional forms of rocket propulsion. As such, they have seen wide use in the space industry and have become the standard propulsion system for launch vehicles, orbit insertion, and orbital maneuvering. Though these systems are well understood, historical optimization techniques are often inadequate due to the highly non-linear nature of the engine performance problem. In this thesis, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) variant was applied to maximize the specific impulse of a finite-area combustion chamber (FAC) equilibrium flow rocket performance model by controlling the engine's oxidizer-to-fuel ratio and de Laval nozzle expansion and contraction ratios. In addition to the PSO-controlled parameters, engine performance was calculated based on propellant chemistry, combustion chamber pressure, and ambient pressure, which are provided as inputs to the program. The performance code was validated by comparison with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) and the commercially available Rocket Propulsion Analysis (RPA) tool. Similarly, the PSO algorithm was validated by comparison with brute-force optimization, which calculates all possible solutions and subsequently determines which is the optimum. Particle Swarm Optimization was shown to be an effective optimizer capable of quick and reliable convergence for complex functions of multiple non-linear variables.

  13. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  14. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  15. Hybrid rocket engine research program at Ryerson University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpynczyk, J.; Greatrix, D.R. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Hybrid rocket engines (HREs) are a combination of solid and liquid propellant rocket engine designs. A solid fuel grain is located in the main combustion chamber and nozzle aft, while a stored liquid or gaseous oxidizer source supplies the required oxygen content through a throttle valve, for combustion downstream in the main chamber. HREs have drawn significant interest in certain flight applications, as they can be advantageous in terms of cost, ease and safety in storage, controllability in flight, and availability of propellant constituents. Key factors that will lead to further practical usage of HREs for flight applications are their predictability and reproducibility of operational performance. This paper presented information on studies being conducted at Ryerson University aimed at analyzing and testing the performance of HREs. It discussed and illustrated the conventional HRE and analyzed engine performance considerations such as the fuel regression rate, mass flux about the fuel surface, burning rate, and zero transformation parameter. Other factors relating to HRE performance that were presented included induced forward and aft oxidizer flow swirl effects as a means for augmenting the fuel regression rate, stoichiometric grain length issues, and feed system stability. Last, the paper presented a simplified schematic diagram of a proposed thrust/test stand for HRE test firings. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  16. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When operating...

  17. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  18. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, D.W.; Rochow, R.

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps

  19. Part II: Oxidative Thermal Aging of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 in Automotive Three Way Catalysts: The Effects of Fuel Shutoff and Attempted Fuel Rich Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pd component in the automotive three way catalyst (TWC experiences deactivation during fuel shutoff, a process employed by automobile companies for enhancing fuel economy when the vehicle is coasting downhill. The process exposes the TWC to a severe oxidative aging environment with the flow of hot (800 °C–1050 °C air. Simulated fuel shutoff aging at 1050 °C leads to Pd metal sintering, the main cause of irreversible deactivation of 3% Pd/Al2O3 and 3% Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 (CZO as model catalysts. The effect on the Rh component was presented in our companion paper Part I. Moderate support sintering and Pd-CexOy interactions were also experienced upon aging, but had a minimal effect on the catalyst activity losses. Cooling in air, following aging, was not able to reverse the metallic Pd sintering by re-dispersing to PdO. Unlike the aged Rh-TWCs (Part I, reduction via in situ steam reforming (SR of exhaust HCs was not effective in reversing the deactivation of aged Pd/Al2O3, but did show a slight recovery of the Pd activity when CZO was the carrier. The Pd+/Pd0 and Ce3+/Ce4+ couples in Pd/CZO are reported to promote the catalytic SR by improving the redox efficiency during the regeneration, while no such promoting effect was observed for Pd/Al2O3. A suggestion is made for improving the catalyst performance.

  20. Molecular beam sampling from a rocket-motor combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseman, John; Young, W.S.

    1974-01-01

    A molecular-beam mass-spectrometer sampling apparatus has been developed to study the reactive species concentrations as a function of position in a rocket-motor combustion chamber. Unique design features of the sampling system include (a) the use of a multiple-nozzle end plate for preserving the nonuniform properties of the flow field inside the combustion chamber, (b) the use of a water-injection heat shield, and (c) the use of a 300 CFM mechanical pump for the first vacuum stage (eliminating the use of a huge conventional oil booster pump). Preliminary rocket-motor tests have been performed using the highly reactive propellants nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine (N 2 O 4 /N 2 H 4 ) at an oxidizer/fuel ratio of 1.2 by weight. The combustion-chamber pressure is approximately 60psig. Qualitative results on unreacted oxidizer/fuel ratio, relative abundance of oxidizer and fuel fragments, and HN 3 distribution across the chamber are presented

  1. Online dynamic flight optimisation applied to guidance of a variable-flow ducted rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halswijk, W.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Variable-Flow Ducted Rocket (VFDR) is a type of ramjet that can control the fuel mass flow to the combustion chamber. It combines the high efficiency at high-speed of ramjets with the throttlability of turbofans, and this makes VFDR propulsion an excellent choice for high speed, long range

  2. [Integral evaluation of immune homeostasis in rockets liquidators and role of this evaluation for prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Long-standing clinical and immunologic monitoring and integral evaluation of immune homeostasis (through generalized parameter) in personnel of Center for liquid-fuel rockets liquidation demonstrated diagnostically reliable immunity parameters that enable to forecast changes in the workers' health state. The authors defined boundary values of the generalized parameter to form risk groups for specific entities formation.

  3. Ramjet Application Possibilities for Increasing Fire Range of the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility to increase a flying range of the perspective rockets equipped with the control unit with aerodynamic controllers for the multiple launch rocket systems “Smerch”.To increase a flying range and reduce a starting mass of the rocket, the paper studies a possibility to replace the single-mode rocket engine used in the solid-fuel rocket motor for the direct-flow propulsion jet engine (DFPJE with not head sector air intakes. The DFPJE is implemented according to the classical scheme with a fuel charged in the combustion chamber. A separated solid propellant starting accelerator provides the rocket acceleration to reach a speed necessary for the DFPJE to run.When designing the DFPJE a proper choice of not head air intake parameters is one of the most difficult points. For this purpose a COSMOS Flow Simulation software package and analytical dependences were used to define the following: a boundary layer thickness where an air intake is set, maximum permissible and appropriate angles of attack and deviation angles of controllers at the section where the DFPJE works, and some other parameters as well.Calculation of DFPJE characteristics consisted in determining parameters of an air-gas path of the propulsion system, geometrical sizes of the pipeline flow area, sizes of a fuel charge, and dependence of the propulsion system impulse on the flight height and speed. Calculations were performed both in thermodynamic statement of problem and in using software package of COSMOS Flow Simulation.As a result of calculations and design engineering activities the air intake profile is created and mass-dimensional characteristics of DFPJE are defined. Besides, calculations of the starting solid fuel accelerator were carried out. Further design allowed us to create the rocket shape, estimate its mass-dimensional characteristics, and perform ballistic calculations, which proved that achieving a range of 120 km for the rocket is

  4. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs

  5. Nuclear-powered rocket of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunqiao, B

    1979-06-01

    A possible manned mission to Mars with a crew of 7 in an 80-meter-long nuclear-powered rocket will take 180 days to reach its destination, will spend 10 to 14 days on the surface, and will take 200 days to return. A nuclear-powered engine (using U-235 or U-239) is the most likely means of propulsion. Four designs are described. The superheated exhaust engine will use a reactor to heat liquid hydrogen to over 4000/sup 0/C, after which it will be ejected from the exhaust. A plasma compression engine will use electric current produced by a reactor to heat hydrogen to plasma temperature (70,000/sup 0/C), after which it will be ejected through the exhaust by a magnetic field. In a gaseous-core reactor engine, gaseous fuel will heat liquid hydrogen to over 9,000/sup 0/C and use it as the propellant. The boldest solution is a proposal to use small nuclear explosions as the propulsive force. The first alternative will probably not produce enough thrust, while there will be a difficulty producing sufficient electricity in the second alternative. The other two alternatives seem promising.

  6. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS

  7. Major accomplishments of America's nuclear rocket program (ROVER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finseth, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The United States embarked on a program to develop nuclear rocket engines in 1955. This program was known as project Rover. Initially nuclear rockets were considered as a potential backup for intercontinental ballistic missile propulsion but later proposed applications included both a lunar second stage as well as use in manned-Mars flights. Under the Rover program, 19 different reactors were built and tested during the period of 1959-1969. Additionally, several cold flow (non-fuelled) reactors were tested as well as a nuclear fuels test cell. The Rover program was terminated in 1973, due to budget constraints and an evolving political climate. The Rover program would have led to the development of a flight engine had the program continued through a logical continuation. The Rover program was responsible for a number of technological achievements. The successful operation of nuclear rocket engines on a system level represents the pinnacle of accomplishment. This paper will discuss the engine test program as well as several subsystems

  8. Nuclear rockets: High-performance propulsion for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.W.

    1994-05-01

    A new impetus to manned Mars exploration was introduced by President Bush in his Space Exploration Initiative. This has led, in turn, to a renewed interest in high-thrust nuclear thermal rocket propulsion (NTP). The purpose of this report is to give a brief tutorial introduction to NTP and provide a basic understanding of some of the technical issues in the realization of an operational NTP engine. Fundamental physical principles are outlined from which a variety of qualitative advantages of NTP over chemical propulsion systems derive, and quantitative performance comparisons are presented for illustrative Mars missions. Key technologies are described for a representative solid-core heat-exchanger class of engine, based on the extensive development work in the Rover and NERVA nuclear rocket programs (1955 to 1973). The most driving technology, fuel development, is discussed in some detail for these systems. Essential highlights are presented for the 19 full-scale reactor and engine tests performed in these programs. On the basis of these tests, the practicality of graphite-based nuclear rocket engines was established. Finally, several higher-performance advanced concepts are discussed. These have received considerable attention, but have not, as yet, developed enough credibility to receive large-scale development

  9. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  10. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  11. SSTO rockets. A practical possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1994-07-01

    Most experts agree that single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rockets would become feasible if more advanced technologies were available to reduce the vehicle dry weight, increase propulsion system performance, or both. However, these technologies are usually judged to be very ambitious and very far off. This notion persists despite major advances in technology and vehicle design in the past decade. There appears to be four major misperceptions about SSTOs, regarding their mass fraction, their presumed inadequate performance margin, their supposedly small payloads, and their extreme sensitivity to unanticipated vehicle weight growth. These misperceptions can be dispelled for SSTO rockets using advanced technologies that could be matured and demonstrated in the near term. These include a graphite-composite primary structure, graphite-composite and Al-Li propellant tanks with integral reusable thermal protection, long-life tripropellant or LOX-hydrogen engines, and several technologies related to operational effectiveness, including vehicle health monitoring, autonomous avionics/flight control, and operable launch and ground handling systems.

  12. Tools for advanced simulations to nuclear propulsion systems in rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Sepulveda, A.; Perez Vara, R.

    2004-01-01

    While chemical propulsion rockets have dominated space exploration, other forms of rocket propulsion based on nuclear power, electrostatic and magnetic drive, and other principles besides chemical reactions, have been considered from the earliest days of the field. The goal of most of these advanced rocket propulsion schemes is improved efficiency through higher exhaust velocities, in order to reduce the amount of fuel the rocket vehicle needs to carry, though generally at the expense of high thrust. Nuclear propulsion seems to be the most promising short term technology to plan realistic interplanetary missions. The development of a nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft shall require the development of models to analyse the mission and to understand the interaction between the related subsystems (nuclear reactor, electrical converter, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion) during the different phases of the mission. This paper explores the modelling of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) spacecraft type using EcosimPro simulation software. This software is a multi-disciplinary simulation tool with a powerful object-oriented simulation language and state-of-the-art solvers. EcosimPro is the recommended ESA simulation tool for environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and has been used successfully within the framework of the European activities of the International Space Station programme. Furthermore, propulsion libraries for chemical and electrical propulsion are currently being developed under ESA contracts to set this tool as standard usage in the propulsion community. At present, there is not any workable NEP spacecraft, but a standardized-modular, multi-purpose interplanetary spacecraft for post-2000 missions, called ISC-2000, has been proposed in reference. The simulation model presented on this paper is based on the preliminary designs for this spacecraft. (Author)

  13. Design and Fabrication of Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion Thrust Chamber Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. P.; Medina, C. R.; Protz, C. S.; Kenny, R. J.; Kelly, G. W.; Casiano, M. J.; Hulka, J. R.; Richardson, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. On the current project, several configurations of new main injectors were considered for the thrust chamber assembly of the integrated test article. All the injector elements were of the gas-centered swirl coaxial type, similar to those used on the Russian oxidizer-rich staged-combustion rocket engines. In such elements, oxidizer-rich combustion products from the preburner/turbine exhaust flow through a straight tube, and fuel exiting from the combustion chamber and nozzle regenerative cooling circuits is injected near the exit of the oxidizer tube through tangentially oriented orifices that impart a swirl motion such that the fuel flows along the wall of the oxidizer tube in a thin film. In some elements there is an orifice at the inlet to the oxidizer tube, and in some elements there is a sleeve or "shield" inside the oxidizer tube where the fuel enters. In the current project, several variations of element geometries were created, including element size (i.e., number of elements or pattern density), the distance from the exit of the sleeve to the injector face, the width of the gap between the oxidizer tube inner wall and the outer wall of the sleeve, and excluding the sleeve entirely. This paper discusses the design rationale for each of these element variations, including hydraulic, structural

  14. Maneuver of Spinning Rocket in Flight

    OpenAIRE

    HAYAKAWA, Satio; ITO, Koji; MATSUI, Yutaka; NOGUCHI, Kunio; UESUGI, Kuninori; YAMASHITA, Kojun

    1980-01-01

    A Yo-despin device successfully functioned to change in flight the precession axis of a sounding rocket for astronomical observation. The rocket attitudes before and after yodespin were measured with a UV star sensor, an infrared horizon sensor and an infrared telescope. Instrumentation and performance of these devices as well as the attitude data during flight are described.

  15. Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

  16. Aerodynamics and flow characterisation of multistage rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Prakash, M. V. S.

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to conduct a systematic flow analysis on single, double and multistage rockets using ANSYS software. Today non-air breathing propulsion is increasing dramatically for the enhancement of space exploration. The rocket propulsion is playing vital role in carrying the payload to the destination. Day to day rocket aerodynamic performance and flow characterization analysis has becoming challenging task to the researchers. Taking this task as motivation a systematic literature is conducted to achieve better aerodynamic and flow characterization on various rocket models. The analyses on rocket models are very little especially in numerical side and experimental area. Each rocket stage analysis conducted for different Mach numbers and having different flow varying angle of attacks for finding the critical efficiency performance parameters like pressure, density and velocity. After successful completion of the analysis the research reveals that flow around the rocket body for Mach number 4 and 5 best suitable for designed payload. Another major objective of this paper is to bring best aerodynamics flow characterizations in both aero and mechanical features. This paper also brings feature prospectus of rocket stage technology in the field of aerodynamic design.

  17. Design methods in solid rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    A compilation of lectures summarizing the current state-of-the-art in designing solid rocket motors and and their components is presented. The experience of several countries in the use of new technologies and methods is represented. Specific sessions address propellant grains, cases, nozzles, internal thermal insulation, and the general optimization of solid rocket motor designs.

  18. Rocket Solid Propellant Alternative Based on Ammonium Dinitramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous run for a green environment the current article proposes a new type of solid propellant based on the fairly new synthesized oxidizer, ammonium dinitramide (ADN. Apart of having a higher specific impulse than the worldwide renowned oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, ADN has the advantage, of leaving behind only nitrogen, oxygen and water after decomposing at high temperatures and therefore totally avoiding the formation of hydrogen chloride fumes. Based on the oxidizer to fuel ratios of the current formulations of the major rocket solid booster (e.g. Space Shuttle’s SRB, Ariane 5’s SRB which comprises mass variations of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (70-75%, atomized aluminum powder (10-18% and polybutadiene binder (12-20% a new solid propellant was formulated. As previously stated, the new propellant formula and its variations use ADN as oxidizer and erythritol tetranitrate as fuel, keeping the same polybutadiene as binder.

  19. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One advantageous feature of this rocket concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode which maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode which maximizes thrust. This presentation will describe a proposed flight experiment in which a simple version of the rocket will be tested in space. In addition to the plasma rocket, the flight experiment will also demonstrate the use of a superconducting electromagnet, extensive use of heat pipes, and possibly the transfer of cryogenic propellant in space.

  20. Subsonic Glideback Rocket Demonstrator Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTurris, Dianne J.; Foster, Trevor J.; Barthel, Paul E.; Macy, Daniel J.; Droney, Christopher K.; Talay, Theodore A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the past two years, Cal Poly's rocket program has been aggressively exploring the concept of remotely controlled, fixed wing, flyable rocket boosters. This program, embodied by a group of student engineers known as Cal Poly Space Systems, has successfully demonstrated the idea of a rocket design that incorporates a vertical launch pattern followed by a horizontal return flight and landing. Though the design is meant for supersonic flight, CPSS demonstrators are deployed at a subsonic speed. Many steps have been taken by the club that allowed the evolution of the StarBooster prototype to reach its current size: a ten-foot tall, one-foot diameter, composite material rocket. Progress is currently being made that involves multiple boosters along with a second stage, third rocket.

  1. Performances Study of a Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Nicolae BUTURACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study which analyses the functioning and performances optimization of a hybrid rocket engine based on gaseous oxygen and polybutadiene polymer (HTPB. Calculations were performed with NASA CEA software in order to obtain the parameters resulted following the combustion process. Using these parameters, the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine were optimized. Using the calculus previously stated, an experimental rocket engine producing 100 N of thrust was pre-dimensioned, followed by an optimization of the rocket engine as a function of several parameters. Having the geometry and the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine combustion process, numerical simulations were performed in the CFX – ANSYS commercial software, which allowed visualizing the flow field and the jet expansion. Finally, the analytical calculus was validated through numerical simulations.

  2. Optimal dual-fuel propulsion for minimum inert weight or minimum fuel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of single-stage vehicles with multiple propulsion phases has been conducted with the phasing optimized to minimize a general cost function. Some results are presented for linearized sizing relationships which indicate that single-stage-to-orbit, dual-fuel rocket vehicles can have lower inert weight than similar single-fuel rocket vehicles and that the advantage of dual-fuel vehicles can be increased if a dual-fuel engine is developed. The results also indicate that the optimum split can vary considerably with the choice of cost function to be minimized.

  3. Improving the performance of LOX/kerosene upper stage rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IgorN. Nikischenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved liquid rocket engine cycles were proposed and analyzed via comparison with existing staged combustion and gas-generator cycles. The key features of the proposed cycles are regenerative cooling of thrust chamber by oxygen and subsequent use of this oxygen for driving one or two oxygen pumps. The fuel pump(s are driven in a conventional manner, for example, using a fuel-rich gas-generator cycle. Comparison with staged combustion cycle based on oxygen-rich pre-burner showed that one of the proposed semi-expander cycles has a specific impulse only on 0.4% lower while providing much lower oxygen temperature, more efficient tank pressurizing system and built-in roll control. This semi-expander cycle can be considered as a more reliable and cost-effective alternative of staged combustion cycle. Another semi-expander cycle can be considered as an improvement of gas-generator cycle. All proposed semi-expander cycles were developed as a derivative of thrust chamber regenerative cooling performed by oxygen. Analysis of existing oxygen/kerosene engines showed that replacing of kerosene regenerative cooling with oxygen allows a significant increase of achievable specific impulse, via optimization of mixture ratio. It is especially the case for upper stage engines. The increasing of propellants average density can be considered as an additional benefit of mixture ratio optimization. It was demonstrated that oxygen regenerative cooling of thrust chamber is a feasible and the most promising option for oxygen/kerosene engines. Combination of oxygen regenerative cooling and semi-expander cycles potentially allows creating the oxygen/kerosene propulsion systems with minimum specific impulse losses. It is important that such propulsion systems can be fully based on inherited and well-proven technical solutions. A hypothetic upper stage engine with thrust 19.6 kN was chosen as a prospective candidate for theoretical analysis of the proposed semi

  4. Comparison of Engine Cycle Codes for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltrup, Paul J.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Bradford, John E.; Carreiro, Louis R.; Gettinger, Christopher; Komar, D. R.; McDonald, J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a one day workshop on Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine Cycle Codes held in Monterey CA in November of 2000 at the 2000 JANNAF JPM with the authors as primary participants. The objectives of the workshop were to discuss and compare the merits of existing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine cycle codes being used by government and industry to predict RBCC engine performance and interpret experimental results. These merits included physical and chemical modeling, accuracy and user friendliness. The ultimate purpose of the workshop was to identify the best codes for analyzing RBCC engines and to document any potential shortcomings, not to demonstrate the merits or deficiencies of any particular engine design. Five cases representative of the operating regimes of typical RBCC engines were used as the basis of these comparisons. These included Mach 0 sea level static and Mach 1.0 and Mach 2.5 Air-Augmented-Rocket (AAR), Mach 4 subsonic combustion ramjet or dual-mode scramjet, and Mach 8 scramjet operating modes. Specification of a generic RBCC engine geometry and concomitant component operating efficiencies, bypass ratios, fuel/oxidizer/air equivalence ratios and flight dynamic pressures were provided. The engine included an air inlet, isolator duct, axial rocket motor/injector, axial wall fuel injectors, diverging combustor, and exit nozzle. Gaseous hydrogen was used as the fuel with the rocket portion of the system using a gaseous H2/O2 propellant system to avoid cryogenic issues. The results of the workshop, even after post-workshop adjudication of differences, were surprising. They showed that the codes predicted essentially the same performance at the Mach 0 and I conditions, but progressively diverged from a common value (for example, for fuel specific impulse, Isp) as the flight Mach number increased, with the largest differences at Mach 8. The example cases and results are compared and discussed in this paper.

  5. Film Cooling in Fuel Rich Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    Heat Release Analysis . . . . . . . 89 4.26 Enhanced Blue Value Photographs for Flame Length Quantification, M=2.0, φ = 1.175, Single Row, Triple Row...Photographs for Flame Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 B.1 Charts Used to Calculate Trip Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 B...coolant and quantification of flame length . The side window is shown in Figure 3.20 with a ruler used to calibrate the images. 51 Figure 3.18: Spanwise

  6. Zulia rich coal seams to fuel Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-16

    In March, 1982, Carbozulia awarded a contract to Fluor Corp. to provide basic engineering services, including mine planning and geology, for the two-phase project. The open pit mine and ancillary facilities, valued at more than $200 million, will provide steam and metallurgical coal for domestic use. The site, Mina Paso Diablo, is located about 60 miles northwest of Maracaibo. Upon phase one completion sometime in 1987, the mill will start production, gradually increasing to 4 million metric-tons-per-year. This will increase to 6.4 million metric tons when phase two is completed. In addition to the mine, the Venezuelan government plans to build an industrial complex along Lake Maracaibo. Corpozulia will build a steel-rolling mill and add a 350,000 metric tons-per-year coking oven, which will consume about 7% of the mine's metallurgical-coal production. Another government-owned firm, Electric Energy of Venezuela, plans to build a thermo-electric plant nearby. Two 250-megawatt units are planned initially, with potential to add another six units. At full capacity, the plant will burn more than 90% of the coal produced from the mine. Mina Paso Diablo contains one of Latin America's largest proven coal reserves - about 350 million metric tons - with guesstimates running as high as 4 billion metric tons for the Zulia coal basin. The coal is of superior quality, running about 12,000 to 13,000 Btu's per lb. with a low ash and sulphur content.

  7. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  8. Initial Operation of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Pearson, J. Boise; Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The NTREES facility has recently been upgraded such that the power capabilities of the facility have been increased significantly. At its present 1.2 MW power level, more prototypical fuel element temperatures nay now be reached. The new 1.2 MW induction heater consists of three physical units consisting of a transformer, rectifier, and inverter. This multiunit arrangement facilitated increasing the flexibility of the induction heater by more easily allowing variable frequency operation. Frequency ranges between 20 and 60 kHz can accommodated in the new induction heater allowing more representative power distributions to be generated within the test elements. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during testing In this new higher power configuration, NTREES will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials at near-prototypic power densities. As checkout testing progressed and as higher power levels were achieved, several design deficiencies were discovered and fixed. Most of these design deficiencies were related to stray RF energy causing various components to encounter unexpected heating. Copper shielding around these components largely eliminated these problems. Other problems encountered involved unexpected movement in the coil due to electromagnetic forces and electrical arcing between the coil and a dummy test article. The coil movement and arcing which were encountered during the checkout testing effectively destroyed the induction coil in use at

  9. Rocket Ozone Data Recovery for Digital Archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. H.; Krueger, A. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone distributions in the photochemically-controlled upper stratosphere and mesosphere were first measured using spectrometers on V-2 rockets after WWII. The IGY(1957-1958) spurred development of new optical and chemical instruments for flight on meteorological and sounding rockets. In the early 1960's, the US Navy developed an Arcas rocket-borne optical ozonesonde and NASA GSFC developed chemiluminescent ozonesonde onboard Nike_Cajun and Arcas rocket. The Navy optical ozone program was moved in 1969 to GSFC where rocket ozone research was expanded and continued until 1994 using Super Loki-Dart rocket at 11 sites in the range of 0-65N and 35W-160W. Over 300 optical ozone soundings and 40 chemiluminescent soundings were made. The data have been used to produce the US Standard Ozone Atmosphere, determine seasonal and diurnal variations, and validate early photochemical models. The current effort includes soundings conducted by Australia, Japan, and Korea using optical techniques. New satellite ozone sounding techniques were initially calibrated and later validated using the rocket ozone data. As satellite techniques superseded the rocket methods, the sponsoring agencies lost interest in the data and many of those records have been discarded. The current task intends to recover as much of the data as possible from the private records of the experimenters and their publications, and to archive those records in the WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre). The original data records are handwritten tabulations, computer printouts that are scanned with OCR techniques, and plots digitized from publications. This newly recovered digital rocket ozone profile data from 1965 to 2002 could make significant contributions to the Earth science community in atmospheric research including long-term trend analysis.

  10. Theoretical Acoustic Absorber Design Approach for LOX/LCH4 Pintle Injector Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Jonathan

    Liquid rocket engines, or LREs, have served a key role in space exploration efforts. One current effort involves the utilization of liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) LREs to explore Mars with in-situ resource utilization for propellant production. This on-site production of propellant will allow for greater payload allocation instead of fuel to travel to the Mars surface, and refueling of propellants to travel back to Earth. More useable mass yields a greater benefit to cost ratio. The University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP) Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research Center (cSETR) aims to further advance these methane propulsion systems with the development of two liquid methane - liquid oxygen propellant combination rocket engines. The design of rocket engines, specifically liquid rocket engines, is complex in that many variables are present that must be taken into consideration in the design. A problem that occurs in almost every rocket engine development program is combustion instability, or oscillatory combustion. It can result in the destruction of the rocket, subsequent destruction of the vehicle and compromise the mission. These combustion oscillations can vary in frequency from 100 to 20,000 Hz or more, with varying effects, and occur from different coupling phenomena. It is important to understand the effects of combustion instability, its physical manifestations, how to identify the instabilities, and how to mitigate or dampen them. Linear theory methods have been developed to provide a mathematical understanding of the low- to mid-range instabilities. Nonlinear theory is more complex and difficult to analyze mathematically, therefore no general analytical method that yields a solution exists. With limited resources, time, and the advice of our NASA mentors, a data driven experimental approach utilizing quarter wave acoustic dampener cavities was designed. This thesis outlines the methodology behind the design of an acoustic

  11. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yousri M.A. Welaya; Mohamed M. El Gohary; Nader R. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas productio...

  12. Integrated fuel processor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed

  13. A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor for a labscale hybrid rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Ann M; Born, Traig; Strickland, Ryan; Wright, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor was designed, constructed, calibrated, and tested using the labscale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The system consisted of six independent legs: one parallel to the axis of symmetry of the rocket for main thrust measurement, two vertical legs near the nozzle end of the rocket, one vertical leg near the oxygen input end of the rocket, and two separated horizontal legs near the nozzle end. Each leg was composed of a rotational bearing, a load cell, and a universal joint above and below the load cell. The leg was designed to create point contact along only one direction and minimize the non-axial forces applied to the load cell. With this system, force in each direction and moments for roll, pitch, and yaw can be measured. The system was calibrated and tested using a labscale hybrid rocket using gaseous oxygen and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene solid fuel. The thrust stand proved to be stable during calibration tests. Thrust force vector components and roll, pitch, and yaw moments were calculated for test firings with an oxygen mass flow rate range of 0.0174–0.0348 kg s −1 . (paper)

  14. A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor for a labscale hybrid rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann M.; Wright, Andrew B.; Born, Traig; Strickland, Ryan

    2013-12-01

    A six degree-of-freedom thrust sensor was designed, constructed, calibrated, and tested using the labscale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The system consisted of six independent legs: one parallel to the axis of symmetry of the rocket for main thrust measurement, two vertical legs near the nozzle end of the rocket, one vertical leg near the oxygen input end of the rocket, and two separated horizontal legs near the nozzle end. Each leg was composed of a rotational bearing, a load cell, and a universal joint above and below the load cell. The leg was designed to create point contact along only one direction and minimize the non-axial forces applied to the load cell. With this system, force in each direction and moments for roll, pitch, and yaw can be measured. The system was calibrated and tested using a labscale hybrid rocket using gaseous oxygen and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene solid fuel. The thrust stand proved to be stable during calibration tests. Thrust force vector components and roll, pitch, and yaw moments were calculated for test firings with an oxygen mass flow rate range of 0.0174-0.0348 kg s-1.

  15. The Spanish national programme of balloons and sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.; Pueyo, L.

    1978-01-01

    The main points of the Spanish scientific programme are briefly described: CONIE/NASA cooperative project on meteorological sounding rocket launchings; ozonospheric programme; CONIE/NASA/CNES cooperative ionospheric sounding rocket project; D-layer research; rocket infrared dayglow measurements; ultraviolet astronomy research; cosmic ray research. The schedule of sounding rocket launchings at El Arenosillo station during 1977 is given

  16. RX LAPAN Rocket data Program With Dbase III Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauman

    2001-01-01

    The components data rocket RX LAPAN are taken from workshop product and assembling rocket RX. In this application software, the test data are organized into two data files, i.e. test file and rocket file. Besides [providing facilities to add, edit and delete data, this software provides also data manipulation facility to support analysis and identification of rocket RX failures and success

  17. 16 CFR 1507.10 - Rockets with sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rockets with sticks. 1507.10 Section 1507.10... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.10 Rockets with sticks. Rockets with sticks (including skyrockets and bottle rockets) shall utilize a straight and rigid stick to provide a direct and stable flight. Such sticks shall...

  18. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  19. The electromagnetic rocket gun impact fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    A macroparticle accelerator to be used as an impact fusion driver is discussed and which can accelerate a small projectile to --200 km/sec over a distance of a few 100 meters. The driver which we have named electromagnetic rocket gun, accelerates a small rocket-like projectile by a travelling magnetic wave. The rocket propellant not only serves as a sink to absorb the heat produced in the projectile by resistive energy losses, but at the same time is also the source of additional thrust through the heating of the propellant to high temperatures by the travelling magnetic wave. The total thrust on the projectile is the sum of the magnetic and recoil forces. In comparison to a rocket, the efficiency is here much larger, with the momentum transferred to the gun barrel of the gun rather than to a tenuous jet. (author)

  20. Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  1. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  2. Space Power Experiments Aboard Rockets SPEAR-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raitt, W. J

    1997-01-01

    The SPEAR-3 program was a sounding rocket payload designed to study the interaction of a charged body with the Earth's upper atmosphere with particular reference to the discharging ability of selected...

  3. Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

  4. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  5. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  6. Solid rocket motor cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  7. Focused RBCC Experiments: Two-Rocket Configuration Experiments and Hydrocarbon/Oxygen Rocket Ejector Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    This addendum report documents the results of two additional efforts for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector mode research work carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA s technology development efforts for enabling 3 d generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The tasks reported here build on an earlier NASA MSFC funded research program on rocket ejector investigations. The first task investigated the improvements of a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen twin thruster RBCC rocket ejector system over a single rocket system. The second task investigated the performance of a hydrocarbon (liquid JP-7)/gaseous oxygen single thruster rocket-ejector system. To gain a systematic understanding of the rocket-ejector s internal fluid mechanic/combustion phenomena, experiments were conducted with both direct-connect and sea-level static diffusion and afterburning (DAB) configurations for a range of rocket operating conditions. For all experimental conditions, overall system performance was obtained through global measurements of wall static pressure profiles, heat flux profiles and engine thrust. Detailed mixing and combustion information was obtained through Raman spectroscopy measurements of major species (gaseous oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapor) for the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen rocket ejector experiments.

  8. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  9. The UK sounding rocket and balloon programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The UK civil science balloon and rocket programmes for 1979/80/81 are summarised and the areas of scientific interest for the period 1981/85 mentioned. In the main the facilities available are 10 in number balloons up to 40 m cu ft launched from USA or Australia and up to 10 in number 7 1/2'' diameter Petrel rockets. This paper outlines the 1979 and 1980 programmes and explains the longer term plans covering the next 5 years. (Auth.)

  10. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, Satira; King, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort

  11. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  12. Current and Future Critical Issues in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaz, Homayun K.; Dix, Jeff C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to tackle several problems that are currently of great importance to NASA. In a liquid rocket engine several complex processes take place that are not thoroughly understood. Droplet evaporation, turbulence, finite rate chemistry, instability, and injection/atomization phenomena are some of the critical issues being encountered in a liquid rocket engine environment. Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) performance, combustion chamber instability analysis, 60K motor flowfield pattern from hydrocarbon fuel combustion, and 3D flowfield analysis for the Combined Cycle engine were of special interest to NASA. During the summer of 1997, we made an attempt to generate computational results for all of the above problems and shed some light on understanding some of the complex physical phenomena. For this purpose, the Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code, mainly designed for liquid rocket engine applications, was utilized. The following test cases were considered: (1) Characterization of a detonation wave in a Pulse Detonation Tube; (2) 60K Motor wall temperature studies; (3) Propagation of a pressure pulse in a combustion chamber (under single and two-phase flow conditions); (4) Transonic region flowfield analysis affected by viscous effects; (5) Exploring the viscous differences between a smooth and a corrugated wall; and (6) 3D thrust chamber flowfield analysis of the Combined Cycle engine. It was shown that the LTCP-2D and LTCP-3D codes are capable of solving complex and stiff conservation equations for gaseous and droplet phases in a very robust and efficient manner. These codes can be run on a workstation and personal computers (PC's).

  13. RTDs in Australia: expensive designer drinks or cheap rocket fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Barrie, Lance

    2011-01-01

    The ready-to-drink (RTD) market is growing rapidly, and this product category has been shown to be particularly appealing to young drinkers. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the range and availability of RTDs available in New South Wales (NSW) (including metropolitan, regional and rural areas), with a particular focus on the variations in alcohol content and pricing. A total of 52 alcohol outlet audits were conducted across nine locations, including metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales. Trained auditors recorded the RTDs for sale in each outlet, including product characteristics and prices for each product, and overall fridge/store space allocated to RTDs. Across the 52 bottle shops audited, 150 individual RTD alcohol products were identified, ranging from 4.8% to 7.5% alcohol by volume and from 1.0 to 2.7 standard drinks (SD) per unit. When purchased in multipacks (typically four or six units), the cost per SD ranged from $1.95 to $3.70, decreasing to as low as $1.22 per SD when on special. The proliferation of high-strength RTDs and the substantial discounting of multipack purchases means that RTDs can no longer be seen as expensive low-strength sweet-flavoured drinks targeted at female drinkers, but as a broader product category that includes high-strength male-targeted brands. There is a need for further research to examine young people's preferences for these different product types; and consideration of policies, alongside price-based interventions, that address broader marketing strategies. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Polymer degradation rate control of hybrid rocket combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, D. B.; Ramohalli, K. N. R.

    1970-01-01

    Polymer degradation to small fragments is treated as a rate controlling step in hybrid rocket combustion. Both numerical and approximate analytical solutions of the complete energy and polymer chain bond conservation equations for the condensed phase are obtained. Comparison with inert atmosphere data is very good. It is found that the intersect of curves of pyrolysis rate versus interface temperature for hybrid combustors, with the thermal degradation theory, falls at a pyrolysis rate very close to that for which a pressure dependence begins to be observable. Since simple thermal degradation cannot give sufficient depolymerization at higher pyrolysis rates, it is suggested that oxidative catalysis of the process occurs at the surface, giving a first order dependence on reactive species concentration at the wall. Estimates of the ratio of this activation energy and interface temperature are in agreement with best fit procedures for hybrid combustion data. Requisite active species concentrations and flux are shown to be compatible with turbulent transport. Pressure dependence of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate is thus shown to be describable in a consistent manner in terms of reactive species catalysis of polymer degradation.

  15. Research on shock wave characteristics in the isolator of central strut rocket-based combined cycle engine under Ma5.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianggeng; Xue, Rui; Qin, Fei; Hu, Chunbo; He, Guoqiang

    2017-11-01

    A numerical calculation of shock wave characteristics in the isolator of central strut rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine fueled by kerosene was carried out in this paper. A 3D numerical model was established by the DES method. The kerosene chemical kinetic model used the 9-component and 12-step simplified mechanism model. Effects of fuel equivalence ratio, inflow total temperature and central strut rocket on-off on shock wave characteristics were studied under Ma5.5. Results demonstrated that with the increase of equivalence ratio, the leading shock wave moves toward upstream, accompanied with higher possibility of the inlet unstart. However, the leading shock wave moves toward downstream as the inflow total temperature rises. After the central strut rocket is closed, the leading shock wave moves toward downstream, which can reduce risks of the inlet unstart. State of the shear layer formed by the strut rocket jet flow and inflow can influence the shock train structure significantly.

  16. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  17. Infrasound and Seismic Recordings of Rocket Launches from Kennedy Space Center, 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, S. R.; Thompson, G.; Brown, R. G.; Braunmiller, J.; Farrell, A. K.; Mehta, C.

    2017-12-01

    We installed a temporary 3-station seismic-infrasound network at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in February 2016 to test sensor calibrations and train students in field deployment and data acquisitions techniques. Each station featured a single broadband 3-component seismometer and a 3-element infrasound array. In May 2016 the network was scaled back to a single station due to other projects competing for equipment. To date 8 rocket launches have been recorded by the infrasound array, as well as 2 static tests, 1 aborted launch and 1 rocket explosion (see next abstract). Of the rocket launches recorded 4 were SpaceX Falcon-9, 2 were ULA Atlas-5 and 2 were ULA Delta-IV. A question we attempt to answer is whether the rocket engine type and launch trajectory can be estimated with appropriate travel-time, amplitude-ratio and spectral techniques. For example, there is a clear Doppler shift in seismic and infrasound spectrograms from all launches, with lower frequencies occurring later in the recorded signal as the rocket accelerates away from the array. Another question of interest is whether there are relationships between jet noise frequency, thrust and/or nozzle velocity. Infrasound data may help answer these questions. We are now in the process of deploying a permanent seismic and infrasound array at the Astronaut Beach House. 10 more rocket launches are schedule before AGU. NASA is also conducting a series of 33 sonic booms over KSC beginning on Aug 21st. Launches and other events at KSC have provided rich sources of signals that are useful to characterize and gain insight into physical processes and wave generation from man-made sources.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past year the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) has been undergoing a significant upgrade beyond its initial configuration. The NTREES facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The first phase of the upgrade activities which was completed in 2012 in part consisted of an extensive modification to the hydrogen system to permit computer controlled operations outside the building through the use of pneumatically operated variable position valves. This setup also allows the hydrogen flow rate to be increased to over 200 g/sec and reduced the operation complexity of the system. The second stage of modifications to NTREES which has just been completed expands the capabilities of the facility significantly. In particular, the previous 50 kW induction power supply has been replaced with a 1.2 MW unit which should allow more prototypical fuel element temperatures to be reached. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during. This new setup required that the NTREES vessel be raised onto a platform along with most of its associated gas and vent lines. In this arrangement, the induction heater and water systems are now located underneath the platform. In this new configuration, the 1.2 MW NTREES induction heater will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials in flowing hydrogen at pressures up to 1000 psi at temperatures up to and beyond 3000 K and at near-prototypic reactor channel power densities. NTREES is also capable of testing potential fuel elements with a variety of propellants, including hydrogen with additives to inhibit

  19. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  20. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews.

  1. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  2. Design of a 500 lbf liquid oxygen and liquid methane rocket engine for suborbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Jesus Eduardo

    Liquid methane (LCH4)is the most promising rocket fuel for our journey to Mars and other space entities. Compared to liquid hydrogen, the most common cryogenic fuel used today, methane is denser and can be stored at a more manageable temperature; leading to more affordable tanks and a lighter system. The most important advantage is it can be produced from local sources using in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. This will allow the production of the fuel needed to come back to earth on the surface of Mars, or the space entity being explored, making the overall mission more cost effective by enabling larger usable mass. The major disadvantage methane has over hydrogen is it provides a lower specific impulse, or lower rocket performance. The UTEP Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSETR) in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been the leading research center for the advancement of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4) propulsion technologies. Through this partnership, the CROME engine, a throattable 500 lbf LOX/LCH4 rocket engine, was designed and developed. The engine will serve as the main propulsion system for Daedalus, a suborbital demonstration vehicle being developed by the cSETR. The purpose of Daedalus mission and the engine is to fire in space under microgravity conditions to demonstrate its restartability. This thesis details the design process, decisions, and characteristics of the engine to serve as a complete design guide.

  3. Safety analysis of MOX fuels by fuel performance code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    Performance of plutonium rick mixed oxide fuels specified for the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been analysed by modified fuel performance code. Thermodynamic properties of these fuels up to 120 GWd/t burnup have not been measured and estimated using existing uranium fuel models. Fission product release, pressure rise inside fuel rods and mechanical loads of fuel cans due to internal pressure have been preliminarily assessed based on assumed axial power distribution history, which show the integrity of fuel performance. Detailed evaluation of fuel-cladding interactions due to thermal expansion or swelling of fuel pellets due to high burnup will be required for safety analysis of mixed oxide fuels. Thermal conductivity and swelling of plutonium rich mixed oxide fuels shall be taken into consideration. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Plasma waves observed by sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of plasma wave phenomena have been conducted with several rockets launched at Kagoshima Space Center, Kyushu, Japan, and at Showa Base, Antarctica. This report presents some results of the observations in anticipation of having valuable comments from other plasma physicists, especially from those who are concerned with laboratory plasma. In the K-9M-41 rocket experiment, VLF plasma waves were observed. In this experiment, the electron beam of several tens of uA was emitted from a hot cathode when a positive dc bias changing from 0 to 10V at 1V interval each second was applied to a receiving dipole antenna. The discrete emissions with 'U' shaped frequency spectrum were observed for the dc bias over 3 volts. The U emissions appeared twice per spin period of the rocket. Similar rocket experiment was performed at Showa Base using a loop and dipole antenna and without hot cathode. Emissions were observed with varying conditions. At present, the authors postulate that such emissions may be produced just in the vicinity of a rocket due to a kind of wake effect. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Origin of how steam rockets can reduce space transport cost by orders of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Larson, T.K.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Rice, J.W.; Hill, T.J.; Richins, W.D.; Parlier, L.; Werner, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A brief sketch shows the origin of why and how thermal rocket propulsion has the unique potential to dramatically reduce the cost of space transportation for most inner solar system missions of interest. Orders of magnitude reduction in cost are apparently possible when compared to all processes requiring electrolysis for the production of rocket fuels or propellants and to all electric propulsion systems. An order of magnitude advantage can be attributed to rocket propellant tank factors associated with storing water propellant, compared to cryogenic liquids. An order of magnitude can also be attributed to the simplicity of the extraction and processing of ice on the lunar surface, into an easily stored, non-cryogenic rocket propellant (water). A nuclear heated thermal rocket can deliver thousands of times its mass to Low Earth Orbit from the Lunar surface, providing the equivalent to orders of magnitude drop in launch cost for mass in Earth orbit. Mass includes water ice. These cost reductions depend (exponentially) on the mission delta-v requirements being less than about 6 km/s, or about 3 times the specific velocity of steam rockets (2 km/s, from Isp 200 sec). Such missions include: from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit, (LLO), from LLO to lunar escape, from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), from LEO to Earth Escape, from LEO to Mars Transfer Orbit, from LLO to GEO, missions returning payloads from about 10% of the periodic comets using propulsive capture to orbits around Earth itself, and fast, 100 day missions from Lunar Escape to Mars. All the assertions depend entirely and completely on the existence of abundant, nearly pure ice at the permanently dark North and South Poles of the Moon. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Development of nuclear rocket engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission, the USAF, and NASA (later on) in the area of nuclear rocket propulsion is discussed. It was found that a graphite reactor, loaded with highly concentrated Uranium 235, can be used to heat high pressure liquid hydrogen to temperatures of about 4500 R, and to expand the hydrogen through a high expansion ratio rocket nozzle assembly. The results of 20 reactor tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site between July 1959 and June 1969 are analyzed. On the basis of these results, the feasibility of solid graphite reactor/nuclear rocket engines is revealed. It is maintained that this technology will support future space propulsion requirements, using liquid hydrogen as the propellant, for thrust requirements ranging from 25,000 lbs to 250,000 lbs, with vacuum specific impulses of at least 850 sec and with full engine throttle capability. 12 refs

  7. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  8. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  9. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

    2005-01-01

    Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or

  11. The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket: a stable LTD platform 30 seconds after rocket motor burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.S.; Almy, R.; Apodaca, E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Sanders, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket experiment is designed to provide a stable thermal environment for an LTD detector system within 30 s of the burnout of its second stage rocket motor. The detector system used for this instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array operated at 60 mK with a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is mounted on a space-pumped liquid helium tank with vapor cooled shields which is vibration isolated from the rocket structure. We present here some of the design and performance details of this mature LTD instrument, which has just completed its third suborbital flight

  12. The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket: a stable LTD platform 30 seconds after rocket motor burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, F.S. E-mail: frederick.s.porter@gsfc.nasa.gov; Almy, R.; Apodaca, E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Sanders, W.T

    2000-04-07

    The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket experiment is designed to provide a stable thermal environment for an LTD detector system within 30 s of the burnout of its second stage rocket motor. The detector system used for this instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array operated at 60 mK with a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is mounted on a space-pumped liquid helium tank with vapor cooled shields which is vibration isolated from the rocket structure. We present here some of the design and performance details of this mature LTD instrument, which has just completed its third suborbital flight.

  13. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  14. A simplified computational fluid-dynamic approach to the oxidizer injector design in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Giuseppe D.; Malgieri, Paolo; Carmicino, Carmine; Savino, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Fuel regression rate in hybrid rockets is non-negligibly affected by the oxidizer injection pattern. In this paper a simplified computational approach developed in an attempt to optimize the oxidizer injector design is discussed. Numerical simulations of the thermo-fluid-dynamic field in a hybrid rocket are carried out, with a commercial solver, to investigate into several injection configurations with the aim of increasing the fuel regression rate and minimizing the consumption unevenness, but still favoring the establishment of flow recirculation at the motor head end, which is generated with an axial nozzle injector and has been demonstrated to promote combustion stability, and both larger efficiency and regression rate. All the computations have been performed on the configuration of a lab-scale hybrid rocket motor available at the propulsion laboratory of the University of Naples with typical operating conditions. After a preliminary comparison between the two baseline limiting cases of an axial subsonic nozzle injector and a uniform injection through the prechamber, a parametric analysis has been carried out by varying the oxidizer jet flow divergence angle, as well as the grain port diameter and the oxidizer mass flux to study the effect of the flow divergence on heat transfer distribution over the fuel surface. Some experimental firing test data are presented, and, under the hypothesis that fuel regression rate and surface heat flux are proportional, the measured fuel consumption axial profiles are compared with the predicted surface heat flux showing fairly good agreement, which allowed validating the employed design approach. Finally an optimized injector design is proposed.

  15. Flow-Structural Interaction in Solid Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdock, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The static test failure of the Titan solid rocket motor upgrade (SRMU) that occurred on 1 April, 1991, demonstrated the importance of flow-structural modeling in the design of large, solid rocket motors...

  16. Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

    The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

  17. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  18. NASA rocket launches student project into space

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    A project that began in 2002 will culminate at sunrise on Tuesday, March 15, when a team of Virginia Tech engineering students watch a payload section they designed lift off aboard a sounding rocket from a launch pad at NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility and travel 59 miles into space.

  19. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  20. Government Relations: It's Not Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radway, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Many people in the early childhood education field are afraid of government relations work, intimidated by politicians, and believe the whole process is unseemly. The author asserts that they should not be afraid nor be intimidated because government relations is not rocket science and fundamentally officeholders are no different from the rest of…

  1. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  2. Microcomputers, Model Rockets, and Race Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Edward A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial education orientation program at Wisconsin School for the Deaf (WSD) presents problem-solving situations to all seventh- and eighth-grade hearing-impaired students. WSD developed user-friendly microcomputer software to guide students individually through complex computations involving model race cars and rockets while freeing…

  3. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  4. Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

  5. Rocketing into the future the history and technology of rocket planes

    CERN Document Server

    van Pelt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Rocketing into the Future journeys into the exciting world of rocket planes, examining the exotic concepts and actual flying vehicles that have been devised over the last one hundred years. Lavishly illustrated with over 150 photographs, it recounts the history of rocket planes from the early pioneers who attached simple rockets on to their wooden glider airplanes to the modern world of high-tech research vehicles. The book then looks at the possibilities for the future. The technological and economic challenges of the Space Shuttle proved insurmountable, and thus the program was unable to fulfill its promise of low-cost access to space. However, the burgeoning market of suborbital space tourism may yet give the necessary boost to the development of a truly reusable spaceplane.

  6. NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NSRP engages in a variety of educator training workshops and student flight projects that provide unique and exciting hands-on rocketry and space flight experiences. Specifically, the Wallops Rocket Academy for Teachers and Students (WRATS) is a one-week tutorial laboratory experience for high school teachers to learn the basics of rocketry, as well as build an instrumented model rocket for launch and data processing. The teachers are thus armed with the knowledge and experience to subsequently inspire the students at their home institution. Additionally, the NSRP has partnered with the Colorado Space Grant Consortium (COSGC) to provide a "pipeline" of space flight opportunities to university students and professors. Participants begin by enrolling in the RockOn! Workshop, which guides fledgling rocketeers through the construction and functional testing of an instrumentation kit. This is then integrated into a sealed canister and flown on a sounding rocket payload, which is recovered for the students to retrieve and process their data post flight. The next step in the "pipeline" involves unique, user-defined RockSat-C experiments in a sealed canister that allow participants more independence in developing, constructing, and testing spaceflight hardware. These experiments are flown and recovered on the same payload as the RockOn! Workshop kits. Ultimately, the "pipeline" culminates in the development of an advanced, user-defined RockSat-X experiment that is flown on a payload which provides full exposure to the space environment (not in a sealed canister), and includes telemetry and attitude control capability. The RockOn! and Rock

  7. US Rocket Propulsion Industrial Base Health Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    The number of active liquid rocket engine and solid rocket motor development programs has severely declined since the "space race" of the 1950s and 1960s center dot This downward trend has been exacerbated by the retirement of the Space Shuttle, transition from the Constellation Program to the Space launch System (SLS) and similar activity in DoD programs center dot In addition with consolidation in the industry, the rocket propulsion industrial base is under stress. To Improve the "health" of the RPIB, we need to understand - The current condition of the RPIB - How this compares to past history - The trend of RPIB health center dot This drives the need for a concise set of "metrics" - Analogous to the basic data a physician uses to determine the state of health of his patients - Easy to measure and collect - The trend is often more useful than the actual data point - Can be used to focus on problem areas and develop preventative measures The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs. center dot The RPIB encompasses US government, academic, and commercial (including industry primes and their supplier base) research, development, test, evaluation, and manufacturing capabilities and facilities. center dot The RPIB includes the skilled workforce, related intellectual property, engineering and support services, and supply chain operations and management. This definition touches the five main segments of the U.S. RPIB as categorized by the USG: defense, intelligence community, civil government, academia, and commercial sector. The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs

  8. The Alabama Space and Rocket Center: The Second Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckbee, Edward O.

    1983-01-01

    The Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, the world's largest rocket and space museum, includes displays illustrating American rocket history, exhibits and demonstrations on rocketry principles and experiences, and simulations of space travel. A new project includes an integrated recreational-educational complex, described in the three…

  9. 14 CFR 437.67 - Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket. 437... a reusable suborbital rocket. A permittee must— (a) During permitted flight, measure in real time the position and velocity of its reusable suborbital rocket; and (b) Provide position and velocity...

  10. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  11. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  12. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  13. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi I. Doulgeraki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria–Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  14. Development and Performance of the 10 kN Hybrid Rocket Motor for the Stratos II Sounding Rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, R.M.; Knop, T.R.; Wink, J; Ehlen, J; Huijsman, R; Powell, S; Florea, R.; Wieling, W; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development work of the 10 kN hybrid rocket motor DHX-200 Aurora. The DHX-200 Aurora was developed by Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE) to power the Stratos II and Stratos II+ sounding rocket, with the later one being launched in October 2015. Stratos II and Stratos

  15. Probable Rotation States of Rocket Bodies in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakangas, Gregory W.; Anz-Meador, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-01-01

    In order for Active Debris Removal to be accomplished, it is critically important to understand the probable rotation states of orbiting, spent rocket bodies. As compared to the question of characterizing small unresolved debris, in this problem there are several advantages: (1) objects are of known size, mass, shape and color, (2) they have typically been in orbit for a known period of time, (3) they are large enough that resolved images may be obtainable for verification of predicted orientation, and (4) the dynamical problem is simplified to first order by largely cylindrical symmetry. It is also nearly certain for realistic rocket bodies that internal friction is appreciable in the case where residual liquid or, to a lesser degree, unconsolidated solid fuels exist. Equations of motion have been developed for this problem in which internal friction as well as torques due to solar radiation, magnetic induction, and gravitational gradient are included. In the case of pure cylindrical symmetry, the results are compared to analytical predictions patterned after the standard approach for analysis of symmetrical tops. This is possible because solar radiation and gravitational torques may be treated as conservative. Agreement between results of both methods ensures their mutual validity. For monotone symmetric cylinders, solar radiation torque vanishes if the center of mass resides at the geometric center of the object. Results indicate that in the absence of solar radiation effects, rotation states tend toward an equilibrium configuration in which rotation is about the axis of maximum inertia, with the axis of minimum inertia directed toward the center of the earth. Solar radiation torque introduces a modification to this orientation. The equilibrium state is asymptotically approached within a characteristic timescale given by a simple ratio of relevant characterizing parameters for the body in question. Light curves are simulated for the expected asymptotic final

  16. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  17. Particle bed reactor propulsion vehicle performance and characteristics as an orbital transfer rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Lazareth, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    The particle bed reactor designed for 100 to 300 MW power output using hydrogen as a coolant is capable of specific impulses up to 1000 seconds as a nuclear rocket. A single space shuttle compatible vehicle can perform extensive missions from LEO to 3 times GEO and return with multi-ton payloads. The use of hydrogen to directly cool particulate reactor fuel results in a compact, lightweight rocket vehicle, whose duration of usefulness is dependent only upon hydrogen resupply availability. The LEO to GEO mission had a payload capability of 15.4 metric tons with 3.4 meters of shuttle bay. To increase the volume limitation of the shuttle bay, the use of ammonia in the initial boost phase from LEO is used to give greater payload volume with a small decrease in payload mass, 8.7 meters and 12.7 m-tons. 5 refs., 15 figs

  18. Modification of Bonding Strength Test of WC HVOF Thermal Spray Coating on Rocket Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondan Sofyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to reduce structural weight of RX-100 rocket is by modifying the nozzle material and processing. Nozzle is the main target in weight reduction due to the fact that it contributes 30 % to the total weight of the structur. An alternative for this is by substitution of massive graphite, which is currently used as thermal protector in the nozzle, with thin layer of HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel thermal spray layer. This paper presents the characterization of nozzle base material as well as the modification of bonding strength test, by designing additional jig to facilitate testing processes while maintaining level of test accuracy. The results showed that the material used for  RX-100 rocket nozzle is confirmed to be S45C steel. Modification of the bonding strength test was conducted by utilizing chains, which improve test flexibility and maintains level of accuracy of the test.

  19. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine Flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daines, Russell L.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques are used to study the flowfield of a fixed geometry Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine operating in rocket ejector mode. Heat addition resulting from the combustion of injected fuel causes the subsonic engine flow to choke and go supersonic in the slightly divergent combustor-mixer section. Reacting flow computations are undertaken to predict the characteristics of solutions where the heat addition is determined by the flowfield. Here, adaptive gridding is used to improve resolution in the shear layers. Results show that the sonic speed is reached in the unheated portions of the flow first, while the heated portions become supersonic later. Comparison with results from another code show reasonable agreement. The coupled solutions show that the character of the combustion-based thermal choking phenomenon can be controlled reasonably well such that there is opportunity to optimize the length and expansion ratio of the combustor-mixer.

  1. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  2. Analysis of rocket flight stability based on optical image measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuhua; Liu, Junhu; Shen, Si; Wang, Min; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Based on the abundant optical image measurement data from the optical measurement information, this paper puts forward the method of evaluating the rocket flight stability performance by using the measurement data of the characteristics of the carrier rocket in imaging. On the basis of the method of measuring the characteristics of the carrier rocket, the attitude parameters of the rocket body in the coordinate system are calculated by using the measurements data of multiple high-speed television sets, and then the parameters are transferred to the rocket body attack angle and it is assessed whether the rocket has a good flight stability flying with a small attack angle. The measurement method and the mathematical algorithm steps through the data processing test, where you can intuitively observe the rocket flight stability state, and also can visually identify the guidance system or failure analysis.

  3. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  4. Development of small solid rocket boosters for the ILR-33 sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Pawel; Okninski, Adam; Pakosz, Michal; Cieslinski, Dawid; Bartkowiak, Bartosz; Wolanski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development of a 6000 Newton-class solid rocket motor for suborbital applications. The design configuration and results of interior ballistics calculations are given. The initial use of the motor as the main propulsion system of the H1 experimental in-flight test platform, within the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program, is presented. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental performance are shown. Both on-ground and in-flight tests are discussed. A novel composite-case manufacturing technology, which enabled to reach high propellant mass fractions, was validated and significant cost-reductions were achieved. This paper focuses on the process of adapting the design for use as the booster stage of the ILR-33 sounding rocket, under development at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, Poland. Parallel use of two of the flight-proven rocket motors along with the main stage is planned. The process of adapting the rocket motor for booster application consists of stage integration, aerothermodynamics and reliability analyses. The separation mechanism and environmental impact are also discussed within this paper. Detailed performance analysis with focus on propellant grain geometry is provided. The evolution of the design since the first flights of the H1 rocket is covered and modifications of the manufacturing process are described. Issues of simultaneous ignition of two motors and their non-identical performance are discussed. Further applications and potential for future development are outlined. The presented results are based on the initial work done by the Rocketry Group of the Warsaw University of Technology Students' Space Association. The continuation of the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program on a larger scale at the Institute of Aviation proves the value of the outcomes of the initial educational project.

  5. Current status of rocket developments in universities -development of a small hybrid rocket with a swirling oxidizer flow type engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yuasa, Saburo; Kitagawa, Koki

    2005-01-01

    To develop an experimental small hybrid rocket with a swirling gaseous oxygen flow type engine, we made a flight model engine. Burning tests of the engine showed that a maximum thrust of 692 N and a specific impulse of 263 s (at sea level) were achieved. We designed a small hybrid rocket with this engine. The rocket measured 1.8 m in length and 15.4 kg in mass. To confirm the flight stability of the rocket, wind tunnel tests using a 112-scale model of the rocket and simulations of the flight ...

  6. Rocket center Peenemünde — Personal memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Konrad; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    Von Braun built his first rockets as a young teenager. At 14, he started making plans for rockets for human travel to the Moon and Mars. The German Army began a rocket program in 1929. Two years later, Colonel (later General) Becker contacted von Braun who experimented with rockets in Berlin, gave him a contract in 1932, and, jointly with the Air Force, in 1936 built the rocket center Peenemünde where von Braun and his team developed the A-4 (V-2) rocket under Army auspices, while the Air Force developed the V-1 (buzz bomb), wire-guided bombs, and rocket planes. Albert Speer, impressed by the work of the rocketeers, allowed a modest growth of the Peenemünde project; this brought Dannenberg to the von Braun team in 1940. Hitler did not believe in rockets; he ignored the A-4 project until 1942 when he began to support it, expecting that it could turn the fortunes of war for him. He drastically increased the Peenemünde work force and allowed the transfer of soldiers from the front to Peenemünde; that was when Stuhlinger, in 1943, came to Peenemünde as a Pfc.-Ph.D. Later that year, Himmler wrenched the authority over A-4 production out of the Army's hands, put it under his command, and forced production of the immature rocket at Mittelwerk, and its military deployment against targets in France, Belgium, and England. Throughout the development of the A-4 rocket, von Braun was the undisputed leader of the project. Although still immature by the end of the war, the A-4 had proceeded to a status which made it the first successful long-range precision rocket, the prototype for a large number of military rockets built by numerous nations after the war, and for space rockets that launched satellites and traveled to the Moon and the planets.

  7. Nerva fuel nondestructive evaluation and characterization equipment and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is one of the technologies that the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has identified as essential for a manned mission to Mars. A base or prior work is available upon which to build in the development of nuclear rockets. From 1955 to 1973, the U.S Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsored development and testing of a nuclear rocket engine under Project Rover. The rocket engine, called the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA), used a graphite fuel element incorporating coated particle fuel. Much of the NERVA development and manufacturing work was performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This paper gives a general review of that work in the area of nondestructive evaluation and characterization. Emphasis is placed on two key characteristics: uranium content and distribution and thickness profile of metal carbide coatings deposited in the gas passage holes

  8. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands in front of a 'pathfinder' rocket engine with Orbital Sciences Corp. President and Chief Operating Officer J.R. Thompson (left) and Aerojet President Scott Seymour during a Feb. 24 news briefing at the south Mississippi facility. The leaders appeared together to announce a partnership for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines at Stennis. The engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. During the event, the Stennis partnership with Orbital was cited as an example of the new direction of NASA to work with commercial interests for space travel and transport.

  9. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  10. Sounding rocket study of auroral electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of energetic electrons in the auroral zone have proved to be one of the most useful tools in investigating the phenomena of auroral arc formation. This dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the electron data from two sounding rocket campaigns and interprets the measurements in terms of existing auroral models. The Polar Cusp campaign consisted of a single rocket launched from Cape Parry, Canada into the afternoon auroral zone at 1:31:13 UT on January 21, 1982. The results include the measurement of a narrow, magnetic field aligned electron flux at the edge of an arc. This electron precipitation was found to have a remarkably constant 1.2 eV temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field over a 200 to 900 eV energy range. The payload also made simultaneous measurements of both energetic electrons and 3-MHz plasma waves in an auroral arc. Analysis has shown that the waves are propagating in the upper hybrid band and should be generated by a positive slope in the parallel electron distribution. A correlation was found between the 3-MHz waves and small positive slopes in the parallel electron distribution but experimental uncertainties in the electron measurement were large enough to influence the analysis. The BIDARCA campaign consisted of two sounding rockets launched from Poker Flat and Fort Yukon, Alaska at 9:09:00 UT and 9:10:40 UT on February 7, 1984

  11. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  12. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTR for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse (approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration. However, "NUCLEAR" is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. Communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTR. Why is there a fear of nuclear? A bomb that can level a city is a scary weapon. The first and only times the Nuclear Bomb was used in a war was on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War 2. The "Little Boy" atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and the "Fat Man" on Nagasaki 3 days later on August 9th. Within the first 4 months of bombings, 90- 166 thousand people died in Hiroshima and 60-80 thousand died in Nagasaki. It is important to note for comparison that over 500 thousand people died and 5 million made homeless due to strategic bombing (approximately 150 thousand tons) of Japanese cities and war assets with conventional non-nuclear weapons between 1942- 1945. A major bombing campaign of "firebombing" of Tokyo called "Operation Meetinghouse" on March 9 and 10 consisting of 334 B-29's dropped approximately1,700 tons of bombs around 16 square mile area and over 100 thousand people have been estimated to have died. The declaration of death is very

  13. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  14. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Walton, J.T.; Mcguire, M.L.

    1992-07-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines. 11 refs

  15. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Phase II Upgrade Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Bose

    2013-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Simulator

  16. Modeling Transients and Designing a Passive Safety System for a Nuclear Thermal Rocket Using Relap5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatry, Jivan

    Long-term high payload missions necessitate the need for nuclear space propulsion. Several nuclear reactor types were investigated by the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Study of planned/unplanned transients on nuclear thermal rockets is important due to the need for long-term missions. A NERVA design known as the Pewee I was selected for this purpose. The following transients were run: (i) modeling of corrosion-induced blockages on the peripheral fuel element coolant channels and their impact on radiation heat transfer in the core, and (ii) modeling of loss-of-flow-accidents (LOFAs) and their impact on radiation heat transfer in the core. For part (i), the radiation heat transfer rate of blocked channels increases while their neighbors' decreases. For part (ii), the core radiation heat transfer rate increases while the flow rate through the rocket system is decreased. However, the radiation heat transfer decreased while there was a complete LOFA. In this situation, the peripheral fuel element coolant channels handle the majority of the radiation heat transfer. Recognizing the LOFA as the most severe design basis accident, a passive safety system was designed in order to respond to such a transient. This design utilizes the already existing tie rod tubes and connects them to a radiator in a closed loop. Hence, this is basically a secondary loop. The size of the core is unchanged. During normal steady-state operation, this secondary loop keeps the moderator cool. Results show that the safety system is able to remove the decay heat and prevent the fuel elements from melting, in response to a LOFA and subsequent SCRAM.

  17. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  18. Design criteria of launching rockets for burst aerial shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, T.; Takishita, Y.; Onda, T.; Shibamoto, H.; Hosaya, F. [Hosaya Kako Co. Ltd (Japan); Kubota, N. [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Rocket motors attached to large-sized aerial shells are proposed to compensate for the increase in the lifting charge in the mortar and the thickness of the shell wall. The proposal is the result of an evaluation of the performance of solid propellants to provide information useful in designing launch rockets for large-size shells. The propellants composed of ammonium perchlorate and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene were used to evaluate the ballistic characteristics such as the relationship between propellant mass and trajectories of shells and launch rockets. In order to obtain an optimum rocket design, the evaluation also included a study of the velocity and height of the rocket motor and shell separation. A launch rocket with a large-sized shell (84.5 cm in diameter) was designed to verify the effectiveness of this class of launch system. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  19. The main indicators of the health of children and adolescents in residential zone of the facility for disposal of rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarakanova S.Y.

    2014-12-01

    39.5%. The main cause of morbidity in children is diseases of the nervous system and mental disorders, and congenital anomalies. Conclusion. Operation of installations for the disposal of rocket engines solid fuel according to the official reporting forms medical institutions has no effect on child health.

  20. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  1. Equations of motion of a hybrid relativistic rocket and Bussard ramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2010-05-01

    A possible generalization of a Bussard ramjet is a vehicle that carries part of the fuel from the beginning of the journey and collects the other part from the interstellar medium. Its velocity could be controlled by regulating the amount of scooped and ejected mass. In this paper, the motion of such a hybrid spacecraft is analyzed within the framework of special relativity. The results permit to compare the performance of a Bussard ramjet and a standard rocket (which is known to be quite inadequate for interstellar travels). It turns out that even a hybrid ramjet is well outside presently conceivable technology.

  2. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  3. Theoretical Rocket Performance of Liquid Methane with Several Fluorine-Oxygen Mixtures Assuming Frozen Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sanford; Kastner, Michael E

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical rocket performance for frozen composition during expansion was calculated for liquid methane with several fluorine-oxygen mixtures for a range of pressure ratios and oxidant-fuel ratios. The parameters included are specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area, specific heat at constant pressure, isentropic exponent, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The maximum calculated value of specific impulse for a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute (40.827atm) and an exit pressure of 1 atmosphere is 315.3 for 79.67 percent fluorine in the oxidant.

  4. Parametric study and performance analysis of hybrid rocket motors with double-tube configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Wang, Jue

    2017-03-01

    The practical implementation of hybrid rocket motors has historically been hampered by the slow regression rate of the solid fuel. In recent years, the research on advanced injector designs has achieved notable results in the enhancement of the regression rate and combustion efficiency of hybrid rockets. Following this path, this work studies a new configuration called double-tube characterized by injecting the gaseous oxidizer through a head end injector and an inner tube with injector holes distributed along the motor longitudinal axis. This design has demonstrated a significant potential for improving the performance of hybrid rockets by means of a better mixing of the species achieved through a customized injection of the oxidizer. Indeed, the CFD analysis of the double-tube configuration has revealed that this design may increase the regression rate over 50% with respect to the same motor with a conventional axial showerhead injector. However, in order to fully exploit the advantages of the double-tube concept, it is necessary to acquire a deeper understanding of the influence of the different design parameters in the overall performance. In this way, a parametric study is carried out taking into account the variation of the oxidizer mass flux rate, the ratio of oxidizer mass flow rate injected through the inner tube to the total oxidizer mass flow rate, and injection angle. The data for the analysis have been gathered from a large series of three-dimensional numerical simulations that considered the changes in the design parameters. The propellant combination adopted consists of gaseous oxygen as oxidizer and high-density polyethylene as solid fuel. Furthermore, the numerical model comprises Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model, eddy-dissipation combustion model and solid-fuel pyrolysis, which is computed through user-defined functions. This numerical model was previously validated by analyzing the computational and experimental results obtained for

  5. Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christe, Steven; Zeiger, Ben; Pfaff, Rob; Garcia, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rocket technology, originally developed for military applications, has provided a low-cost observing platform to carry critical and rapid-response scientific investigations for over 70 years. Even with the development of launch vehicles that could put satellites into orbit, high altitude sounding rockets have remained relevant. In addition to science observations, sounding rockets provide a unique technology test platform and a valuable training ground for scientists and engineers. Most impor...

  6. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1978-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Norwegian sounding rocket programme is reasonably well defined up to and including the winter of 1981/82. All the projects have been planned and will be carried out in international cooperation. Norwegian scientists so far plan to participate in a number of 24 rocket payloads over the period. Out of these 18 will be launched from the Andoya rocket range, 3 from Esrange and 3 from the siple station in the antarctic. (author)

  7. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (rights reserved.

  8. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

  9. A new facility for advanced rocket propulsion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Joseph G.; Green, James M.; Raitano, Paul

    1993-06-01

    A new test facility was constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Rocket Laboratory for the purpose of conducting rocket propulsion research at up to 8.9 kN (2000 lbf) thrust, using liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A laser room adjacent to the test cell provides access to the rocket engine for advanced laser diagnostic systems. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods, with rapid turnover between programs. These capabilities make the new test facility an important asset for basic and applied rocket propulsion research.

  10. Wave-particle interaction phenomena observed by antarctic rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.; Hirasawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    Rocket measurements of wave and particles activities made at Syowa Station in Antarctica during IMS period are reviewed. Nine rockets were used for such observations, out of which 6 rockets were launched in the auroral sky. In the VLF frequency range, 0 - 10 KHz, wideband spectra of wave electric and magnetic fields, Poynting flux and the direction of propagation vector were measured for chorus, ELF and VLF hiss, and for electrostatic noises. In the MF and HF range, the dynamic frequency spectra of 0.1 - 10 MHz were measured. The relationship of these wave phenomena with energetic particle activities measured by the same rockets are discussed. (author)

  11. Impact and mitigation of stratospheric ozone depletion by chemical rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) conducted a workshop in conjunction with the 1991 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Sacramento, California, to assess the impact of chemical rocket propulsion on the environment. The workshop included recognized experts from the fields of atmospheric physics and chemistry, solid rocket propulsion, liquid rocket propulsion, government, and environmental agencies, and representatives from several responsible environmental organizations. The conclusion from this workshop relative to stratospheric ozone depletion was that neither solid nor liquid rocket launchers have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion, and that there is no real significant difference between the two

  12. Ablative Material Testing at Lewis Rocket Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The increasing demand for a low-cost, reliable way to launch commercial payloads to low- Earth orbit has led to the need for inexpensive, expendable propulsion systems for new launch vehicles. This, in turn, has renewed interest in less complex, uncooled rocket engines that have combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles fabricated from ablative materials. A number of aerospace propulsion system manufacturers have utilized NASA Lewis Research Center's test facilities with a high degree of success to evaluate candidate materials for application to new propulsion devices.

  13. Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 2 Agenda • Solid Rocket Motors • History of Sea Level Testing • Small Component Testing • Full-scale Testing • Altitude...Facility • History of Testing • Questions -Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 3 RQ-West • AFRL/RQ...INTEGRATION FACILITY NATIONAL HOVER TEST FACILITY TITAN SRM TEST FACILITY TS-1C1-125 LARGE ENGINE/COMPONENT TEST FACILITY TS-1A 1-120 1-115 X-33 LAUNCH

  14. Water Rockets. Get Funny With Newton's Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Roca Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement of the rocket has been used for decades to encourage students in the study of physics. This system has an undeniable interest to introduce concepts such as properties of gases, laws of Newton,  exchange  between  different  types  of  energy  and  its  conservation  or fluid  mechanics.  Our  works has  been  to  build  and  launch  these  rockets  in  different  educational  levels  and  in  each  of  these  ones  have introduced  the  part  of  Physics  more  suited  to  the  knowledge  of  our  students.  The  aim  of  the  learning experience  is  to  launch  the  rocket  as  far  as  possible  and  learn  to  predict  the  travelled  distance,  using Newton's  laws  and fluid  mechanics.  After  experimentation  we  demonstrated  to  be  able  to  control  the parameters that improve the performance of our rocket, such as the  fill factor, the volume and mass of the empty  bottle,  liquid  density,  launch  angle,  pressure  prior  air  release.  In addition, it is a fun experience can be attached to all levels of education in primary and high school.

  15. Contamination-free sounding rocket Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Schuck, P. W.; Walker, D. N.; Kintner, P. M.; Powell, S.; Holback, B.; Leonhardt, D.

    2001-04-01

    A technique for removing surface contaminants from a sounding rocket spherical Langmuir probe is presented. Contamination layers present on probe surfaces can skew the collected data, resulting in the incorrect determination of plasma parameters. Despite following the usual probe cleaning techniques that are used prior to a launch, the probe surface can become coated with layers of adsorbed neutral gas in less than a second when exposed to atmosphere. The laboratory tests reported here show that by heating the probe from the interior using a small halogen lamp, adsorbed neutral particles can be removed from the probe surface, allowing accurate plasma parameter measurements to be made.

  16. Rocket-Powered Parachutes Rescue Entire Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Langley Research Center helped BRS Aerospace, of Saint Paul, Minnesota, to develop technology that has saved 246 lives to date. The company s whole aircraft parachute systems deploy in less than 1 second thanks to solid rocket motors and are capable of arresting the descent of a small aircraft, lowering it safely to the ground. BRS has sold more than 30,000 systems worldwide, and the technology is now standard equipment on many of the world s top-selling aircraft. Parachutes for larger airplanes are in the works.

  17. Nuclear thermal rocket engine operation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.; Savoie, M.T.; Hundal, R.

    1993-06-01

    The operation of a typical Rover/Nerva-derived nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is characterized and the control requirements of the NTR are defined. A rationale for the selection of a candidate diverse redundant NTR engine control system is presented and the projected component operating requirements are related to the state of the art of candidate components and subsystems. The projected operational capabilities of the candidate system are delineated for the startup, full-thrust, shutdown, and decay heat removal phases of the engine operation. 9 refs

  18. Numerical simulations of a sounding rocket in ionospheric plasma: Effects of magnetic field on the wake formation and rocket potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian, D.; Marholm, S.; Paulsson, J. J. P.; Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Mortensen, M.; Miloch, W. J.

    2017-09-01

    The charging of a sounding rocket in subsonic and supersonic plasma flows with external magnetic field is studied with numerical particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A weakly magnetized plasma regime is considered that corresponds to the ionospheric F2 layer, with electrons being strongly magnetized, while the magnetization of ions is weak. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field orientation influences the floating potential of the rocket and that with increasing angle between the rocket axis and the magnetic field direction the rocket potential becomes less negative. External magnetic field gives rise to asymmetric wake downstream of the rocket. The simulated wake in the potential and density may extend as far as 30 electron Debye lengths; thus, it is important to account for these plasma perturbations when analyzing in situ measurements. A qualitative agreement between simulation results and the actual measurements with a sounding rocket is also shown.

  19. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  20. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  1. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schwenterly, WIlliam; Hitt, Michael; Lepore, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (V ASIMR) for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft and has the potential to open the entire solar system to human exploration. One feature of this propulsion technology is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode that maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode that maximizes thrust. Variation of specific impulse and thrust enhances the ability to optimize interplanetary trajectories and results in shorter trip times and lower propellant requirements than with a fixed specific impulse. In its ultimate application for interplanetary travel, the VASIMR would be a multi-megawatt device. A much lower power system is being designed for demonstration in the 2004 timeframe. This first space demonstration would employ a lO-kilowatt thruster aboard a solar powered spacecraft in Earth orbit. The 1O-kilowatt V ASIMR demonstration unit would operate for a period of several months with hydrogen or deuterium propellant with a specific impulse of 10,000 seconds.

  2. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The next generation of X-ray spectrometers necessitate significant increases in both resolution and effective area to achieve the science goals set forth in the 2010 Decadal Survey and the 2013 Astrophysics Roadmap. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), an X-ray spectroscopy suborbital rocket payload currently scheduled for launch in Q3 2020, will serve as a testbed for several key technologies which can help achieve the desired performance increases of future spectrometers. OGRE will be the first instrument to fly mono-crystalline silicon X-ray mirrors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The payload will also utilize an array of off-plane gratings manufactured at The Pennsylvania State University. Additionally, the focal plane will be populated with an array of four electron-multiplying CCDs developed by the Open University and XCAM Ltd. With these key technologies, OGRE hopes to achieve the highest resolution on-sky soft X-ray spectrum to date. We discuss the optical design, expected performance, and the current status of the payload.

  3. Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology (SMART) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Flatley, Thomas P.; Bull, James B.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office are exercising a multi-year collaborative agreement focused on a redefinition of the way space missions are designed and implemented. A much faster, leaner and effective approach to space flight requires the concerted effort of a multi-agency team tasked with developing the building blocks, both programmatically and technologically, to ultimately achieve flights within 7-days from mission call-up. For NASA, rapid mission implementations represent an opportunity to find creative ways for reducing mission life-cycle times with the resulting savings in cost. This in tum enables a class of missions catering to a broader audience of science participants, from universities to private and national laboratory researchers. To that end, the SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) micro-spacecraft prototype demonstrates an advanced avionics system with integrated GPS capability, high-speed plug-and-playable interfaces, legacy interfaces, inertial navigation, a modular reconfigurable structure, tunable thermal technology, and a number of instruments for environmental and optical sensing. Although SMART was first launched inside a sounding rocket, it is designed as a free-flyer.

  4. Gas core nuclear rocket feasibility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1997-09-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The gas core concept relies on the use of fluid dynamic forces to create and maintain a vortex. The vortex is composed of a fissile material which will achieve criticality and produce high power levels. By radiatively coupling to the surrounding fluids, extremely high temperatures in the propellant and, thus, high specific impulses can be generated. The ship velocities enabled by such performance may allow a 9 month round trip, manned Mars mission to be considered. Alternatively, one might consider slightly longer missions in ships that are heavily shielded against the intense Galactic Cosmic Ray flux to further reduce the radiation dose to the crew. The current status of the research program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory into the gas core nuclear rocket feasibility will be discussed

  5. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  6. SCORE - Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco

    The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.

  7. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bendarouach, J. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Boldyreva, N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Eschke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Förtsch, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Heep, J.; Höhne, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO{sub 2} gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF{sub 2} reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  8. Assessment of exposure-response functions for rocket-emission toxicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Rocket-Emission Toxicants, National Research Council

    ... aborted launch that results in a rocket being destroyed near the ground. Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emmission Toxicants evaluates the model and the data used for three rocket emission toxicants...

  9. Evaluation of the Effect of Exhausts from Liquid and Solid Rockets on Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ishimaki, Tetsuya

    This paper reports the analytical results of the influences of solid rocket and liquid rocket exhausts on ozone layer. It is worried about that the exhausts from solid propellant rockets cause the ozone depletion in the ozone layer. Some researchers try to develop the analytical model of ozone depletion by rocket exhausts to understand its physical phenomena and to find the effective design of rocket to minimize its effect. However, these models do not include the exhausts from liquid rocket although there are many cases to use solid rocket boosters with a liquid rocket at the same time in practical situations. We constructed combined analytical model include the solid rocket exhausts and liquid rocket exhausts to analyze their effects. From the analytical results, we find that the exhausts from liquid rocket suppress the ozone depletion by solid rocket exhausts.

  10. Fuel: Logs, sticks, needles, duff, and much more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa Benevidez Jain; Alan E. Harvey

    2000-01-01

    Fuels burned by either prescribed or wildfires are complex and important components of forested ecosystems. Fine fuels consisting of fallen limbs, twigs, and leaves of shrubs and trees are rich in nutrients. If these fuels are not immediately burned, nutrients can leach from these materials into the forest floor, especially if they overwinter. Larger fuels consisting...

  11. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  12. Fuel/Oxidizer Injector Modeling in Sub- and Super-Critical Regimes for Deep Throttling Cryogenic Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate CFD modeling of fuel/oxidizer injection and combustion is needed to design and analyze liquid rocket engines. Currently, however, there is no mature...

  13. Preliminary Thermo-hydraulic Core Design Analysis of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sub th} power and electricity generation with 100 kW{sub th} idle power. Consequently, KANUTER has the characteristics of a compact and lightweight system, excellent propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, and mission versatility as indicated in the reference design parameters. This thermo-hydraulic design analysis was carried out to estimate the optimum FWT of the unique SLHC fuel design in the core and thereby the maximum rocket performance. The FWT affects the mechanical strength of the SLHC fuel assembly as well as the thermo-hydraulic capability mainly depending on the heat transfer area of fuel. The thicker fuel wafer is mechanically strong with low pressure drop, while the thinner fuel wafer is thermally robust with less mechanical strength and higher shear stress in the core.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Physics of Water Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Fernandez-Francos, J.; Galdo-Vega, M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple rocket can be made using a plastic bottle filled with a volume of water and pressurized air. When opened, the air pressure pushes the water out of the bottle. This causes an increase in the bottle momentum so that it can be propelled to fairly long distances or heights. Water rockets are widely used as an educational activity, and several…

  15. Project Stratos; reaching space with a student-built rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneveer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the spring of 2009 a team of 15 TU Delft students travelled to Kiruna, Sweden with only one goal: to launch the rocket Stratos I they had been working on for 2 years to an altitude of over 12km, thereby claiming the European Amateur Rocket Altitude record. These students were part of Delft

  16. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  17. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  18. Physico-Chemical Research on the Sounding Rocket Maser 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Kemi, Stig; Abrahamsson, Mattias; Florin, Gunnar

    MASER is a sounding rocket platform for short-duration microgravity experiments, providing the scientific community with an excellent microgravity tool. The MASER programme has been running by SSC from 1987 and has up to 2012 provided twelve successful flights for microgravity missions with 6-7 minutes of microgravity, the g-level is normally below 1x10-5 g. The MASER 13 is planned to be launched in spring 2015 from Esrange Space Center in Northern Sweden. The rocket will carry four ESA financed experiment modules. The MASER 13 vehicle will be propelled by the 2-stage solid fuel VSB-30 rocket motor, which provided the 390 kg payload with an apogee of 260 km and 6 and a half minutes of microgravity. Swedish Space Corporation carries out the MASER missions for ESA and the program is also available for other customers. The payload comprise four different experiment modules of which three could be defined as physic-chemical research; XRMON-SOL, CDIC-3, MEDI. It also comprises the Maser Service Module and the recovery system. The Service Module provided real-time 5 Mbps down-link of compressed experiment digital video data from the on-board cameras, as well as high-speed housekeeping telemetry data. XRMON-SOL In this experiment the influence of gravity on the formation of an equiaxed microstructure will be investigated. Special attention will be put on the aspect of nucleation, segregation and impingement. The experiment scope is to melt and solidify an AlCu-alloy sample in microgravity. The solidification will be performed in an isothermal environment. The solidification process will be monitored and recorded with X-ray image during the whole flight, images will also be down-linked to ground for real-time monitoring and possible interaction. CDIC-3 The goal is to study in migrogravity the spatio-temporal dynamics of a chemical front travelling in a thin solution layer open to the air and specifically the respective role of Marangoni and density-related hydrodynamic

  19. Rocket experiment METS - Microwave Energy Transmission in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Akiba, R.

    A Microwave Energy Transmission in Space (METS) rocket experiment is being planned by the Solar Power Satellite Working Group at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan for the forthcoming International Space Year, 1992. The METS experiment is an advanced version of the previous MINIX rocket experiment (Matsumoto et al., 1990). This paper describes a conceptual design of the METS rocket experiment. It aims at verifying a newly developed microwave energy transmission system for space use and to study nonlinear effects of the microwave energy beam in the space plasma environment. A high power microwave of 936 W will be transmitted by the new phased-array antenna from a mother rocket to a separated target (daughter rocket) through the ionospheric plasma. The active phased-array system has a capability of focusing the microwave energy around any spatial point by controlling the digital phase shifters individually.

  20. Rocket experiment METS Microwave Energy Transmission in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Akiba, R.

    A METS (Microwave Energy Transmission in Space) rocket experiment is being planned by the SPS (Solar Power Satellite) Working Group at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan for the forthcoming International Space Year (ISY), 1992. The METS experiment is an advanced version of our MINIX rocket experiment. This paper describes the conceptual design for the METS rocket experiment. Aims are to verify the feasibility of a newly developed microwave energy transmission system designed for use in space and to study nonlinear effects of the microwave energy beam on space plasma. A high power microwave (936 W) will be transmitted by a new phase-array antenna from a mother rocket to a separate target (daughter rocket) through the Earth's ionospheric plasma. The active phased-array system has the capability of being able to focus the microwave energy at any spatial point by individually controlling the digital phase shifters.

  1. Photometric observations of local rocket-atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R. G. H.; Murtagh, D. P.; Witt, G.; Stegman, J.

    1983-06-01

    Photometric measurements from rocket flights which recorded a strong foreign luminance in the altitude region between 90 and 130 km are reported. From one Nike-Orion rocket the luminance appeared on both up-leg and down-leg; from a series of Petrel rockets the luminance was apparent only on the down-leg. The data suggest that the luminance may be distributed mainly in the wake region along the rocket trajectory. The luminance is believed to be due to a local interaction between the rocket and the atmosphere although the precise nature of the interaction is unknown. It was measured at wavelengths ranging from 275 nm to 1.61 microns and may be caused by a combination of reactions.

  2. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  3. Modeling of Uneven Flow and Electromagnetic Field Parameters in the Combustion Chamber of Liquid Rocket Engine with a Near-wall Layer Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudinskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns modeling of an uneven flow and electromagnetic field parameters in the combustion chamber of the liquid rocket engine with a near-wall layer available.The research objective was to evaluate quantitatively influence of changing model chamber mode of the liquid rocket engine on the electro-physical characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel combustion by-products.The main method of research was based on development of a final element model of the flowing path of the rocket engine chamber and its adaptation to the boundary conditions.The paper presents a developed two-dimensional non-stationary mathematical model of electro-physical processes in the liquid rocket engine chamber using hydrocarbon fuel. The model takes into consideration the features of a gas-dynamic contour of the engine chamber and property of thermo-gas-dynamic characteristics of the ionized products of combustion of hydrocarbonic fuel. Distributions of magnetic field intensity and electric conductivity received and analyzed taking into account a low-temperature near-wall layer. Special attention is paid to comparison of obtained calculation values of the electric current, which is taken out from intrachamber space of the engine with earlier published data of other authors.

  4. Lunar mission design using nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancati, M.L.; Collins, J.T.; Borowski, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits

  5. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  6. Additive Manufacturing a Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carl P.; Robertson, Elizabeth H.; Koelbl, Mary Beth; Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Space Propulsion is a 5 day event being held from 2nd May to the 6th May 2016 at the Rome Marriott Park Hotel in Rome, Italy. This event showcases products like Propulsion sub-systems and components, Production and manufacturing issues, Liquid, Solid, Hybrid and Air-breathing Propulsion Systems for Launcher and Upper Stages, Overview of current programmes, AIV issues and tools, Flight testing and experience, Technology building blocks for Future Space Transportation Propulsion Systems : Launchers, Exploration platforms & Space Tourism, Green Propulsion for Space Transportation, New propellants, Rocket propulsion & global environment, Cost related aspects of Space Transportation propulsion, Modelling, Pressure-Thrust oscillations issues, Impact of new requirements and regulations on design etc. in the Automotive, Manufacturing, Fabrication, Repair & Maintenance industries.

  7. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  8. Tidal analysis of Met rocket wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing Met Rocket wind data is described. Modern tidal theory and specialized analytical techniques were used to resolve specific tidal modes and prevailing components in observed wind data. A representation of the wind which is continuous in both space and time was formulated. Such a representation allows direct comparison with theory, allows the derivation of other quantities such as temperature and pressure which in turn may be compared with observed values, and allows the formation of a wind model which extends over a broader range of space and time. Significant diurnal tidal modes with wavelengths of 10 and 7 km were present in the data and were resolved by the analytical technique.

  9. Optical measurements in rocket engine liquid sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikema, Douglas A.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of liquid propellant rocket engines is dependent upon many elements of the entire system. One of the most fundamental and most critical is the performance of the injector elements. Their characterization is an important part of the development of combustion devices. Optical measurements within these environments have proven to be invaluable tools in quantifying the physical environment of two phase flows. The effort reported herein involves the measurement of drop velocity, drop size, and most importantly mass flux using Phase-Doppler Particle Anemometry within a spray generated by a single swirl injector element operating in atmospheric pressure conditions. The mass flux has been determined and validated by mechanical patternation methods and by profile integration of the mass flux.

  10. Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

  11. Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  12. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  13. Feasibility of Low Enriched Uranium Fuel for Space Nuclear Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yonghee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this initial study is to create a baseline with which to perform further analysis and to build a solid understanding of the neutronic characteristics of a solid core for the nuclear thermal rocket. Once consistency with work done at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is established, this paper will provide a study of other fuel types, such as low and medium-enriched uranium fuels. This paper will examine how the implementation of each fuel type affects the multiplication factor of the reactor, and will then explore different possibilities for alterations needed to accommodate their successful usage. The reactor core analysis was done using the MCNP5 code. While this study has not shown that the SNRE can be easily retrofitted for low-enriched U fuel, it has made a detailed study of the SNRE, and identified the difficulties of the implementation of low-enriched fuels in small nuclear rockets. These difficulties are the need for additional moderation and fuel mass in order to achieve a critical mass. Neither of these is insurmountable. Future work includes finding the best method by which to increase the internal moderation of the reactor balanced with appropriate sizing to prevent neutron leakage. Both of these are currently being studied. This paper will present a study of the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) and the feasibility of using low enriched Uranium (LEU) instead of the traditional high enriched Uranium (HEU) fuels.

  14. Estimates of the radiation environment for a nuclear rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Manohara, H.M.; Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ambitious missions in deep space, such as manned expeditions to Mars, require nuclear propulsion if they are to be accomplished in a reasonable length of time. Current technology is adequate to support the use of nuclear fission as a source of energy for propulsion; however, problems associated with neutrons and gammas leaking from the rocket engine must be addressed. Before manned or unmanned space flights are attempted, an extensive ground test program on the rocket engine must be completed. This paper compares estimated radiation levels and nuclear heating rates in and around the rocket engine for both a ground test and space environments

  15. Optimization of Construction of the rocket-assisted projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New scheme of the rocket motor of rocket-assisted projectile providing the increase in distance of flight due to controlled and optimal delay time of ignition of the solid-propellant charge of the SRM and increase in reliability of initiation of the SRM by means of the autonomous system of ignition excluding the influence of high pressure gases of the propellant charge in the gun barrel has been considered. Results of the analysis of effectiveness of using of the ignition delay device on motion characteristics of the rocket-assisted projectile has been presented.

  16. Linear stability analysis in a solid-propellant rocket motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Kang, K.T.; Yoon, J.K. [Agency for Defense Development, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    Combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors depends on the balance between acoustic energy gains and losses of the system. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the program which predicts the standard longitudinal stability using acoustic modes based on linear stability analysis and T-burner test results of propellants. Commercial ANSYS 5.0A program can be used to calculate the acoustic characteristic of a rocket motor. The linear stability prediction was compared with the static firing test results of rocket motors. (author). 11 refs., 17 figs.

  17. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Rocket-based Combined-cycle Engine Response During Mode Transition Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jack R.; McRae, D. Scott; Bond, Ryan B.; Steffan, Christopher (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The GTX program at NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to develop a launch vehicle concept based on rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion. Experimental testing, cycle analysis, and computational fluid dynamics modeling have all demonstrated the viability of the GTX concept, yet significant technical issues and challenges still remain. Our research effort develops a unique capability for dynamic CFD simulation of complete high-speed propulsion devices and focuses this technology toward analysis of the GTX response during critical mode transition events. Our principal attention is focused on Mode 1/Mode 2 operation, in which initial rocket propulsion is transitioned into thermal-throat ramjet propulsion. A critical element of the GTX concept is the use of an Independent Ramjet Stream (IRS) cycle to provide propulsion at Mach numbers less than 3. In the IRS cycle, rocket thrust is initially used for primary power, and the hot rocket plume is used as a flame-holding mechanism for hydrogen fuel injected into the secondary air stream. A critical aspect is the establishment of a thermal throat in the secondary stream through the combination of area reduction effects and combustion-induced heat release. This is a necessity to enable the power-down of the rocket and the eventual shift to ramjet mode. Our focus in this first year of the grant has been in three areas, each progressing directly toward the key initial goal of simulating thermal throat formation during the IRS cycle: CFD algorithm development; simulation of Mode 1 experiments conducted at Glenn's Rig 1 facility; and IRS cycle simulations. The remainder of this report discusses each of these efforts in detail and presents a plan of work for the next year.

  18. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  19. NOx reduction and NO2 emission characteristics in rich-lean combustion of hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Omori, Kento; Hiyama, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels, but it is very important to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generated by hydrogen combustion. The rich-lean combustion or staged combustion is known to reduce NOx emissions from continuous combustion burners such as gas turbines and boilers, and NOx reduction effects have been demonstrated for hydrocarbon fuels. The authors applied rich-lean combustion to a hydrogen gas turbine and showed its NOx reduction effect in...

  20. Numerical and experimental study of liquid breakup process in solid rocket motor nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Hsin

    Rocket propulsion is an important travel method for space exploration and national defense, rockets needs to be able to withstand wide range of operation environment and also stable and precise enough to carry sophisticated payload into orbit, those engineering requirement makes rocket becomes one of the state of the art industry. The rocket family have been classified into two major group of liquid and solid rocket based on the fuel phase of liquid or solid state. The solid rocket has the advantages of simple working mechanism, less maintenance and preparing procedure and higher storage safety, those characters of solid rocket make it becomes popular in aerospace industry. Aluminum based propellant is widely used in solid rocket motor (SRM) industry due to its avalibility, combusion performance and economical fuel option, however after aluminum react with oxidant of amonimum perchrate (AP), it will generate liquid phase alumina (Al2O3) as product in high temperature (2,700˜3,000 K) combustion chamber enviornment. The liquid phase alumina particles aggromorate inside combustion chamber into larger particle which becomes major erosion calprit on inner nozzle wall while alumina aggromorates impinge on the nozzle wall surface. The erosion mechanism result nozzle throat material removal, increase the performance optimized throat diameter and reduce nozzle exit to throat area ratio which leads to the reduction of exhaust gas velocity, Mach number and lower the propulsion thrust force. The approach to avoid particle erosion phenomenon taking place in SRM's nozzle is to reduce the alumina particle size inside combustion chamber which could be done by further breakup of the alumina droplet size in SRM's combustion chamber. The study of liquid breakup mechanism is an important means to smaller combustion chamber alumina droplet size and mitigate the erosion tack place on rocket nozzle region. In this study, a straight two phase air-water flow channel experiment is set up

  1. Water Impact Prediction Tool for Recoverable Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooker, William; Glaese, John; Clayton, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Reusing components from a rocket launch can be cost saving. NASA's space shuttle system has reusable components that return to the Earth and impact the ocean. A primary example is the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) that descends on parachutes to the Earth after separation and impacts the ocean. Water impact generates significant structural loads that can damage the booster, so it is important to study this event in detail in the design of the recovery system. Some recent examples of damage due to water impact include the Ares I-X First Stage deformation as seen in Figure 1 and the loss of the SpaceX Falcon 9 First Stage.To ensure that a component can be recovered or that the design of the recovery system is adequate, an adequate set of structural loads is necessary for use in failure assessments. However, this task is difficult since there are many conditions that affect how a component impacts the water and the resulting structural loading that a component sees. These conditions include the angle of impact with respect to the water, the horizontal and vertical velocities, the rotation rate, the wave height and speed, and many others. There have been attempts to simulate water impact. One approach is to analyze water impact using explicit finite element techniques such as those employed by the LS-Dyna tool [1]. Though very detailed, this approach is time consuming and would not be suitable for running Monte Carlo or optimization analyses. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-body simulation tool that runs quickly and that captures the environments a component might see. The simulation incorporates the air and water interaction with the component, the component dynamics (i.e. modes and mode shapes), any applicable parachutes and lines, the interaction of winds and gusts, and the wave height and speed. It is capable of quickly conducting Monte Carlo studies to better capture the environments and genetic algorithm optimizations to reproduce a

  2. Investigation of Dual-Vortical-Flow Hybrid Rocket Engine without Flame Holding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 250 kgf thrust hybrid rocket engine was designed, tested, and verified in this work. Due to the injection and flow pattern of this engine, this engine was named dual-vortical-flow engine. This propulsion system uses N2O as oxidizer and HDPE as fuel. This engine was numerically investigated using a CFD tool that can handle reacting flow with finite-rate chemistry and coupled with the real-fluid model. The engine was further verified via a hot-fire test for 12 s. The ground Isp of the engine was 232 s and 221 s for numerical and hot-fire tests, respectively. An oscillation frequency with an order of 100 Hz was observed in both numerical and hot-fire tests with less than 5% of pressure oscillation. Swirling pattern on the fuel surface was also observed in both numerical and hot-fire test, which proves that this swirling dual-vortical-flow engine works exactly as designed. The averaged regression rate of the fuel surface was found to be 0.6~0.8 mm/s at the surface of disk walls and 1.5~1.7 mm/s at the surface of central core of the fuel grain.

  3. Catalysis in high-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, K; Ahmed, K

    2005-02-17

    Catalysis plays a critical role in solid oxide fuel cell systems. The electrochemical reactions within the cell--oxygen dissociation on the cathode and electrochemical fuel combustion on the anode--are catalytic reactions. The fuels used in high-temperature fuel cells, for example, natural gas, propane, or liquid hydrocarbons, need to be preprocessed to a form suitable for conversion on the anode-sulfur removal and pre-reforming. The unconverted fuel (economic fuel utilization around 85%) is commonly combusted using a catalytic burner. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. has developed anodes that in addition to having electrochemical activity also are reactive for internal steam reforming of methane. This can simplify fuel preprocessing, but its main advantage is thermal management of the fuel cell stack by endothermic heat removal. Using this approach, the objective of fuel preprocessing is to produce a methane-rich fuel stream but with all higher hydrocarbons removed. Sulfur removal can be achieved by absorption or hydro-desulfurization (HDS). Depending on the system configuration, hydrogen is also required for start-up and shutdown. Reactor operating parameters are strongly tied to fuel cell operational regimes, thus often limiting optimization of the catalytic reactors. In this paper we discuss operation of an authothermal reforming reactor for hydrogen generation for HDS and start-up/shutdown, and development of a pre-reformer for converting propane to a methane-rich fuel stream.

  4. Borides and vitreous compounds sintered as high-energy fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, J.M.; Abenojar, J.; Martinez, M.A.; Velasco, F.; Criado, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Boron was chosen as fuel in view of its excellent thermodynamic values for combustion, as compared to traditional fuels. The problem of the boron in combustion is the formation of a surface layer of oxide, which delays the ignition process, reducing the performance of the rocket engine. This paper presents a high-energy fuel for rocket engines. It is composed of sintered boron (borides and carbides and vitreous compounds) with a reducing chemical agent. Borides and boron carbide were prepared since the combustion heat of the latter is similar to that of the amorphous boron (in: K.K. Kuo (Ed.), Boron-Based Solid Propellant and Solid Fuel, Vol. 427, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993). Several chemical reducing elements were used, such as aluminum, magnesium, and coke. As the raw material for boron, different compounds were used: amorphous boron, boric acid and boron oxide

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  7. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, volume 2, book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The technical requirements for the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) propulsion system definition, (2) solid rocket engine stage design, (3) solid rocket engine stage recovery, (4) environmental effects, (5) manrating of the solid rocket engine stage, (6) system safety analysis, and (7) ground support equipment.

  8. Computational and Experimental Investigation of Liquid Propellant Rocket Combustion Instability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combustion instability has been a problem faced by rocket engine developers since the 1940s. The complicated phenomena has been highly unpredictable, causing engine...

  9. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basically agreed with the test data, which shows that the flight motion of the line throwing rocket can be predicted by the dynamic model. A theoretical model and guide for the further research on the disturbance of rope and the guidance, flight control of line throwing rocket are provided by the dynamic modeling.

  10. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Rocket Engine Igniter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spark ignition of a bi-propellant rocket engine is a classic, proven, and generally reliable process. However, timing can be critical, and the control logic,...

  11. Dynamical Model of Rocket Propellant Loading with Liquid Hydrogen

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A dynamical model describing the multi-stage process of rocket propellant loading has been developed. It accounts for both the nominal and faulty regimes of...

  12. Magnesium Based Rockets for Martian Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop Mg rockets for Martian ascent vehicle applications. The propellant can be acquired in-situ from MgO in the Martian regolith (5.1% Mg by mass)...

  13. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The on-ground and Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) provides a system architecture and software tools for performing diagnostics...

  14. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building...

  15. Infrasound from the 2009 and 2017 DPRK rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, L. G.; Assink, J. D.; Smets, P. SM

    2018-06-01

    Supersonic rockets generate low-frequency acoustic waves, that is, infrasound, during the launch and re-entry. Infrasound is routinely observed at infrasound arrays from the International Monitoring System, in place for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Association and source identification are key elements of the verification system. The moving nature of a rocket is a defining criterion in order to distinguish it from an isolated explosion. Here, it is shown how infrasound recordings can be associated, which leads to identification of the rocket. Propagation modelling is included to further constrain the source identification. Four rocket launches by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 2009 and 2017 are analysed in which multiple arrays detected the infrasound. Source identification in this region is important for verification purposes. It is concluded that with a passive monitoring technique such as infrasound, characteristics can be remotely obtained on sources of interest, that is, infrasonic intelligence, over 4500+ km.

  16. Manufacturing Advanced Channel Wall Rocket Liners, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will adapt and demonstrate a low cost flexible method of manufacturing channel wall liquid rocket nozzles and combustors, while providing developers a...

  17. ELIMINATION OF ROCKET IGNITION SIDE LOADS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to Topic H10: Ground Processing and in particular to Subtopic H10.02. When a rocket motor/engine is ignited at low altitude its...

  18. Defense Against Rocket Attacks in the Presence of False Cues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harari, Lior

    2008-01-01

    Rocket attacks on civilian and military targets, from both Hezbollah (South Lebanon) and Hamas (Gaza strip) have been causing a major operational problem for the Israeli Defense Force for over two decades...

  19. LOX/Methane Regeneratively-Cooled Rocket Engine Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to advance the technologies required to build a subcritical regeneratively cooled liquid oxygen/methane rocket combustion chamber for...

  20. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  1. Aluminum Agglomeration and Trajectory in Solid Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coats, Douglas; Hylin, E. C; Babbitt, Deborah; Tullos, James A; Beckstead, Merrill; Webb, Michael; Davis, I. L; Dang, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Report developed under STTR contract for Topic AF06-T012. The demand for higher performance rocket motors at a reduced cost requires continuous improvements in understanding and controlling propellant combustion...

  2. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  3. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  4. Three-Axis Gasless Sounding Rocket Payload Attitude Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas released by current sounding rocket payload attitude control systems (ACS) has the potential to interfere with some types of science instruments. A single-axis...

  5. Turbopump options for nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissell, W.R.; Gunn, S.V.

    1992-07-01

    Several turbopump options for delivering liquid nitrogen to nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines were evaluated and compared. Axial and centrifugal flow pumps were optimized, with and without boost pumps, utilizing current design criteria within the latest turbopump technology limits. Two possible NTR design points were used, a modest pump pressure rise of 1,743 psia and a relatively higher pump pressure rise of 4,480 psia. Both engines utilized the expander cycle to maximize engine performance for the long duration mission. Pump suction performance was evaluated. Turbopumps with conventional cavitating inducers were compared with zero NPSH (saturated liquid in the tanks) pumps over a range of tank saturation pressures, with and without boost pumps. Results indicate that zero NSPH pumps at high tank vapor pressures, 60 psia, are very similar to those with the finite NPSHs. At low vapor pressures efficiencies fall and turbine pressure ratios increase leading to decreased engine chamber pressures and or increased pump pressure discharges and attendant high-pressure component weights. It may be concluded that zero tank NSPH capabilities can be obtained with little penalty to the engine systems but boost pumps are needed if tank vapor pressure drops below 30 psia. Axial pumps have slight advantages in weight and chamber pressure capability while centrifugal pumps have a greater operating range. 10 refs

  6. Solid Rocket Motor Design Using Hybrid Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Albarado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A particle swarm/pattern search hybrid optimizer was used to drive a solid rocket motor modeling code to an optimal solution. The solid motor code models tapered motor geometries using analytical burn back methods by slicing the grain into thin sections along the axial direction. Grains with circular perforated stars, wagon wheels, and dog bones can be considered and multiple tapered sections can be constructed. The hybrid approach to optimization is capable of exploring large areas of the solution space through particle swarming, but is also able to climb “hills” of optimality through gradient based pattern searching. A preliminary method for designing tapered internal geometry as well as tapered outer mold-line geometry is presented. A total of four optimization cases were performed. The first two case studies examines designing motors to match a given regressive-progressive-regressive burn profile. The third case study studies designing a neutrally burning right circular perforated grain (utilizing inner and external geometry tapering. The final case study studies designing a linearly regressive burning profile for right circular perforated (tapered grains.

  7. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  8. Rotational flow in tapered slab rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Tony; Sams, Oliver C.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Internal flow modeling is a requisite for obtaining critical parameters in the design and fabrication of modern solid rocket motors. In this work, the analytical formulation of internal flows particular to motors with tapered sidewalls is pursued. The analysis employs the vorticity-streamfunction approach to treat this problem assuming steady, incompressible, inviscid, and nonreactive flow conditions. The resulting solution is rotational following the analyses presented by Culick for a cylindrical motor. In an extension to Culick's work, Clayton has recently managed to incorporate the effect of tapered walls. Here, an approach similar to that of Clayton is applied to a slab motor in which the chamber is modeled as a rectangular channel with tapered sidewalls. The solutions are shown to be reducible, at leading order, to Taylor's inviscid profile in a porous channel. The analysis also captures the generation of vorticity at the surface of the propellant and its transport along the streamlines. It is from the axial pressure gradient that the proper form of the vorticity is ascertained. Regular perturbations are then used to solve the vorticity equation that prescribes the mean flow motion. Subsequently, numerical simulations via a finite volume solver are carried out to gain further confidence in the analytical approximations. In illustrating the effects of the taper on flow conditions, comparisons of total pressure and velocity profiles in tapered and nontapered chambers are entertained. Finally, a comparison with the axisymmetric flow analog is presented.

  9. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-bin Gu; Ming Lu; Jian-qing Liu; Qin-xing Dong; Zhen-xiong Wang; Jiang-hai Chen

    2014-01-01

    The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basicall...

  10. Measurement of the electrostatic field in aurora by antarctic rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeya, Yoshio; Minami, Shigeyuki

    1974-01-01

    The direct measurement of the electrostatic field produced by the flow of charged particles and geomagnetic field in aurora has been carried out by means of rockets or satellites. The construction of an electric field meter and its characteristics are described, which measures the vectors of electric field with antarctic rockets. New scheme is presented: three components of an electric field are directly obtained through the probes set in three directions. (Mori, K.)

  11. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  12. A spacecraft charging study on the SCEX 3 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Hardy, D.A.; Murphy, G.P.; Lloyd, J.W.F.; Slutter, W.; Malcolm, P.; Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Instruments on the SCEX 3 rocket payload flown from the Poker Flats Rocket Range in February 1990 were used to study charging during electron beam emissions. This paper reports that the data show that electrostatic analyzers can be used to measure vehicle charging and direct beam return currents in dense plasma conditions. The data also show return current dependencies on pitch angle, beam current and beam energy

  13. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1980-83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, A.; Gundersen, A.

    1980-01-01

    As illustrated by the rocket program presented and discussed in this paper, exploration of the polar ionosphere still plays a central part in the Norwegian research program in science. A cornerstone in the Norwegian space program is the Andoeya Rocket Range. It will be shown that advanced radio installations in northern Scandinavia together with the new optical site at Svalbard will stimulate towards further in situ measurements and theoretical work of the polar ionosphere. (Auth.)

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  15. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz Almostafa; Guozhu Liang; Elsayed Anwer

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning), erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameter...

  16. Integral performance optimum design for multistage solid propellant rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongtao (Shaanxi Power Machinery Institute (China))

    1989-04-01

    A mathematical model for integral performance optimization of multistage solid propellant rocket motors is presented. A calculation on a three-stage, volume-fixed, solid propellant rocket motor is used as an example. It is shown that the velocity at burnout of intermediate-range or long-range ballistic missile calculated using this model is four percent greater than that using the usual empirical method.

  17. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  18. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  19. The NASA Sounding Rocket Program and space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkin, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    High altitude suborbital rockets (sounding rockets) have been extensively used for space science research in the post-World War II period; the NASA Sounding Rocket Program has been on-going since the inception of the Agency and supports all space science disciplines. In recent years, sounding rockets have been utilized to provide a low gravity environment for materials processing research, particularly in the commercial sector. Sounding rockets offer unique features as a low gravity flight platform. Quick response and low cost combine to provide more frequent spaceflight opportunities. Suborbital spacecraft design practice has achieved a high level of sophistication which optimizes the limited available flight times. High data-rate telemetry, real-time ground up-link command and down-link video data are routinely used in sounding rocket payloads. Standard, off-the-shelf, active control systems are available which limit payload body rates such that the gravitational environment remains less than 10(-4) g during the control period. Operational launch vehicles are available which can provide up to 7 minutes of experiment time for experiment weights up to 270 kg. Standard payload recovery systems allow soft impact retrieval of payloads. When launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, payloads can be retrieved and returned to the launch site within hours.

  20. Performance of a RBCC Engine in Rocket-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Kubo, Takahiro; Noboru Sakuranaka; Tani, Koichiro

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket-based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for space launch vehicles. Either SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit) system or TSTO (Two Stage To Orbit) system with separation at high altitude needs final stage acceleration in space, so that the RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine should be operated as rocket engines. Performance of the scramjet combustor as the extension to the rocket nozzle, was experimentally evaluated by injecting inert gas at various pressure through the embedded rocket chamber while the whole sub-scaled model was placed in a low pressure chamber connected to an air-driven ejector system. The results showed that the thrust coefficient was about 1.2, the low value being found to mainly due to the friction force on the scramjet combustor wall, while blocking the scramjet flow pass’s opening to increase nozzle extension thrust surface, was found to have little effects on the thrust performance. The combustor was shortened to reduce the friction loss, however, degree of reduction was limited as friction decreased rapidly with distance from the onset of the scramjet combustor.

  1. Turbopump Design and Analysis Approach for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shucheng S.; Veres, Joseph P.; Fittje, James E.

    2006-01-01

    A rocket propulsion system, whether it is a chemical rocket or a nuclear thermal rocket, is fairly complex in detail but rather simple in principle. Among all the interacting parts, three components stand out: they are pumps and turbines (turbopumps), and the thrust chamber. To obtain an understanding of the overall rocket propulsion system characteristics, one starts from analyzing the interactions among these three components. It is therefore of utmost importance to be able to satisfactorily characterize the turbopump, level by level, at all phases of a vehicle design cycle. Here at the NASA Glenn Research Center, as the starting phase of a rocket engine design, specifically a Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine design, we adopted the approach of using a high level system cycle analysis code (NESS) to obtain an initial analysis of the operational characteristics of a turbopump required in the propulsion system. A set of turbopump design codes (PumpDes and TurbDes) were then executed to obtain sizing and performance parameters of the turbopump that were consistent with the mission requirements. A set of turbopump analyses codes (PUMPA and TURBA) were applied to obtain the full performance map for each of the turbopump components; a two dimensional layout of the turbopump based on these mean line analyses was also generated. Adequacy of the turbopump conceptual design will later be determined by further analyses and evaluation. In this paper, descriptions and discussions of the aforementioned approach are provided and future outlooks are discussed

  2. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  3. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2007-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility was used in the early to mid-1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles in the immediate area. Identified as Corrective Action Unit 115, the TCA facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model, identified in the Data Quality Objective process. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. Key lessons learned from the project included: (1) Targeted preliminary investigation activities provided a more solid technical approach, reduced surprises and scope creep, and made the working environment safer for the D and D worker. (2) Early identification of risks and uncertainties provided opportunities for risk management and mitigation planning to address challenges and unanticipated conditions. (3) Team reviews provided an excellent mechanism to consider all aspects of the task, integrated safety into activity performance, increase team unity and ''buy-in'' and promoted innovative and time saving ideas. (4) Development of CED protocols ensured safety and control. (5) The same proven D and D strategy is now being employed on the larger ''sister'' facility, Test Cell C

  4. Hypothetical Dark Matter/axion Rockets:. Dark Matter in Terms of Space Physics Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, A.

    2010-12-01

    Current proposed photon rocket designs include the Nuclear Photonic Rocket and the Antimatter Photonic Rocket (proposed by Eugen Sanger in the 1950s, as reported by Ref. 1). This paper examines the feasibility of improving the thrust of photon-driven ramjet propulsion by using DM rocket propulsion. The open question is: would a heavy WIMP, if converted to photons, upgrade the power (thrust) of a photon rocket drive, to make interstellar travel a feasible proposition?

  5. Effects of Rocket Exhaust on Lunar Soil Reflectance Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; Plescia, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Apollo, Surveyor, and Luna spacecraft descent engine plumes affected the regolith at and surrounding their landing sites. Owing to the lack of rapid weathering processes on the Moon, surface alterations are still visible as photometric anomalies in Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. These areas are interpreted as disturbance of the regolith by rocket exhaust during descent of the spacecraft, which we refer to as "blast zones" (BZs). The BZs consist of an area of lower reflectance (LR-BZ) compared to the surroundings that extends up to a few meters out from the landers, as well as a broader halo of higher reflectance (HR-BZ) that extends tens to hundreds of meters out from the landers. We use phase-ratio images for each landing site to determine the spatial extent of the disturbed regions and to quantify differences in reflectance and backscattering characteristics within the BZs compared to nearby undisturbed regolith. We also compare the reflectance changes and BZ dimensions at the Apollo sites with those at Luna and Surveyor sites. We seek to determine the effects of rocket exhaust in terms of erosion and particle redistribution, as well as the cause(s) of the reflectance variations, i.e., physical changes at the regolith surface. When approximated as an ellipse, the average Apollo BZ area is ~29,000 m2 (~175 ± 60 m by 200 ± 27 m) which is 10x larger than the average Luna BZ, and over 100x larger than the average Surveyor BZ. Moreover, BZ area scales roughly with lander mass (as a proxy for thrust). The LR-BZs are evident at the Apollo sites, especially where astronaut bioturbation has roughened the soil, leading to a 2-14% reduction in reflectance at ~30° phase. The LR-BZs at the Luna and Surveyor sites are less evident and may be mostly confined to the area below the landers. The average normalized reflectance in the HR-BZs for images with a 30° phase angle is 2-16% higher than in the undisturbed surrounding

  6. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    the Commodities Exchange Pallet, I also assisted in preparation for testing the upper stage of a sounding rocket developed as a Center Innovation Fund project. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the integration between a propulsion system and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The upper stage and SOFC are scheduled to complete an integrated test in August of 2016. As part of preparation for scheduled testing, I was responsible for designing the upper stage's test stand/support structure and main engine plume deflector to be used during hot-fire testing (fig. 3). The structural components of the test stand need to meet safety requirements for operation of the propulsion system, which consist of a 100 pounds-thrust main engine and two 15 pounds-thrust reaction control thrusters. My main accomplishment for this project was the completion of the design and the parts selection for construction of the structure, scheduled to begin late April of 2016.

  7. Combustion response to acoustic perturbation in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, Akbar

    An experimental study of the effect of acoustic perturbations on combustion behavior of a model liquid propellant rocket engine has been carried out. A pair of compression drivers were used to excite transverse and longitudinal acoustic fields at strengths of up to 156.6 dB and 159.5 dB respectively in the combustion chamber of the experimental rocket engine. Propellant simulants were injected into the combustion chamber through a single element shear coaxial injector. Water and air were used in cold flow studies and ethanol and oxygen-enriched air were used as fuel and oxidizer in reacting hot flow studies. In cold flow studies an imposed transverse acoustic field had a more pronounced effect on the spray pattern than a longitudinal acoustic fields. A transverse acoustic field widened the spray by as much as 33 percent and the plane of impingement of the spray with chamber walls moved up closer to the injection plane. The behavior was strongly influenced by the gas phase velocity but was less sensitive to changes in the liquid phase velocity. In reacting hot flow studies the effects of changes in equivalence ratio, excitation amplitude, excitation frequency, liquid and gas phase velocity and chamber pressure on the response of the injector to imposed high frequency transverse acoustic excitation were measured. Reducing the equivalence ratio from 7.4 to 3.8 increased the chamber pressure response to the imposed excitation at 3000 Hz. Increasing the excitation amplitude from 147 dB to 155.6 dB at 3000 Hz increased the chamber pressure response to the excitation. In the frequency range of 1240 Hz to 3220 Hz, an excitation frequency of 3000 Hz resulted in the largest response of the chamber pressure indicating the importance of fluid dynamic coupling. Increasing the liquid phase velocity from 9.2 m/sec to 22.7 m/sec, did not change the amplitude of the chamber pressure response to excitation. This implied the importance of local equivalence ratio and not the overall

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  10. Flutter Analysis of RX-420 Balistic Rocket Fin Involving Rigid Body Modes of Rocket Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Andria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Flutter is a phenomenon that has brought a catastrophic failure to the flight vehicle structure. In this experiment, flutter was analyzed for its symmetric and antisymmetric configuration to understand the effect of rocket rigid modes to the fin flutter characteristic. This research was also expected to find out the safety level of RX-420 structure design. The analysis was performed using half rocket model. Fin structure used in this research was a fin which has semispan 600 mm, thickness 12 mm, chord root 700 mm, chord tip 400 mm, made by Al 6061-T651, double spar configuration with skin thickness of 2 mm. Structural dynamics and flutter stability were analyzed using finite element software implemented on MSC. Nastran. The analysis shows that the antisymmetric flutter mode is more critical than symmetric flutter mode. At sea level altitude, antisymmetric flutter occurs at 6.4 Mach, and symmetric flutter occurs at 10.15 Mach. Compared to maximum speed of RX-420 which is 4.5 Mach at altitude 11 km or equivalent to 2.1 Mach at sea level, it can be concluded that the RX-420 structure design is safe, and flutter will not occur during flight.

  11. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  12. Low Pressure Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LPNTR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsthaler, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    A background and a description of the low pressure nuclear thermal system are presented. Performance, mission analysis, development, critical issues, and some conclusions are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: LPNTR's inherent advantages in critical NTR requirement; reactor trade studies; reference LPNTR; internal configuration and flow of preliminary LPNTR; particle bed fuel assembly; preliminary LPNTR neutronic study results; multiple LPNTR engine concept; tank and engine configuration for mission analysis; LPNTR reliability potential; LPNTR development program; and LPNTR program costs

  13. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  14. 'RCHX-1-STORM' first Slovenian meteorological rocket program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago; Trauner, Amalija; Britovšek, Zvone

    2004-08-01

    Astronautic and Rocket Society Celje (ARSC) formed a special working team for research and development of a small meteorological hail suppression rocket in the 70th. The hail suppression system was established in former Yugoslavia in the late 60th as an attempt to protect important agricultural regions from one of the summer's most vicious storm. In this time Slovenia was a part of Yugoslavia as one of the federal republic with relative high developed agricultural region production. The Rocket program 'RCHX-STORM' was a second attempt, for Slovenia indigenously developed in the production of meteorological hail suppression rocket. ARSC has designed a family of small sounding rocket that were based on highly promising hybrid propellant propulsion. Hybrid propulsion was selected for this family because it was offering low cost, save production and operation and simple logistics. Conventional sounding rockets use solid propellant motor for their propulsion. The introduction of hybrid motors has enabled a considerable decrease in overall cost. The transportation handling and storage procedures were greatly simplified due to the fact that a hybrid motor was not considered as explosive matter. A hybrid motor may also be designed to stand a severe environment without resorting to conditioning arrangements. The program started in the late 70th when the team ARSC was integrated in the Research and Development Institute in Celje (RDIC). The development program aimed to produce three types of meteorological rockets with diameters 76, 120 and 160 mm. Development of the RCHX-76 engine and rocket vehicle including flight certification has been undertaken by a joint team comprising of the ARCS, RDIC and the company Cestno podjetje Celje (CPC), Road building company Celje. Many new techniques and methods were used in this program such as computer simulation of external and internal ballistics, composite materials for rocket construction, intensive static testing of models and

  15. Russian Meteorological and Geophysical Rockets of New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, V.; Gvozdev, Yu.; Lykov, A.; Shershakov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Pozin, A.; Afanasenkov, A.; Savenkov, Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-09-01

    To study the process in the middle and upper atmosphere, ionosphere and near-Earth space, as well as to monitor the geophysical environment in Russian Federal Service for Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET) the development of new generation of meteorological and geophysical rockets has been completed. The modern geophysical research rocket system MR-30 was created in Research and Production Association RPA "Typhoon". The basis of the complex MR-30 is a new geophysical sounding rocket MN-300 with solid propellant, Rocket launch takes place at an angle of 70º to 90º from the launcher, which is a farm with a guide rail type required for imparting initial rotation rocket. The Rocket is spin stabilized with a spin rate between 5 and 7 Hz. Launch weight is 1564 kg, and the mass of the payload of 50 to 150 kg. MR-300 is capable of lifting up to 300 km, while the area of dispersion points for booster falling is an ellipse with parameters 37x 60 km. The payload of the rocket MN-300 consists of two sections: a sealed, located below the instrument compartment, and not sealed, under the fairing. Block of scientific equipment is formed on the platform in a modular layout. This makes it possible to solve a wide range of tasks and conduct research and testing technologies using a unique environment of space, as well as to conduct technological experiments testing and research systems and spacecraft equipment. New Russian rocket system MERA (MEteorological Rocket for Atmospheric Research) belongs to so called "dart" technique that provide lifting of small scientific payload up to altitude 100 km and descending with parachute. It was developed at Central Aerological Observatory jointly with State Unitary Enterprise Instrument Design Bureau. The booster provides a very rapid acceleration to about Mach 5. After the burning phase of the buster the dart is separated and continues ballistic flight for about 2 minutes. The dart carries the instrument payload+ parachute

  16. Analysis of film cooling in rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) programs are customarily used to compute details of a flow field, such as velocity fields or species concentrations. Generally they are not used to determine the resulting conditions at a solid boundary such as wall shear stress or heat flux. However, determination of this information should be within the capability of a CFD code, as the code supposedly contains appropriate models for these wall conditions. Before such predictions from CFD analyses can be accepted, the credibility of the CFD codes upon which they are based must be established. This report details the progress made in constructing a CFD model to predict the heat transfer to the wall in a film cooled rocket nozzle. Specifically, the objective of this work is to use the NASA code FDNS to predict the heat transfer which will occur during the upcoming hot-firing of the Pratt & Whitney 40K subscale nozzle (1Q93). Toward this end, an M = 3 wall jet is considered, and the resulting heat transfer to the wall is computed. The values are compared against experimental data available in Reference 1. Also, FDNS's ability to compute heat flux in a reacting flow will be determined by comparing the code's predictions against calorimeter data from the hot firing of a 40K combustor. The process of modeling the flow of combusting gases through the Pratt & Whitney 40K subscale combustor and nozzle is outlined. What follows in this report is a brief description of the FDNS code, with special emphasis on how it handles solid wall boundary conditions. The test cases and some FDNS solution are presented next, along with comparison to experimental data. The process of modeling the flow through a chamber and a nozzle using the FDNS code will also be outlined.

  17. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  18. Uncertainty analysis and design optimization of hybrid rocket motor powered vehicle for suborbital flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an uncertainty analysis and design optimization method and its applications on a hybrid rocket motor (HRM powered vehicle. The multidisciplinary design model of the rocket system is established and the design uncertainties are quantified. The sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties shows that the uncertainty generated from the error of fuel regression rate model has the most significant effect on the system performances. Then the differences between deterministic design optimization (DDO and uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO are discussed. Two newly formed uncertainty analysis methods, including the Kriging-based Monte Carlo simulation (KMCS and Kriging-based Taylor series approximation (KTSA, are carried out using a global approximation Kriging modeling method. Based on the system design model and the results of design uncertainty analysis, the design optimization of an HRM powered vehicle for suborbital flight is implemented using three design optimization methods: DDO, KMCS and KTSA. The comparisons indicate that the two UDO methods can enhance the design reliability and robustness. The researches and methods proposed in this paper can provide a better way for the general design of HRM powered vehicles.

  19. Analysis of plume backflow around a nozzle lip in a nuclear rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.H.; Kim, S.C.; Stubbs, R.M.; De Witt, K.J.

    1993-06-01

    The structure of the flow around a nuclear thermal rocket nozzle lip has been investigated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Special attention has been paid to the behavior of a small amount of harmful particles that may be present in the rocket exhaust gas. The harmful fission product particles are modeled by four inert gases whose molecular weights are in a range of 4 131. Atomic hydrogen, which exists in the flow due to the extremely high nuclear fuel temperature in the reactor, is also included. It is shown that the plume backflow is primarily determined by the thin subsonic fluid layer adjacent to the surface of the nozzle lip, and that the inflow boundary in the plume region has negligible effect on the backflow. It is also shown that a relatively large amount of the lighter species is scattered into the backflow region while the amount of the heavier species becomes negligible in this region due to extreme separation between the species. Results indicate that the backscattered molecules are very energetic and are fast-moving along the surface in the backflow region near the nozzle lip. 22 refs

  20. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  1. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  2. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-03-09

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

  3. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

  4. Ammonia chemistry in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Glarborg, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of NH3 during oxy-fuel combustion of methane, i.e., at high [CO2], has been studied in a flow reactor. The experiments covered stoichiometries ranging from fuel rich to very fuel lean and temperatures from 973 to 1773 K. The results have been interpreted in terms of an updated detai...

  5. Nontoxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, Millicent

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of propellants used in conventional propulsion systems increases not only safety risks to personnel but also costs, due to special handling required during the entire lifetime of the propellants. Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has developed and tested novel nontoxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. In Phase I of the project, the company demonstrated the feasibility of several ionic liquid formulations that equaled the performance of conventional rocket propellant monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and also provided low volatility and low toxicity. In Phase II, ORBITEC refined the formulations, conducted material property tests, and investigated combustion behavior in droplet and microreactor experiments. The company also explored the effect of injector design on performance and demonstrated the fuels in a small-scale thruster. The ultimate goal is to replace propellants such as MMH with fuels that are simultaneously high-performance and nontoxic. The fuels will have uses in NASA's propulsion applications and also in a range of military and commercial functions.

  6. Cooling process of liquid propellant rocket by means of kerosene-alumina nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoodi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer augmentation of kerosene-alumina nanofluid is studied for the possible use in the regenerative cooling channel of semi cryogenic engine. The basic partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations which are solved using differential transformation method. Velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are determined. The influence of pertinent parameters such as nanofluid volume fraction, viscosity parameter and Eckert number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is discussed. The results indicate that adding alumina into the fuel of liquid rocket engine (kerosene can be considered as the way of enhancing cooling process of chamber and nozzle walls. Nusselt number is an increasing function of viscosity parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction while it is a decreasing function of Eckert number.

  7. Kinetic---a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode

  8. Kinetic—a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eldon; Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  9. Analysis of startup strategies for a particle bed reactor nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D. E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper develops and analyzes engine system startup strategies for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear rocket engine. The strategies are designed to maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel element while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The analyses are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. Elements of the startup strategy considered include: the coordinated control of reactor power and coolant flow; turbine inlet temperature and flow control; and use of an external starter system. The simulation results indicate that the use of an external starter system enables the engine to reach design conditions very quickly while maintaining the flow well away from the unstable regime. If a bootstrap start is used instead, the transient does not progress as fast and approaches closer to the unstable flow regime, but allows for greater engine reusability. These results can provide important information for engine designers and mission planners.

  10. KINETIC: A system code for analyzing Nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  11. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  12. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  13. CSP-based chemical kinetics mechanisms simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion: An application to hybrid rocket propulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Ciottoli, Pietro P.

    2017-08-14

    A set of simplified chemical kinetics mechanisms for hybrid rocket applications using gaseous oxygen (GOX) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is proposed. The starting point is a 561-species, 2538-reactions, detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for hydrocarbon combustion. This mechanism is used for predictions of the oxidation of butadiene, the primary HTPB pyrolysis product. A Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) based simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion is proposed. The simplification algorithm is fed with the steady-solutions of classical flamelet equations, these being representative of the non-premixed nature of the combustion processes characterizing a hybrid rocket combustion chamber. The adopted flamelet steady-state solutions are obtained employing pure butadiene and gaseous oxygen as fuel and oxidizer boundary conditions, respectively, for a range of imposed values of strain rate and background pressure. Three simplified chemical mechanisms, each comprising less than 20 species, are obtained for three different pressure values, 3, 17, and 36 bar, selected in accordance with an experimental test campaign of lab-scale hybrid rocket static firings. Finally, a comprehensive strategy is shown to provide simplified mechanisms capable of reproducing the main flame features in the whole pressure range considered.

  14. Closed-loop thrust and pressure profile throttling of a nitrous oxide/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zachary W.

    Hybrid motors that employ non-toxic, non-explosive components with a liquid oxidizer and a solid hydrocarbon fuel grain have inherently safe operating characteristics. The inherent safety of hybrid rocket motors offers the potential to greatly reduce overall operating costs. Another key advantage of hybrid rocket motors is the potential for in-flight shutdown, restart, and throttle by controlling the pressure drop between the oxidizer tank and the injector. This research designed, developed, and ground tested a closed-loop throttle controller for a hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene as propellants. The research simultaneously developed closed-loop throttle algorithms and lab scale motor hardware to evaluate the fidelity of the throttle simulations and algorithms. Initial open-loop motor tests were performed to better classify system parameters and to validate motor performance values. Deep-throttle open-loop tests evaluated limits of stable thrust that can be achieved on the test hardware. Open-loop tests demonstrated the ability to throttle the motor to less than 10% of maximum thrust with little reduction in effective specific impulse and acoustical stability. Following the open-loop development, closed-loop, hardware-in-the-loop tests were performed. The closed-loop controller successfully tracked prescribed step and ramp command profiles with a high degree of fidelity. Steady-state accuracy was greatly improved over uncontrolled thrust.

  15. Remote control video cameras on a suborbital rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessling, Francis C.

    1997-01-01

    Three video cameras were controlled in real time from the ground to a sub-orbital rocket during a fifteen minute flight from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Telemetry communications with the rocket allowed the control of the cameras. The pan, tilt, zoom, focus, and iris of two of the camera lenses, the power and record functions of the three cameras, and also the analog video signal that would be sent to the ground was controlled by separate microprocessors. A microprocessor was used to record data from three miniature accelerometers, temperature sensors and a differential pressure sensor. In addition to the selected video signal sent to the ground and recorded there, the video signals from the three cameras also were recorded on board the rocket. These recorders were mounted inside the pressurized segment of the rocket payload. The lenses, lens control mechanisms, and the three small television cameras were located in a portion of the rocket payload that was exposed to the vacuum of space. The accelerometers were also exposed to the vacuum of space

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  17. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  18. Investigation on the production of hydrogen rich gas in a plasma converter for motorcycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, R.-F.; Chang, Y.-P.; Wu, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A plasma fuel converter producing a hydrogen rich gas fuel has been designed and constructed. The methodology included using a high voltage electric arc generator to ionize the mixture of methane fuel and air, which was then reformed into a hydrogen rich gas. It transpired from the experiment that the higher the arc frequency, the higher was the generated hydrogen concentration, with a maximum concentration of 43 vol.% attained with an arc frequency of 200 Hz and an O/C (O 2 /CH 4 ) ratio of 0.10. The maximum hydrogen yield of 0.55 was obtained with an arc frequency of 200 Hz and an O/C ratio between 0.20 and 0.25. By fueling a four stroke motorcycle engine with the hydrogen rich gas, low emissions during the cold start idle condition can be obtained

  19. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  20. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  1. Potential climate impact of black carbon emitted by rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Martin; Mills, Michael; Toohey, Darin

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. A global climate model predicts that emissions from a fleet of 1000 launches per year of suborbital rockets would create a persistent layer of black carbon particles in the northern stratosphere that could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical stratospheric ozone abundances are predicted to change as much as 1%, while polar ozone changes by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures change as much as one degree K regionally with significant impacts on polar sea ice fractions. After one decade of continuous launches, globally averaged radiative forcing from the black carbon would exceed the forcing from the emitted CO2 by a factor of about 105 and would be comparable to the radiative forcing estimated from current subsonic aviation.

  2. A summary of results from solar monitoring rocket flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three rocket flights to measure the solar constant and provide calibration data for sensors aboard Nimbus 6, 7, and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were accomplished. The values obtained by the rocket instruments for the solar constant in SI units are: 1367 w/sq m on 29 June 1976; 1372 w/sq m on 16 November 1978; and 1374 w/sq m on 22 May 1980. The uncertainty of the rocket measurements is + or - 0.5%. The values obtained by the Hickey-Frieden sensor on Nimbus 7 during the second and third flights was 1376 w/sq m. The value obtained by the Active Cavity Radiometer Model IV (ACR IV) on SMM during the flight was 1368 w/sq m.

  3. Chemical rocket propulsion a comprehensive survey of energetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shimada, Toru; Sinditskii, Valery; Calabro, Max

    2017-01-01

    Developed and expanded from the work presented at the New Energetic Materials and Propulsion Techniques for Space Exploration workshop in June 2014, this book contains new scientific results, up-to-date reviews, and inspiring perspectives in a number of areas related to the energetic aspects of chemical rocket propulsion. This collection covers the entire life of energetic materials from their conceptual formulation to practical manufacturing; it includes coverage of theoretical and experimental ballistics, performance properties, as well as laboratory-scale and full system-scale, handling, hazards, environment, ageing, and disposal. Chemical Rocket Propulsion is a unique work, where a selection of accomplished experts from the pioneering era of space propulsion and current technologists from the most advanced international laboratories discuss the future of chemical rocket propulsion for access to, and exploration of, space. It will be of interest to both postgraduate and final-year undergraduate students in...

  4. An echelle spectrograph for middle ultraviolet solar spectroscopy from rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousey, R; Purcell, J D; Garrett, D L

    1967-03-01

    An echelle grating spectrograph is ideal for use in a rocket when high resolution is required becaus itoccupies a minimum of space. The instrument described covers the range 4000-2000 A with a resolution of 0.03 A. It was designed to fit into the solar biaxial pointing-control section of an Aerobee-150 rocket. The characteristics of the spectrograph are illustrated with laboratory spectra of iron and carbon are sources and with solar spectra obtained during rocket flights in 1961 and 1964. Problems encountered in analyzing the spectra are discussed. The most difficult design problem was the elimination of stray light when used with the sun. Of the several methods investigated, the most effective was a predispersing system in the form of a zero-dispersion double monochromator. This was made compact by folding the beam four times.

  5. Review on film cooling of liquid rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Shine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Film cooling in combination with regenerative cooling is presently considered as an efficient method to guarantee safe operation of liquid rocket engines having higher heat flux densities for long duration. This paper aims to bring all the research carried out in the field of liquid rocket engine film cooling since 1950. The analytical and numerical procedure followed, experimental facilities and measurements made and major inferences drawn are reviewed in detail, and compared where ever possible. Review has been made through a discussion of the analyses methodologies and the factors that influence film cooling performance. An effort has also been made to determine the status of the research, pointing out critical gaps, which are still to be explained and addressed by future generations. Keywords: Heat transfer, Liquid rocket thrust chamber, Film cooling, Cooling effectiveness

  6. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Almostafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.

  7. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  9. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  10. Performance of an Axisymmetric Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine During Rocket Only Operation Using Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye; Keller, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is shown to be a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. An axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and multiple linear regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inlet diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis, using both the Spalart-Allmaras and k-omega turbulence models, was performed with the NPARC code to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both the full flow and gas generator configurations increasing mixer-ejector area ratio and rocket area ratio increase performance, while increasing mixer-ejector inlet area ratio and mixer-ejector length-to-diameter ratio decrease performance. Increasing injected secondary flow increased performance for the gas generator analysis, but was not statistically significant for the full flow analysis. Chamber pressure was found to be not statistically significant.

  11. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Definitions). A non-flammable ullage is one where the fuel-air vapor is too lean or too rich to burn or is... Office for approval the fuel tank flammability analysis, including the airplane-specific parameters...

  12. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  13. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  14. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. S.; Majdalani, J.

    2014-11-01

    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion.

  15. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Particle-Laden Solid Rocket Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T S; Majdalani, J

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-wall interactions within solid rocket motors can result in parietal vortex shedding giving rise to hydrodynamic instabilities, or unsteady waves, that translate into pressure oscillations. The oscillations can result in vibrations observed by the rocket, rocket subsystems, or payload, which can lead to changes in flight characteristics, design failure, or other undesirable effects. For many years particles have been embedded in solid rocket propellants with the understanding that their presence increases specific impulse and suppresses fluctuations in the flowfield. This study utilizes a two dimensional framework to understand and quantify the aforementioned two-phase flowfield inside a motor case with a cylindrical grain perforation. This is accomplished through the use of linearized Navier-Stokes equations with the Stokes drag equation and application of the biglobal ansatz. Obtaining the biglobal equations for analysis requires quantification of the mean flowfield within the solid rocket motor. To that end, the extended Taylor-Culick form will be utilized to represent the gaseous phase of the mean flowfield while the self-similar form will be employed for the particle phase. Advancing the mean flowfield by quantifying the particle mass concentration with a semi-analytical solution the finalized mean flowfield is combined with the biglobal equations resulting in a system of eight partial differential equations. This system is solved using an eigensolver within the framework yielding the entire spectrum of eigenvalues, frequency and growth rate components, at once. This work will detail the parametric analysis performed to demonstrate the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of particles within solid rocket combustion

  16. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  17. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  18. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.; Chassay, R.

    1976-12-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment

  19. Improved Background Removal in Sounding Rocket Neutral Atom Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. R.; Rowland, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The VISIONS sounding rocket, launched into a substorm on Feb 7, 2013 from Poker Flat, Alaska had a novel miniaturized energetic neutral atom (ENA) imager onboard. We present further analysis of the ENA data from this rocket flight, including improved removal of ultraviolet and electron contamination. In particular, the relative error source contributions due to geocoronal, auroral, and airglow UV, as well as energetic electrons from 10 eV to 3 keV were assessed. The resulting data provide a more clear understanding of the spatial and temporal variations of the ion populations that are energized to tens or hundreds of eV.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)