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Sample records for fuel recharge problem

  1. Particle Swarm Optimization applied to combinatorial problem aiming the fuel recharge problem solution in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Anderson Alvarenga de Moura; Schirru, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    This work focuses on the usage the Artificial Intelligence technique Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to optimize the fuel recharge at a nuclear reactor. This is a combinatorial problem, in which the search of the best feasible solution is done by minimizing a specific objective function. However, in this first moment it is possible to compare the fuel recharge problem with the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), since both of them are combinatorial, with one advantage: the evaluation of the TSP objective function is much more simple. Thus, the proposed methods have been applied to two TSPs: Oliver 30 and Rykel 48. In 1995, KENNEDY and EBERHART presented the PSO technique to optimize non-linear continued functions. Recently some PSO models for discrete search spaces have been developed for combinatorial optimization. Although all of them having different formulation from the ones presented here. In this paper, we use the PSO theory associated with to the Random Keys (RK)model, used in some optimizations with Genetic Algorithms. The Particle Swarm Optimization with Random Keys (PSORK) results from this association, which combines PSO and RK. The adaptations and changings in the PSO aim to allow the usage of the PSO at the nuclear fuel recharge. This work shows the PSORK being applied to the proposed combinatorial problem and the obtained results. (author)

  2. Particle Swarm Optimization applied to combinatorial problem aiming the fuel recharge problem solution in a nuclear reactor; Particle swarm optimization aplicado ao problema combinatorio com vistas a solucao do problema de recarga em um reator nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Anderson Alvarenga de Moura; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: ameneses@con.ufrj.br; schirru@lmp.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This work focuses on the usage the Artificial Intelligence technique Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to optimize the fuel recharge at a nuclear reactor. This is a combinatorial problem, in which the search of the best feasible solution is done by minimizing a specific objective function. However, in this first moment it is possible to compare the fuel recharge problem with the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), since both of them are combinatorial, with one advantage: the evaluation of the TSP objective function is much more simple. Thus, the proposed methods have been applied to two TSPs: Oliver 30 and Rykel 48. In 1995, KENNEDY and EBERHART presented the PSO technique to optimize non-linear continued functions. Recently some PSO models for discrete search spaces have been developed for combinatorial optimization. Although all of them having different formulation from the ones presented here. In this paper, we use the PSO theory associated with to the Random Keys (RK)model, used in some optimizations with Genetic Algorithms. The Particle Swarm Optimization with Random Keys (PSORK) results from this association, which combines PSO and RK. The adaptations and changings in the PSO aim to allow the usage of the PSO at the nuclear fuel recharge. This work shows the PSORK being applied to the proposed combinatorial problem and the obtained results. (author)

  3. Optimization of control bars patterns and fuel recharges of coupled form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work a system coupled for the optimization of fuel recharges and control bars patterns in boiling water reactors (BWR by its initials in English) is presented. It was used a multi state recurrent neural net like optimization technique. This type of neural net has been used in the solution of diverse problems, in particular the design of patterns of control bars and the design of the fuel recharge. However, these problems have been resolved in an independent way with different optimization techniques. The system was developed in FORTRAN 77 language, it calls OCORN (Optimization of Cycles of Operation using Neural Nets) and it solves both problems of combinatory optimization in a coupled way. OCORN begins creating a seed recharge by means of an optimization through the Haling principle. Later on a pattern of control bars for this recharge seed is proposed. Then a new fuel recharge is designed using the control bars patterns previously found. By this way an iterative process begins among the optimization of control bars patterns and the fuel recharge until a stop criteria it is completed. The stop criteria is completed when the fuel recharges and the control bars patterns don't vary in several successive iterations. The final result is an optimal fuel recharge and its respective control bars pattern. In this work the obtained results by this system for a cycle of balance of 18 months divided in 12 steps of burnt are presented. The obtained results are very encouraging, since the fuel recharge and the control bars pattern, its fulfill with the restrictions imposed in each one of the problems. (Author)

  4. Optimization of control bars patterns and fuel recharges of coupled form; Optimizacion de patrones de barras de control y recargas de combustible de forma acoplada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dulcema6715@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    In this work a system coupled for the optimization of fuel recharges and control bars patterns in boiling water reactors (BWR by its initials in English) is presented. It was used a multi state recurrent neural net like optimization technique. This type of neural net has been used in the solution of diverse problems, in particular the design of patterns of control bars and the design of the fuel recharge. However, these problems have been resolved in an independent way with different optimization techniques. The system was developed in FORTRAN 77 language, it calls OCORN (Optimization of Cycles of Operation using Neural Nets) and it solves both problems of combinatory optimization in a coupled way. OCORN begins creating a seed recharge by means of an optimization through the Haling principle. Later on a pattern of control bars for this recharge seed is proposed. Then a new fuel recharge is designed using the control bars patterns previously found. By this way an iterative process begins among the optimization of control bars patterns and the fuel recharge until a stop criteria it is completed. The stop criteria is completed when the fuel recharges and the control bars patterns don't vary in several successive iterations. The final result is an optimal fuel recharge and its respective control bars pattern. In this work the obtained results by this system for a cycle of balance of 18 months divided in 12 steps of burnt are presented. The obtained results are very encouraging, since the fuel recharge and the control bars pattern, its fulfill with the restrictions imposed in each one of the problems. (Author)

  5. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  6. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A.; Valle G, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  7. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  8. Searching of fuel recharges by means of genetic algorithms and neural networks in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Montes T, J.L.; Castillo M, J.A.; Perusquia del C, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this work improvements to the systems RENOR and RECOPIA are presented, that were developed to optimize fuel recharges in boiling water reactors. The RENOR system is based on a Multi state recurrent neural network while RECOPIA is based on a Genetic Algorithm. In the new versions of these systems there is incorporate the execution of the Turned off Margin in Cold and the Excess of Reactivity in Hot. The new systems were applied to an operation cycle of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde. The recharges of fuel obtained by both methods are compared among if being observed that RENOR has better performance that RECOPIA, due to the nature of its search process. RECOPIA requires of approximately 1.4 times more time that RENOR to find a satisfactory recharge of fuel. (Author)

  9. In vivo experimental study of thermal problems for rechargeable neurostimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaobo; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Weiming; Ma, Bozhi; Hao, Hongwei; Li, Luming

    2013-01-01

    Eddy currents in the metal shell and copper losses in the coils generate heat in rechargeable neurostimulators, which increases the temperature of the adjacent tissue, potentially causing thermal damage of implant patients. Hence, there is an urgent need for a simple self-help method to measure the temperature of such subcutaneous devices. A wireless rechargeable implant system was fabricated and tested with in vivo experiments in swine to measure the increasing temperatures of both the implant device and the adjacent skin. A total of three swine were used in the study with 13 wireless charging tests. It was found that the temperatures of both the implant and the skin rose consistently with an approximately linear relationship in most of the charging time, demonstrating that the neurosimulator temperature could be estimated from the skin temperature. The equilibrium temperature differences are all less than 2°C. A convenient method was then given to monitor the adjacent skin temperature to evaluate the thermal hazards with a skin temperature threshold of 41°C. The proposed approach can be easily implemented by an implant patient at home to reduce the thermal risk, ease patient anxiety, and improve clinical outcomes. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  11. Fuel handling problems at KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Mazhar Hasan, S.; Mugtadir, A.

    1991-01-01

    KANUPP experienced two abnormal fuel and fuel handling related problems during the year 1990. One of these had arisen due to development of end plate to end plate coupling between the two bundles at the leading end of the fuel string in channel HO2-S. The incident occurred when attempts were being made to fuel this channel. Due to pulling of sticking bundles into the acceptor fuelling machine (north) magazine, which was not designed to accommodate two bundles, a magazine rotary stop occurred. The forward motion of the charge tube was simultaneously discovered to be restricted. The incident led to stalling of fuelling machine locked on to the channel HO2, necessitating a reactor shut down. Removal of the fuelling machine was accomplished sometime later after draining of the channel. The second incident which made the fuelling of channel KO5-N temporarily inexecutable, occurred during attempts to remove its north end shield plug when this channel came up for fuelling. The incident resulted due to breaking of the lugs of the shield plug, making its withdrawal impossible. The Plant however kept operating with suspended fuelling of channel KO5, until it could no longer sustain a further increase in fuel burnup at the maximum rating position. Resolving both these problems necessitated draining of the respective channels, leaving the resident fuel uncovered for the duration of the associated operation. Due to substantial difference in the oxidation temperatures Of UO 2 and Zircaloy and its influence as such on the cooling requirement, it was necessary either to determine explicitly that the respective channels did not contain defective fuel bundles or wait for time long enough to allow the decay heat to reduce to manageable proportions. This had a significant bearing on the Plant down time necessary for the rectification of the problems. This paper describes the two incidents in detail and dwells upon the measures adopted to resolve the related problems. (author)

  12. Fuel cycle problems in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel cycle problems of fusion reactors evolve around the breeding, recovery, containment, and recycling of tritium. These processes are described, and their implications and alternatives are discussed. Technically, fuel cycle problems are solvable; economically, their feasibility is not yet known

  13. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

  14. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...... locations, which is a common and important constraint in real-world routing and planning problems. We solve this problem by means of branch-and-price as well as proposing a hybrid heuristic, which combines an Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search with an embedded local search and labeling procedure...

  15. Groundwater recharge through wells in open loop geothermal system: problems and solutions - part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pietro Beretta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two parts of this article, the problems related to the management of water wells as part of a low-enthalpy geothermal power plant by means of heat pumps (open loop system are described. In many cases, in absence of discharge in surface water and/or to ensure the conservation of the resource from a quantitative point of view, a doublet system constituted by a pumping and a recharge well is provided. The clogging phenomenon often occurs in this kind of plant, affecting wells with different functions and different thermal potential related to water withdrawal and reinjection into the ground. This phenomenon is due to the presence of air bubbles, suspended solids, bacterial growth and to the chemical-physical reactions that are described in the text. Besides acknowledging the activities for recharge wells management to avoid the fracturing of the drain and the cementation, is also suggested the procedure of in situ tests that are used to properly determine the optimal well discharge, which determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the geothermal system and its economic performance.It is finally shown a regional regulation on the water quality used in an open loop.

  16. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  17. Use of Gray code in PBIL algorithm for application in recharge of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nast, Fernando N.; Silva, Patrick V.; Meneses, Anderson A. M.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The In-Core Fuel Management Optimization (OGCIN) problem, or design optimization of Load Patterns (PCs) are denominations for the optimization problem associated with the refueling operation in a reactor nuclear. The OCGIN is considered a problem of difficult resolution, considering aspects of combinatorial optimization and calculations of analysis and physics of reactors. In order to validate algorithms for the OGCIN solution, we use benchmark problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), because it is considered, like OGCIN, an NP-difficult problem. In the present work, we implemented the Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithm with binary coding and Gray coding and applied them to the optimization of the symmetric PCV Oliver30 and Rykel48 asymmetric PCV and implemented only the Gray coding in the OGCIN application of the cycle 7 of the Angra-1 Nuclear Plant, where we compared its performance with binary coding in. The results on average were 1311 and 1327 ppm of Boron for the binary and Gray codifications respectively, emphasizing that the binary codification obtained a maximum value of 1330 ppm, while the Gray code obtained a value of 1401 ppm, showing superiority, since the Boron concentration is an indicator of the PC cycle extension

  18. Problems related to fossil fuels utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, R.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels still present the main energy source in the world since about 90% of the energy produced comes from combustion. This paper, based on the lectures given at the conference of Energy and Environment hold at the Accademia dei Lincei in 1998, presents a short review of some of the problems related to the utilization of fossil fuels, such as their availability in the medium period, the effect of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere as well as the available technologies to deal with such problems [it

  19. Searching of fuel recharges by means of genetic algorithms and neural networks in BWRs; Busqueda de recargas de combustible mediante algoritmos geneticos y redes neuronales en BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Montes T, J.L.; Castillo M, J.A.; Perusquia del C, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work improvements to the systems RENOR and RECOPIA are presented, that were developed to optimize fuel recharges in boiling water reactors. The RENOR system is based on a Multi state recurrent neural network while RECOPIA is based on a Genetic Algorithm. In the new versions of these systems there is incorporate the execution of the Turned off Margin in Cold and the Excess of Reactivity in Hot. The new systems were applied to an operation cycle of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde. The recharges of fuel obtained by both methods are compared among if being observed that RENOR has better performance that RECOPIA, due to the nature of its search process. RECOPIA requires of approximately 1.4 times more time that RENOR to find a satisfactory recharge of fuel. (Author)

  20. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  1. A comparison between genetic algorithms and neural networks for optimizing fuel recharges in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz J, J.; Requena, I.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the results of a genetic algorithm (AG) and a neural recurrent multi state network (RNRME) for optimizing the fuel reload of 5 cycles of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (CNLV) are presented. The fuel reload obtained by both methods are compared and it was observed that the RNRME creates better fuel distributions that the AG. Moreover a comparison of the utility for using one or another one techniques is make. (Author)

  2. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  3. Overview of spent fuel management and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.; Ernst, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel worldwide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. Some projections of spent fuel inventories to the year 2006 are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. BUTREN-RC an hybrid system for the recharges optimization of nuclear fuels in a BWR; BUTREN-RC un sistema hibrido para la optimizacion de recargas de combustible nuclear en un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz S, J.J.; Castillo M, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The obtained results with the hybrid system BUTREN-RC are presented that obtains recharges of nuclear fuel for a BWR type reactor. The system has implemented the methods of optimization heuristic taboo search and neural networks. The optimization it carried out with the technique of taboo search, and the neural networks, previously trained, were used to predict the behavior of the recharges of fuel, in substitution of commercial codes of reactor simulation. The obtained recharges of nuclear fuel correspond to 5 different operation cycles of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, Veracruz in Mexico. The obtained results were compared with the designs of this cycles. The energy gain with the recharges of fuel proposals is of approximately 4.5% with respect to those of design. The time of compute consumed it was considerably smaller that when a commercial code for reactor simulation is used. (Author)

  5. Safety problems in fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaury, P.; Jouannaud, C.; Niezborala, F.

    1979-01-01

    The document first situates the reprocessing in the fuel cycle as a whole. It shows that a large reprocessing plant serves a significant number of reactors (50 for a plant of 1500 tonnes per annum). It then assesses the potential risks with respect to the environment as well as with respect to the operating personnel. The amounts of radioactive matter handled are very significant and their easily dispersible physical form represents very important risks. But the low potential energy likely to bring about this dispersion and the very severe and plentiful confinement arrangements are such that the radioactive risks are very small, both with respect to the environment and the operating personnel. The problems of the interventions for maintenance or repairs are mentioned. The intervention techniques in a radioactive environment are perfected, but they represent the main causes of operating personnel irradiation. The design principle applied in the new plants take this fact into account, involving a very significant effort to improve the reliability of the equipment and ensuring the provision of devices enabling the failing components to be replaced without causing irradiation of the personnel [fr

  6. Problems associated with high burnup of VVER reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnikov, F.G.; Golovin, I.S.; Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Solyany, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    One of the principal direction of improving the characteristics of the thermal power reactor fuel cycle is to increase the burn-up of fuel in fuel elements. So in future for VVER-1000 elements the planned burn-up of fuel must be up to 40000-50000 MW-day/t U. The realization of those parameters would permit a substantial decrease in the consumption of natural uranium in the open fuel cycle, a considerable reduction of the load on fuel element fabrication and reprocessing plants, which will favourably affect the whole economics of the fuel - power cycle. However, the position of the optimum of the fuel component of the cost depending on burn-up is determined not only by the economy of uranium, the cost of fuel element fabrication processes, uranium enrichment and the chemical reprocessing of burnt fuel, but also by the provision of the required safety of high burn-up fuel elements. Thus, scientists and designing engineers face the problem of designing serviceable and reliable thermal power reactor fuel elements intended for longer service life and higher burn-ups and ensuring the safety of the whole reactor plant. This paper deals with some of the aspects of this most complicated problem for the fuel elements of VVER type only

  7. Alkali slagging problems with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biomass fueled power boilers are unable to burn more than minor percentages of annually generated agricultural fuels. Determining the mechanisms of deposit formation, and developing means of increasing the proportion of these annual biofuels to be fired are the aims of the ongoing Alkali Deposit Investigation sponsored by DOE/NREL with matching funds from industry sponsors, combining Science, Engineering and Industry.

  8. Influence of the flux axial form on the conversion rate and duration of cycle between recharging for ThPu and U{sub nat} fuels in CANDU reactors; Influence de la forme axiale du flux sur le taux de conversion et la duree du cycle entre rechargements pour du combustible ThPu et U{sub nat} dans les reacteurs CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Richard [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-01-15

    To face the increasing world power demand the world nuclear sector must be continuously updated and developed as well. Thus reactors of new types are introduced and advanced fuel cycles are proposed. The technological and economic feasibility and the transition of the present power park to a renewed park require thorough studies and scenarios, which are highly dependent on the reactor performances. The conversion rate and cycle span between recharging are important parameters in the scenarios studies. In this frame, we have studied the utilisation of thorium in the CANDU type reactors and particularly the influence of axial form of the flux, i.e. of the recharging mode, on the conversion rate and duration of the cycle between recharging. The results show that up to a first approximation the axial form of the flux resulting from the neutron transport calculations for assessing the conversion rate is not necessary to be taken into account. However the time span between recharging differs up to several percents if the axial form of the flux is taken into consideration in transport calculations. Thus if the burnup or the recharging frequency are parameters which influence significantly the deployment scenarios of a nuclear park an approach more refined than a simple transport evolution in a typical cell/assembly is recommended. Finally, the results of this study are not more general than for the assumed conditions but they give a thorough calculation method valid for any recharging/fuel combination in a CANDU type reactor.

  9. Present state and problems of uranium fuel fabrication businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuki, Akio

    1981-01-01

    The businesses of uranium fuel fabrication converting uranium hexafluoride to uranium dioxide powder and forming fuel assemblies are the field of most advanced industrialization among nuclear fuel cycle industries in Japan. At present, five plants of four companies engage in this business, and their yearly sales exceeded 20 billion yen. All companies are planning the augmentation of installation capacity to meet the growth of nuclear power generation. The companies of uranium fuel fabrication make the nuclear fuel of the specifications specified by reactor manufacturers as the subcontractors. In addition to initially loaded fuel, the fuel for replacement is required, therefore the demand of uranium fuel is relatively stable. As for the safety of enriched uranium flowing through the farbicating processes, the prevention of inhaling uranium powder by workers and the precaution against criticality are necessary. Also the safeguard measures are imposed so as not to convert enriched uranium to other purposes than peacefull ones. The strict quality control and many times of inspections are carried out to insure the soundness of nuclear fuel. The growth of the business of uranium fuel fabrication and the regulation of the businesses by laws are described. As the problems for the future, the reduction of fabrication cost, the promotion of research and development and others are pointed out. (Kako, I.)

  10. Various problems in establishment of fuel cycle business in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Since Japan instituted the Atomic Energy Act in 1956, and organized the Atomic Energy Commission, as the fundamental policy of the peaceful use of atomic energy, the industrialization and establishment of fuel cycle technology have been advanced as well as the development of power reactors. The consistent and harmonious industrialization of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, the utilization of recovered plutonium and uranium, and the storage, treatment and disposal of wastes has been the target. As the nuclear power generation in Japan grew, the enhancement of the various factors of nuclear fuel cycle as the base of supporting nuclear power generation has become necessary. The effort of technical development has been continued in the fields of uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing, plutonium fuel and waste treatment by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and related industries. The plan and present status of nuclear fuel cycle business in Japan, the problems such as the roles of the government and private enterprises, technology transfer, the economy of nuclear fuel cycle business, the industrialization of mixed oxide fuel fabrication, nuclear nonproliferation policy and location are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  11. Magnetic tomography for fuel cells-current status and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer, Karl-Heinz; Potthast, Roland

    2007-01-01

    We provide a survey about the status and open problems for magnetic tomography for fuel cells. A number of papers are reviewed which develop the subject including theory of simulation and inversion, uniqueness questions, reconstruction algorithms and real data applications. In particular, this work describes a number of yet unpublished results and experiments. Our goal is to provide a complete picture of the status-quo of magnetic tomography for fuel cells which includes the recent scientific and engineering results as well as an introduction into open questions and upcoming developments. We believe that magnetic tomography as an ill-posed and non-unique inverse source problem reflects key problems of many applied inverse problems. In particular, the challenges of real data applications reflect the challenges of the area of inverse problems as a whole and provide inside into generic problems of this important area of applied mathematics

  12. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  13. Fuel-optimal trajectories for aeroassisted coplanar orbital transfer problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.; Charalambous, Charalambos D.

    1990-01-01

    The optimal control problem arising in coplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology is addressed. The maneuver involves the transfer from high to low earth orbit via the atmosphere, with the object of minimizing the total fuel consumption. Simulations are carried out to obtain the fuel-optimal trajectories for flying the spacecraft through the atmosphere. A highlight is the application of an efficient multiple-shooting method for treating the nonlinear two-point boundary value problem resulting from the optimizaion procedure. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to fly at the maximum lift-to-drag ratio L/D initially in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly at a negative L/D to level off the flight so that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.

  14. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  15. A new formulation for the problem of fuel cell homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.-A.; Martinez, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new homogenization method for reactor cells is described. This new method consists in eliminating the NR approximation for the fuel resonance and the Wigner approximation for the resonance escape probability; the background cross section is then redefined and the problem studied is reanalyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Present status and problems in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Sanshiro

    1977-01-01

    The general present status and technical problems including political aspect in the nuclear fuel cycle are reported in this paper. The outline of the fuel cycle for nuclear power generation with light water reactor power plants, the present status of reprocessing spent fuel in the world in the correlation with the growth of nuclear power generation, the high radioactivity level of spent fuel relating to the increase of burn-up, the safety problem in reprocessing plants, for example, fire, explosion and criticality, the release of gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, the exposure to plutonium in reprocessing plants, the present status of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Japan, the classification of radioactive wastes according to the radioactivity level, the disposal by dumping in the ocean and burying under the ground of low level wastes, the technical difficulty in the disposal of high level wastes, for example, storage in tanks, solidification of liquid waste and storage, disposal into solar orbit using rockets, and disposal in the south pole, the radioactive waste treatment and disposal program in Japan and the characteristics of plutonium especially as the poison are described in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  17. Self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes and their catalysis for fuel cell and rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seung Hyo; Kwon, Choah; Hwang, Jeemin; Ohsaka, Takeo; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Tae-Young; Yoon, Young-Gi; Chen, Zhongwei; Seo, Min Ho; Han, Byungchan

    2017-06-08

    In this study, we report self-assembled nitrogen-doped fullerenes (N-fullerene) as non-precious catalysts, which are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and thus applicable for energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air battery systems. We screen the best N-fullerene catalyst at the nitrogen doping level of 10 at%, not at the previously known doping level of 5 or 20 at% for graphene. We identify that the compressive surface strain induced by doped nitrogen plays a key role in the fine-tuning of catalytic activity.

  18. PROBLEMS OF DETERMINING THE FUEL COST FOR INTERNATIONAL ROAD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bondarev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When performing international goods transportation the most expensive consumption is the fuel. For planing reliable fuel costs there was conducted analytical and experimental research. According to the research, the method to determine the volume and cost of fuel according to the criterion of its maximum use with minimum cost within the country follow routes is determined.

  19. Fuel mix electricity 2020, inventory, problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Snoep, H.J.M.; Van Deurzen, J.; Lensink, S.M.; Van der Welle, A.J.; Wetzels, W.

    2010-04-01

    ECN made an inventory of the fuel mix of the electricity generation in the Netherlands for the year 2020. The inventory is derived from the updated Reference Projections that are based on the Global Economy scenario. This scenario has a relatively high growth of the domestic electricity demand (156 TWh in 2020 compared to about 118 TWh in 2008). Besides the factual inventory, ECN made a quickscan of potential problems associated with high penetration of electricity from wind energy, up to 12,000 MW in 2020. The conclusion is that the so-called 'offpeak hours issue' (in Dutch: 'het daluren issue') is a real potential problem under such scenario assumptions. In case of full wind availability, the total generating capacity consisting of must-run capacity and typical base load power plants with low variable cost of production (nuclear and coal) may exceed the electricity demand (domestic plus net export) in part of these off-peak situations, e.g. during nighttime. The must-run capacity consists, among others, of part of the decentralised CHP installations and waste incinerators. Potential solutions to this 'off-peak hours issue' are: (1) Flexibility in electricity demand ('demand response'); (2) Additional interconnection with neighbouring countries and appropriate market design rules; (3) Storage of electricity; (4) Flexibility of conventional (fossil) supply; (5) Flexibility of the intermittent renewable generation itself; (6) Intelligent grids ('Smart Grids'). Additional detailed analyses and research are needed to address the magnitude of the problem and to analyse the contribution of the various solutions. Such an analysis can provide an indication of an optimal and feasible combination of the solutions identified. Relevant issues are: (a) How often, with which magnitude and under which circumstances will the problem occur?; (b) What will be the effect on the curtailing of wind energy, and is curtailing plausible given current market rules and renewable energy

  20. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firnhaber, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Yegorova, L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brockmeier, U. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  1. Analytical solution and experimental validation of the energy management problem for fuel cell hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar; M. Grimminck; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Bram Veenhuizen

    2011-01-01

    The objective of an energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems is to minimize the fuel needed to provide the required power demand. This minimization is defined as an optimization problem. Methods such as dynamic programming numerically solve this optimization problem.

  2. Model and algorithm for bi-fuel vehicle routing problem to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Behroz; MirHassani, Seyed Ali; Hooshmand, Farnaz

    2017-09-01

    Because of the harmful effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by petroleum-based fuels, the adoption of alternative green fuels such as biodiesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) is an inevitable trend in the transportation sector. However, the transition to alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) fleets is not easy and, particularly at the beginning of the transition period, drivers may be forced to travel long distances to reach alternative fueling stations (AFSs). In this paper, the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles is proposed as an operational approach. We present a mathematical model to address vehicle routing problem (VRP) with bi-fuel vehicles and show that the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles can lead to a significant reduction in GHG emissions. Moreover, a simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to solve large instances of this problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on some random instances.

  3. Reflector modelization in neutronic and optimization methods applied to fuel loading pattern; Modelisation du reflecteur en neutronique et methodes d`optimisation appliquees aux plans de rechargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaud, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    I Physical description of P.W.R nuclear core can be handled by multigroup neutronic diffusion model. We are interested in two problems, using the same approach for the optimization aspect. To deal with some differences between calculations and measurements, the question of their reduction is then introduced. A reflector parameters identification from core measurements is then purposed, the reflector being at the present time the less known part of core diffusion model. This approach conducts to study the reflector model, in particular by an analysis of its transport origin. It leads finally to a new model of reflector described by boundary operators using an integral formulation on the core/reflector interface. That is on this new model that a parameter identification formulation of calculations-measurements differences reduction is given, using an adjoint state formulation to minimize errors by a gradient method. Furthermore, nuclear fuel reload of P.W.R core needs an optimal distribution of fuel assemblies, namely a loading pattern. This combinatorial optimization problem is then expressed as a cost function minimization, the cost function describing the power spatial distribution. Various methods (linear programming, simulated annealing,...), used to solve this problem, are detailed, given in particular a practical search example. A new approach is then proposed, using the gradient of the cost function to direct the search in the patterns discrete space. Final results of complete patterns search trials are presented, and compared to those obtained by other methods. In particular the results are obtained very quickly. (author). 81 refs., 55 figs., 5 appends.

  4. Open problems in reprocessing of a molten salt reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, Vladimir; Vocka, Radim

    2000-01-01

    The study of fuel cycle in a molten salt reactor (MSR) needs deeper understanding of chemical methods used for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and preparation of MSR fuel, as well as of the methods employed for reprocessing of MSR fuel itself. Assuming that all the reprocessing is done on the basis of electrorefining, we formulate some open questions that should be answered before a flow sheet diagram of the reactor is designed. Most of the questions concern phenomena taking place in the vicinity of an electrode, which influence the efficiency of the reprocessing and sensibility of element separation. Answer to these questions would be an important step forward in reactor set out. (Authors)

  5. Independent assessment of forseeable problems in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the U. S. nuclear fuel cycle business including investment requirements; nuclear power growth projection; reliability of uranium supply; enrichment facilities; plutonium recycle; safeguards; and insurance

  6. State of the art: Multi-fuel reformers for automotive fuel cell applications. Problem identification and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Pettersson, L.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1999-12-01

    On an assignment from the Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) a literature study and a study trip to the USA and Great Britain have been performed. The literature study and the study trip was made during late spring and autumn 1999.The purpose of the project was to collect available information about the chemical composition of the product gas from a multi-fuel reformer for a fuel cell vehicle. It was furthermore to identify problems and research needs. The report recommends directions for future major research efforts. The results of the literature study and the study trip led to the following general conclusions: With the technology available today it does not seem feasible to develop a highly efficient and reliable multi-fuel reformer for automotive applications, i. e. for applications where all types of fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy diesel fuels can be used. The potential for developing a durable and reliable system is considerably higher if dedicated fuel reformers are used.The authors propose that petroleum-derived fuels should be designed for potential use in mobile fuel cell applications. In the present literature survey and the site visit discussions we found that there are relatively low emissions from fuel cell engines compared to internal combustion engines. However, the major research work on reformers/fuel cells have been performed during steady-state operation. Emissions during start-up, shutdown and transient operation are basically unknown and must be investigated in more detail. The conclusions and findings in this report are based on open/available information, such as discussions at site visits, reports, scientific publications and symposium proceedings.

  7. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  8. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  9. Pressurized water reactor fuel performance problems connected with fuel cladding corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, I.; Zaharieva, N.

    2008-01-01

    Generally, Pressurized Water Reactor (WWER, PWR) Fuel Element Performance is connected with fuel cladding corrosion and crud deposition processes. By transient to extended fuel cycles in nuclear power reactors, aiming to achieve higher burnup and better fuel utilization, the role of these processes increases significantly. This evolution modifies the chemical and electrochemical conditions in the reactor primary system, including change of fuel claddings' environment. The higher duty cores are always attended with increased boiling (sub-cooled nucleate boiling) mainly on the feed fuel assemblies. This boiling process on fuel cladding surfaces can cause different consequences on fuel element cladding's environment characteristics. In the case of boiling at the cladding surfaces without or with some cover of corrosion product deposition, the behavior of gases dissolved in water phase is strongly influenced by the vapor generation. The increase of vapor partial pressure will reduce the partial pressures of dissolved gases and will cause their stripping out. By these circumstances the concentrations of dissolved gases in cladding wall water layer can dramatically decrease, including also the case by which all dissolved gases to be stripped out. On the other hand it is known that the hydrogen is added to primary coolant in order to avoid the production of oxidants by radiolysis of water. It is clear that if boiling strips out dissolved hydrogen, the creation of oxidizing conditions at the cladding surfaces will be favored. In this case the local production of oxidants will be a result from local processes of water radiolysis, by which not only both oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen (H 2 ) but also hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) will be produced. While these hydrogen and oxygen will be stripped out preferentially by boiling, the bigger part of hydrogen peroxide will remain in wall water phase and will act as the most important factor for creation of oxidizing conditions in fuel

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on hydrocarbon processing mixing and scale-up problems. [Fuels processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J. D. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization of the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Particulate and Multiphase Process Program of the National Science Foundation to identify needs for fundamental engineering support for the design of chemical reactors for processing heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The problems associated with dispersing liquid hydrocarbons in a reacting gas and mixing within the gas phase are of primary concern. The transactions of the workshop begin with an introduction to the immediate goals of the Department of Energy. Fuel cell systems and current research and development are reviewed. Modeling of combustion and the problems of soot formation and deposits in hydrocarbon fuels are next considered. The fluid mechanics of turbulent mixing and its effect on chemical reactions are then presented. Current experimental work and process development provide an update on the present state-of-the-art.

  11. Design optimization of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station fuel recharge; Optimacion del diseno de recargas de combustible para la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Campos, Carlos Cristobal [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Montes Tadeo, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    It is described, in general terms, the procedure that is followed to accomplish the optimization of the recharge design, and an example is shown where this procedure was applied for the analysis of the type BWR reactor of Unit No. 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] Se describe en terminos generales el procedimiento que se sigue para realizar la optimacion del diseno de recargas, y se muestra un ejemplo en el que se utilizo dicho procedimiento para el analisis del reactor tipo BWR de la unidad 1, de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV).

  12. Physical-chemistry problems in safe disposal of irradiated fuel from RA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel resulting from 25 years of operating the 6.5/10 MW heavy water moderated and cooled research RA at the Vinca Institute is still all stored in the temporary spent fuel storage pool in the basement of the reactor building. In 1984, the reactor was shut down for refurbishment, which for a number of reasons has not yet been completed. However, independently of the future status of the research reactor, safe disposal of the so far irradiated fuel must be the subject of primary concern. Basic facts about operation, ageing, reconstruction and spent fuel storage of the research reactor RA have been presented and discussed in detail in some earlier papers. This paper describes present activities and discusses options for permanent solution of the spent fuel storage problem. (author)

  13. Third international radioecological conference. The fate of spent nuclear fuel: problems and reality. Abstracts collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In the book there are abstracts collection of the third International radioecological conference 'The fate of spent nuclear fuel: problems and reality' (June, 22-27, 1996, Krasnoyarsk, Russia) and International workshop meeting 'Defence nuclear waste disposal in Russia'. In the collection there are materials concerning the problems of technology, economics, ecology and safety of two types of nuclear cycle as well as the problems of health of population living near nuclear ojects and on contaminated territories

  14. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Mudgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  15. Corrosion Problems in Incinerators and Biomass-Fuel-Fired Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to burn the municipal waste, biowaste, wood, straw, and biomedical waste. Combustion of these types of waste results in generation of chlorides of sodium and potassium which may attack the metallic part of the incinerator. In biofuel-fired boilers, similar type of highly corrosive environment is present. Attempt has been made to review the corrosion problems and their solutions as per the available literature.

  16. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken...... significant corrosion attack was due to sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels are discussed....... appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 hours using 0-20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel of 10% straw + coal. After three years exposure in this environment...

  17. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been....... However, the most significant corrosion attack was sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels...... corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawþcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure...

  18. Microbial contamination in diesel fuel. Are new problems arising from biodiesel blends?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegert, Wolfgang [Schuelke und Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Standard diesel fuel is allowed to contain only 0.2 cm{sup 3} water per litre of fuel from which a third of this is dissolved. The rest of the water settles at the tank bottom and is sufficient to serve as a biosphere for the microorganisms. Microbial products of decomposition form an emulsion of water and fuel and make separation of the water more difficult. Microbes are the cause for operational problems like fouling of tanks, pipes, filters and tank corrosion. These microbial problems in mineral diesel have been known for over 70 years. But nowadays the diesel fuel is a blend with biodiesel such as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Since the widespread of biodiesel blends an increase of operational problems is observed. Does the addition of FAME increase the risk of microbial contamination? Is it enhancing microbial growth? The fatty acid esters, such as FAME, produce an environment in mineral diesel in which microbial growth is encouraged due to the ability of microorganisms to degrade natural fat and oil to yield energy for growth. The microbial growth can be enhanced at every stage in production, storage, distribution and in end users vehicles. Good housekeeping, monitoring and proper usage of an effective biocide are crucial measures for an anti-microbial strategy. A tailor-made fuel biocide for mineral diesel I FAME blends is introduced. (orig.)

  19. Design and construction of a go-kart hybrid PEM fuel cell / rechargeable battery; Diseno y construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible PEM / bateria recargable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Alcantara, Karina; Rodriguez Castellanos, Andres; Soloza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: k.suarez.alcantara@gmail.com

    2008-11-15

    An hybrid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, PEMFC-Rechargeable Battery Go-kart has been designed and manufactured using AutoCAD software for the design and a CNC mechanical machine for the manufacture of components of the fuel cell. The membrane-electrode assemblies, MEAs, were integrated with a Gore-Select membrane and carbon cloth with Pt (20 wt % /C) 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} anode and cathode electrode catalysts loading. High density graphite collector plates with 5mm thickness were used as collector plates. The estimated weigh of the go-kart with a driver is about 120 kg. The demand of the motor of the go-kart is 20 V and 5 A (100W), supplied by an hybrid system integrated by three 30Watts PEMFC. The commercially available Pb/acid rechargeable battery supplies energy for peripheral equipment. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el diseno y la construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible con membrana de conduccion protonica tipo PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane, por sus siglas en ingles) y pila recargable. El diseno de los colectores de corriente de la pila se realizo utilizando el programa AutoCAD y la construccion mediante una fresadora con control numerico, CNC. Los ensambles membrana-electrocatalizador de la pila estan formados por membranas Gore-Select y por electrodos de Pt soportado en tela de carbon al 20 %peso/C con carga de 0.5 mg /cm{sup 2}, en anodo y catodo. Los platos colectores de corriente fueron manufacturados en grafito de alta densidad con espesor de 5 mm. La caracterizacion de la pila de combustible se realizo mediante ensayos de polarizacion potenciostatica. El peso total del go-kart y una persona a bordo es de 120 kg. La potencia del go-kart es generada por un motor de corriente directa de 20 V y 5 A (100 Watts). Para tal efecto, se construyeron tres pilas de combustible de 30 W cada una, con un respaldo de baterias recargables comerciales de Pb/acido para energizar equipos perifericos.

  20. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  1. Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-01-01

    More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO 2 fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

  2. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  3. using fuzzy-robust approach for minimizing transportation and fuel costs in location problem under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan hosseini nasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Operations research is a commonly used method in many subjects nowadays. One applicable domain of operation research is the problem of facility layout and location. In this paper, a new mathematical programing model is developed for an optimal facility location and assignment. The model includes two objective functions. The first one minimizes the total material handling and fixed costs of facility location. Because of the importance of energy and the main role of fossil fuel in transportation, the second objective function, minimizes the total cost of fuel consumption. To consider the real condition in the proposed model, the cost of fuel, is considered to increase stepwise gradually. In the proposed model the coefficients of objective function are considered to be probabilistic and some of constraints to be fuzzy variables. Using a new approach, this model can be changed to a robust model. To prove the applicability of the model, it is examined for a real condition of facility location.

  4. High Temperature Corrosion Problem of Boiler Components in presence of Sulfur and Alkali based Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Material degradation and ageing is of particular concern for fossil fuel fired power plant components. New techniques/approaches have been explored in recent years for Residual Life assessment of aged components and material degradation due to different damage mechanism like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion etc. Apart from the creep, the high temperature corrosion problem in a fossil fuel fired boiler is a matter of great concern if the fuel contains sulfur, chlorine sodium, potassium and vanadium etc. This paper discusses the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion in different critical components of boiler like water wall, superheater and reheater tubes and also remedial measures to avoid the premature failure. This paper also high lights the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) methodology of the components based on high temperature fireside corrosion. of different critical components of boiler.

  5. Underwater fuel handling equipment maintenance. Verification of design assumptions, specific problems and tools, case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The majority of CANDU Fuel Transfer System equipment at Pickering is located under fourteen feet of water, as dictated by the containment and shielding requirements. Such arrangement, however, creates specific problems with equipment maintenance. Each single piece of equipment serves two generating units, which means in case of defect- double losses on production, or two units shut down simultaneously for planned maintenance. The requirement for underwater maintenance was not anticipated at the design stage, which multiples the level of difficulty, and creates requirement for developing special tools for each work. Removal of the damaged fuel from the receiving bays and decontamination of submerged equipment is also part of the problem. The purpose of this presentation is to share our experience with the designers, operators, maintenance mechanics and technical personnel of the other CANDU generating stations

  6. Alterations to groundwater recharge due to anthropogenic landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Cao, Guoliang; Hall, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    The impacts of anthropogenic modifications to the landscape on groundwater recharge rates, locations, and mechanisms are reviewed. The two major categories of change examined are conversion of land for agriculture and urbanization, both of which have significant effects on groundwater recharge. Techniques for identifying and quantifying the changes in recharge due to these impacts are discussed. Land-clearing for agriculture and surface water transfer for irrigation have resulted in order of magnitude increases in recharge rates in many semi-arid regions worldwide, causing ongoing land and water salinization and water-logging problems. While increased recharge by irrigation return flow may alleviate shallow groundwater depletion in some settings, this is complicated by the effect of unsaturated zone thickening, which reduces the fraction of potential recharge becoming actual recharge, and may result in new water quality risks such as nitrate contamination. Expansion of urban and peri-urban land and their associated surface and sub-surface infrastructure results in complex water balance changes that re-distribute groundwater recharge locations, modify recharge mechanism(s) and result in variable impacts on recharge rates (e.g., overall net decrease, increase or minimal change) and quality. While changes to groundwater recharge resulting from conversion of land for agriculture are relatively well understood, less is documented about the changes resulting from urbanization, due to a paucity of data from field-based studies. Two case studies from Beijing, China and Melbourne Australia are examined, which highlight these impacts and demonstrate some potential methodological techniques for this topic.

  7. Artificial Recharge via Boreholes Using Treated Wastewater: Possibilities and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Voudouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in artificial recharge of groundwater using pretreated wastewater continues to increase, especially in semi-arid countries. After the artificial recharge and natural treatment, the water could be extracted through boreholes pumping for direct irrigation. The selection of suitable locations for artificial recharge should be based on hydrogeological conditions, economic evaluation and environmental considerations. Clogging of boreholes that are used for artificial recharge is a serious problem and requires proper planning to reduce it. This paper deals with the investigation of the possibilities and prospects of aquifer recharge via boreholes using treated wastewater. Firstly, the aquifer recharge techniques, the proposed criteria of waste and the clogging effect are presented. Secondly, the possibility of application of artificial recharge in the South-Eastern Mesaoria aquifer of Cyprus is examined. Based on hydrogeological results, artificial recharge using tertiary treated wastewater via boreholes is one of the options available for increasing the groundwater reserves of this aquifer. The recycled water will infiltrate through gravel pack, providing favorable conditions for ventilation and laminar flow due to small water flow velocity. The treatment works include the removal of the fat, oil and grease (FOG and cyanides (CN− content in order to meet the upper acceptable limits.

  8. An Efficient Two-Objective Hybrid Local Search Algorithm for Solving the Fuel Consumption Vehicle Routing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Weizhen; Liu, Feng; Wang, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    The classical model of vehicle routing problem (VRP) generally minimizes either the total vehicle travelling distance or the total number of dispatched vehicles. Due to the increased importance of environmental sustainability, one variant of VRPs that minimizes the total vehicle fuel consumption has gained much attention. The resulting fuel consumption VRP (FCVRP) becomes increasingly important yet difficult. We present a mixed integer programming model for the FCVRP, and fuel consumption is ...

  9. Methodology for solving the problem of contamination in pencils of Co-60 from the CNEA (Argentine) for the recharge of the gamma irradiator of the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal B, J.E.; Escobar A, L.; Angeles C, A.; Cruz G, H.S.

    1992-07-01

    Presently report the methodology used to identify the source of contamination detected in a shipment with 5.0 X 10 Bq of Co-60 coming from Argentina is described, as well as the solution outlined to solve the problem. Its are presented by way of conclusion the experiences but outstanding learned in the process. (Author)

  10. Environmental protection problems from the standpoint of regeneration of fast neutron reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeonov, L.I.; Lazarev, L.N.; Suprunenko, A.N.

    The discussion of the problem of environmental protection is based on two principles: a strict observance of legislatively established standards for permissible concentrations of radionuclides in objects of the environment and for dose loads for the population; all possible steps to reduce the contamination to a level justified in practice. Environmental protection steps are considered from the points of view of a systematic analysis. A survey of the environmental protection system near sources of radioactive discharges is given. The basic interactions and feedbacks are indicated. Characteristics differentiating the discharges of the fuel cycle of fast neutron breeder reactors from discharges of the slow neutron cycle are discussed. It is shown that it is necessary to study the overall regional and global interactions of discharges of the atomic power industry. The characteristics of situations at nuclear fuel cycle facilities of fast neutron reactors are discussed. The necessity of additional technical steps to prevent accidents and eliminate their effects if they take place is emphasized

  11. A hybrid approach to solving the problem of design of nuclear fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo, A.

    2015-09-01

    An approach to solving the problem of fuel cell design for BWR power reactor is presented. For this purpose the hybridization of a method based in heuristic knowledge rules called S15 and the advantages of a meta-heuristic method is proposed. The synergy of potentialities of both techniques allows finding solutions of more quality. The quality of each solution is obtained through a multi-objective function formed from the main cell parameters that are provided or obtained during the simulation with the CASMO-4 code. To evaluate this alternative of solution nuclear fuel cells of reference of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde were used. The results show that in a systematic way the results improve when both methods are coupled. As a result of the hybridization process of the mentioned techniques an improvement is achieved in a range of 2% with regard to the achieved results in an independent way by the S15 method. (Author)

  12. Recharge into a shingle beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  13. Problems and prospects of using of straw as a bio-fuel in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukharenka, H.V.; Tocareva, A.D.; Shabanov, A.A.; Rodzkin, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Belarus has reasonable perspectives of using of straw as a bio-fuel. In the connection with it there are certain ecological advantages and logistical problems which are discussed in the article. (authors)

  14. Recharge and repressurization in the repflo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.H.; Wilson, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    It is concluded from examination of the REPFLO test problem that recharge and repressurization occupy such short intervals that they are not likely to be important considerations in repository evaluation. Although the test problem was used as an example, it is believed that the conclusions have a considerable range of validity. The analysis made use of several equations from a previous analysis. Only trivial modification is required to permit calculation of recharge times directly from data that are required as input to REPFLO. These times could be added to all output times, so they would constitute only a shift in the origin of the time scale. Should this simple program be implemented, however, a more thorough study of its validity is recommended, and incorporation of flags in the output to warn of violations or questionable validity

  15. Features of the Numerical Solution of Thermal Destruction Fuel Pins Problems in the Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, E. V.; Butov, A. A.; Klimonov, I. A.; Chuhno, V. I.; Nikolaenko, A. V.; Zhdanov, V. S.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the description of the basic equations which can be used for calculation of melting of fuel and cladding of the fast reactor, moving of the melt on a fuel pin surface and its solidification is presented. The special attention is given speed of calculation algorithms and fidelity of the phenomena which are observed at a stage of severe accidents in fast reactors. For check of working capacity of initial models, numerical calculations of Stefan-type problems on front movement of melting/solidification in cylindrical geometry are presented. Comparison with the solutions received by known analytical methods is executed. For validation of the numerical realization of calculation algorithms the analysis is carried out and experiments in which melting of the model fuel pins of fast reactors was studied are chosen. On the basis of the chosen experiments calculation schemes taking into account initial and boundary conditions are prepared and modeling is performed. Modeling results are shown in the present paper. Estimation of calculation error of the basic physical parameters is done by results of the modeling and conclusions are drawn on a correctness of algorithms operation.

  16. An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vázquez-Suñé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, .... The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii Selection of tracers, (iii Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%, the sewage network losses (30%, rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%, from runoff infiltration (20%, and the Besòs River (11%. Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide, sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

  17. Problem statement: international safeguards for a light-water reactor fuels reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, J.P.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Darby, J.L.

    1979-03-01

    This report considers the problem of developing international safeguards for a light-water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing/conversion facility that combines the Purex process with conversion of plutonium nitrate to the oxide by means of plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation and calcination. Current international safeguards systems are based on the complementary concepts of materials accounting and containment and surveillance, which are designed to detect covert, national diversion of nuclear material. This report discusses the possible diversion threats and some types of countermeasures, and it represents the first stage in providing integrated international safeguards system concepts that make optimum use of available resources. The development of design methodology to address this problem will constitute a significant portion of the subsequent effort. Additionally, future technology development requirements are identified. 8 figures, 1 table

  18. Experimental study on the artificial recharge of semiconfined aquifers involved in deep excavation engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, G.; Cao, J. R.; Cheng, X. S.; Ha, D.; Wang, F. J.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial recharge measures have been adopted to control the drawdown of confined aquifers and the ground subsidence caused by dewatering during deep excavation in Tianjin, Shanghai and other regions in China. However, research on recharge theory is still limited. Additionally, confined aquifers consisting of silt and silty sand in Tianjin have lower hydraulic conductivities than those consisting of sand or gravel, and the feasibility and effectiveness of recharge methods in these semiconfined aquifers urgently require investigation. A series of single-well and multiwell pumping and recharge tests was conducted at a metro station excavation site in Tianjin. The test results showed that it was feasible to recharge silt and silty sand semiconfined aquifers, and, to a certain extent, the hydrogeological parameters obtained from the pumping tests could be used to predict the water level rise during single-well recharge. However, the predicted results underestimated the water level rise near the recharge well (within 7 m) by approximately 10-25%, likely because the permeability coefficient around the well was reduced during the recharge process. Pressured recharge significantly improved the efficiency of the recharge process. Maintaining the recharge and pumping rates at a nearly equal level effectively controlled the surrounding surface and building settlement. However, the surrounding surface subsidence tended to rapidly develop when recharge stopped. Therefore, the recharge process should continue and gradually stop after the pumping stops. The twin-well combined recharge technique can be used to control the head loss of an aquifer when one of the recharge wells requires pumping to solve the associated clogging problems.

  19. Problems on radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in the European Arctic Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukov, Evgeny B.

    1999-01-01

    In the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions of Russia, radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel from the Northern Fleet and Mineconomiki, the technological repairing plant Atomflot and the Kola nuclear power plant and other activities is accumulating steadily and there is no adequate waste management system in the region. There is an action plan to remedy the situation, but it has been delayed because of insufficient funds. This presentation lists the volumes of liquid and solid radioactive wastes from these sources in 1996 and the expected volumes in 2020. It also lists the specific problems of the present waste management and main proposals of the action plan. In addition to federal funds, a number of projects are financed through international co-operation

  20. The Space Shuttle Main Engine High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump rotordynamic instability problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) HPFTP (High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump) has been subject to a rotordynamic instability problem, characterized by large and damaging subsynchronous whirling motion. The original design of the HPFTP (from a rotordynamic viewpoint) and the evolution of the HPFTP subsynchronous whirl problem are reviewed. The models and analysis which have been developed and utilized to explain the HPFTP instability and improve its stability performance are also reviewed. Elements of the rotordynamic model which are discussed in detail include the following: (a) hydrodynamic forces due to seals, (b) internal rotor damping, (c) bearing and casing support stiffness asymmetry, and (d) casing dynamics. The stability and synchronous response characteristics of the following two design alternatives are compared: (a) a 'stiff' symmetric bearing support design and (b) a damped asymmetric stiffness design. With appropriate interstage seal designs, both designs are shown, in theory to provide substantially improved stability and synchronous response characteristics in comparison to the original design. The asymmetric design is shown to have better stability and synchronous response characteristics than the stiffly supported design.

  1. Strategic Placement of Treatments (SPOTS): Maximizing the Effectiveness of Fuel and Vegetation Treatments on Problem Fire Behavior and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Gercke; Susan A. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, eight U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management interdisciplinary teams participated in a test of strategic placement of treatments (SPOTS) techniques to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing problem fire behavior, adverse fire effects, and suppression costs. This interagency approach to standardizing the assessment of risks and...

  2. Example of answers to the problems of the 37th examination for the Chief Engineer of Nuclear Fuel. 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Akio; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Yachi, Shigeyasu; Komuro, Yuichi; Kushita, Kouhei

    2005-09-01

    This report provides an example of answers to the problems of the 37th examination for the Chief Engineer of Nuclear Fuel. This examination was done as a national qualification in March 2005. Brief explanations or references are added to some answers. (author)

  3. A Hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm for a Real-World Open Vehicle Routing Problem Involving Fuel Consumption Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics operation to third-party logistics has attracted more attention in the past several years. However, very few papers analyzed fuel consumption model in the context of outsourcing logistics. This problem involves more complexity than traditional open vehicle routing problem (OVRP, because the calculation of fuel emissions depends on many factors, such as the speed of vehicles, the road angle, the total load, the engine friction, and the engine displacement. Our paper proposed a green open vehicle routing problem (GOVRP model with fuel consumption constraints for outsourcing logistics operations. Moreover, a hybrid tabu search algorithm was presented to deal with this problem. Experiments were conducted on instances based on realistic road data of Beijing, China, considering that outsourcing logistics plays an increasingly important role in China’s freight transportation. Open routes were compared with closed routes through statistical analysis of the cost components. Compared with closed routes, open routes reduce the total cost by 18.5% with the fuel emissions cost down by nearly 29.1% and the diver cost down by 13.8%. The effect of different vehicle types was also studied. Over all the 60- and 120-node instances, the mean total cost by using the light-duty vehicles is the lowest.

  4. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fouling and slagging problems at recovered wood fuel combustion; Orsaker till askrelaterade driftproblem vid eldning av returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Hoegberg, Jan [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    CHP-plants that use a large portion of sorted wood waste fuel can face ash-related problems. By analysing the circumstances about these problems, the goal is to find causes for the problems and measures that can be taken. This knowledge can then be utilised in plants where it is desired to increase the portion of sorted wood waste fuel. For the measurements, a deposit probe is a good tool to use since the result is independent of many boiler-specific factors. Compared with forest residues, sorted wood waste causes a more problematic ash. The risk of troublesome fouling and corrosion seems to increase with increased admixture of sorted wood waste fuel. Plugging of the grate is associated with melts that are formed from metallic contamination in the fuel. These melts obstruct the air holes. The melts that have been seen during the project have had a content of aluminium, brass and zinc. In order to solve these problems, the construction and cooling of the grate and quality assurance of the fuel are important aspects. One problem that was found in all of the studied boilers (grates as well as fluidized beds) is growth of fouling on surfaces for heat transfer. Measurements with deposit probe show that the initial growth rate on superheaters are approximately 3 - 5 times higher when sorted wood waste is used than if forest residues is used. Even if this growth rate can not be extrapolated to a complete operating season, the relative difference between the fuels remains. The extent of the problem depends on the dimensioning of the boiler. The fouling tends to have a light outer layer that can be disadvantageous for the absorption of heat radiation. Haendeloe P11 needs for example to be stopped for cleaning with an interval of 2 - 3 months because of lost heat absorption in the furnace and the convection path. The most obvious ash related problem that was found in Haendeloe P11 when 100 % sorted wood waste fuel was used was corrosion on the walls of the lower parts of the

  6. Mechanisms, timing and quantities of recharge to groundwater in semi-arid and tropical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater being exploited in many and and semi-arid regions at the present day was recharged during former humid episodes of the Pleistocene or Holocene and, in contrast, the amounts derived from modem recharge are small generally small and variable. Geochemical and isotopic techniques provide the most effective way to calculate modem recharge and to investigate recharge history, since physically- based water-balance methods are generally inapplicable in semiarid regions. Examples from Africa (Senegal, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan as well as Cyprus) show that direct recharge rates may vary from zero to around 40% of mean rainfall, dependent primarily on the soil depth and the lithology. Spatial variability presents a real problem in any recharge investigation but results from Senegal show that unsaturated zone profiles may be extrapolated using the chemistry of shallow groundwater. Unsaturated-zone studies show that there are limiting conditions to direct recharge through soil, but that present day replenishment of aquifers takes place via wadis and channels. In the Butana area of central Sudan the regional groundwater was also recharged during a mid-Holocene wet phase and is now in decline. The only current recharge sources, which can be recognised distinctly using stable isotopes, are Nile baseflow and ephemeral wadi floods. (author)

  7. An Efficient Two-Objective Hybrid Local Search Algorithm for Solving the Fuel Consumption Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhen Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of vehicle routing problem (VRP generally minimizes either the total vehicle travelling distance or the total number of dispatched vehicles. Due to the increased importance of environmental sustainability, one variant of VRPs that minimizes the total vehicle fuel consumption has gained much attention. The resulting fuel consumption VRP (FCVRP becomes increasingly important yet difficult. We present a mixed integer programming model for the FCVRP, and fuel consumption is measured through the degree of road gradient. Complexity analysis of FCVRP is presented through analogy with the capacitated VRP. To tackle the FCVRP’s computational intractability, we propose an efficient two-objective hybrid local search algorithm (TOHLS. TOHLS is based on a hybrid local search algorithm (HLS that is also used to solve FCVRP. Based on the Golden CVRP benchmarks, 60 FCVRP instances are generated and tested. Finally, the computational results show that the proposed TOHLS significantly outperforms the HLS.

  8. A comparison between genetic algorithms and neural networks for optimizing fuel recharges in BWR; Una comparacion entre algoritmos geneticos y redes neuronales para optimizar recargas de combustible en BWR's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz J, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. Sistemas Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Requena, I. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work the results of a genetic algorithm (AG) and a neural recurrent multi state network (RNRME) for optimizing the fuel reload of 5 cycles of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (CNLV) are presented. The fuel reload obtained by both methods are compared and it was observed that the RNRME creates better fuel distributions that the AG. Moreover a comparison of the utility for using one or another one techniques is make. (Author)

  9. application and comparison of groundwater recharge estimation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    groundwater withdrawal. Estimation of recharge is also becoming more important for contaminant transport; as aquifer management expands from clean up of existing contamination to aquifer protection by delineation of areas of high recharge. Both physical and chemical methods have been employed to estimate recharge ...

  10. On the problems relating to the accuracy of the measurement of fuel pin diameters by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matfield, R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper identifies the sources of error in the neutron radiographic system and attempts to estimate some of these errors. The sources of error are in the fuel pin materials, the radiographic set-up, the radiographic equipment, image formation, the microdensitometer, the edge criteria and the dimensional measurement from the microdensitometer trace. However, the critical problem area is that of determining a representative edge criteria and upon this will depend the ability of the method to achieve the required measurement accuracy. (Auth.)

  11. The state-of-the-art and problems of fuel element structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, K.

    1980-02-01

    This study of fuel element structural analysis is arranged in two parts: In the first, self-contained, part the general basic principles of deterministic computer programs for structural analysis of fuel elements are reviewed critically and an approach is shown which can be used to expand the system with respect to statistical investigations. The second part contains technical details summarized in 11 publications, all of which appeared in periodicals with reviewer teams. The major aspects of this study are thought to be the following ones: Contributions to the 'philosophy' of fuel element structural analysis. Critical analysis of the basic structure of computer programs. Critical analysis of the mechanical concept of integral fuel rod computer programs. Establishment of a comprehensive computer program system (URANUS). Expansion from purely deterministic information by statistical analyses. Methodological and computer program developments for the analysis of fast accidents. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  12. The problem of gas gap between graphite - fuel channel reduction impact at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Safety analysis of Ignalina NPP operation in the case when gap closure between graphite - fuel channel occur was performed. The main results of this analysis as well as data of gap measurements during the year 1996 - 1998 are provided

  13. A review of radioactive isotopes and other residence time tracers in understanding groundwater recharge: Possibilities, challenges, and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Ian; Cendón, Dioni; Currell, Matthew; Meredith, Karina

    2017-12-01

    Documenting the location and magnitude of groundwater recharge is critical for understanding groundwater flow systems. Radioactive tracers, notably 14C, 3H, 36Cl, and the noble gases, together with other tracers whose concentrations vary over time, such as the chlorofluorocarbons or sulfur hexafluoride, are commonly used to estimate recharge rates. This review discusses some of the advantages and problems of using these tracers to estimate recharge rates. The suite of tracers allows recharge to be estimated over timescales ranging from a few years to several hundred thousand years, which allows both the long-term and modern behaviour of groundwater systems to be documented. All tracers record mean residence times and mean recharge rates rather than a specific age and date of recharge. The timescale over which recharge rates are averaged increases with the mean residence time. This is an advantage in providing representative recharge rates but presents a problem in comparing recharge rates derived from these tracers with those from other techniques, such as water table fluctuations or lysimeters. In addition to issues relating to the sampling and interpretation of specific tracers, macroscopic dispersion and mixing in groundwater flow systems limit how precisely groundwater residence times and recharge rates may be estimated. Additionally, many recharge studies have utilised existing infrastructure that may not be ideal for this purpose (e.g., wells with long screens that sample groundwater several kilometres from the recharge area). Ideal recharge studies would collect sufficient information to optimise the use of specific tracers and minimise the problems of mixing and dispersion.

  14. Development of Managed Aquifer Recharge in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, X.; Wang, W.

    2014-01-01

    China has a long history in managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The historic development can be divided into 4 stages based on a summary of typical MAR projects. The first stage is MAR applied to agricultural production, the second is MAR applied to industrial production and alleviation of agricultural problems, the third is MAR applied to ecological protection and the increase in urban water supplies, and the fourth is multi-source MAR. In addition, geothermal reinjection and ground source heat pumps are also effective uses of MAR. Nevertheless, the MAR framework is defective, there is a lack of water quality studies, and the recharge rate of most projects is low. However, China has achieved a great effect on industrial and agricultural production, ecological protection, drinking water supplies and urban reclaimed water reuse, amongst others. But there are still many issues to be improved. A feasible, convenient and economic technique of MAR which fits local hydrogeological conditions needs to be developed and guidelines for both MARs and management regulations to ensure the successful running of MAR projects also need to be established. MAR will make a great difference to improving potable water quality, alleviating geological hazards, long distance water diversion, urban water supplies, agriculture irrigation, etc. (Author)

  15. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  16. Radiocarbon implications in the problem of nuclear fuel cycle radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.; Mironov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    The review is given of data on formation rate, environmental distribution and biological effects of natural and artificial carbon-14. 14 C release power is in the range from 20 to 2000 Ci/GW (el.) per year for operative and projected NPP and from 10 to 10 4 Ci/GW (el.) per year from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants depending upon the nitrogen content in a coolant and in fuel elements. Taking into account such injection into biosphere, 14 C is considered to be the main factor in radiation situation for the pupulation of the Northern hemisphere for the nearest decades. With regard for natural regularities revealed, the criteria have been formulated for the prediction of maximum permissible releases of radiocarbon from nuclear fuel plants

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle in the 1990s and beyond the century: Some trends and foreseeable problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) invited a number of well known experts from Member States to provide an analysis of selected stages of the nuclear fuel cycle with an outlook to the near future and with an emphasis on the feasible advantages as well as the disadvantages of the approaches discussed. Voluntary contributions from invited specialists as well as the results of comprehensive analyses from some nuclear fuel cycle trends performed by IAEA staff form the main content of this publication. Its aim is to highlight selected subjects of common interest (but not necessarily consensus) and establish a starting point for productive discussions on the future of the nuclear fuel cycle worldwide. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Internationalization of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeckel, E.

    1997-01-01

    International cooperation and transnational division of labour is a distinctive feature of the nuclear industry, but it is conspicuously lacking at the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Meanwhile, national efforts to close the fuel cycle have remained largely unsuccessful. Governments and the nuclear industry are paralyzed in a gridlock of indecision and obstruction. This pattern has been reinforced at the international level. More recently, however, a number of dynamic challenges to governments and the industry has opened up new prospects for internationalization. (author)

  19. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  20. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  1. Intensive rainfall recharges tropical groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Taylor, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Dependence upon groundwater to meet rising agricultural and domestic water needs is expected to increase substantially across the tropics where, by 2050, over half of the world’s population is projected to live. Rare, long-term groundwater-level records in the tropics indicate that groundwater recharge occurs disproportionately from heavy rainfalls exceeding a threshold. The ubiquity of this bias in tropical groundwater recharge to intensive precipitation is, however, unknown. By relating available long-term records of stable-isotope ratios of O and H in tropical precipitation (15 sites) to those of local groundwater, we reveal that groundwater recharge in the tropics is near-uniformly (14/15 sites) biased to intensive monthly rainfall, commonly exceeding the ∼70th intensity decile. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in the tropics. Nevertheless, the processes that transmit intensive rainfall to groundwater systems and enhance the resilience of tropical groundwater storage in a warming world, remain unclear. (letter)

  2. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  3. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    a virtual forklift system. This investigation examines important performance metrics such as hydrogen consumption and battery SOC as a function of fuel cell and battery size, control strategy, drive cycle, and load variation for a forklift truck system. This study can be used as a benchmark for choosing......Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector....... Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...

  4. LNG as vehicle fuel and the problem of supply: The Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector represents a major item on the global balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Natural gas is considered the alternative fuel that, in the short-medium term, can best substitute conventional fuels in order to reduce their environmental impact, because it is readily available at a competitive price, using technologies already in widespread use. It can be used as compressed gas (CNG) or in the liquid phase (LNG), being the former more suitable for light vehicles, while the latter for heavy duty vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to outline the potential of LNG as vehicle fuel, showing positive and negative aspects related to its introduction and comparing the different supply options with reference to the Italian scenario, paying particular attention to the possibility of on site liquefaction. The analysis has highlighted that purchasing LNG at the regasification terminal is convenient up to a terminal distance of 2000 km from the refuelling station. The liquefaction on site, instead, asks for liquefaction efficiency higher than 70% and low natural gas price and, as liquefaction technology, the let-down plants at the pressure reduction points along the pipeline are the best option to compete with direct supply at the terminal. -- Highlights: •LNG potential as vehicles fuel is analysed. •A SWOT analysis for LNG introduction in the Italian market is presented. •An economic comparison of different supply options is performed. •Possible micro-scale liquefaction technologies are evaluated

  5. Micro-Fuel Cells{sup TM} for portable electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockaday, R.G.; DeJohn, M.; Navas, C.; Turner, P.S.; Vaz, H.L.; Vazul, L.L. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Micro-Fuel Cell{sup TM} is a new power supply which provides a superior alternative compared to rechargeable batteries. A prototype has been developed by Manhattan Scientifics Inc. in collaboration with Energy Related Devices Inc. This mass-producible high-energy power supply can be used for cellular telephones, portable computers and other portable devices. Instead of being recharged, it can be easily refueled with methanol. The approach taken in designing this product was to develop a competitive product with definite advantages over existing products. The Micro-Fuel Cell{sup TM} is based on the idea that a fuel cell can be built onto an engineered microplastic substrate. In this case, the integrated design makes use of thin film vacuum deposition techniques to coat patterned, etched-nuclear-particle-track plastic membranes. This process forms catalytically active surface area electrodes on either side of a single structured proton-exchange-membrane electrolyte. Methanol was the choice fuel for this system because compared to hydrogen and metal hydrides, it was considered to be safer and more compact. In addition, the theoretical specific energy of methanol is significantly higher than for lithium-ion batteries. The problem of crossover, whereby methanol fuel diffuses across the fuel cell from the anode to the cathode, has also been solved by using a selectively permeable membrane. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground water, 1955-67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.; Growitz, Douglas J.; Kam, William

    1970-01-01

    Artificial ground-water recharge has become more important as water use by agriculture, industry, and municipalities increases. Water management agencies are increasingly interested in potential use of recharge for pollution abatement, waste-water disposal, and re-use and reclamation of locally available supplies. Research projects and theoretical analyses of operational recharge systems show increased scientific emphasis on the practice. Overall ground-water basin management systems generally now contain considerations of artificial recharge, whether by direct or indirect methods. Artificial ground-water recharge is a means of conserving surface runoff for future use in places where it would otherwise be lost, of protecting ground-water basins from salt-water encroachment along coastal areas, and of storing and distributing imported water. The biblio-graphy emphasizes technology; however, annotations of articles on waste-water reclamation, ground-water management and ground-water basin management are included. Subjects closely related to artificial recharge, including colloidal flow through porous media, field or laboratory instrumentation, and waste disposal by deep well injection are included where they specifically relate to potential recharge problems. Where almost the same material has been published in several journals, all references are included on the assumption that some publications may be more readily available to interested persons than others. Other publications, especially those of foreign literature, provided abstracts that were used freely as time limitations precluded obtaining and annotating all materials. Abstracts taken from published sources are noted. These are: "Abstracts of North American Geology," U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; "Abstracts of Recent Published Material on Foil and Water Conservation," ARS-41 series, Agricultural F.esearch Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; "Water and1 Water

  7. Present and future problems of radiation shielding for maritime transport of nuclear spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, K.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, A.

    2000-01-01

    The transport of spent fuels with casks began in September 1999 by the exclusive spent fuel transport vessel the 'Rokuei Maru'. The casks have been transported to the reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-village in Aomori Prefecture. The 'Rokuei Maru' is approximately 100 m-length, 16.5 m-width and 3,000 gross-tons. The 20 NFT casks can be loaded into 5 holds. At the present time, the NFT casks can carry spent fuels of up to 44,000 MWD/MTU. Serpentine concrete is employed as a neutron shields in the hatch covers, the bulkheads, and the house front of the accommodations except the wheelhouse. Polyethylene covers the side walls in each hold. The neutron shielding ability of serpentine concrete and polyethylene was investigated by a shielding experiment using a 252 Cf-neutron source. The shielding experiment was analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. In the near future, on-board experiment will be carried out to measure the dose-equivalent rate distributions in the 'Rokuei Maru' and the measured data and the Monte Carlo analysis of it will establish the radiation safety of the ship. (author)

  8. Coupled Model Development between Groundwater Recharge Quantity and Climate Change in Nakdong River Watershed using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Jeongho, L.; Changsub, S.; SeongWoo, J.

    2011-12-01

    : Global climate change is disturbing the water circulation balance by changing rates of precipitation, recharge and discharge, and evapotranspiration. Groundwater, which occupies a considerable portion of the world's water resources, is related to climate change via surface water such as rivers, lakes, and marshes. In this study, the authors selected a relevant climate change scenario, A1B from the Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) which is distributed at Korea Meteorological Administration. By using data on temperature, rainfall, soil, and land use, the groundwater recharge rate for the research area was estimated by periodically and embodied as geographic information system (GIS). In order to calculate the groundwater recharge quantity, Visual HELP3 was used as main model, and the physical properties of weather, temperature, and soil layers were used as main input data. General changes to water circulation due to climate change have already been predicted. In order to systematically solve problems of ground circulation system, it may be urgent to recalculate the groundwater recharge quantity and consequent change under future climate change. The space-time calculation of changes of the groundwater recharge quantity in the study area may serve as a foundation to present additional measures to improve domestic groundwater resource management. Results showed that 26.19% of total precipitation was recharged from 1971 to 2000, 27.37% will be recharged from 2001 to 2030, 27.43% will be recharged from 2031 to 2050, and 26.06% will be recharged from 2051 to 2070, 27.88% will be recharged from 2051 to 2100. The groundwater recharge rate in this research showed susceptibility to changes in precipitation. The recharge rate was relatively little affected by the changes in Curve Number (CN), but it was rapidly reduced, as it approached the impermeable layers. Accordingly, the findings herein provide a basis for establishment of national plans on water resources

  9. Statewide Groundwater Recharge Modeling in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Cadol, D.; Newton, B. T.; Phillips, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to understand the rate and distribution of groundwater recharge in New Mexico because it not only largely defines a limit for water availability in this semi-arid state, but also is the least understood aspect of the state's water budget. With the goal of estimating groundwater recharge statewide, we are developing the Evapotranspiration and Recharge Model (ETRM), which uses existing spatial datasets to model the daily soil water balance over the state at a resolution of 250 m cell. The input datasets includes PRISM precipitation data, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), NRCS soils data, state geology data and reference ET estimates produced by Gridded Atmospheric Data downscalinG and Evapotranspiration Tools (GADGET). The current estimated recharge presents diffuse recharge only, not focused recharge as in channels or playas. Direct recharge measurements are challenging and rare, therefore we estimate diffuse recharge using a water balance approach. The ETRM simulated runoff amount was compared with USGS gauged discharge in four selected ephemeral channels: Mogollon Creek, Zuni River, the Rio Puerco above Bernardo, and the Rio Puerco above Arroyo Chico. Result showed that focused recharge is important, and basin characteristics can be linked with watershed hydrological response. As the sparse instruments in NM provide limited help in improving estimation of focused recharge by linking basin characteristics, the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, which is one of the most densely gauged and monitored semiarid rangeland watershed for hydrology research purpose, is now being modeled with ETRM. Higher spatial resolution of field data is expected to enable detailed comparison of model recharge results with measured transmission losses in ephemeral channels. The final ETRM product will establish an algorithm to estimate the groundwater recharge as a water budget component of the entire state of New Mexico. Reference ET estimated by GADGET

  10. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Accident Tolerant Fuels High Impact Problem: Coordinate Multiscale FeCrAl Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capolungo, L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wirth, B. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Since the events at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 significant research has unfolded at national laboratories, universities and other institutions into alternative materials that have potential enhanced ac- cident tolerance when compared to traditional UO2 fuel zircaloy clad fuel rods. One of the potential replacement claddings are iron-chromium-alunimum (FeCrAl) alloys due to their increased oxidation resistance [1–4] and higher strength [1, 2]. While the oxidation characteristics of FeCrAl are a benefit for accident tolerance, the thermal neu- tron absorption cross section of FeCrAl is about ten times that of Zircaloy. This neutronic penalty necessitates thinner cladding. This allows for slightly larger pellets to give the same cold gap width in the rod. However, the slight increase in pellet diameter is not sufficient to compensate for the neutronic penalty and enriching the fuel beyond the current 5% limit appears to be necessary [5]. Current estimates indicate that this neutronic penalty will impose an increase in fuel cost of 15-35% [1, 2]. In addition to the neutronic disadvantage, it is anticipated that tritium release to the coolant will be larger because the permeability of hydrogen in FeCrAl is about 100 times higher than in Zircaloy [6]. Also, radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of FeCrAl need to be fully characterized experimentally [7]. Due to the aggressive development schedule for inserting some of the potential materials into lead test assemblies or rods by 2022 [8] multiscale multiphysics modeling approaches have been used to provide insight into these the use of FeCrAl as a cladding material. The purpose of this letter report is to highlight the multiscale modeling effort for iron-chromium-alunimum (FeCrAl) cladding alloys as part of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program through its Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The approach taken throughout the HIP is to

  11. Cuckoo Search with flight of Levy applied to the problem of reload of fuels in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Patrick V.; Nast, Fernando N.; Schirru, Roberto; Meneses, Anderson A.M.; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    Intra-Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization is a complex combinatorial problem of the NP-difficult type, associated with the refueling process of a nuclear reactor, which aims to extend the cycle of operation by determining loading patterns, obeying safety margins. In addition to the combinatorial problem, we have the aspect of calculations of reactor physics, which increases the difficult of OGCIN. Methods that are proving effective when applied to OGCIN are the algorithms belonging to the swarm intelligence paradigm. A new member of this paradigm is Cuckoo Search (CS), which has shown results promising when applied to optimization issues. The CS is based on the litter parasitism of some cuckoo species combined with the Levy flight behavior of some birds. In the present work we present the results of the application of CS to OGCIN, and compare them to the results obtained by the application of ABC

  12. Assessment of groundwater recharge potential zone using GIS approach in Purworejo regency, Central Java province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, Daniel Eko; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2018-02-01

    Floods and droughts in Purworejo regency are an indication of problems in groundwater management. The current development progress has led to land conversion which has an impact on the problem of water infiltration in Purworejo regency. This study aims to determine the distribution of groundwater recharge potential zones by using geographic information system as the basis for ground water management. The groundwater recharge potential zone is obtained by overlaying all the thematic maps that affect the groundwater infiltration. Each thematic map is weighted according to its effect on groundwater infiltration such as land-use - 25%, rainfall - 20%, litology - 20%, soil - 15%, slope - 10%, lineament - 5%, and river density - 5% to find groundwater recharge potential zones. The groundwater recharge potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories, viz., very high, high, medium, low and very low zones. The results of this study may be useful for better groundwater planning and management.

  13. Dust explosion problems during cutting of spent fuel elements in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, W.

    1988-01-01

    Zircaloy fines of the kind inevitably produced when cutting fuel cans in a reprocessing plant can give rise to the risk of dust fires and explosions. To promote the safe handling of the Zircaloy fines an experimental programme was conducted under which the fire and explosion hazards were assessed. The investigations were carried out in cooperation with Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and Kraftwerk Union with the dominant participation of BAM. Based on the results, recommendations for the safe handling of Zircaloy fine material under the conditions of reprocessing have been developed. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, E.K.; Nikitin, A.T.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Stolyarevskii, A.Ya.; Doroshenko, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion of fossil fuel resources and the gradual increase in cost of their extraction and transportation to the places of their consumption put forward into a line of the most urgent tasks the problem of rational and economical utilization of fuel and energy resources, as well as introduction of new energy sources into various sectors of the national economy. The nuclear energy sources which are widely spread in power engineering have not yet been used to a proper extent in the sectors of industrial technologies and residential space heating, which are the most energy consuming sectors in the national economy. The most effective way of solving this problem can be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes and those involved in chemico-thermal systems of distant heat transmission demand the temperature of a heat carrier generated by nuclear reactors and assimilated by the above processes to be in the range from 900 0 to 1000 0 C. (author)

  15. Management decision of optimal recharge water in groundwater artificial recharge conditions- A case study in an artificial recharge test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H. Y.; Shi, X. F.; Zhu, W.; Wang, C. Q.; Ma, H. W.; Zhang, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    The city conducted groundwater artificial recharge test which was taken a typical site as an example, and the purpose is to prevent and control land subsidence, increase the amount of groundwater resources. To protect groundwater environmental quality and safety, the city chose tap water as recharge water, however, the high cost makes it not conducive to the optimal allocation of water resources and not suitable to popularize widely. To solve this, the city selects two major surface water of River A and B as the proposed recharge water, to explore its feasibility. According to a comprehensive analysis of the cost of recharge, the distance of the water transport, the quality of recharge water and others. Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is used to prefer tap water and water of River A and B. Evaluation results show that water of River B is the optimal recharge water, if used; recharge cost will be from 0.4724/m3 to 0.3696/m3. Using Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to confirm water of River B as optimal water is scientific and reasonable. The optimal water management decisions can provide technical support for the city to carry out overall groundwater artificial recharge engineering in deep aquifer.

  16. International arrangements for nuclear-fuel-cycle facilities: the politics of the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, W.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty years after the Three-Power Declaration on November 5, 1945, promising effective safeguards on the information exchange on atomic energy, many nations are selling and transferring nuclear materials, equipment, and technology without these ''effective enforceable safeguards.'' Even though there is no actual commercial need to reprocess spent fuel into Pu, France and West Germany are planning to sell reprocessing plants to non-NPT countries. The erosion of faith in and the weakening of the NPT are pointed out. The Canadian decision not to resume nuclear aid to India is commended. The question of how effective and enforceable the international (IAEA/NPT) safeguards are, is addressed. The weaknesses of the London Suppliers' Club position on safeguards are pointed out. Multinational fuel cycle centers would not much help to contain the risks of nuclear proliferation. Additional measures needed for really effective safeguards are listed. The unilateral embargo of nuclear exports by U.S. is proposed. Political measures to discourage nations from acquiring nuclear weapons are also listed. Only a combination of political, psychological, and technical measures can produce an effective nonproliferation regime

  17. Accounting for the Boundary Problem at Subnational Level: The Supply–Demand Balance of Biomass Cooking Fuels in Kitui County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bär

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, the high demand for wood-based cooking fuels calls for urgent policy action to steer the cooking energy sector towards more sustainability. While the subnational scale is growing in importance for policy planning, current energy assessments still only consider individual entities without taking into account resource flows. Ignoring flows of biomass cooking fuels in supply–demand assessments is a system boundary problem that can lead to misleading policy recommendations. In this paper, we tackle the boundary problem in subnational supply–demand assessments and provide a tool to support knowledge-based decision-making on the management of biomass cooking fuels in sub-Saharan Africa. Using Kitui County as a case study, we developed and tested an approach consisting of a supply model, local demand model, balance model, availability model, and adjusted balance model. The balance model only considers local fuel supplies and demand, whereas the adjusted balance model also considers external demand, which reduces the locally available supply of fuel. The results show that fuel demand and supply are spatially heterogeneous and vary between wood-based and non-woody fuels, and that the transport distance of fuels strongly affects local fuel availability and determines whether the supply–demand balance is positive or negative. We conclude that subnational energy policies should consider geographical distribution of supply and demand, aim to increase the fuel mix, consider external demand in supply–demand assessments, and differentiate between fuels for self-consumption and the market.

  18. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  19. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  20. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  1. WWER problems and perspectives of moving toward zero fuel failures and mitigation of fuel failure consequences at NPPs with WWER reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, Yu.; Semenovykh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper contained information on mitigation of fuel failures and perspectives of moving to ‘Zero Failure Level’. It was stated that driving to ‘zero’ failure rate should include two kinds of efforts, 1) focus on identification of failure mechanisms, and 2) implement corrective actions. It is also important to mitigate the consequences of fuel failures if that inevitably occurs. Fuel failures entail the risks of severe secondary degradation and contamination of primary circuit due to fuel washout. Significant changes of fuel operating conditions (longer fuel cycles, higher fuel burnup, power uprate) and innovations in fuel design bear the risk of higher failure rates for some period of time. Simultaneous implementation of several innovations in one nuclear utility is not advisable since it might be difficult to identify which of the innovations affected the fuel performance positively or negatively. The disadvantage of gradual implementation of corrective actions and any significant changes in operating conditions is the long time needed to evaluate the operational experience. In some cases, it may take up to 4-6 years for each significant change to reflect on the operational performance

  2. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  3. Technical problems to be solved before the solid oxide fuel cell will be commercialized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagger, C.; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, M. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The problems which must be solved before SOFC-systems are competitive with todays power production technology are of both technical and economical nature. The cost of SOFC stacks at the 25 kW level of today is about 30,000 ECU/kW and it is bound to come down to about 500 ECU/kW. The allowable cost of a SOFC system is anticipated to be around 1500 ECU/kW. As part of the Danish SOFC program (DK-SOFC) a 0.5 kW stack was built and tested during the second half of 1995. Based upon the experience gained, an economic analysis has been made. The tools required to approach an economically acceptable solution are outlined below.

  4. Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, E.K.; Nikitin, A.T.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Stolyarevskii, A.Ya.; Doroshenko, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The solution of problems related to increasing costs of fossil fuels and application of nuclear energy in the industrial sector could be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes demand that the temperature of heat carrier generated to be in the range from 900-1000 deg. C. In the Soviet Union the strategy adopted for solving energy supply problems was named 'nuclear-hydrogen power engineering and technologies'. Based on analytic research and taking into account the present state of the art, the new alternative energy sources, e.g. nuclear ones, should be introduced into the industry by the following steps: development and mastering of stable operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors; search of rational technical solutions for heat discharge from nuclear reactors; utilisation of meet the power demand of existing production plants; complete substitution of organic raw materials burned now with nuclear energy; review the conditions and development of organizational and engineering solutions acceptable for implementing the nuclear energy in commercial processes

  5. Wood fuel upgrading with a chip kidney - Leaching of problem elements; Traedbraensefoeraedling med flisnjure - Utlakning av problemsubstanser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Birgit; Raadestroem, Rune [STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Biofuels like forest residues and bark would get more attractive incineration properties through decreased contents of metal ions and other elements that disturb the process or cause discharges that are harmful to health and environment. Bark in particular has considerably higher contents than stem wood of potassium and other elements that cause deposits, sintering and corrosion. In lime-kilns potassium, sodium, silicon and aluminium can cause additional problems with decreased lime reactivity, increased dead load and ring formation. Furthermore do biofuels generally form more nitrogen oxides in the smoke gases, due to high nitrogen contents. A first trial has been carried out in order to get an idea of how acid leaching - according to STFI-Packforsk's method for pulpwood chips - works for three types of wood fuels: chipped forest residues, bark and knot rejects from kraft cooking. The chips were steamed in a compression screw and leached with 6 kg H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/t wood in 30 minutes at 80-100 deg C to pH ca 2.6. The procedure was repeated in a washing stage with water. The method seems to have the potential to decrease the content of problem substances in forest residues and bark to the level of the cleanest forest fuel quality today. The best reduction of the ash content, ca 50%, was obtained with forest residues. In bark, with its more than three times as high ash content (2.8% of wood), 35% of the ash was removed. Ca 60% of the potassium was leached out in the acidic stage. After the washing stage, about 85% had been removed in total. The treatment was also efficient on sodium which occur in high levels in kraft pulping reject. Other metal ions were removed to varying degrees up to ca 50% without washing stage. Some phosphorus and nitrogen were also leached out - 30 and 25% respectively from bark; 45 and 10% respectively from forest residues. The reduction of chlorine was estimated to 50% in forest residues and 80% in bark. The sulphuric acid used for

  6. NTS groundwater recharge study, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.F.; Mihevc, T.M.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater recharge from precipitation is thought by many scientists to be extremely low in Southem Nevada; however, no direct measurements of recharge have been made to substantiate this hypothesis. Three geomorphic regions have been identified as potential areas of groundwater recharge at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): mesas, washes, and lowlands. Eight recharge monitoring stations have been installed to monitor each of these regions; four of the stations are on Pahute/Rainier Mesa, two stations are in Fortymile Wash, one station is in a transition area between the mesas and the lowlands (Whiterock Spring), and one station is located in Yucca Flat at the bottom of the U-3fd crater. An additional station is proposed for Frenchman Flat near the Area 5 mixed waste facility; however, the instrumentation of that site has been delayed due to the complex permitting process associated with instrument installation near the mixed waste facility. Digital data were collected from eight sites during FY 1992

  7. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  8. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  9. Multiple recharge processes to heterogeneous Mediterranean coastal aquifers and implications on recharge rates evolution in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change is nowadays widely considered to have major effects on groundwater resources. Climatic projections suggest a global increase in evaporation and higher frequency of strong rainfall events especially in Mediterranean context. Since evaporation is synonym of low recharge conditions whereas strong rainfall events are more favourable to recharge in heterogeneous subsurface contexts, a lack of knowledge remains then on the real ongoing and future drinking groundwater supply availability at aquifers scale. Due to low recharge potential and high inter-annual climate variability, this issue is strategic for the Mediterranean hydrosystems. This is especially the case for coastal aquifers because they are exposed to seawater intrusion, sea-level rise and overpumping risks. In this context, recharge processes and rates were investigated in a Mediterranean coastal aquifer with subsurface heterogeneity located in Southern Corsica (France). Aquifer recharge rates from combining ten physical and chemical methods were computed. In addition, hydrochemical and isotopic investigations were carried out through a monthly two years monitoring combining major ions and stable isotopes of water in rain, runoff and groundwater. Diffuse, focused, lateral mountain system and irrigation recharge processes were identified and characterized. A predominant focused recharge conditioned by subsurface heterogeneity is evidenced in agreement with variable but highly favourable recharge rates. The fast water transfer from the surface to the aquifer implied by this recharge process suggests less evaporation, which means higher groundwater renewal and availability in such Mediterranean coastal aquifers.

  10. Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Maliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA, with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources.

  11. Assimilating ambiguous observations to jointly estimate groundwater recharge and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Daniel; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In coupled modelling of catchments, the groundwater compartment can be an important water storage as well as having influence on both rivers and evapotranspirational fluxes. It is therefore important to parameterize the groundwater model as correctly as possible. Primarily important to regional groundwater flow is the spatially variable hydraulic conductivity. However, also the groundwater recharge, in a coupled system coming from the unsaturated zone but in a stand-alone groundwater model a boundary condition, is also of high importance. As with all subsurface systems, groundwater properties are difficult to observe in reality and their estimation is an ongoing topic in groundwater research and practice. Commonly, we have to rely on time series of groundwater head observations as base for any parameter estimation. Heads, however, have the drawback that they can be ambiguous and may not uniquely define the inverse problem, especially if both recharge and conductivity are seen as unknown. In the presented work we use a 2D virtual groundwater test case to investigate how the prior knowledge of recharge and conductivity influence their respective and joint estimation as spatially variable fields using head data. Using the Ensemble Kalman filter, it is shown that the joint estimation is possible if the prior knowledge is good enough. If the prior is erroneous the a-priori sampled fields cannot be corrected by the data. However, it is also shown that if the prior knowledge is directly wrong the estimated recharge field can resemble the true conductivity field, resulting in a model that meets the observations but has very poor predictive power. The study exemplifies the importance of prior knowledge in the joint estimation of parameters from ambiguous measurements.

  12. Estimation of spatial distribution of groundwater recharge from stream baseflow and groundwater chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Amir; Bentley, Laurence R.; Hayashi, Masaki

    2017-03-01

    In this study groundwater chloride concentration and baseflow are used to estimate the spatial variability of recharge. Total recharge over the entire watershed is estimated using the baseflow method, and then the spatial variability of recharge is approximated using groundwater chloride concentration. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated using data from a rural watershed in Alberta, Canada. By using the combination of two well established methods of estimating recharge, baseflow and chloride mass balance, there is no need to estimate wet and dry deposition rate of chloride. The presented method is tested by using a steady-state groundwater flow model. The groundwater model showed higher agreement between modeled vs observed heads when spatially variable recharge forced the upper boundary of the model (root mean square error reduced from 13.5 m to 8 m). In addition, we demonstrate a unique method for parameterizing hydraulic conductivity of a fluvial aquifer using a sand fraction transfer function. This new method reduces the dimensionality of the parameter estimation problem and provides a consistency check on the spatially varying recharge estimates.

  13. Example of answers to the problems of 31st to 35th examinations for the chief engineer of nuclear fuel. 1999 to 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yachi, Shigeyasu; Satoh, Tadashi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    2003-09-01

    This report contains example of answers to the Problems of 31st(1999) to 35th(2003) Examinations for the Chief Engineer of Nuclear Fuel which were conducted as a national qualification examination. Brief explanations or references are given to some answers. (author)

  14. Inverse modeling and uncertainty analysis of potential groundwater recharge to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Markus; Houben, Georg; Lohe, Christoph; Quinger, Martin; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The identification of potential recharge areas and estimation of recharge rates to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) is crucial for its future sustainable use. The KOH-2 is located within the endorheic transboundary Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin (CEB), shared by Angola and Namibia. The main objective was the development of a strategy to tackle the problem of data scarcity, which is a well-known problem in semi-arid regions. In a first step, conceptual geological cross sections were created to illustrate the possible geological setting of the system. Furthermore, groundwater travel times were estimated by simple hydraulic calculations. A two-dimensional numerical groundwater model was set up to analyze flow patterns and potential recharge zones. The model was optimized against local observations of hydraulic heads and groundwater age. The sensitivity of the model against different boundary conditions and internal structures was tested. Parameter uncertainty and recharge rates were estimated. Results indicate that groundwater recharge to the KOH-2 mainly occurs from the Angolan Highlands in the northeastern part of the CEB. The sensitivity of the groundwater model to different internal structures is relatively small in comparison to changing boundary conditions in the form of influent or effluent streams. Uncertainty analysis underlined previous results, indicating groundwater recharge originating from the Angolan Highlands. The estimated recharge rates are less than 1% of mean yearly precipitation, which are reasonable for semi-arid regions.

  15. [Current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil: effects and problems associated with the introduction of ethanol-fueled motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuto, M; Tsugane, S; Hamada, G S

    1990-05-01

    Recently suggestions have been advanced that alternative fuels including ethanol, methanol or methane instead of so called "fossil fuels" may help improve the current conditions of air pollution. According to results of general survey in Sao Paulo, since their introduction in 1978, ethanol-fueled cars have increased their share to almost 50% of all light vehicles in 1983. The current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA) is described in relation to the use of such alternative fuel. The average concentrations in air of SO2 and lead have been decreasing drastically during the period of 1982-88, whereas non-methane hydrocarbon, NO2 and O3 levels have been increasing to attain the worst levels in the world as indicated in Fig. 2. The use of ethanol-fuel, which contains less sulphate and lead, is thought to have contributed more or less to the above reductions of SO2 and lead in the air. However, the pollutants that have increased may derive mainly from diesel and gasoline exhausts of heavy vehicles. The general state of air pollutions appears not to have been improved, suggesting the difficulty in resolving air pollution issues. On the other hand, a current problem specific to ethanol-fuel is the aldehydes or other carcinogenic components in exhaust. Peak formaldehyde concentration, for example, have been reported to have reached 159 ppb in SPMA, which may be one of the highest levels shown in ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Groundwater Recharge in Sandy Shallow Water Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, F. H.; Shukla, S.

    2015-12-01

    In shallow table conditions, a disproportionate increase or decrease in water table in response to minor water input or drainage is observed. This increase happens because the capillary fringe of the shallow water table reaches up to or near the surface (Wieringermeer effect). Conventional methods of calculating recharge such as multiplying the actual specific yield with the water table fluctuations cannot be used for Wieringermeer effect situations. A method using water balance data and soil moisture at different depths in the lysimeters was developed to estimate recharge and upflux. The recharge results were used to develop the apparent specific yield (Sya), which could be used to calculate consequent recharge events from water table fluctuations data. The correlations between water table level changes and rainfall, seepage irrigation, drip irrigation, and drainage were analyzed. Correlations with rainfall, seepage irrigation, and drainage were satisfactory (R-square ranged from 0.46 to 0.97). Combining the water tables fluctuations relationships developed with Sya value will allow the prediction of recharge from rainfall and irrigation events without the need for soil moisture equipment.

  17. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  18. Problems of interaction between water and fuel containing masses inside the object 'Shelter' of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhnovs'kij, Yi.R.; Kobrin, O.Je.; Tokarchuk, M.V.; Tokarevs'kij, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The main forms of the existence of nuclear fuel and major concomitant factors of nuclear and ecological danger of the object 'Shelter' are presented. The processes of interaction between water and fuel containing materials have been analysed on the basis of experimental data

  19. A novel approach in optimization problem for research reactors fuel plate using a synergy between cellular automata and quasi-simulated annealing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barati, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative optimization technique for multi-objective optimization is presented. • The technique utilizes combination of CA and quasi-simulated annealing. • Mass and deformation of fuel plate are considered as objective functions. • Computational burden is significantly reduced compared to classic tools. - Abstract: This paper presents a new and innovative optimization technique utilizing combination of cellular automata (CA) and quasi-simulated annealing (QSA) as solver concerning conceptual design optimization which is indeed a multi-objective optimization problem. Integrating CA and QSA into a unified optimizer tool has a great potential for solving multi-objective optimization problems. Simulating neighborhood effects while taking local information into account from CA and accepting transitions based on decreasing of objective function and Boltzmann distribution from QSA as transition rule make this tool effective in multi-objective optimization. Optimization of fuel plate safety design while taking into account major goals of conceptual design such as improving reliability and life-time – which are the most significant elements during shutdown – is a major multi-objective optimization problem. Due to hugeness of search space in fuel plate optimization problem, finding optimum solution in classical methods requires a huge amount of calculation and CPU time. The CA models, utilizing local information, require considerably less computation. In this study, minimizing both mass and deformation of fuel plate of a multipurpose research reactor (MPRR) are considered as objective functions. Results, speed, and qualification of proposed method are comparable with those of genetic algorithm and neural network methods applied to this problem before

  20. Use of Gray code in PBIL algorithm for application in recharge of nuclear fuels; Utilização do código Gray no algoritmo PBIL para aplicação na recarga de combustíveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nast, Fernando N.; Silva, Patrick V.; Meneses, Anderson A. M., E-mail: anderson.meneses@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Oeste do Para (UNIOESTE), Santarem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Inteligencia Computacional; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao de Processos

    2017-07-01

    The In-Core Fuel Management Optimization (OGCIN) problem, or design optimization of Load Patterns (PCs) are denominations for the optimization problem associated with the refueling operation in a reactor nuclear. The OCGIN is considered a problem of difficult resolution, considering aspects of combinatorial optimization and calculations of analysis and physics of reactors. In order to validate algorithms for the OGCIN solution, we use benchmark problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), because it is considered, like OGCIN, an NP-difficult problem. In the present work, we implemented the Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithm with binary coding and Gray coding and applied them to the optimization of the symmetric PCV Oliver30 and Rykel48 asymmetric PCV and implemented only the Gray coding in the OGCIN application of the cycle 7 of the Angra-1 Nuclear Plant, where we compared its performance with binary coding in. The results on average were 1311 and 1327 ppm of Boron for the binary and Gray codifications respectively, emphasizing that the binary codification obtained a maximum value of 1330 ppm, while the Gray code obtained a value of 1401 ppm, showing superiority, since the Boron concentration is an indicator of the PC cycle extension.

  1. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps. The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961–1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3

  2. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  3. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2008-05-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  4. REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

  5. 29 CFR 1917.156 - Fuel handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Liquid fuel dispensing devices, such as pumps, shall be mounted either on a concrete island or be...) Containers shall be examined before recharging and again before reuse for the following: (A) Dents, scrapes...

  6. Comparison of problems and experience of core operation with distorted fuel element assemblies in VVER-1000 and PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.

    1999-01-01

    The main reactors leading to distortion of fuel element assemblies during reactor operation were studied. A series of actions which compensate this effect was proposed. Criteria of operation limitation in VVER-1000 and PWR reactors are described

  7. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F.; MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W.; Machanoff, R.A.; Adler, H.I.; Phelps, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993

  8. Apparatus for reading and recharging condenser ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A metering circuit for a condenser ionization chamber is disclosed for simultaneously recharging the ionization chamber and reading out the amount of charge required to recharge the chamber. During the recharging process, the amount of charge necessary to recharge the ionization chamber capacitor is placed on an integrating capacitor in the metering apparatus. The resultant voltage across the integrating capacitor is a measure of the radiation to which the ionization chamber was exposed. 9 claims, 1 figure

  9. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  10. Recharging "Hot-Melt" Adhesive Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progar, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for recharging surface with "hot-melt" film makes use of one sided, high-temperature, pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Purpose of the one-sided tape is to hold hot-melt charge in place until fused to surface. After adhesive has fused to surface and cooled, tape is removed, leaving adhesive on surface.

  11. Future cathode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A.G.; Giwa, C.O.; Lee, J.C.; Bowles, P. [DERA, Gosport (United Kingdom); Gilmour, A.; Allan, J. [Lexcel Technology, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Rice, D.A.; Brady, F.; Tsang, S.C.E. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Lithium rechargeable batteries are now well established as power sources for portable equipment, such as portable telephones or computers. Future applications include electric vehicles. However, before they can be used for this, or other price-sensitive applications, new cathode materials of much lower cost are needed. Possible cathode materials are reviewed. (orig.)

  12. Fuel design with low peak of local power for BWR reactors with increased nominal power; Diseno de un combustible con bajo pico de potencia local para reactores BWR con potencia nominal aumentada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R.; Montes, J.L.; Hernandez, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Federal Commission of Electricity recently announcement the beginning of the works related with the increase of the power to 120% of the original nominal one in the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV): In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies of the impact on the design of the recharge of derived fuel of this increase. One of the main effects of the power increase type that it is promoting, is the increment of the flow of generated vapor, what takes, to a bigger fraction of vacuum in the core presenting increased values of the maximum fraction to the limit, so much of the ratio of lineal heat generation (XFLPD) as of the ratio of critic power (MFLCPR). In the made studies, it is found that these fractions rise lineally with the increase of the nominal power. Considering that the reactors of the CLV at the moment operate to 105% of the original nominal power, it would imply an increment of the order of 13.35% in the XFLPD and in the MFLCPR operating to a nominal power of 120% of the original one. This would propitiate bigger problems to design appropriately the fuel cycle and the necessity, almost unavoidable, of to resort to a fuel assembly type more advanced for the recharges of the cores. As option, in the ININ the feasibility of continuing using the same type of it fuel assembles that one has come using recently in the CLV, the type GE12 is analyzed. To achieve it was outlined to diminish the peak factor of local power (LPPF) of the power cells that compose the fuel recharge in 13.35%. It was started of a fuel design previously used in the recharge of the unit 1 cycle 12 and it was re-design to use it in the recharge design of the cycle 13 of the unit 1, considering an increase to 120% of the original power and the same requirements of cycle extension. For the re-design of the fuel assembly cell it was used the PreDiCeldas computer program developed in the ININ. It was able to diminish the LPPF

  13. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Economic Dispatch Problems with Multiple Fuel Options and Valve-Points Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is an efficient and powerful population-based optimization technique, which is inspired by the conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO and quantum mechanics theories. In this paper, an improved QPSO named SQPSO is proposed, which combines QPSO with a selective probability operator to solve the economic dispatch (ED problems with valve-point effects and multiple fuel options. To show the performance of the proposed SQPSO, it is tested on five standard benchmark functions and two ED benchmark problems, including a 40-unit ED problem with valve-point effects and a 10-unit ED problem with multiple fuel options. The results are compared with differential evolution (DE, particle swarm optimization (PSO and basic QPSO, as well as a number of other methods reported in the literature in terms of solution quality, convergence speed and robustness. The simulation results confirm that the proposed SQPSO is effective and reliable for both function optimization and ED problems.

  14. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  15. Access to energy and fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A first part addresses the issue of access to a modern and sustainable energy in developing countries, notably in rural areas of Africa and Asia. Some experiments are evoked like, for example, the financing and support of an Indonesian NGO for the construction of hydroelectric micro power plants. In this respect, decentralized solutions seem to be the most promising, but also the use of new technologies for lighting equipment using 3 energy sources (electric grid, solar energy, rechargeable battery). The Lighting Africa program is evoked. The second part addresses the issue of fuel poverty, notably in France but also in other European countries (data are provided which indicate the numbers of households unable to pay for a proper heating, or with bad quality housing). The authors outline that fuel poverty is a complex problem which requires both emergency measures and prevention programs on a medium and long term: improvement of energy efficiency in the housing sector in order to reduce consumption, implementation of new and innovating technologies (housing rehabilitation with local and green materials, R and D efforts, and development of smart meters). The economic and social dimensions of this problem of fuel poverty are outlined by members of associations

  16. Studies on groundwater recharge through surface drains | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on groundwater recharge through surface drains. ... The model gives volume of water recharged for various rainfall events under different antecedent moisture conditions for both free flow and detained flow conditions. The value of recharge rate computed by using the model for a particular depth of flow in the drain ...

  17. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors and observation...

  18. Monitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Ganot, Y.; Ganot, Y.; Holtzman, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Nitzan, I.; Katz, Y.; Kurtzman, D.

    2017-01-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil senso...

  19. Behavior of TOC in a Deep Confined Aquifer During Groundwater Artificial Recharge Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; He, H.; Shi, X.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, environmental geological problems such as land subsidence, land collapse, land cracking and salt-water intrusion have become important factors limiting economic development in some cities due to severe overexploitation of groundwater. So, a number of cities have carried out artificial recharge projects, which have played a significant role in controlling these problems. However, with the increasing trend of organic pollution appeared in the surface water, organic contaminated problems should not be neglected during this process. Although the organic components were always following in a lower concentration level, whether it would make groundwater face the organic pollution crisis was unknown for its' higher toxicity and durability. Based on a typical artificial recharge test carried out in a deep confined aquifer in this study area (located in Eastern China, there are 10 monitoring wells and 1 recharge well) that decided to control the field land subsidence, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was selected as the target components to reveal the organic elements' changing trend during groundwater artificial recharge process. The results (Fig. 1) showed that the concentration of TOC in each monitoring well was appeared in an increasing trend due to the mix influence of the recharge water (TOC was 1.88mg/L) and the origin groundwater (TOC was 0.58mg/L). But the maximum concentrations of TOC in J4, J5, J6 monitoring well (the distance from recharge well was 10m, 17m, 31m respectively) were lower than the recharge water 0.28, 0.49, 0.74 mg/L respectively, with non-linear growth. It indicated that except adsorption, microbial degradation might also occur in the aquifer during artificial recharge. With the groundwater environment from relatively anaerobic environment turn to aerobic environment, DO was able to characterize the relative strength of the TOC biodegradation. The average value of DO in recharge water was 4.33 mg/L, and the maximum value of DO in J4, J5

  20. Methodology based in the fuzzy logic for constructing the objective functions in optimization problems of nuclear fuel: application to the cells radial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology based on Fuzzy Logic for the construction of the objective function of the optimization problems of nuclear fuel is described. It was created an inference system that responds, in certain form, as a human expert when it has the task of qualifying different radial designs of fuel cells. Specifically it is detailed how an inference system based based on Fuzzy Logic that has five enter variables and one exit variable was built, which corresponds to the objective function for the radial design of a fuel cell for a BWR. The use of Fuzzy with Mat lab offered the visualization capacity of the exit variable in function of one or two enter variables at the same time. This allowed to build, in appropriate way, the combination of the inference rules and the membership functions of those diffuse sets used for each one of the enter variables. The obtained objective function was used in an optimization process based on Taboo search. The new methodology was proven for the design of a cell used in a fuel assemble of the Laguna Verde reactor obtaining excellent results. (Author)

  1. Decision Support System for Aquifer Recharge (AR) and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquifer recharge (AR) is a technical method being utilized to enhance groundwater resources through man-made replenishment means, such as infiltration basins and injections wells. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) furthers the AR techniques by withdrawal of stored groundwater at a later time for beneficial use. It is a viable adaptation technique for water availability problems. Variants of the water storage practices include recharge through urban green infrastructure and the subsurface injection of reclaimed water, i.e., wastewater, which has been treated to remove solids and impurities. In addition to a general overview of ASR variations, this report focuses on the principles and technical basis for an ASR decision support system (DSS), with the necessary technical references provided. The DSS consists of three levels of tools and methods for ASR system planning and assessment, design, and evaluation. Level 1 of the system is focused on ASR feasibility, for which four types of data and technical information are organized around: 1) ASR regulations and permitting needs, 2) Water demand projections, 3) Climate change and water availability, and 4) ASR sites and technical information. These technical resources are integrated to quantify water availability gaps and the feasibility of using ASR to meet the volume and timing of the water resource shortages. A systemic analysis of water resources was conducted for sustainable water supplies in Las Vegas, Nevada f

  2. Groundwater Recharge Process in the Morondava Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamifarananahary, E.; Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Rahobisoa, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The groundwater recharge process in the Morondava Sedimentary basin was determined using chemical and isotopic tools. The results showed that the main recharge into shallow aquifer is from infiltration of evaporated water. Into deeper aquifer, it is done either from direct infiltration of rainfall from recharge areas on the top of the hill in the East towards the low-lying discharge areas in the West, or from vertical infiltration of evaporated shallow groundwater. The tritium contents suggest that recharge from shallow aquifers is from recent rainfall with short residence time while recharge into deeper aquifers is from older rainfall with longer residence time.

  3. Quantifying macropore recharge: Examples from a semi-arid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W.W.; Rainwater, Ken A.; Thompson, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered to be the difference between total recharge through floors of topographically dosed basins and interstitial recharge through the same area. On the regional scale, macropore recharge was considered to be the difference between regional average annual recharge and interstitial recharge measured in the unsaturated zone. Stable isotopic composition of ground water and precipitation was used us an independent estimate of macropore recharge on the regional scale. Results of this analysis suggest that in the Southern High Plains recharge flux through macropores is between 60 and 80 percent of the total 11 mm/y. Between 15 and 35 percent of the recharge occurs by interstitial recharge through the basin floors. Approximately 5 percent of the total recharge occurs as either interstitial or matrix recharge between the basin floors, representing approximately 95 percent of the area. The approach is applicable to other arid and semi-arid areas that focus rainfall into depressions or valleys.The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in arid and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered

  4. A Continuous Deviation-Flow Location Problem for an Alternative-Fuel Refueling Station on a Tree-Like Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kweon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing popularity of alternative-fuel (AF vehicles in the last two decades, several models and solution techniques have been recently published in the literature to solve AF refueling station location problems. These problems can be classified depending on the set of candidate sites: when a (finite set of candidate sites is predetermined, the problem is called discrete; when stations can be located anywhere along the network, the problem is called continuous. Most researchers have focused on the discrete version of the problem, but solutions to the discrete version are suboptimal to its continuous counterpart. This study addresses the continuous version of the problem for an AF refueling station on a tree-type transportation network when a portion of drivers are willing to deviate from their preplanned simple paths to receive refueling service. A polynomial time solution approach is proposed to solve the problem. We first present a new algorithm that identifies all possible deviation options for each travel path. Then, an efficient algorithm is used to determine the set of optimal locations for the refueling station that maximizes the total traffic flow covered. A numerical example is solved to illustrate the proposed solution approach.

  5. A hybrid approach to solving the problem of design of nuclear fuel cells; Un enfoque hibrido para la solucion del problema del diseno de celdas de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo, A., E-mail: joseluis.montes@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    An approach to solving the problem of fuel cell design for BWR power reactor is presented. For this purpose the hybridization of a method based in heuristic knowledge rules called S15 and the advantages of a meta-heuristic method is proposed. The synergy of potentialities of both techniques allows finding solutions of more quality. The quality of each solution is obtained through a multi-objective function formed from the main cell parameters that are provided or obtained during the simulation with the CASMO-4 code. To evaluate this alternative of solution nuclear fuel cells of reference of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde were used. The results show that in a systematic way the results improve when both methods are coupled. As a result of the hybridization process of the mentioned techniques an improvement is achieved in a range of 2% with regard to the achieved results in an independent way by the S15 method. (Author)

  6. Assessing the impact of future climate change on groundwater recharge in Galicia-Costa, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Juan Ramón; Dafonte, Jorge; Molinero, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Climate change can impact the hydrological processes of a watershed and may result in problems with future water supply for large sections of the population. Results from the FP5 PRUDENCE project suggest significant changes in temperature and precipitation over Europe. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge in the hydrological district of Galicia-Costa, Spain. Climate projections from two general circulation models and eight different regional climate models were used for the assessment and two climate-change scenarios were evaluated. Calibration and validation of the model were performed using a daily time-step in four representative catchments in the district. The effects on modeled mean annual groundwater recharge are small, partly due to the greater stomatal efficiency of plants in response to increased CO2 concentration. However, climate change strongly influences the temporal variability of modeled groundwater recharge. Recharge may concentrate in the winter season and dramatically decrease in the summer-autumn season. As a result, the dry-season duration may be increased on average by almost 30 % for the A2 emission scenario, exacerbating the current problems in water supply.

  7. Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

  8. Understanding Conversion-Type Electrodes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Feng, Xinran; Zhang, Na; Seok, Jeesoo; Abruña, Héctor D

    2018-02-20

    , sulfides, fluorides, phosphides, and nitrides can undergo conversion reactions yielding materials with high theoretical capacity (generally from 500 to 1500 mA h g -1 ). In particular, a number of transition metal oxides and sulfides have shown excellent electrochemical properties as high-capacity anode materials. In addition, some transition metal fluorides have shown great potential as cathode materials for Li rechargeable batteries. In this Account we present mechanistic studies, with emphasis on the use of operando methods, of selected examples of conversion-type materials as both potentially high-energy-density anodes and cathodes in EES applications. We also include examples of the conceptually similar conversion-type reactions involving chalcogens and halogens, with emphasis on the Li-S system. In this case we focus on the problems arising from the low electrical conductivities of elemental sulfur and Li 2 S and the "redox shuttle" phenomena of polysulfides. In addition to mechanistic insights from the use of operando methods, we also cover several key strategies in electrode materials design such as controlling the size, morphology, composition, and architecture.

  9. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  10. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  11. Incredibly Versatile Microbial Fuel Cells Innovative Ideas at HES-SO Valais-Wallis for Solving Topical Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    At HES-SO Valais-Wallis, Prof. Fabian Fischer is specialized in microbial fuel cells for novel applications that meet the challenge of producing renewable energies. He and his team possess a unique expertise in bioelectric energy vector generation, phosphate extraction (CHIMIA 2015, 69, 296) and the testing of antimicrobial surfaces. Let's take a look behind the scenes of the Institute of Life Technologies in Sion.

  12. Simplicity versus complexity in modelling groundwater recharge in Chalk catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of varying complexity are available to provide estimates of recharge in headwater Chalk catchments. Some measure of how estimates vary between different models can help guide the choice of model for a particular application. This paper compares recharge estimates derived from four models employing input data at varying spatial resolutions for a Chalk headwater catchment (River Pang, UK over a four-year period (1992-1995 that includes a range of climatic conditions. One model was validated against river flow data to provide a measure of their relative performance. Each model gave similar total recharge for the crucial winter recharge period when evaporation is low. However, the simple models produced relatively lower estimates of the summer and early autumn recharge due to the way in which processes governing recharge especially evaporation and infiltration are represented. The relative uniformity of land use, soil types and rainfall across headwater, drift-free Chalk catchments suggests that complex, distributed models offer limited benefits for recharge estimates at the catchment scale compared to simple models. Nonetheless, distributed models would be justified for studies where the pattern and amount of recharge need to be known in greater detail and to provide more reliable estimates of recharge during years with low rainfall. Keywords: Chalk, modelling, groundwater recharge

  13. The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-30

    Li(+) transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface and lowers the cycle life of a battery cell. Moreover, formation of a passivation layer on the anode robs Li from the cathode irreversibly on an initial charge, further lowering the reversible Δt. These problems plus the cost of quality control of manufacturing plague development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries that can compete with the internal combustion engine for powering electric cars and that can provide the needed low-cost storage of electrical energy generated by renewable wind and/or solar energy. Chemists are contributing to incremental improvements of the conventional strategy by investigating and controlling electrode passivation layers, improving the rate of Li(+) transfer across electrode/electrolyte interfaces, identifying electrolytes with larger windows while retaining a Li(+) conductivity σ(Li) > 10(-3) S cm(-1), synthesizing electrode morphologies that reduce the size of the active particles while pinning them on current collectors of large surface area accessible by the electrolyte, lowering the cost of cell fabrication, designing displacement-reaction anodes of higher capacity that allow a safe, fast charge, and designing alternative cathode hosts. However, new strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions (e.g. sulfur) by liquid cathodes that may contain flow-through redox molecules, or by catalysts for air cathodes; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively. Opportunities exist for the chemist to bring together oxide and polymer or graphene chemistry in imaginative morphologies.

  14. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015) of continuous intensive MAR (2.45 × 106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area), groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from ˜ 11 to ˜ 0.4 m d-1). This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface - abundant in many MAR operations - are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity ˜ 0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids ˜ 120 mg L-1) or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016) fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  15. A new approach to the use of genetic algorithms to solve the pressurized water reactor's fuel management optimization problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapot, Jorge Luiz C. [ELETRONUCLEAR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho Da Silva, Fernando; Schirru, Roberto [COPPE/UFRJ-Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A Genetic Algorithm (GA) based system, coupling the computer codes GENESIS 5.0 and ANC through the interface ALGER has been developed aiming at pressurized water reactor's (PWR) fuel management optimization. An innovative codification, the List Model (LM), has been incorporated into the system. LM avoids the use of heuristic crossover operators and only generates valid nonrepetitive loading patterns in the reactor core. The LM has been used to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The results got for a benchmark problem were very satisfactory, in terms of precision and computational costs. The GENESIS/ALGER/ANC system has been successfully tested in optimization studies for Angra 1 power plant reloads.

  16. Panorama 2013 - Air transport and the problem of CO2: ETS mechanisms and bio-jet fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Francois Gruson

    2013-01-01

    Air transport currently accounts for only 2% (∼600 Mt/year) of global CO 2 emissions from human activity. Despite this 2% level, this industry is targeted by governments - especially European Union - and initiatives targeting zero growth in carbon from 2020 onwards, and a 50% reduction by 2050. Over and above aircraft technical innovations and the way in which air traffic is organised, the introduction of ETS (Emissions Trading System) mechanisms and the development of bio-jet fuels are the options most commonly cited in discussions on how to achieve that target. (author)

  17. Optimized Charging Scheduling with Single Mobile Charger for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of wireless charging technology, the recharging issue in wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN has been a popular research problem in the past few years. The weakness of previous work is that charging route planning is not reasonable. In this work, a dynamic optimal scheduling scheme aiming to maximize the vacation time ratio of a single mobile changer for WRSN is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the wireless sensor network is divided into several sub-networks according to the initial topology of deployed sensor networks. After comprehensive analysis of energy states, working state and constraints for different sensor nodes in WRSN, we transform the optimized charging path problem of the whole network into the local optimization problem of the sub networks. The optimized charging path with respect to dynamic network topology in each sub-network is obtained by solving an optimization problem, and the lifetime of the deployed wireless sensor network can be prolonged. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has good and reliable performance for a small wireless rechargeable sensor network.

  18. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  19. Solving two-dimensions heat conduction problem for fuel elements in reactor by nodal green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jian; Peng Muzhang; Cao Dongxing

    1989-01-01

    A new numerical method-nodal green's function method is used for solving heat conduction function. A heat conduction problem in cylindrical geometry with axial conduction is solved in this paper. The Kirchhoff transformation is used to deal with the problem with temperature dependent conductivity. Therefor, the calculation for the function is simplified. On the basis of the formulas developed, the code named NGMEFC is programmed. A sample problem which has been calculated by the code COBRA-IV is chosen as checking. A good agreement between both codes is achieved. The calculation shows that the calculation efficiency of the nodel green's function method is much higher than that of finite difference method

  20. Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Barron

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modelling for a range of Köppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types, the correlation between the modelled recharge and total annual rainfall is weaker than the correlation between recharge and the annual rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. Under similar soil and vegetation conditions for the same annual rainfall, annual recharge in regions with winter-dominated rainfall is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The importance of climate parameters other than rainfall in recharge estimation is highest in the tropical climate type. Mean annual values of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater importance in recharge estimation than mean annual values of the daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have the lowest relative importance in recharge estimation in the arid climate type (with cold winters and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all soil, vegetation and climate types investigated, recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4 indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall. Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.

  1. Summary of groundwater-recharge estimates for Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart O. Reese,; Risser, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is water that infiltrates through the subsurface to the zone of saturation beneath the water table. Because recharge is a difficult parameter to quantify, it is typically estimated from measurements of other parameters like streamflow and precipitation. This report provides a general overview of processes affecting recharge in Pennsylvania and presents estimates of recharge rates from studies at various scales.The most common method for estimating recharge in Pennsylvania has been to estimate base flow from measurements of streamflow and assume that base flow (expressed in inches over the basin) approximates recharge. Statewide estimates of mean annual groundwater recharge were developed by relating base flow to basin characteristics of HUC10 watersheds (a fifth-level classification that uses 10 digits to define unique hydrologic units) using a regression equation. The regression analysis indicated that mean annual precipitation, average daily maximum temperature, percent of sand in soil, percent of carbonate rock in the watershed, and average stream-channel slope were significant factors in the explaining the variability of groundwater recharge across the Commonwealth.Several maps are included in this report to illustrate the principal factors affecting recharge and provide additional information about the spatial distribution of recharge in Pennsylvania. The maps portray the patterns of precipitation, temperature, prevailing winds across Pennsylvania’s varied physiography; illustrate the error associated with recharge estimates; and show the spatial variability of recharge as a percent of precipitation. National, statewide, regional, and local values of recharge, based on numerous studies, are compiled to allow comparison of estimates from various sources. Together these plates provide a synopsis of groundwater-recharge estimations and factors in Pennsylvania.Areas that receive the most recharge are typically those that get the most

  2. A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

  3. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  4. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  5. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  6. The demand for clean-fuel vehicles by Dutch local authorities. A stated choice analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, P.

    2012-08-15

    Previous research showed that the era of cheap fossil fuels is over. Also, 23% of the worldwide emission of CO2 is produced by road transport. These problems demand a change in the propulsion of vehicles. Because the diffusion of clean-fuel vehicles is not happening at this moment, something has to change. Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory is used to state that a critical mass of vehicles is needed to stimulate the diffusion of these vehicles. Due to public procurement Dutch local authorities (DLA's) can help stimulating this diffusion. Unfortunately these DLA's are not purchasing clean-fuel vehicles yet. To gain insight in what is hampering the diffusion of these vehicles by DLA's, a discrete choice experiment was created about the preferences by these DLA's. Six vehicle attributes were used to describe each vehicle. The results showed that the initial purchase price and the amount of local emission were experienced as the most important attributes by DLA's, where initial purchase price has a negative influence and local emission a positive influence in the choice for a new vehicle. Next, fuel price, range and availability of the fuel were found evenly important. Fuel price had a negative influence and both range and availability of fuel had a positive influence on the choice for a new vehicle. Finally, time to refuel/recharge was found least important and also negatively influencing the choice.

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitosi.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel pellets containing burnable poison and fuel pellets not containing burnable poison are used together in burnable poison-incorporated fuel rods which is disposed at the outermost layer of a cluster. Since the burnable poison-incorporated fuel rods are disposed at the outermost layer of the cluster where a neutron flux level is high and, accordingly, the power is high originally, local power peaking can be suppressed and, simultaneously, fuels can be burnt effectively without increasing the fuel concentration in the inner and the intermediate layers than that of the outermost layer. In addition, a problem of lacking a reactor core reactivity at an initial stage is solved by disposing both of the fuel pellets together, even if burnable poisons of high concentration are used. This is because the extent of the lowering of the reactivity due to the burnable poison-incorporated fuels is mainly determined by the surface area thereof and the remaining period of the burnable poison is mainly determined by the concentration thereof. As a result, the burnup degree can be improved without lowering the reactor reactivity so much. (N.H.)

  8. Crash test for groundwater recharge models: The effects of model complexity and calibration period on groundwater recharge predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Von Freyberg, Jana; Schrimer, Maria

    2016-04-01

    An important question in recharge impact studies is how model choice, structure and calibration period affect recharge predictions. It is still unclear if a certain model type or structure is less affected by running the model on time periods with different hydrological conditions compared to the calibration period. This aspect, however, is crucial to ensure reliable predictions of groundwater recharge. In this study, we quantify and compare the effect of groundwater recharge model choice, model parametrization and calibration period in a systematic way. This analysis was possible thanks to a unique data set from a large-scale lysimeter in a pre-alpine catchment where daily long-term recharge rates are available. More specifically, the following issues are addressed: We systematically evaluate how the choice of hydrological models influences predictions of recharge. We assess how different parameterizations of models due to parameter non-identifiability affect predictions of recharge by applying a Monte Carlo approach. We systematically assess how the choice of calibration periods influences predictions of recharge within a differential split sample test focusing on the model performance under extreme climatic and hydrological conditions. Results indicate that all applied models (simple lumped to complex physically based models) were able to simulate the observed recharge rates for five different calibration periods. However, there was a marked impact of the calibration period when the complete 20 years validation period was simulated. Both, seasonal and annual differences between simulated and observed daily recharge rates occurred when the hydrological conditions were different to the calibration period. These differences were, however, less distinct for the physically based models, whereas the simpler models over- or underestimate the observed recharge depending on the considered season. It is, however, possible to reduce the differences for the simple models by

  9. Performance evaluation of a reverse-gradient artificial recharge system in basalt aquifers of Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusari, Vijay; Katpatal, Y. B.; Kundal, Pradeep

    2017-05-01

    Drinking water scarcity in rural parts of central India in basaltic terrain is common. Most of the rural population depends on groundwater sources located in the fractured and weathered zone of the basaltic aquifers. Long-term indiscriminate withdrawal has caused an alarming rate of depletion of groundwater levels in both pre- and post-monsoon periods. The aquifer is not replenished through precipitation under natural conditions. To overcome this situation, an innovative artificial recharge system, called the reverse-gradient recharge system (RGRS), was implemented in seven villages of Wardha district of Maharashtra. The study described here presents a comparative analysis of recharge systems constructed in the year 2012 downstream of dug-well locations in these seven villages. The post-project comparative analysis reveals that the area of influence (AOI) of the groundwater recharge system, within which increases in groundwater levels and yield are observed, is directly related to the specific yield, thickness of the weathered and fractured zone, porosity, and transmissivity of the aquifer, showing high correlation coefficients of 0.92, 0.88, 0.85 and 0.83, respectively. The study indicates that the RGRS is most effective in vesicular weathered and fractured basalt, recording a maximum increase in well yield of 65-82 m3/day, while a minimum increase in yield of 15-30 m3/day was observed in weathered vesicular basalt. The comparative analysis thus identifies the controlling factors which facilitate groundwater recharge through the proposed RGRS. After implementation of these projects, the groundwater availability in these villages increased significantly, solving their drinking water problems.

  10. Optimal design of a hybridization scheme with a fuel cell using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A.

    Fuel cell is one of the most dependable "green power" technologies, readily available for immediate application. It enables direct conversion of hydrogen and other gases into electric energy without any pollution of the environment. However, the efficient power generation is strictly stationary process that cannot operate under dynamic environment. Consequently, fuel cell becomes practical only within a specially designed hybridization scheme, capable of power storage and power management functions. The resultant technology could be utilized to its full potential only when both the fuel cell element and the entire hybridization scheme are optimally designed. The design optimization in engineering is among the most complex computational tasks due to its multidimensionality, nonlinearity, discontinuity and presence of constraints in the underlying optimization problem. this research aims at the optimal utilization of the fuel cell technology through the use of genetic optimization, and advance computing. This study implements genetic optimization in the definition of optimum hybridization rules for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor power system. PEM fuel cells exhibit high energy density but they are not intended for pulsating power draw applications. They work better in steady state operation and thus, are often hybridized. In a hybrid system, the fuel cell provides power during steady state operation while capacitors or batteries augment the power of the fuel cell during power surges. Capacitors and batteries can also be recharged when the motor is acting as a generator. Making analogies to driving cycles, three hybrid system operating modes are investigated: 'Flat' mode, 'Uphill' mode, and 'Downhill' mode. In the process of discovering the switching rules for these three modes, we also generate a model of a 30W PEM fuel cell. This study also proposes the optimum design of a 30W PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model and hybridization's switching rules are postulated

  11. Simulations of freshwater lens recharge and salt/freshwater interfaces using the HYDRUS and SWI2 packages for MODFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymkiewicz Adam

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an evaluation of the combined use of the HYDRUS and SWI2 packages for MODFLOW as a potential tool for modeling recharge in coastal aquifers subject to saltwater intrusion. The HYDRUS package for MODFLOW solves numerically the one-dimensional form of the Richards equation describing water flow in variablysaturated media. The code computes groundwater recharge to or capillary rise from the groundwater table while considering weather, vegetation, and soil hydraulic property data. The SWI2 package represents in a simplified way variable-density flow associated with saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Combining these two packages within the MODFLOW framework provides a more accurate description of vadose zone processes in subsurface systems with shallow aquifers, which strongly depend upon infiltration. The two packages were applied to a two-dimensional problem of recharge of a freshwater lens in a sandy peninsula, which is a typical geomorphologic form along the Baltic and the North Sea coasts, among other places. Results highlighted the sensitivity of calculated recharge rates to the temporal resolution of weather data. Using daily values of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration produced average recharge rates more than 20% larger than those obtained with weekly or monthly averaged weather data, leading to different trends in the evolution of freshwater-saltwater interfaces. Root water uptake significantly influenced both the recharge rate and the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface. The results were less sensitive to changes in soil hydraulic parameters, which in our study were found to affect average yearly recharge rates by up to 13%.

  12. Phosphidation of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles and their electrochemical and biocompatible superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Mi Ru; Nam, Ki Min; Lee, Youngmin; Song, Kyeongse; Park, Joon T; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2011-11-07

    Phosphidated-Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) shows high capacity with a significantly enhanced kinetics opening new possibilities for ultra-fast charge/discharge of lithium rechargeable batteries. The in vitro cytotoxicity test proves its fabulous cell viability, indicating that the toxicity problem of nanoparticles can be also solved by phosphidation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  13. GIS and SBF for estimating groundwater recharge of a mountainous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, our approach for estimating recharge provides not only an estimate of how much water becomes groundwater, but also explains the characteristics of a potential groundwater recharge zone. 1. Introduction. Most of the annual precipitation (2500 mm) in. Taiwan comes from typhoons and convection rain.

  14. Assessment of natural groundwater recharge in Tudun Wada Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This empirical relationship similar to Chaturvedi formula was derived by fitting the estimated values of rainfall recharge and the corresponding values of rainfall in the monsoon season through the non-linear regression techniques. The variance was found to be 29.50 %, and the recharge of groundwater commences at P ...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 57.4203 Section 57.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 56.4203 Section 56.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  17. Nondestructive control of residual stresses during welding and recharge processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Cruz, C.; Merino, F.; Aragon, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, the stress state of material during welding and recharge processes is controlled with the help of Barkhausen effect. The changes, occurred in the longitudinal and transversal stress profile are show during deposition of welding rings. It is proved that the stress state of the base-material depends on the amount of recharge layers, deposited on it

  18. GIS and SBF for estimating groundwater recharge of a mountainous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The SBF technique has the advantage of integrating groundwater recharge across an entire basin without complex hydro-geologic modelling and detailed knowledge of the soil characteristics. In this study, our approach for estimating recharge provides not only an estimate of how much water becomes groundwater, but ...

  19. Predicted impacts of land use change on groundwater recharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine land use changes in upper Berg catchment using multi-temporal Landsat images from 1984, 1992, 2002, and 2008, and to predict the impact of these land use changes on groundwater recharge. For the simulation of groundwater recharge the distributed hydrological model ...

  20. Snow impact on groundwater recharge in Table Mountain Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snowmelt in the mountainous areas of the Table Mountain Group (TMG) in South Africa is believed to be one of sources of groundwater recharge in some winter seasons. This paper provides a scientific assessment of snow impact on groundwater recharge in Table Mountain Group Aquifer Systems for the first time.

  1. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater recharge and base flow using different investigated methods are simulated in the 15-ha Bukmoongol small-forested watershed located at the southern part of Korea.The WHAT system, PART,RORA,PULSE,BFI,and RAP software are used to estimate groundwater recharge or base flow and base flow index from ...

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition on Porous Materials: Problems with Conventional Approaches to Catalyst and Fuel Cell Electrode Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzia Ming Onn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition (ALD offers exciting possibilities for controlling the structure and composition of surfaces on the atomic scale in heterogeneous catalysts and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC electrodes. However, while ALD procedures and equipment are well developed for applications involving flat surfaces, the conditions required for ALD in porous materials with a large surface area need to be very different. The materials (e.g., rare earths and other functional oxides that are of interest for catalytic applications will also be different. For flat surfaces, rapid cycling, enabled by high carrier-gas flow rates, is necessary in order to rapidly grow thicker films. By contrast, ALD films in porous materials rarely need to be more than 1 nm thick. The elimination of diffusion gradients, efficient use of precursors, and ligand removal with less reactive precursors are the major factors that need to be controlled. In this review, criteria will be outlined for the successful use of ALD in porous materials. Examples of opportunities for using ALD to modify heterogeneous catalysts and SOFC electrodes will be given.

  3. Monitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ganot

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015 of continuous intensive MAR (2.45  ×  106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area, groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from  ∼  11 to  ∼  0.4 m d−1. This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface – abundant in many MAR operations – are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity  ∼  0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids  ∼  120 mg L−1 or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016 fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  4. Application of the distributed genetic algorithm for in-core fuel optimization problems under parallel computational environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The distributed genetic algorithm (DGA) is applied for loading pattern optimization problems of the pressurized water reactors. A basic concept of DGA follows that of the conventional genetic algorithm (GA). However, DGA equally distributes candidates of solutions (i.e. loading patterns) to several independent ''islands'' and evolves them in each island. Communications between islands, i.e. migrations of some candidates between islands are performed with a certain period. Since candidates of solutions independently evolve in each island while accepting different genes of migrants, premature convergence in the conventional GA can be prevented. Because many candidate loading patterns should be evaluated in GA or DGA, the parallelization is efficient to reduce turn around time. Parallel efficiency of DGA was measured using our optimization code and good efficiency was attained even in a heterogeneous cluster environment due to dynamic distribution of the calculation load. The optimization code is based on the client/server architecture with the TCP/IP native socket and a client (optimization) module and calculation server modules communicate the objects of loading patterns each other. Throughout the sensitivity study on optimization parameters of DGA, a suitable set of the parameters for a test problem was identified. Finally, optimization capability of DGA and the conventional GA was compared in the test problem and DGA provided better optimization results than the conventional GA. (author)

  5. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  6. Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Keese, K.E.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Gaye, C.B.; Edmunds, W.M.; Simmers, I.

    2006-01-01

    Global synthesis of the findings from ∼140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40–374 000 km2) range from 0·2 to 35 mm year−1, representing 0·1–5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to ∼720 m year−1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Niños (1977–1998) relative to periods dominated by La Niñas (1941–1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year−1 during the Sahel drought (1970–1986) to 150 mm year−1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (≥10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in

  7. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  8. Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-10-16

    Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting

  9. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

  10. Emulation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes in shallow groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C.; Pickett, Trevor; Crosbie, Russell S.; Morgan, Leanne K.; Turnadge, Chris; Davies, Phil J.

    2017-12-01

    In shallow groundwater systems, recharge and evapotranspiration are highly sensitive to changes in the depth to water table. To effectively model these fluxes, complex functions that include soil and vegetation properties are often required. Model emulation (surrogate modelling or meta-modelling) can provide a means of incorporating detailed conceptualisation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes, while maintaining the numerical tractability and computational performance required for regional scale groundwater models and uncertainty analysis. A method for emulating recharge and evapotranspiration processes in groundwater flow models was developed, and applied to the South East region of South Australia and western Victoria, which is characterised by shallow groundwater, wetlands and coastal lakes. The soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model WAVES was used to generate relationships between net recharge (diffuse recharge minus evapotranspiration from groundwater) and depth to water table for different combinations of climate, soil and land cover types. These relationships, which mimicked previously described soil, vegetation and groundwater behaviour, were combined into a net recharge lookup table. The segmented evapotranspiration package in MODFLOW was adapted to select values of net recharge from the lookup table depending on groundwater depth, and the climate, soil and land use characteristics of each cell. The model was found to be numerically robust in steady state testing, had no major increase in run time, and would be more efficient than tightly-coupled modelling approaches. It made reasonable predictions of net recharge and groundwater head compared with remotely sensed estimates of net recharge and a standard MODFLOW comparison model. In particular, the method was better able to predict net recharge and groundwater head in areas with steep hydraulic gradients.

  11. Efficient Wireless Charger Deployment for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehn-Ruey Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN consists of sensor nodes that can harvest energy emitted from wireless chargers for refilling their batteries so that the WRSN can operate sustainably. This paper assumes wireless chargers are equipped with directional antennas, and are deployed on grid points of a fixed height to propose two heuristic algorithms solving the following wireless charger deployment optimization (WCDO problem: how to deploy as few as possible chargers to make the WRSN sustainable. Both algorithms model the charging space of chargers as a cone and calculate charging efficiency according power regression expressions complying with the Friis transmission equation. The two algorithms are the greedy cone covering (GCC algorithm and the adaptive cone covering (ACC algorithm. The GCC (respectively, ACC algorithm greedily (respectively, adaptively generates candidate cones to cover as many as possible sensor nodes. Both algorithms then greedily select the fewest number of candidate cones, each of which corresponds to the deployment of a charger, to have approximate solutions to the WCDO problem. We perform experiments, conduct simulations and do analyses for the algorithms to compare them in terms of the time complexity, the number of chargers deployed, and the execution time.

  12. Scale-up of lithium rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A.G.; Giwa, C.O.; Lee, J.C.; Bowles, P. [DERA, Gosport (United Kingdom); Gilmour, A.; Allan, J. [Lexcel Technology, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Small-size lithium rechargeable cells in an envelope format were reported at the 20th International Power Sources Symposium. This design offers the possibility of making cells using much lighter packing than cells with metal cans. The prismatic format allows good packing in rectangular boxes. Hence, they offer the potential for high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. The cells have now been developed to a size sufficient to form components of a large battery, built to power Army man-portable equipment. Lithium-ion cells have been manufactured using lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and other cathode materials are under investigation. Individual cells up to the 3 A h size have been successfully cycled, with further development possible. A 24 V battery has been constructed and its performance and prospects are described. (orig.)

  13. Growth of oxygen bubbles during recharge process in zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Chen, Huicui; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang; Xing, Haoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery used for energy storage has a serious problem of charging capacity limited by oxygen bubble coalescence. Fast removal of oxygen bubbles adhered to the charging electrode surface is of great importance for improving the charging performance of the battery. Here we show that the law of oxygen bubble growth can be achieved by means of phase-field simulation, revealing two phenomena of bubble detachment and bubble coalescence located in the charging electrode on both sides. Hydrodynamic electrolyte and partial insulation structure of the charging electrode are investigated to solve the problem of oxygen bubble coalescence during charging. Two types of rechargeable zinc-air battery are developed on the basis of different tri-electrode configurations, demonstrating that the charging performance of the battery with electrolyte flow (Ⅰ) is better than that of the battery with the partially insulated electrode (Ⅱ), while the battery Ⅱ is superior to the battery Ⅰ in the discharging performance, cost and portability. The proposed solutions and results would be available for promoting commercial application of rechargeable zinc-air batteries or other metal-air batteries.

  14. Zero Emission Mobility Systems in Cities. Inductive Recharge System Planning in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maternini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, “Sustainable” and “Smart” mobility became concepts of fundamental importance and led national government to adopt programmes and measures aimed at reducing the carbon emissions of private and commercial vehicles. The final goal is to pursue the EU objectives of reducing the greenhouse gases emission in transportation sector. The progressive electrification of the circulating vehicles represents a possible solution to the air pollution relating problems. A recent innovative research field, which could significantly contribute to the diffusion of the electric vehicles, consists of the inductive recharge systems for electric vehicles. This technology could also bring to considerably environmental and logistic advantages, especially in urban areas. Starting from the analysis of the main ongoing experimentations of these innovative systems in the world, the present paper proposes a possible application of the inductive recharge technology to the public transport vehicles, through the presentation of the case study of Brescia.

  15. Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziari, Fred

    2002-12-19

    This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further

  16. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  17. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    A review is presented of the development of the (UPu)C sphere-pac fuel project during 1978. In particular, the problems encountered in obtaining good fuel quality in the fabrication process and their solution is discussed. The development of a fabrication pilot plant is considered, and the post-irradiation examination of fuel pins is presented. (Auth.)

  18. Aquifer recharging in South Carolina: radiocarbon in environmental hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, P.A.; Knox, R.L.; Mathews, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon activities of dissolved inorganic carbon (and tritium activities where infiltration rates are rapid and aquifers shallow) provide relatively unambiguous and inexpensive evidence for identification of significant recharge areas. Such evidence is for the actual occurrence of modern recharge in the aquifer and thus is less inferential than stratigraphic or potentiometric evidence. These underutilized isotopic techniques are neither arcane nor complex and have been more-or-less standardized by earlier researchers. In South Carolina, isotopic evidence has been used from both calcareous and siliceous sedimentary aquifers and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. The Tertiary limestone aquifer is shown not to be principally recharged in its subcrop area, unlike conditions assumed for many other sedimentary aquifers in southeastern United States, and instead receives considerable lateral recharge from interfingering updip Tertiary sand aquifers in the middle coastal plain. Induced recharging at Hilton Head Island is mixing ancient relict water and modern recharge water. Recharging to deeper portions of the Cretaceous Middendorf basal sand aquifer occurs at least as far coastward as the middle coastal plain, near sampling sites that stratigraphically appear to be confined. Pronounced mineralization of water in fractured rocks cannot be considered as evidence of ancient or relict ground water that is isolated from modern contaminants, some of these waters contain considerable radiocarbon and hydrogen-bomb tritium

  19. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  20. Groundwater recharge: The intersection between humanity and hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Drewes, Jörg E.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential part of subsurface water circulation and the beginning of groundwater flow systems that can vary in duration from days to millennia. Globally, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that many of Earth's aquifers contain 'fossil' groundwater that was recharged more than 12,000 years ago (Jasechko et al., 2017), and a very small portion of groundwater that was recharged within the last 50 years (Gleeson et al., 2015). Together, this information demonstrates the irregular distribution of groundwater circulation within the Earth and the wide variability of recharge conditions that replenish aquifer systems (Befus et al., 2017). Knowledge of groundwater recharge rates and distribution are needed for evaluating and regulating the quantity and quality of water resources, understanding consequences of landscapes use, identifying where managed aquifer recharge can augment supply, and predicting how groundwater systems will respond to a changing climate. In-turn, these topics are of central importance for the health of humans and ecosystems, and security of food and energy. Yet, despite the global importance, quantifying groundwater recharge remains challenging as it cannot be measured directly, and there is uncertainty associated with all currently known estimation methods (Scanlon et al., 2002).

  1. Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale

  2. Occupational health problems, prevention and safety in solid recovered fuel facilities; Tyoeympaeristoen vaarojen arviointi kiinteiden jaetteiden kaesittelylaitoksilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    New directives and laws will increase the utilization of wastes in the near future. At the same time the number of people employed in waste handling will increase. The aim of this study is to compare manual sorting in demolition waste handling facility to automatic sorting system in commercial and industrial waste facility. Many studies have shown, for example Danish, Dutch and German investigations that waste handling workers have problems especially in occupational health issues. Symptoms like headache, tiredness, joint pain, chest tightens, fever, diarrhea have been reported. Diseases reported are respiratory (asthma, ODTS), muscular, gastroinsteal diseases. Accident risk among waste workers is six times more common that among occupations usually. Finnish Institute of Occupational health carried out the occupational measurements together with VTT Processes. The EU directive accepted in 1999 requires for new waste handling facilities a work space and equipment hazardous classification until 2003 and based on it, an explosion protection document. An example for required actions and documents has been prepared in this project, which can be used as a tool and model in waste management companies and REF production facilities. A dust explosion risks analyse, a work space and equipment classifications and explosion protection document have been done for the Lohja REF-production facility. (orig.)

  3. Occupational health problems, prevention and safety in solid recovered fuel facilities; Tyoeympaeristoen vaarojen arviointi ja torjunta toimenpiteet kiinteaen jaetteen kaesittelylaitoksilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Ajanko, S.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Liesivuori, J.; Kallunki, H. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Kuopio (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    New directives and laws will increase the utilization of wastes in the near future. At the same time the number of people employed in waste handling will increase. The aim of this study is to compare manual sorting in demolition waste handling facility to automatic sorting system in commercial and industrial waste facility. Many studies have shown, for example Danish, Dutch and German researches, that waste handling workers have problems especially in occupational health issues. Symptoms like headache, tiredness, joint pain, chest tightens, fever, diarrhea have been reported. Diseases reported are respiratory (asthma, ODTS), muscular, gastroinsteal diseases. Accident risk among waste workers is six times more common that among occupations usually. Finnish Institute of Occupational health carried out the occupational measurements together with VTT Processes. The EU direcitive accepted in 1999 requires for new waste handling facilities a work space and equipment hazardous classification until 2003 and based on it, an explosion protection document. An example for required actions and documents has been prepared in this project, which can be used as a tool and model in waste management companies and REF production facilities. A dust explosion risks analyse, a work space and equipment classifications and explosion protection document have been done for the Lohja REF-production facility. (orig.)

  4. Recharge and discharge calculations to characterize the groundwater hydrologic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddle, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Several methods are presented to quantify the ground water component of the hydrologic balance; including (1) hydrograph separation techniques, (2) water budget calculations, (3) spoil discharge techniques, and (4) underground mine inflow studies. Stream hydrograph analysis was used to calculate natural groundwater recharge and discharge rates. Yearly continuous discharge hydrographs were obtained for 16 watersheds in the Cumberland Plateau area of Tennessee. Baseflow was separated from storm runoff using computerized hydrograph analysis techniques developed by the USGS. The programs RECESS, RORA, and PART were used to develop master recession curves, calculate ground water recharge, and ground water discharge respectively. Station records ranged from 1 year of data to 60 years of data with areas of 0.67 to 402 square miles. Calculated recharge ranged from 7 to 28 inches of precipitation while ground water discharge ranged from 6 to 25 inches. Baseflow ranged from 36 to 69% of total flow. For sites with more than 4 years of data the median recharge was 20 inches/year and the 95% confidence interval for the median was 16.4 to 23.8 inches of recharge. Water budget calculations were also developed independently by a mining company in southern Tennessee. Results showed about 19 inches of recharge is available on a yearly basis. A third method used spoil water discharge measurements to calculate average recharge rate to the mine. Results showed 21.5 inches of recharge for this relatively flat area strip mine. In a further analysis it was shown that premining soil recharge rates of 19 inches consisted of about 17 inches of interflow and 2 inches of deep aquifer recharge while postmining recharge to the spoils had almost no interflow component. OSM also evaluated underground mine inflow data from northeast Tennessee and southeast Kentucky. This empirical data showed from 0.38 to 1.26 gallons per minute discharge per unit acreage of underground workings. This is the

  5. Experiments on the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of rod bundles to verify and support the design of SNR-300 fuel elements - status and open problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.; Weinberg, D.; Trippe, G.; Tschoeke, H.

    1978-01-01

    The reliable design of reactor core elements calls for precise knowledge of the 3D-temperature fields of the different components; this primarily applies to the fuel element cladding tubes, these being the first safety barrier. This paper describes and discusses where and how the 3D-temperature fields so far determined exclusively with the help of global thermohydraulic computer codes (SUBCHANNEL-Codes) have to be determined more accurately by local investigations. The basis of these investigations is the measurement of local velocities and temperatures in 19-rod bundle models of the SNR-300 fuel element performed at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK). Some important results of the extensive experimental investigations are reported and compared with global and local recalculations. Open problems are pointed out. The influence of the uncertainties in the thermohydraulic design with respect to the strength analysis are discussed. The most significant results and conclusions are: (1) The peripheral bundle region is the critical zone, which has to be investigated with priority. Here the maximal azimuthal temperature differences of the claddings are ten times higher than those in the central bundle region. (2) The present deviations between thermal experiments and global as well as local calculations are much too high. Within the parameters investigated a careful code adaptation to the experiments is of high priority. (3) The knowledge gaps concerning liquid metal heat transfer in irregular geometries have to be closed. (4) The hot-channel analysis has to be checked with respect to the latest more detailed knowledge of thermohydraulics. (author)

  6. Fuel performance annual report for 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Tokar, M.

    1982-12-01

    This annual report, the fourth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1981 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel operating experience, fuel problems, fuel design changes and fuel surveillance programs, and high-burnup fuel experience are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included

  7. Estimating the proportion of groundwater recharge from flood events in relation to total annual recharge in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvory, N. Z.; Ronen, A.; Livshitz, Y.; Adar, E.; Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater production from karstic aquifers is primarily dictated by its recharge rate. Therefore, in order to limit over-exploitation, it is essential to accurately quantify groundwater recharge. Infiltration during erratic floods in karstic basins may contribute substantial amount to aquifer recharge. However, the complicated nature of karst systems, which are characterized in part by multiple springs, sinkholes, and losing/gaining streams, present a large obstacle to accurately assess the actual contribution of flood water to groundwater recharge. In this study, we aim to quantify the proportion of groundwater recharge during flood events in relation to the annual recharge for karst aquifers. The role of karst conduits on flash flood infiltration was examined during four flood and artificial runoff events in the Sorek creek near Jerusalem, Israel. The events were monitored in short time steps (four minutes). This high resolution analysis is essential to accurately estimating surface flow volumes, which are of particular importance in arid and semi-arid climate where ephemeral flows may provide a substantial contribution to the groundwater reservoirs. For the present investigation, we distinguished between direct infiltration, percolation through karst conduits and diffused infiltration, which is most affected by evapotranspiration. A water balance was then calculated for the 2014/15 hydrologic year using the Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). Simulations show that an additional 8% to 24% of the annual recharge volume is added from runoff losses along the creek that infiltrate through the karst system into the aquifer. The results improve the understanding of recharge processes and support the use of the proposed methodology for quantifying groundwater recharge.

  8. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of wireless power transfer (WPT technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  9. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Chen, Jian; Deng, Yansha; Wang, Xingwei; Aghvami, Abdol-Hamid

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  10. Seasonal Variation of Infiltration Rates in a Managed Aquifer Recharge System: A Belgian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, S.; Sheng, Z.; Munster, C. L.; Houtte, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a powerful tool in addressing water resources management issues. The Torreele water reuse facility is using MAR to address the problem of water sustainability in a coastal aquifer of Belgium. The Torreele MAR facility uses infiltration ponds to maintain the groundwater level and to prevent saltwater intrusion into the aquifer. The source of recharge is treated wastewater from the Torreele wastewater treatment plant (TWWTP) located 1.2 km inland. The TWWTP uses a state-of-the-art filtration mechanism with a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) techniques to assure that recharge water is of very high quality. Data collected at the Torreele MAR facility indicates reduced infiltration rates during the winter season when pond water temperatures vary from 1 to 10ºC. The proposed hypothesis for these lower infiltration rates may be a reduction in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in water viscosity. This study involves the determination of relationship between water temperature, infiltration rates, and hydraulic conductivity at the Torreele MAR facility. The results of this study will lead to an effective administration of the facility and provide an extensive understanding of the system.

  11. Groundwater Modelling For Recharge Estimation Using Satellite Based Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mahmoud; (Tom) Rientjes, T. H. M.; (Christiaan) van der Tol, C.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater movement is influenced by several factors and processes in the hydrological cycle, from which, recharge is of high relevance. Since the amount of aquifer extractable water directly relates to the recharge amount, estimation of recharge is a perquisite of groundwater resources management. Recharge is highly affected by water loss mechanisms the major of which is actual evapotranspiration (ETa). It is, therefore, essential to have detailed assessment of ETa impact on groundwater recharge. The objective of this study was to evaluate how recharge was affected when satellite-based evapotranspiration was used instead of in-situ based ETa in the Salland area, the Netherlands. The Methodology for Interactive Planning for Water Management (MIPWA) model setup which includes a groundwater model for the northern part of the Netherlands was used for recharge estimation. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) based actual evapotranspiration maps from Waterschap Groot Salland were also used. Comparison of SEBAL based ETa estimates with in-situ abased estimates in the Netherlands showed that these SEBAL estimates were not reliable. As such results could not serve for calibrating root zone parameters in the CAPSIM model. The annual cumulative ETa map produced by the model showed that the maximum amount of evapotranspiration occurs in mixed forest areas in the northeast and a portion of central parts. Estimates ranged from 579 mm to a minimum of 0 mm in the highest elevated areas with woody vegetation in the southeast of the region. Variations in mean seasonal hydraulic head and groundwater level for each layer showed that the hydraulic gradient follows elevation in the Salland area from southeast (maximum) to northwest (minimum) of the region which depicts the groundwater flow direction. The mean seasonal water balance in CAPSIM part was evaluated to represent recharge estimation in the first layer. The highest recharge estimated flux was for autumn

  12. Hydrogeological Methods for Assessing Feasibility of Artificial Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Koo, M.; Lee, K.; Moon, D.; Barry, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents the hydrogeological methods to assess the feasibility of artificial recharge in Jeju Island, Korea for securing both sustainable groundwater resources and severe floods. Jeju-friendly Aquifer Recharge Technology (J-ART) in this study is developing by capturing ephemeral stream water with no interference in the environments such as natural recharge or eco-system, storing the flood water in the reservoirs, recharging it through designed borehole after appropriate water treatment, and then making it to be used at down-gradient production wells. Many hydrogeological methods, including physico-chemical surface water and groundwater monitoring, geophysical survey, stable isotope analysis, and groundwater modeling have been employed to predict and assess the artificially recharged surface waters flow and circulation between recharge area and discharge area. In the study of physico-chemical water monitoring survey, the analyses of surface water level and velocity, of water qualities including turbidity, and of suspended soil settling velocity were performed. For understanding subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics the injection test was executed and the results are 118-336 m2/day of transmissivity and 4,367-11,032 m3/day of the maximum intake water capacity. Characterizing groundwater flow from recharge area to discharge area should be achieved to assess the efficiency of J-ART. The resistivity logging was carried out to predict water flow in unsaturated zone during artificial recharge based on the inverse modeling and resistivity change patterns. Stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18 of surface waters and groundwaters have been determined to interpret mixing and flow in groundwaters impacted by artificial recharge. A numerical model simulating groundwater flow and heat transport to assess feasibility of artificial recharge has been developed using the hydraulic properties of aquifers, groundwater levels, borehole temperatures, and meteorological

  13. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  14. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Chen, E-mail: chen.ling@toyota.com; Zhang, Ruigang [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg{sup 2+}-intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO{sub 2} in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO{sub 2} was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g{sup −1} at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO{sub 2} cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  15. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  16. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg 2+ -intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO 2 in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO 2 was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g −1 at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO 2 cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  17. Reduced ash-related operational problems by co-combustion peat and agricultural fuels; Minskade askrelaterade driftsproblem genom inblandning av torv i aakerbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Skoglund, Nils; Grimm, Alejandro; Boman, Christoffer; Kofod-Hansen, Marie

    2010-06-15

    The objectives of the project were: To determine the admixing levels for different peat classes to various energy crops (straw, Salix and Reed canary grass) that are required to reach positive effects regarding slagging, deposit formation/(high temperature corrosion) and bed agglomeration; and, To demonstrate the possibilities to reduce the occurrence of ash related operational problems in combustion of energy crops upon admixing peat. Operational experiences and research of effects of co-firing peat and energy crops are scarce. Some previous tests in bench scale indicated though, on a strong reduction of the agglomeration tendency and lowering of the agglomeration temperature for straw and Salix at a peat admixing level corresponding to 15 - 20 weight% (on DS basis). A reduction in the amount of emitted fine particles was also observed in these experiments. However, care must be taken in the choice of peat. Some Carex dominated peats with high Si contents may cause problems with slagging. Another conclusion from the mentioned bench scale tests was that peats with relative high Ca/Si ratios should be selected to minimize the risk of slagging and bed agglomeration. Thermochemical modelling was performed to determine the effects of peat admixture, on slagging-, deposit formation- (corrosion)- and bed agglomeration tendencies during combustion of straw, willow and reed canary grass with high and low ash content. These results and previously conducted bench scale experiments were used as a basis for determining combinations of fuel and peat admixtures for the demonstration experiments. The calculations were performed with admixing levels of 0-, 5-, 15, 25-, and 40 weight% (on DS basis) of four peat samples to the investigated four crop fuels. The used peat samples were typical carex-containing Swedish peat with differences in e.g. silicon-, calcium- and sulfur contents. A number of the model calculations were qualitatively validated against previously conducted

  18. Seasonal variation in natural recharge of coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, Pauline N.; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Many coastal zones around the world have irregular precipitation throughout the year. This results in discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which affects the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LocClim (local climate estimator) and those obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration with the Thornthwaite method. Potential recharge (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) was defined at 12 locations: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand); Hong Kong (China); Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. The influence of variable/discontinuous recharge on the size of freshwater lenses was simulated with the SEAWAT model. The discrepancy between models with continuous and with discontinuous recharge is relatively small in areas where the total annual recharge is low (258-616 mm/year); but in places with Monsoon-dominated climate (e.g. Mumbai, with recharge up to 1,686 mm/year), the difference in freshwater-lens thickness between the discontinuous and the continuous model is larger (up to 5 m) and thus important to consider in numerical models that estimate freshwater availability.

  19. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  20. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  1. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  2. Solution of a benchmark set problems for BWR and PWR reactors with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels using CASMO-4; Solucion de un Conjunto de Problemas Benchmark para Reactores BWR y PWR con Combustible UO{sub 2} y MOX Usando CASMO-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez F, M.A.; Valle G, E. del; Alonso V, G. [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: mike_ipn_esfm@hotmail. com

    2007-07-01

    In this work some of the results for a group of benchmark problems of light water reactors that allow to study the physics of the fuels of these reactors are presented. These benchmark problems were proposed by Akio Yamamoto and collaborators in 2002 and they include two fuel types; uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) and mixed oxides (MOX). The range of problems that its cover embraces three different configurations: unitary cell for a fuel bar, fuel assemble of PWR and fuel assemble of BWR what allows to carry out an understanding analysis of the problems related with the fuel performance of new generation in light water reactors with high burnt. Also these benchmark problems help to understand the fuel administration in core of a BWR like of a PWR. The calculations were carried out with CMS (of their initials in English Core Management Software), particularly with CASMO-4 that is a code designed to carry out analysis of fuels burnt of fuel bars cells as well as fuel assemblies as much for PWR as for BWR and that it is part in turn of the CMS code. (Author)

  3. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  4. Evaluating the performance of water purification in a vegetated groundwater recharge basin maintained by short-term pulsed infiltration events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindl, Birgit; Hofer, Julia; Kellermann, Claudia; Stichler, Willibald; Teichmann, Günter; Psenner, Roland; Danielopol, Dan L; Neudorfer, Wolfgang; Griebler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration of surface water constitutes an important pillar in artificial groundwater recharge. However, insufficient transformation of organic carbon and nutrients, as well as clogging of sediments often cause major problems. The attenuation efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients and pathogens versus the risk of bioclogging for intermittent recharge were studied in an infiltration basin covered with different kinds of macrovegetation. The quality and concentration of organic carbon, major nutrients, as well as bacterial biomass, activity and diversity in the surface water, the porewater, and the sediment matrix were monitored over one recharge period. Additionally, the numbers of viral particles and Escherichia coli were assessed. Our study showed a fast establishment of high microbial activity. DOC and nutrients have sustainably been reduced within 1.2 m of sediment passage. Numbers of E. coli, which were high in the topmost centimetres of sediment porewater, dropped below the detection limit. Reed cover was found to be advantageous over bushes and trees, since it supported higher microbial activities along with a good infiltration and purification performance. Short-term infiltration periods of several days followed by a break of similar time were found suitable for providing high recharge rates, and good water purification without the risk of bioclogging.

  5. SWB Groundwater Recharge Analysis, Catalina Island, California: Assessing Spatial and Temporal Recharge Patterns Within a Mediterranean Climate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge quantification is a key parameter for sustainable groundwater management. Many recharge quantification techniques have been devised, each with advantages and disadvantages. A free, GIS based recharge quantification tool - the Soil Water Balance (SWB) model - was developed by the USGS to produce fine-tuned recharge constraints in watersheds and illuminate spatial and temporal dynamics of recharge. The subject of this research is to examine SWB within a Mediterranean climate zone, focusing on the Catalina Island, California. This project relied on publicly available online resources with the exception the geospatial processing software, ArcGIS. Daily climate station precipitation and temperature data was obtained from the Desert Research Institute for the years 2008-2014. Precipitation interpolations were performed with ArcGIS using the Natural Neighbor method. The USGS-National Map Viewer (NMV) website provided a 30-meter DEM - to interpolate high and low temperature ASCII grids using the Temperature Lapse Rate (TLR) method, to construct a D-8 flow direction grid for downhill redirection of soil-moisture saturated runoff toward non-saturated cells, and for aesthetic map creation. NMV also provided a modified Anderson land cover classification raster. The US Department of Agriculture-National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey website provided shapefiles of soil water capacity and hydrologic soil groups. The Hargreaves and Samani method was implemented to determine evapotranspiration rates. The resulting SWB output data, in the form of ASCII grids are easily added to ArcGIS for quick visualization and data analysis (Figure 1). Calculated average recharge for 2008-2014 was 3537 inches/year, or 0.0174 acre feet/year. Recharge was 10.2% of the islands gross precipitation. The spatial distribution of the most significant recharge is in hotspots which dominate the residential hills above Avalon, followed by grassy/unvegetated areas

  6. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.

    1978-01-01

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  7. Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karve, A.A.; Keller, P.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2001-06-17

    The nuclear fuel management design optimization problem has grown more challenging and important with the passage of time. In this paper, we summarize our research on this design optimization problem. A suite of computer codes that aid in making nuclear fuel management decisions has been developed. These codes utilize stochastic optimization techniques to search the decision space for determining the family of near-optimum decisions in the suboptimization problem being solved.

  8. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  9. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy: The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Mathews, John A.; Rask, Morten

    2009-01-01

    devices for electricity thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G...... (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage......A new business model for accelerating the introduction of Electric Vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market...

  10. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  11. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  12. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  13. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  14. Rechargeable MnO/sub 2/ battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty years after Volta used for the first time (1800) zinc as an electrode, Leclanche patented a MnO/sub 2/NH/sub 4/Cl/Zn cell with a zinc rod negative, which was then shortly replaced by the amalgamated zinc can. Although the original patents for wet and dry alkaline systems were filed already towards the end of 19th and during the first two decades of the 20th century, the first alkaline commercial battery (Herbert's crown cell), appeared only in the early fifties. Since then the introduction of large area zinc electrodes and voluminous work leading to the development of positive electrodes with highest possible reactivity, i.e., capable of releasing a maximum charge at a maximum voltage difference between terminals over longest periods of time, coupled with growing demands of the electronic industries led to the emergence of a several billion dollar primary cell market of which alkaline MnO/sub 2//Zn cells are capturing a rapidly increasing share and are expected to fully dominate the dry cell market. Their better performance/cost ratio compensates for a cost higher than that of their Leclanche type counterparts. The prospects of better utilization of this more expensive system, problems of energy wste4 and of waste disposal of the ever increasing numbers of throw-away batteries, prompted numerous attempts to produce a rechargeable MnO/sub 2//Zn system capable not only of high reactivity, i.e., high power drains, but also applicable for several commercial uses

  15. The timing of EV recharging and its effect on utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. M.; Mader, G. H.

    1983-02-01

    The impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on electric utilities will in part depend on when the vehicles are recharged. If electricity pricing practices were guided by time of day, recharging of EVs would occur at late night hours, when demand for electricity for other purposes is low. The peak demand by the year 2000 would then increase by only 400 MW, by comparison with 5700 MW for the case of electricity that is uniformly priced throughout the day. It is further established by the present projections that the oil- and gas-burning component of electrical generation would rise by only 27 percent for the late night-charging case, by contrast to 39 percent for the alternative, late afternoon and early evening recharging.

  16. Using stable isotopes of water to re-evaluate the recharge/discharge functions of North American bogs and fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Zeno; Siegel, Donald; Glaser, Paul; Dasgupta, Soumitri

    2014-05-01

    In North American mires hydrologists commonly find raised bog crests and low-lying fen water tracks to be focal points for groundwater recharge and discharge, respectively. To further test these observations we synoptically surveyed vertical profiles of peat pore water δ18O/δ2H and major mineral solutes from a range of bog and fen landforms across the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands (GLAP) of northern Minnesota. We also sampled a detailed transect through a 150 km2 bog-fen complex in the Red Lake II peatland watershed of the GLAP. The molar ratios of Ca/Mg in the pore water beneath the Red Lake II bog crest are depleted in Mg with respect to the atmospheric average of 3.6, indicative of preferential flushing of Mg from the peat by meteoric recharge. Higher solute concentrations in the middle of the peat profile at an adjacent fen show focused groundwater discharge with Ca/Mg ratios of ~1.4, similar to that of water from local wells tapping underlying glacial till. However, contrary to expectations, we find evidence that modern recharge has penetrated throughout the peat column beneath both bog and fen landforms throughout the GLAP. Landform surface features control the isotopic recharge value. These landform-specific isotope signatures propagate through vertical pore water profiles. Pore waters deeper than 0.5 m partition into discrete ranges of δ18O according to three a priori landform classifications: 1) -11.9 ± 0.4 o for bog crests, 2) -10.6 ± 0.1 o for Sphagnum lawns, and 3) -8.8 ± 1.0 o for fen water tracks. The fen water tracks have standing water at their surface that is seasonally enriched by isotope fractionating evaporation and therefore fingerprints recharge to depths ≥3 m. Incongruities between isotope and solute mixing trends may be related to the dual porosity nature of peat and matrix diffusion, which could supply solutes to active pore spaces following flushing by meteoric recharge. This buffering of base solutes in the deep peat may

  17. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  18. Identification of artificial groundwater recharging zone using a GIS-based fuzzy logic approach: a case study in a coal mine area of the Damodar Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Lavy, Muriel; Amanzio, Gianpiero; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The West Bokaro coalfield is a richest coal-mining belt in the Damodar Valley, India. The extensive mining of the area has resulted in disruption of the groundwater availability in terms of both quantity and quality. This has led to a drinking water crisis, especially during the pre-monsoon period in the West Bokaro coalfield area. The characterization of the hydrogeological system and the artificial recharging of the aquifers might help to better manage the problem of the groundwater-level depletion. For this purpose, seven important hydrogeological factors (water depth, slope, drainage, soil, infiltration, lithology, and landuse) have been considered to define the most suitable locations for artificial groundwater recharging in the mining area. Different thematic maps were prepared from existing maps and data sets, remote-sensing images, and field investigations for identification of the most suitable locations for artificial recharge. Thematic layers for these parameters were prepared, classified, weighted, and integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) environment by means of fuzzy logic. The results of the study indicate that about 29 and 31% of the area are very suitable and suitable for recharging purposes in the West Bokaro coalfield. However, the rest of the area is moderate to unsuitable for recharging due to the ongoing mining and related activities in the study area. The groundwater recharging map of the study area was validated with measured electrical conductivity (EC) values in the groundwater, and it indicated that validation can be accepted for the identification of groundwater recharging sites. These findings are providing useful information for the proper planning and sustainable management of the groundwater resources in the study area.

  19. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  20. Exploratory Development of an Electrically Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Cleveland, OH 44101 95 Canal Street Nashua, NH 03060 P. R. Mallory & Company, Inc. (1) S. Broadway Eagle - Picher Industries, Inc. (1) Tarrytown, NY...RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY O K. M. Abraham GtJ. L. Goldman ~M. D. Dempsey MCG. L. Holleck EIC Laboratories, Inc. " - 55 Chapel Street Newton, MA 02158 October...COVERED (, Epl.oratory Development of an Electrically 7 9FINAL REPORT- 7-2-79 to 7-1-80 Rechargeable Lithium Battery * .. PFORMIN ORO. RE RT NUMBER 7

  1. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  2. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunkai; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yijin

    2017-09-15

    Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs) are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs). However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS) algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller's direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE) protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20-40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  3. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    least an additional 20 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 200 feet near the withdrawal sites. Other well-field configurations than the ones considered potentially could be used to develop more fresh ground water than indicated by the scenarios tested in this study. Depth, spacing, and withdrawal rates of individual wells are important considerations in determining ground-water availability. The regional models developed for this study cannot predict whether local saltwater intrusion problems may occur at individual withdrawal sites. Results of this study underscore the importance of collecting new information to better constrain the recharge estimates.

  4. Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash P.; Newman, John

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for calculating the theoretical and practical specific energies of rechargeable batteries, fuels, and materials is presented. The methodology enables comparison of the energy content of diverse systems such as the lithium-ion battery, hydrocarbons, and ammonia. The methodology is relevant for evaluating the possibility of using…

  5. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  6. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S.

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  7. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  8. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov; Chorkendorff, Ib; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously recharging by simply replacing the methanol liquid. The technology is currently being developed for hearing instruments in order to ease the handling of the device for users complaining about difficulti...

  9. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    OpenAIRE

    Nyoman Suwartha; Resky Pramadin

    2012-01-01

    The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recha...

  10. Radial optimization of a BWR fuel cell using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Carmona H, R.; Oropeza C, I.P.

    2006-01-01

    The development of the application of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) to the optimization of the radial distribution of enrichment in a cell of fuel of a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The optimization process it was ties to the HELIOS simulator, which is a transport code of neutron simulation of fuel cells that has been validated for the calculation of nuclear banks for BWRs. With heterogeneous radial designs can improve the radial distribution of the power, for what the radial design of fuel has a strong influence in the global design of fuel recharges. The optimum radial distribution of fuel bars is looked for with different enrichments of U 235 and contents of consumable poison. For it is necessary to define the representation of the solution, the objective function and the implementation of the specific optimization process to the solution of the problem. The optimization process it was coded in 'C' language, it was automated the creation of the entrances to the simulator, the execution of the simulator and the extraction, in the exit of the simulator, of the parameters that intervene in the objective function. The objective function includes four parameters: average enrichment of the cell, average gadolinia concentration of the cell, peak factor of radial power and k-infinite multiplication factor. To be able to calculate the parameters that intervene in the objective function, the one evaluation process of GA was ties to the HELIOS code executed in a Compaq Alpha workstation. It was applied to the design of a fuel cell of 10 x 10 that it can be employee in the fuel assemble designs that are used at the moment in the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. Its were considered 10 different fuel compositions which four contain gadolinia. Three heuristic rules that consist in prohibiting the placement of bars with gadolinia in the ends of the cell, to place the compositions with the smallest enrichment in the corners of the cell and to fix the placement of

  11. Wastes from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.

    1976-01-01

    Handling, treatment, and interim storage of radioactive waste, problems confronted with during the reprocessing of spent fuel elements from LWR's according to the Purex-type process, are dealt with in detail. (HR/LN) [de

  12. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  13. Regional Assessment of Groundwater Recharge in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lacombe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge remains almost totally unknown across the Mekong River Basin, hindering the evaluation of groundwater potential for irrigation. A regional regression model was developed to map groundwater recharge across the Lower Mekong Basin where agricultural water demand is increasing, especially during the dry season. The model was calibrated with baseflow computed with the local-minimum flow separation method applied to streamflow recorded in 65 unregulated sub-catchments since 1951. Our results, in agreement with previous local studies, indicate that spatial variations in groundwater recharge are predominantly controlled by the climate (rainfall and evapotranspiration while aquifer characteristics seem to play a secondary role at this regional scale. While this analysis suggests large scope for expanding agricultural groundwater use, the map derived from this study provides a simple way to assess the limits of groundwater-fed irrigation development. Further data measurements to capture local variations in hydrogeology will be required to refine the evaluation of recharge rates to support practical implementations.

  14. A synopsis of climate change effects on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.

    2017-12-01

    Six review articles published between 2011 and 2016 on groundwater and climate change are briefly summarized. This synopsis focuses on aspects related to predicting changes to groundwater recharge conditions, with several common conclusions between the review articles being noted. The uncertainty of distribution and trend in future precipitation from General Circulation Models (GCMs) results in varying predictions of recharge, so much so that modelling studies are often not able to predict the magnitude and direction (increase or decrease) of future recharge conditions. Evolution of modelling approaches has led to the use of multiple GCMs and hydrologic models to create an envelope of future conditions that reflects the probability distribution. The choice of hydrologic model structure and complexity, and the choice of emissions scenario, has been investigated and somewhat resolved; however, recharge results remain sensitive to downscaling methods. To overcome uncertainty and provide practical use in water management, the research community indicates that modelling at a mesoscale, somewhere between watersheds and continents, is likely ideal. Improvements are also suggested for incorporating groundwater processes within GCMs.

  15. Delineation of the recharge areas and distinguishing the sources of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water samples were collected from precipitation, streams and karst springs of the mountainous Bringi catchment of Kashmir Himalayas for major ions, stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) and 3H analysis. The main objective is to identify the potential recharge area for karst springs. The water in the Triassic limestone aquifer of ...

  16. Managed Aquifer Recharge in Italy: present and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy

    2015-04-01

    On October the 3rd 2014, a one-day Workshop on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) experiences in Italy took place at the GEOFLUID fair in Piacenza. It was organized within the framework of the EIP AG 128 - MAR Solutions - Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies and Actions and the EU FPVII MARSOL. The event aimed at showcasing present experiences on MAR in Italy while at the same time starting a network among all the Institutions involved. In this contribution, we discuss the state of MAR application in Italy and summarize the outcomes of that event. In Italy aquifer recharge is traditionally applied unintentionally, by increasing riverbank filtration or because of excess irrigation. A certain interest for artificial recharge of aquifers arose at the end of the '70s and the beginning of the '80s and tests have been carried out in Tuscany, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia. During the last years some projects on aquifer recharge were co-financed by the European Commission mainly through the LIFE program. Nearly all of them use the terminology of artificial recharge instead of MAR. They are: - TRUST (Tool for regional - scale assessment of groundwater storage improvement in adaptation to climate change, LIFE07 ENV/IT/000475; Marsala 2014); - AQUOR (Implementation of a water saving and artificial recharging participated strategy for the quantitative groundwater layer rebalance of the upper Vicenza's plain - LIFE 2010 ENV/IT/380; Mezzalira et al. 2014); - WARBO (Water re-born - artificial recharge: innovative technologies for the sustainable management of water resources, LIFE10 ENV/IT/000394; 2014). While the TRUST project dealt in general with aquifer recharge, AQUOR and WARBO focused essentially on small scale demonstration plants. Within the EU FPVII-ENV-2013 MARSOL project (Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought; 2014), a dedicated monitoring and decision support system is under development to manage recharge at a large scale

  17. Predicted impacts of land use change on groundwater recharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-13

    Apr 13, 2012 ... images from 1984, 1992, 2002, and 2008, and to predict the impact of these land use changes on groundwater recharge. For ... Policy intention is to maintain a balance between demand, quantity and quality of groundwater. Land use change is a major factor affecting the .... tion in the channel network.

  18. Recharging the Lake Chad: the Hydropolitics of National Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    these will facilitate economic development and enhance regional integration. This paper makes a case for water .... of the examples are listed in table 1. Recharging the Lake Chad: the Hydropolitics of National Security & Regional Integration ... continuous emaciation of the water resources. It is affected by wind erosion,.

  19. Legionella - A threat to groundwater: Pathogen transport in recharge basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurnett, Lauren R; Holt, Nathan T; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2018-04-15

    This study elucidates the potential risk posed by Legionella during aquifer recharge practices. Experiments were conducted using pilot-scale column simulating infiltration of bacterial surrogate and pathogen, E. coli and Legionella pneumophila, under central Arizona recharge basin conditions. A column was packed with a loamy sand media collected from a recharge basin and was fitted with six sampling ports at soil depths of 15, 30, 60, 92, 122cm and acclimated for a month with tertiary treated wastewater. Transport of Legionella appeared to be delayed compared to E. coli. The breakthrough of E. coli and Legionella at 122cm depth occurred at 3 and 24h, respectively. Slow transport of Legionella is consistent with its pleomorphic nature and variation in size and shape under low nutrient conditions. Legionella persisted for a longer time in the column, but at lower concentrations. Given the novel results of this study, the transport of Legionella into groundwater aquifers can occur through engineering recharge basin conditions creating a potential public health risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. GIS and SBF for estimating groundwater recharge of a mountainous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    complex hydro-geologic modelling and detailed knowledge of the soil characteristics. In this study .... water recharge and the interaction between the .... structures. Lineament photos from satellites and aerial photos have similar characteristics, but the results of the explanation in situ may be differ- ent. O'Leary et al. (1976) ...

  1. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. A new aqueous Zn–NiCo2O4 rechargeable battery system with a high voltage, consisting of. NiCo2O4 as cathode and metal Zn as anode, is proposed for the first time. It is cheap and environmental friendly, and its energy density is about 202.8 Wh kg–1. The system still maintains excellent capacity retention.

  2. Delineation of the recharge areas and distinguishing the sources of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water samples were collected from precipitation, streams and karst springs of the mountainous Bringi catchment of Kashmir Himalayas for major ions, stable isotopes (18O and D) and 3H analysis. The main objective is to identify the potential recharge area for karst springs. The water in the Triassic limestone aquifer of ...

  3. Effects of recharge wells and flow barriers on seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyun, Roger; Momii, Kazuro; Nakagawa, Kei

    2011-01-01

    The installation of recharge wells and subsurface flow barriers are among several strategies proposed to control seawater intrusion on coastal groundwater systems. In this study, we performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations to determine the effects of the location and application of recharge wells, and of the location and penetration depth of flow barriers, on controlling seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. We also compared the experimental results with existing analytical solutions. Our results showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved when the recharge water is injected at the toe of the saltwater wedge. Point injection yields about the same repulsion compared with line injection from a screened well for the same recharge rate. Results for flow barriers showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved with deeper barrier penetration and with barriers located closer to the coast. When the flow barrier is installed inland from the original toe position however, saltwater intrusion increases with deeper barrier penetration. Saltwater repulsion due to flow barrier installation was found to be linearly related to horizontal barrier location and a polynomial function of the barrier penetration depth. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  4. Catchment-scale groundwater recharge and vegetation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, P. A. A.; Dwivedi, R.; Liu, T.; Meira, A.; Roy, T.; Valdés-Pineda, R.; Durcik, M.; Arciniega, S.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation undergoes a two-step partitioning when it falls on the land surface. At the land surface and in the shallow subsurface, rainfall or snowmelt can either runoff as infiltration/saturation excess or quick subsurface flow. The rest will be stored temporarily in the root zone. From the root zone, water can leave the catchment as evapotranspiration or percolate further and recharge deep storage (e.g. fractured bedrock aquifer). Quantifying the average amount of water that recharges deep storage and sustains low flows is extremely challenging, as we lack reliable methods to quantify this flux at the catchment scale. It was recently shown, however, that for semi-arid catchments in Mexico, an index of vegetation water use efficiency, i.e. the Horton index (HI), could predict deep storage dynamics. Here we test this finding using 247 MOPEX catchments across the conterminous US, including energy-limited catchments. Our results show that the observed HI is indeed a reliable predictor of deep storage dynamics in space and time. We further investigate whether the HI can also predict average recharge rates across the conterminous US. We find that the HI can reliably predict the average recharge rate, estimated from the 50th percentile flow of the flow duration curve. Our results compare favorably with estimates of average recharge rates from the US Geological Survey. Previous research has shown that HI can be reliably estimated based on aridity index, mean slope and mean elevation of a catchment (Voepel et al., 2011). We recalibrated Voepel's model and used it to predict the HI for our 247 catchments. We then used these predicted values of the HI to estimate average recharge rates for our catchments, and compared them with those estimated from observed HI. We find that the accuracies of our predictions based on observed and predicted HI are similar. This provides an estimation method of catchment-scale average recharge rates based on easily derived catchment

  5. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  6. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Accident Tolerant Fuels High Impact Problem: Coordinate Multiscale U3Si2 Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miao, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-26

    Since the events at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 significant research has unfolded at national laboratories, universities and other institutions into alternative materials that have potential enhanced accident tolerance when compared to traditional \\uo~fuel zircaloy clad fuel rods. One of the potential replacement fuels is uranium silicide (\\usi) for its higher thermal conductivity and uranium density. The lower melting temperature is of potential concern during postulated accident conditions. Another disadvantage for \\usi~ is the lack of experimental data under power reactor conditions. Due to the aggressive development schedule for inserting some of the potential materials into lead test assemblies or rods by 2022~\\cite{bragg-sitton_2014} multiscale multiphysics modeling approaches have been used to provide insight into these materials. \\\\ \

  7. Groundwater suitability recharge zones modelling - A GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, S.; Bhatt, B.; Joshi, J. P.; Sharma, N.

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater quality in Gujarat state is highly variable and due to multiplicity of factors viz. influenced by direct sea water encroachment, inherent sediment salinity, water logging, overexploitation leading to overall deterioration in ground water quality, coupled with domestic and industrial pollution etc. The groundwater scenario in the state is not very encouraging due to imbalance between recharge and groundwater exploitation. Further, the demand for water has increased manifold owing to agricultural, industrial and domestic requirement and this has led to water scarcity in many parts of the state, which is likely to become more severe in coming future due to both natural and manmade factors. Therefore, sustainable development of groundwater resource requires precise quantitative assessment based on reasonably valid scientific principles. Hence, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZ), has acquired great significance. The present study focuses on the integrated Geospatial and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques to determine the most important contributing factors that affect the groundwater resources and also to delineate the potential zones for groundwater recharge. The multiple thematic layers of influencing parameters viz. geology, geomorphology, soil, slope, drainage density and land use, weightages were assigned to the each factor according to their relative importance as per subject experts opinion owing to the natural setup of the region. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied to these factors and potential recharge zones were identified. The study area for the assessment of groundwater recharge potential zones is Mahi-Narmada inter-stream region of Gujarat state. The study shows that around 28 % region has the excellent suitability of the ground water recharge.

  8. Contribution to the evaluation and to the improvement of multi-objective optimization methods: application to the optimization of nuclear fuel reloading pattern; Contribution a l'evaluation et au perfectionnement des methodes d'optimisation multiobjectif: application a l'optimisation des plans de rechargement de combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, Y

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, we study the general problem of the selection of a multi-objective optimization method, then we study the improvement so as to efficiently solve a problem. The pertinent selection of a method presume the existence of a methodology: we have built tools to perform evaluation of performances and we propose an original method dedicated to the classification of know optimization methods. Our step has been applied to the elaboration of new methods for solving a very difficult problem: the nuclear core reload pattern optimization. First, we looked for a non usual approach of performances measurement: we have 'measured' the behavior of a method. To reach this goal, we have introduced several metrics. We have proposed to evaluate the 'aesthetic' of a distribution of solutions by defining two new metrics: a 'spacing metric' and a metric that allow us to measure the size of the biggest hole in the distribution of solutions. Then, we studied the convergence of multi-objective optimization methods by using some metrics defined in scientific literature and by proposing some more metrics: the 'Pareto ratio' which computes a ratio of solution production. Lastly, we have defined new metrics intended to better apprehend the behavior of optimization methods: the 'speed metric', which allows to compute the speed profile and a 'distribution metric' which allows to compute statistical distribution of solutions along the Pareto frontier. Next, we have studied transformations of a multi-objective problem and defined news methods: the modified Tchebychev method, or the penalized weighted sum of objective functions. We have elaborated new techniques to choose the initial point. These techniques allow to produce new initial points closer and closer to the Pareto frontier and, thanks to the 'proximal optimality concept', allowing dramatic improvements in the convergence of a multi-objective optimization

  9. Surface and subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of groundwater recharge processes through the karst vadose zone at Rochefort Cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Triantafyllou, A.; Delforge, D.; Quinif, Y.; Van Ruymbeke, M.; Kaufmann, O.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based gravimetry is a non-invasive and integrated tool to characterize hydrological processes in complex environments such as karsts or volcanoes. A problem in ground-based gravity measurements however concerns the lack of sensitivity in the first meters below the topographical surface, added to limited infiltration below the gravimeter building (umbrella effect). Such limitations disappear when measuring underground. Coupling surface and subsurface gravity measurements therefore allow isolating hydrological signals occurring in the zone between the two gravimeters. We present a coupled surface/subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of 2 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (Belgium). The gravity record includes surface measurements of a GWR superconducting gravimeter and subsurface measurements of a Micro-g LaCoste gPhone gravimeter, installed in a cave 35 m below the surface station. The recharge of karstic aquifers is extremely complex to model, mostly because karst hydrological systems are composed of strongly heterogeneous flows. Most of the problem comes from the inadequacy of conventional measuring tools to correctly sample such heterogeneous media, and particularly the existence of a duality of flow types infiltrating the vadose zone: from rapid flows via open conduits to slow seepage through porous matrix. Using the surface/subsurface gravity difference, we were able to identify a significant seasonal groundwater recharge within the karst vadose zone. Seasonal or perennial perched reservoirs have already been proven to exist in several karst areas due to the heterogeneity of the porosity and permeability gradient in karstified carbonated rocks. Our gravimetric experiment allows assessing more precisely the recharge processes of such reservoirs. The gravity variations were also compared with surface and in-cave hydrogeological monitoring (i.e. soil moisture, in-cave percolating water discharges, water levels of the saturated zone). Combined

  10. Fuel performance: Annual report for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report, the tenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1987 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulator Commission evaluations are included. 384 refs., 13 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Fuel performance annual report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M.; Wu, S.

    1992-06-01

    This annual report, the twelfth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1989 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included

  12. Fuel performance: Annual report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report, the tenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1987 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulator Commission evaluations are included. 384 refs., 13 figs., 33 tabs

  13. Fuel performance annual report for 1990. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preble, E.A.; Painter, C.L.; Alvis, J.A.; Berting, F.M.; Beyer, C.E.; Payne, G.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wu, S.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1993-11-01

    This annual report, the thirteenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1990 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience and trends, fuel problems high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided . References to additional, more detailed information, and related NRC evaluations are included where appropriate.

  14. UO2-7%Gd2O3 fuel process development by mechanical blending with reprocessing of waste products and usage of densification additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lauro Roberto dos

    2009-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, reprocessing and storage of 'burned' fuels, either temporary or permanent, demand high investments and, in addition, can potentially generate environmental problems. A strategy to decrease these problems is to adopt measures to reduce the amount of waste generated. The usage of integrated burnable poison based on gadolinium is a measure that contributes to achieve this goal. The reason to use burnable poison is to control the neutron population in the reactor during the early life of the fresh reactor core or the beginning of each recharging fuel cycle, extending its cycle duration. Another advantage of using burnable poison is to be able to operate the reactor with higher burning rate, optimizing the usage of the fuel. The process of manufacturing UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable fuel poison generates waste that, as much as possible, needs to be recycled. Blending of Gd 2 O 3 in UO 2 powder requires the usage of a special additive to achieve the final fuel pellet specified density. The objective of this work is to develop the process of obtaining UO 2 - 7% Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable poison using densification additives, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), and reprocessing manufacturing waste products by mechanical blending. The content of 7%- Gd 2 O 3 is based on commercial PWR reactor fuels - Type Angra 2. The results show that the usage of Al(OH) 3 as an additive is a very effective choice that promotes the densification of fuel pellets with recycle up to 10%. Concentrations of 0,20 % of Al(OH) 3 were found to be the indicated amount on an 7 industrial scale, specially when the recycled products come from U 3 O 8 obtained by calcination of sintered pellets. This is particularly interesting because it is following the steps of sintering and rectifying of the pellets, which is generating the largest amounts of recycled material. (author)

  15. UO2-7%Gd2O3 fuel process development by mechanical blending with reprocessing of waste products and usage of densification additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lauro Roberto dos

    2009-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, reprocessing and storage of 'burned' fuels, either temporary or permanent, demand high investments and, in addition, can potentially generate environmental problems. A strategy to decrease these problems is to adopt measures to reduce the amount of waste generated. The usage of integrated burnable poison based on gadolinium is a measure that contributes to achieve this goal. The reason to use burnable poison is to control the neutron population in the reactor during the early life of the fresh reactor core or the beginning of each recharging fuel cycle, extending its cycle duration. Another advantage of using burnable poison is to be able to operate the reactor with higher burning rate, optimizing the usage of the fuel. The process of manufacturing UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable fuel poison generates waste that, as much as possible, needs to be recycled. Blending of Gd 2 O 3 in UO 2 powder requires the usage of a special additive to achieve the final fuel pellet specified density. The objective of this work is to develop the process of obtaining UO 2 - 7% Gd 2 O 3 integrated burnable poison using densification additives, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), and reprocessing manufacturing waste products by mechanical blending. The content of 7%- Gd 2 O 3 is based on commercial PWR reactor fuels - Type Angra 2. The results show that the usage of Al(OH) 3 as an additive is a very effective choice that promotes the densification of fuel pellets with recycle up to 10%. Concentrations of 0,20 % of Al(OH) 3 were found to be the indicated amount on an industrial scale, specially when the recycled products come from U 3 O 8 obtained by calcination of sintered pellets. This is particularly interesting because it is following the steps of sintering and rectifying of the pellets, which is generating the largest amounts of recycled material. (author)

  16. Recharge Estimation Using Water, Chloride and Isotope Mass Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, S.; Firmani, G.; Hedley, P.; Skrzypek, G.; Grierson, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    Discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may elevate groundwater levels and alter the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers but it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid subtropical Hamersley Basin that has received continuous mine discharge for more than five years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 74 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.24‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ~ 65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ~35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the creek has not extended beyond 27 km from the discharge point. Our approach using a combination of hydrochemical and isotope methods coupled with classical surface flow hydraulic modelling allowed evaluation of components of water budget otherwise not possible in a highly dynamic system that is mainly driven by infrequent but large episodic

  17. Spatial-temporal pattern recognition of groundwater head variations for recharge zone identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Pin; Chang, Liang-Cheng; Chang, Ping-Yu; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Chen, You-Cheng; Wu, Meng-Ting; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2017-06-01

    The delineation of groundwater recharge zones is crucial for the conservation of groundwater quality and quantity. To objectively estimate groundwater recharge zones, many field surveys are required that are costly in both time and money. To facilitate the assessment of recharge zones with high efficiency and low expense, this study proposes a 'fast-filter' approach based on empirical orthogonal function analysis and applies it in a synthetic case study and to Taiwan's Yilan Plain. In the synthetic case study, we demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively identify the recharge area by considering the head variations driven by rainfall recharge. For the case of Yilan Plain application, the field investigations (i.e., collected wellbore logs and electrical resistivity tomography [ERT] surveys) and a groundwater simulation model support the recharge zones estimated by the proposed method. The study results show that within the estimated recharge zone, all of the collected wellbore logs consist of coarse grains, and thick and continuous high resistivity zones were shown in the ERT profile images. Moreover, the groundwater model indicates that the recharge within the estimated recharge zone is 57.6% of the total recharge despite that the area of the estimated zone is only 26.8% of the study area. Therefore, the proposed method is shown to delineate recharge zones at low cost.

  18. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  19. Cost profiles and budget impact of rechargeable versus non-rechargeable sacral neuromodulation devices in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblett, Karen L; Dmochowski, Roger R; Vasavada, Sandip P; Garner, Abigail M; Liu, Shan; Pietzsch, Jan B

    2017-03-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a guideline-recommended third-line treatment option for managing overactive bladder. Current SNM devices are not rechargeable, and require neurostimulator replacement every 3-6 years. Our study objective was to assess potential cost effects to payers of adopting a rechargeable SNM neurostimulator device. We constructed a cost-consequence model to estimate the costs of long-term SNM-treatment with a rechargeable versus non-rechargeable device. Costs were considered from the payer perspective at 2015 reimbursement levels. Adverse events, therapy discontinuation, and programming rates were based on the latest published data. Neurostimulator longevity was assumed to be 4.4 and 10.0 years for non-rechargeable and rechargeable devices, respectively. A 15-year horizon was modeled, with costs discounted at 3% per year. Total budget impact to the United States healthcare system was estimated based on the computed per-patient cost findings. Over the 15-year horizon, per-patient cost of treatment with a non-rechargeable device was $64,111 versus $36,990 with a rechargeable device, resulting in estimated payer cost savings of $27,121. These cost savings were found to be robust across a wide range of scenarios. Longer analysis horizon, younger patient age, and longer rechargeable neurostimulator lifetime were associated with increased cost savings. Over a 15-year horizon, adoption of a rechargeable device strategy was projected to save the United States healthcare system up to $12 billion. At current reimbursement rates, our analysis suggests that rechargeable neurostimulator SNM technology for managing overactive bladder syndrome may deliver significant cost savings to payers over the course of treatment. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:727-733, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An interface-reconstruction effect for rechargeable aluminum battery in ionic liquid electrolyte to enhance cycling performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al metal has been regarded as a promising anode for rechargeable batteries because of its natural abundance and high theoretical specific capacity. However, rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs using Al metal as anode display poor cycling performances owing to interface problems between anode and electrolyte. The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI layer on the anode has been confirmed to be essential for improving cycling performances of rechargeable batteries. Therefore, we immerse the Al metal in ionic liquid electrolyte for some time before it is used as anode to remove the passive film and expose fresh Al to the electrolyte. Then the reactions of exposed Al, acid, oxygen and water in electrolyte are occurred to form an SEI layer in the cycle. Al/electrolyte/V2O5 full batteries with the thin, uniform and stable SEI layer on Al metal anode perform high discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE. This work illustrates that an SEI layer is formed on Al metal anode in the cycle using a simple and effective pretreatment process and results in superior cycling performances for RABs.

  1. Study of groundwater recharge in Rechna Doab using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Hussain, S.D.; Khan, I.H.; Akram, W.

    1992-04-01

    Isotopic studies were performed in the Rechna Doab area to understand the recharge mechanism, investigate the relative contributions from various sources such as rainfall, rivers and canal system and to estimate the turn over times and replenishment rate of groundwater. The isotopic data suggest that the groundwater in the project area can be divided into different zones each having its own characteristic isotopic composition. The enriched isotopic values show rain recharge and depleted isotopic values are associated with river/canal system while the intermediate isotopic values show a mixing of two or more sources of water. The major contribution, however, comes from canal system. The isotopic data suggest that there is no quick movement of groundwater in the area. 18 figs. (author)

  2. Novel Nanocomposite Materials for Advanced Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials lie at the heart of fundamental advances in efficient energy storage and/or conversion, in which surface processes and transport kinetics play determining roles. Nanocomposite materials will have a further enhancement in properties compared to their constituent phases. This Review describes some recent developments of nanocomposite materials for high-performance Li-ion rechargeable batteries, including carbon-oxide nanocomposites, polymer-oxide nanocomposites, metal-oxide nanocomposites, and silicon-based nanocomposites, etc. The major goal of this Review is to highlight some new progress in using these nanocomposite materials as electrodes to develop Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  3. Hydrogeological conditions of the Kroparica recharge area, Jelovica, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern part of highly karstified plateau of Jelovica (west Slovenia that represents big fissured and karstified aquifer is drained by the group of Kroparica springs that are positioned approximately 1 km in the south of the city Kropa. Kroparica is represented by several springs that mainly flow out from the triasic Ba~a dolomite. Some of them are positioned in the hill slope sediments. In the article litostratigraphical and structural conditions in the background of the springs are represented together with simple hydrogeologicalbalance of Kroparica aquifer recharge. It was determined that the recharge area is between 3,8 and 6,5 km2 and that the average yearly outflow is between 224 and 386 l/s. Maximum outflows are much larger and are higher than some m3/s. High fluctuation of discharges are the consequence of high karstification level of Kroparica aquifer.

  4. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  5. Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries: Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Cano, Zachary Paul; Park, Moon Gyu; Yu, Aiping; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have attracted much attention and received revived research efforts recently due to their high energy density, which makes them a promising candidate for emerging mobile and electronic applications. Besides their high energy density, they also demonstrate other desirable characteristics, such as abundant raw materials, environmental friendliness, safety, and low cost. Here, the reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance. Additionally, a section dedicated to battery-testing techniques and corresponding recommendations for best practices are included. Finally, a general perspective on the current limitations, recent application-targeted developments, and recommended future research directions to prolong the lifespan of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  7. Fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooie, D. T.; Harrington, B. C., III; Mayfield, M. J.; Parsons, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  9. Methodology for solving the problem of contamination in pencils of Co-60 from the CNEA (Argentine) for the recharge of the gamma irradiator of the ININ; Metodologia para resolver el problema de contaminacion en lapices de Co-60 procedentes del CONEA (Argentina) para la recarga del irradiador gamma del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal B, J.E.; Escobar A, L.; Angeles C, A.; Cruz G, H.S

    1992-07-15

    Presently report the methodology used to identify the source of contamination detected in a shipment with 5.0 X 10 Bq of Co-60 coming from Argentina is described, as well as the solution outlined to solve the problem. Its are presented by way of conclusion the experiences but outstanding learned in the process. (Author)

  10. Inorganic electrolyte rechargeable Li/SO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A. N.; Kuo, H. C.; Foster, D.; Schlaikjer, C.; Kallianidis, M.

    An account is given of the chemistry and performance characteristics of prototype inorganic electrolyte Li/SO2-system rechargeable cells. The electrolyte consists of LiAlCl4-6SO2; excellent energy density, rate capability, low temperature performance, storability, and overcharging capability have been obtained, although cell life cycle is thus far limited by the degradation of the microporous polypropylene separator employed. In addition, system safety must be improved to prevent cell thermal runaway upon shorting or external heating.

  11. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  12. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  13. The Use Of Permeable Concrete For Ground Water Recharge

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay Tejankar; Aditya Lakhe; Manish Harwani; Prem Gupta

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop Smart Cities in India, we need to develop smart technologies and smart construction materials. Permeable concrete an innovative material is environment friendly and a smart material which can be used for construction of several structures. In India, the ground water table is decreasing at a faster rate due to reduction in ground water recharge. These days, the vegetation cover is replaced by infrastructure hence the water gets very less opportunity to infiltrate itself int...

  14. Natural groundwater recharge and water balance at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present water-balance data collected in 1988 and 1989 from the 300 Area Buried Waste Test Facility and Grass Site, and the 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter. This report is an annual update of previous recharge status reports by Gee, Rockhold, and Downs, and Gee. Data from several other lysimeter sites are included for comparison. 43 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Recharging the Silicon Crucible in a Hot Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    "Melt recharger" adds raw silicon to crucible in crystal-growing furnace without disturbing inert-gas atmosphere or significantly lowering temperature of melt. Crucible-refill hopper is lowered into hot zone of crystal-pulling chamber through an isolation valve. Cable that supports hopper is fastened to cone-shaped stopper in bottom of hopper. Stopper moves out of opening in hopper, allowing part of polysilicon charge to drop into crucible.

  16. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new aqueous Zn–NiCo2O4 rechargeable battery system with a high voltage, consisting of NiCo2O4 as cathode and metal Zn as anode, is proposed for the first time. It is cheap and environmental friendly, and its energy density is about 202.8 Wh kg–1. The system still maintains excellent capacity retention of about 85% ...

  17. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Battery is based on the solid phase reaction, the large specific surface area will be beneficial for the further improve- ment of the battery system performance. The cycling performance of the Zn–NiCo2O4 recharge- able battery in aqueous alkaline electrolyte at 2 A g–1 based on NiCo2O4 is illustrated in figure 3c. Obviously,.

  18. Uncertainties in the simulation of groundwater recharge at different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bogena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital spatial data always imply some kind of uncertainty. The source of this uncertainty can be found in their compilation as well as the conceptual design that causes a more or less exact abstraction of the real world, depending on the scale under consideration. Within the framework of hydrological modelling, in which numerous data sets from diverse sources of uneven quality are combined, the various uncertainties are accumulated. In this study, the GROWA model is taken as an example to examine the effects of different types of uncertainties on the calculated groundwater recharge. Distributed input errors are determined for the parameters' slope and aspect using a Monte Carlo approach. Landcover classification uncertainties are analysed by using the conditional probabilities of a remote sensing classification procedure. The uncertainties of data ensembles at different scales and study areas are discussed. The present uncertainty analysis showed that the Gaussian error propagation method is a useful technique for analysing the influence of input data on the simulated groundwater recharge. The uncertainties involved in the land use classification procedure and the digital elevation model can be significant in some parts of the study area. However, for the specific model used in this study it was shown that the precipitation uncertainties have the greatest impact on the total groundwater recharge error.

  19. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 μg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  20. Kamchia watershed groundwater recharge assessment by the CLM3 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitcheva Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating groundwater recharge is an important part of the water resources evaluation. In spite of the numerous existing methods it continues to be not easy value to quantify. This is due to its dependence on many meteorological, hydrogeological, soil type and cover conditions and the impossibility for direct measurement. Employment of hydrological models in fact directly calculates the influence of the above cited natural factors. The Community Land Model (CLM3 being loaded with all land featuring data in global scale, including an adequate soil filtration process simulation by the Richards equation, together with the possibility for input of NCEP/NCAR Reanalyses database, featuring the meteorological effect, gives an opportunity to avoid to great extent the difficulties in groundwater (GW recharge estimation. The paper presents the results from an experiment concerning GW recharge monthly estimation during 2013, worked out for the Kamchia river watershed in Bulgaria. The computed monthly and annual values are presented on GIS maps and are compared with existing assessments made by other methods. It is proved the good approach and the applicability of the method.

  1. Multiple batch recharging for industrial CZ silicon growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickett, B.; Mihalik, G.

    2001-05-01

    The Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth process used in the Siemens Solar Industries’ (SSI) Vancouver, WA facility was non-continuous. Each furnace run's production was limited by the size of the starting charge. Once the charge was depleted, the furnace was shut down, cooled, and set back up for the next run. A recharge system was developed which transforms standard CZ growth into a semi-continuous process. Now when the charge is depleted, the crucible can be refilled in situ as the grown ingot is being removed from the furnace. SSI has demonstrated up to 14 recharge cycles in a single run. The resulting benefits included: significant cost reduction, increased yield, increased throughput, reduced energy consumption, improved process capability, reduced material handling requirements, and reduced labor. The recharge system also enables the use of granular silicon, which requires less than 30% of the energy required when manufacturing silicon-starting materials. This significantly reduces the energy “pay-back” time associated with SSI's finished product, photovoltaic panels.

  2. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky

    2017-11-01

    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  3. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  4. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  5. Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Narayan, Sri R.

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen generators based on reactions involving magnesium and steam have been proposed as means for generating the fuel (hydrogen gas) for such fuel-cell power systems as those to be used in the drive systems of advanced motor vehicles. The hydrogen generators would make it unnecessary to rely on any of the hydrogen storage systems developed thus far that are, variously, too expensive, too heavy, too bulky, and/or too unsafe to be practical. The two proposed hydrogen generators are denoted basic and advanced, respectively. In the basic hydrogen generator (see figure), steam at a temperature greater than or equals 330 C would be fed into a reactor charged with magnesium, wherein hydrogen would be released in the exothermic reaction Mg + H2O yields MgO + H2. The steam would be made in a flash boiler. To initiate the reaction, the boiler could be heated electrically by energy borrowed from a storage battery that would be recharged during normal operation of the associated fuel-cell subsystem. Once the reaction was underway, heat from the reaction would be fed to the boiler. If the boiler were made an integral part of the hydrogen-generator reactor vessel, then the problem of transfer of heat from the reactor to the boiler would be greatly simplified. A pump would be used to feed water from a storage tank to the boiler.

  6. Groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Leite, M.; Mattos, T.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2014, several cities of southeastern Brazil have grappled with their worst drought in nearly 80 years. To improve water availability in this region, the Brazilian government has studied the possibility of increasing groundwater use, mainly in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS), the largest (~1.2 million km2) transnational boundary groundwater reservoir in South America. Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the GAS are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of Cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the consequences of this land cover and land use change on groundwater recharge. In this study we assessed groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Cerrado located in an outcrop area of the GAS. Water table fluctuations were measured from October 2011 through August 2013, by 64 monitoring wells distributed on five physiognomies of the undisturbed Cerrado. We used 20 (2.2±0.3 m), 20 (4.3±1.4 m), 14 (4.7±1.9 m), 9 (6.2±0.7 m), and 1 (42 m) monitoring wells (and average depth of wells) for "campo limpo" (cerrado grassland), "campo sujo" (shrub cerrado), "campo cerrado" (shrub cerrado), "cerrado sensu stricto" (wooded cerrado), and "cerrado sensu stricto denso" (cerrado woodland), respectively. Recharge was computed for each well using the Water Table Fluctuation method. The measured precipitation for hydrological years 2011-12 and 2012-13 were 1247 mm and 1194 mm, respectively. We found values of average annual recharge of 363 mm, 354 mm, 324 mm, and 315 mm for "campo limpo", "campo sujo","campo cerrado", and "cerrado sensu stricto", respectively. We did not find changes in the water table level in the one well located in the "cerrado sensu stricto denso". The water table in this well was 35 m deep; therefore, the amount of water that eventually reached the saturated zone was not enough to cause a rapid change in the

  7. Mechanisms of recharge in a fractured porous rock aquifer in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Ferdinando; Walton, Kenneth M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2017-12-01

    Eleven porewater profiles in rock core from an upland exposed sandstone vadose zone in southern California, with thickness varying between 10 and 62 m, were analyzed for chloride (Cl) concentration to examine recharge mechanisms, estimate travel times in the vadose zone, assess spatial and temporal variability of recharge, and determine effects of land use changes on recharge. As a function of their location and the local terrain, the profiles were classified into four groups reflecting the range of site characteristics. Century- to millennium-average recharge varied from 4 to 23 mm y-1, corresponding to zone and in groundwater, the contribution of diffuse flow (estimated at 80%) and preferential flow (20%) to the total recharge was quantified. This model of dual porosity recharge was tested by simulating transient Cl transport along a physically based narrow column using a discrete fracture-matrix numerical model. Using a new approach based on partitioning both water and Cl between matrix and fracture flow, porewater was dated and vertical displacement rates estimated to range in the sandstone matrix from 3 to 19 cm y-1. Moreover, the temporal variability of recharge was estimated and, along each profile, past recharge rates calculated based on the sequence of Cl concentrations in the vadose zone. Recharge rates increased at specific times coincident with historical changes in land use. The consistency between the timing of land use modifications and changes in Cl concentration and the match between observed and simulated Cl concentration values in the vadose zone provide confidence in porewater age estimates, travel times, recharge estimates, and reconstruction of recharge histories. This study represents an advancement of the application of the chloride mass balance method to simultaneously determine recharge mechanisms and reconstruct location-specific recharge histories in fractured porous rock aquifers. The proposed approach can be applied worldwide at sites

  8. Cuckoo Search with flight of Levy applied to the problem of reload of fuels in nuclear reactors; Busca Cuco com voo de Levy aplicado ao problema de recarga de combustiveis em reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patrick V.; Nast, Fernando N.; Schirru, Roberto; Meneses, Anderson A.M., E-mail: patrickvs@hotmail.com, E-mail: fernandonnast@gmail.com, E-mail: anderson.meneses@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Oeste do Para (UFOPA), Santarem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Engenharia e Geociencias. Programa de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ) RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Intra-Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization is a complex combinatorial problem of the NP-difficult type, associated with the refueling process of a nuclear reactor, which aims to extend the cycle of operation by determining loading patterns, obeying safety margins. In addition to the combinatorial problem, we have the aspect of calculations of reactor physics, which increases the difficult of OGCIN. Methods that are proving effective when applied to OGCIN are the algorithms belonging to the swarm intelligence paradigm. A new member of this paradigm is Cuckoo Search (CS), which has shown results promising when applied to optimization issues. The CS is based on the litter parasitism of some cuckoo species combined with the Levy flight behavior of some birds. In the present work we present the results of the application of CS to OGCIN, and compare them to the results obtained by the application of ABC.

  9. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy. The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul H.; Rask, Morten; Mathews, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of electric vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market for co-ordinated production and consumption of renewable energy. The innovative contribution of the model rests in its ability to combine two problems and thereby solve them in a fresh way. One problem derives from utilizing power grids with a substantial increase in renewable electric energy production (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage devices for electricity, thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources, while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) distributed power generation; introducing IT intelligence to the grid, and creating virtual power plants from distributed sources; and providing new applications for carbon credits in the decarbonisation of the economy. The countries and regions that have signed on to this model and are working to introduce it in 2009-2011 include Israel, Denmark, Australia, and in the US, the Bay Area cities and the state of Hawaii. (author)

  10. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  11. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  12. Fuels and fluoroelastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, G. [Parker Hannifin GmbH, Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Modern fuels for combustion engines have an enormous spread in their composition. Fuels contain different amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons, are blended with oxygen containing components, especially alcohols and ethers and have some additive packages preventing deposits in the fuel circuit. This great variability in composition of fuels for combustion engines requires extremely resistant elastomers. The temperature range in the fuel circuit is determined by extreme low temperatures in countries of the Northern Hemisphere like Sweden and Canada of about -40 up to 150 C in small, high powered cars with encapsulated engines. A solution for sealing systems are special fluoroelastomers with high fluorine content and in some cases also with low temperature flexibility. It will be shown that a fluorine content of more than 68% in the polymer is necessary and in case of required low temperature flexibility a PMVE-perfluoromethyl-vinylether-modified type of fluoroelastomer, when a special seal design is not possible, might be the problem solving polymer. (orig.)

  13. Fuels and fluoroelastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, G. (Parker Hannifin GmbH, Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany))

    1999-01-01

    Modern fuels for combustion engines have an enormous spread in their composition. Fuels contain different amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons, are blended with oxygen containing components, especially alcohols and ethers and have some additive packages preventing deposits in the fuel circuit. This great variability in composition of fuels for combustion engines requires extremely resistant elastomers. The temperature range in the fuel circuit is determined by extreme low temperatures in countries of the Northern Hemisphere like Sweden and Canada of about -40 up to 150 C in small, high powered cars with encapsulated engines. A solution for sealing systems are special fluoroelastomers with high fluorine content and in some cases also with low temperature flexibility. It will be shown that a fluorine content of more than 68% in the polymer is necessary and in case of required low temperature flexibility a PMVE-perfluoromethyl-vinylether-modified type of fluoroelastomer, when a special seal design is not possible, might be the problem solving polymer. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  15. LMFBR spent fuel and new fuel inspection and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngquist, C.H.

    1975-01-01

    If the hot cells used for inspection and preparation of liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies can be located so that the fuel assemblies can be moved directly to and from the sodium filled decay storage tank, the fuel handling problems can be simplified and a fuel handling machine may be eliminated. The hot cells can also serve as a transfer lock through the outer containment barrier, thereby permitting uninterrupted reactor operation during fuel transfer to and from the decay storage tank. 5 references

  16. Implications of projected climate change for groundwater recharge in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Thomas; Manning, Andrew H.; Stonestrom, David A.; Allen, Diana M.; Ajami, Hoori; Blasch, Kyle W.; Brookfield, Andrea E.; Castro, Christopher L.; Clark, Jordan F.; Gochis, David J.; Flint, Alan L.; Neff, Kirstin L.; Niraula, Rewati; Rodell, Matthew; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Singha, Kamini; Walvoord, Michelle A.

    2016-03-01

    Existing studies on the impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge are either global or basin/location-specific. The global studies lack the specificity to inform decision making, while the local studies do little to clarify potential changes over large regions (major river basins, states, or groups of states), a scale often important in the development of water policy. An analysis of the potential impact of climate change on groundwater recharge across the western United States (west of 100° longitude) is presented synthesizing existing studies and applying current knowledge of recharge processes and amounts. Eight representative aquifers located across the region were evaluated. For each aquifer published recharge budget components were converted into four standard recharge mechanisms: diffuse, focused, irrigation, and mountain-systems recharge. Future changes in individual recharge mechanisms and total recharge were then estimated for each aquifer. Model-based studies of projected climate-change effects on recharge were available and utilized for half of the aquifers. For the remainder, forecasted changes in temperature and precipitation were logically propagated through each recharge mechanism producing qualitative estimates of direction of changes in recharge only (not magnitude). Several key patterns emerge from the analysis. First, the available estimates indicate average declines of 10-20% in total recharge across the southern aquifers, but with a wide range of uncertainty that includes no change. Second, the northern set of aquifers will likely incur little change to slight increases in total recharge. Third, mountain system recharge is expected to decline across much of the region due to decreased snowpack, with that impact lessening with higher elevation and latitude. Factors contributing the greatest uncertainty in the estimates include: (1) limited studies quantitatively coupling climate projections to recharge estimation methods using detailed

  17. Implications of Projected Climate Change for Groundwater Recharge in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Thomas; Manning, Andrew H.; Stonestrom, David A.; Allen, Diana M.; Ajami, Hoori; Blasch, Kyle W.; Brookfield, Andrea E.; Castro, Christopher L.; Clark, Jordan F.; Gochis, David J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies on the impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge are either global or basin/ location-specific. The global studies lack the specificity to inform decision making, while the local studies do little to clarify potential changes over large regions (major river basins, states, or groups of states), a scale often important in the development of water policy. An analysis of the potential impact of climate change on groundwater recharge across the western United States (west of 100 degrees longitude) is presented synthesizing existing studies and applying current knowledge of recharge processes and amounts. Eight representative aquifers located across the region were evaluated. For each aquifer published recharge budget components were converted into four standard recharge mechanisms: diffuse, focused, irrigation, and mountain-systems recharge. Future changes in individual recharge mechanisms and total recharge were then estimated for each aquifer. Model-based studies of projected climate-change effects on recharge were available and utilized for half of the aquifers. For the remainder, forecasted changes in temperature and precipitation were logically propagated through each recharge mechanism producing qualitative estimates of direction of changes in recharge only (not magnitude). Several key patterns emerge from the analysis. First, the available estimates indicate average declines of 10-20% in total recharge across the southern aquifers, but with a wide range of uncertainty that includes no change. Second, the northern set of aquifers will likely incur little change to slight increases in total recharge. Third, mountain system recharge is expected to decline across much of the region due to decreased snowpack, with that impact lessening with higher elevation and latitude. Factors contributing the greatest uncertainty in the estimates include: (1) limited studies quantitatively coupling climate projections to recharge estimation methods using

  18. Spatial distribution of groundwater recharge and base flow: Assessment of controlling factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zomlot

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The average resulting recharge is 235 mm/year and occurs mainly in winter. The overall moderate correlation between base flow estimates and modeled recharge rates indicates that base flow is a reasonable proxy of recharge. Groundwater recharge variation was explained in order of importance by precipitation, soil texture and vegetation cover; while base flow variation was strongly controlled by vegetation cover and groundwater depth. The results of this study highlight the important role of spatial variables in estimation of recharge and base flow. In addition, the prominent role of vegetation makes clear the potential importance of land-use changes on recharge and hence the need to include a proper strategy for land-use change in sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  19. Recharge estimation in semi-arid karst catchments: Central West Bank, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebreen, Hassan; Wohnlich, Stefan; Wisotzky, Frank; Banning, Andre; Niedermayr, Andrea; Ghanem, Marwan

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge of groundwater recharge constitutes a valuable tool for sustainable management in karst systems. In this respect, a quantitative evaluation of groundwater recharge can be considered a pre-requisite for the optimal operation of groundwater resources systems, particular for semi-arid areas. This paper demonstrates the processes affecting recharge in Palestine aquifers. The Central Western Catchment is one of the main water supply sources in the West Bank. Quantification of potential recharge rates are estimated using chloride mass balance (CMB) and empirical recharge equations over the catchment. The results showing the spatialized recharge rate, which ranges from 111-216 mm/year, representing 19-37% of the long-term mean annual rainfall. Using Water Balance models and climatological data (e. g. solar radiation, monthly temperature, average monthly relative humidity and precipitation), actual evapotranspiration (AET) is estimated. The mean annual actual evapotranspiration was about 66-70% of precipitation.

  20. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Understanding groundwater-budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future. This study quantifies projected changes in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) groundwater recharge from recent historical (1950–2015) through future (2016–2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections. Simulated future groundwater recharge in the UCRB is generally expected to be greater than the historical average in most decades. Increases in groundwater recharge in the UCRB are a consequence of projected increases in precipitation, offsetting reductions in recharge that would result from projected increased temperatures.

  1. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  3. Virus removal during groundwater recharge: effects of infiltration rate on adsorption of poliovirus to soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, J M; Landry, E F; Beckwith, C A; Thomas, M Z

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the influence of infiltration rate on poliovirus removal during groundwater recharge with tertiary-treated wastewater effluents. Experiments were conducted at a uniquely designed, field-situated test recharge basin facility through which some 62,000 m3 of sewage had been previously applied. Recharge at high infiltration rates (75 to 100 cm/h) resulted in the movement of considerable numbers of seeded poliovirus to the groundwater. Moderately reduced infiltr...

  4. The Simulation of the Recharging Method Based on Solar Radiation for an Implantable Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yong; Kong, Xianyue; Li, Maoyuan; Zhao, Yufei; Hao, Qun; Gao, Tianxin

    2016-09-10

    A method of recharging implantable biosensors based on solar radiation is proposed. Firstly, the models of the proposed method are developed. Secondly, the recharging processes based on solar radiation are simulated using Monte Carlo (MC) method and the energy distributions of sunlight within the different layers of human skin have been achieved and discussed. Finally, the simulation results are verified experimentally, which indicates that the proposed method will contribute to achieve a low-cost, convenient and safe method for recharging implantable biosensors.

  5. Estimating shallow groundwater recharge in the headwaters of the Liverpool Plains using SWAT

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, H.; Cornish, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record A physically based catchment model (SWAT) was used for recharge estimation in the headwaters of the Liverpool Plains in NSW, Australia. The study used water balance modelling at the catchment scale to derive parameters for long-term recharge estimation. The derived parameters were further assessed at a subcatchment scale. Modelling results suggest that recharge occurs only in wet years, and is dominated by a few significant years or periods. The results were matched by...

  6. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-28

    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  7. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  8. Estimating harvested rainwater at greenhouses in south Portugal aquifer Campina de Faro for potential infiltration in Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luís; Monteiro, José Paulo; Leitão, Teresa; Lobo-Ferreira, João Paulo; Oliveira, Manuel; Martins de Carvalho, José; Martins de Carvalho, Tiago; Agostinho, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The Campina de Faro (CF) aquifer system, located on the south coast of Portugal, is an important source of groundwater, mostly used for agriculture purposes. In some areas, this multi-layered aquifer is contaminated with high concentration of nitrates, possibly arising from excessive usage of fertilizers, reaching to values as high as 300 mg/L. In order to tackle this problem, Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) techniques are being applied at demonstration scale to improve groundwater quality through aquifer recharge, in both infiltration basins at the river bed of ephemeral river Rio Seco and existing traditional large diameter wells located in this aquifer. In order to assess the infiltration capacity of the existing infrastructures, in particular infiltration basins and large diameter wells at CF aquifer, infiltration tests were performed, indicating a high infiltration capacity of the existing infrastructures. Concerning the sources of water for recharge, harvested rainwater at greenhouses was identified in CF aquifer area as one of the main potential sources for aquifer recharge, once there is a large surface area occupied by these infrastructures at the demo site. This potential source of water could, in some cases, be redirected to the large diameter wells or to the infiltration basins at the riverbed of Rio Seco. Estimates of rainwater harvested at greenhouses were calculated based on a 32 year average rainfall model and on the location of the greenhouses and their surface areas, the latter based on aerial photograph. Potential estimated annual rainwater intercepted by greenhouses at CF aquifer accounts an average of 1.63 hm3/year. Nonetheless it is unlikely that the totality of this amount can be harvested, collected and redirected to aquifer recharge infrastructures, for several reasons, such as the lack of appropriate greenhouse infrastructures, conduits or a close location between greenhouses and large diameter wells and infiltration basins. Anyway, this

  9. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches

  10. A study on groundwater recharge from the subsurface to the rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nakajima, Makoto; Yanagisawa, Koichi

    1991-01-01

    It is necessary to estimate the amount of recharge from subsurface zone to the rock mass in order to study on the groundwater flow. It is important to measure meteorological parameters, river discharge, groundwater level and soil moisture for the estimation of recharge. So the monitoring system of hill slope hydrology has been developed for the measurement of those parameters. With this developed system the amount of recharge from unconsolidated formations to rock mass is estimated 207.5mm/year (0.57mm/day) on the assumption that the hydrological balance is kept. This paper describes details of the system and how to estimate the amount of recharge. (author)

  11. The aquifer recharge: an overview of the legislative and planning aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, O; Caggiano, G; Apollonio, F; Marzella, A; Brigida, S; Ranieri, E; Lucentini, L; Uricchio, V F; Montagna, M T

    2018-01-01

    In most regions of the world, safeguarding groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly in coastal areas where groundwater is the main water source for drinking, irrigation and industry. Water availability depends on climate, topography and geology. The aim of this paper is to evaluate aquifer recharge as a possible strategy to relieve water resource scarcity. Natural aquifer recharge is defined as the downward flow of water reaching the water table, increasing the groundwater reservoir. Hydro-meteorological factors (rainfall, evapotranspiration and runoff) may alter natural recharge processes. Artificial aquifer recharge is a process by which surface water is introduced with artificial systems underground to fill an aquifer. As a consequence of global warming that has increased the frequency and severity of natural disasters like the drought, the impacts of climate change and seasonality, the artificial recharge has been considered as a viable option. Different direct and indirect techniques can be used, and the choice depends on the hydrologic characteristics of a specific area. In Italy, Legislative Decree no. 152/06 plans artificial aquifer recharge as an additional measure in water management, and Decree no. 100/2016 establishes quantitative and qualitative conditions for recharge. Many projects examine aquifer recharge, such us WADIS-MAR in the southern Mediterranean region, WARBO in Italy and municipal wastewater treatment project in Apulia, a southern Italian region. However, aside from groundwater recharge, the community must foster a spirit of cooperation to manage groundwater as a sustainable resource.

  12. SWB-A modified Thornthwaite-Mather Soil-Water-Balance code for estimating groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, S.M.; Kelson, V.A.; Dripps, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    A Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) computer code has been developed to calculate spatial and temporal variations in groundwater recharge. The SWB model calculates recharge by use of commonly available geographic information system (GIS) data layers in combination with tabular climatological data. The code is based on a modified Thornthwaite-Mather soil-water-balance approach, with components of the soil-water balance calculated at a daily timestep. Recharge calculations are made on a rectangular grid of computational elements that may be easily imported into a regional groundwater-flow model. Recharge estimates calculated by the code may be output as daily, monthly, or annual values.

  13. Seasonality of groundwater recharge in the Basin and Range Province, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kirstin Lynn

    Alluvial groundwater systems are an important source of water for communities and biodiverse riparian corridors throughout the arid and semi-arid Basin and Range Geological Province of western North America. These aquifers and their attendant desert streams have been depleted to support a growing population, while projected climate change could lead to more extreme episodes of drought and precipitation in the future. The only source of replenishment to these aquifers is recharge. This dissertation builds upon previous work to characterize and quantify recharge in arid and semi-arid basins by characterizing the intra-annual seasonality of recharge across the Basin and Range Province, and considering how climate change might impact recharge seasonality and volume, as well as fragile riparian corridors that depend on these hydrologic processes. First, the seasonality of recharge in a basin in the sparsely-studied southern extent of the Basin and Range Province is determined using stable water isotopes of seasonal precipitation and groundwater, and geochemical signatures of groundwater and surface water. In northwestern Mexico in the southern reaches of the Basin and Range, recharge is dominated by winter precipitation (69% +/- 42%) and occurs primarily in the uplands. Second, isotopically-based estimates of seasonal recharge fractions in basins across the region are compared to identify patterns in recharge seasonality, and used to evaluate a simple water budget-based model for estimating recharge seasonality, the normalized seasonal wetness index (NSWI). Winter precipitation makes up the majority of annual recharge throughout the region, and North American Monsoon (NAM) precipitation has a disproportionately weak impact on recharge. The NSWI does well in estimating recharge seasonality for basins in the northern Basin and Range, but less so in basins that experience NAM precipitation. Third, the seasonal variation in riparian and non-riparian vegetation greenness

  14. Deep rooted apple trees decrease groundwater recharge in the highland region of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Min; Si, Bingcheng; Feng, Hao

    2018-05-01

    Unlike recharge in shallow rooted ecosystems, estimating the groundwater recharge beneath deep rooted plants that absorb water from deep soil remains difficult. The purpose of this research is to develop an approach to estimate the groundwater recharge beneath deep-rooted vegetation by combining water mass balance and chloride mass balance (CMB) and to quantify how the conversion of shallow-rooted cropland to deep-rooted apple orchards changes groundwater recharge. The proposed groundwater recharge rate under deep-rooted vegetation in this study is the difference between the groundwater recharge rate in a cropland (obtained using CMB) and the mean annual soil water storage deficit beneath an adjacent deep-rooted vegetation. The results show that the conversion from cropland (shallow-rooted) to apple orchard (deep-rooted) decreased soil water storage by 776, 1106, and 1117mm, corresponding to 19, 20, and 26-year-old apple orchards, respectively. Groundwater recharge beneath cropland, on average, was 58mmyr -1 , which amounts to 10% of the average annual precipitation. Groundwater recharge beneath the apple orchards were variable, but all being <3% of the average annual precipitation. The conversion of cropland to apple orchards lead to a substantial decrease in groundwater recharge, potentially threatening the sustainability of the land use change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Experiment and Numerical Simulation of the Artificial Recharge Effect on Groundwater Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency of utilizing water resources in arid areas, the mechanism of artificial recharge effecting on groundwater reservoir was analyzed in this research. Based on a generalized groundwater reservoir in a two-dimensional sand tank model, different scenarios of the infiltration basin location and recharge intensity are designed to study how to improve the efficiency of groundwater reservoir artificial recharge. The effective storage capacity and the effective storage rate are taken as the main parameters to analyze the relation between recharge water volume and storage capacity. By combining with groundwater flow system theory, FEFLOW (Finite Element subsurface FLOW system is adopted to set up the groundwater numerical model. It is used to verify the experiment results and to make deep analysis on the rule of water table fluctuations and groundwater movement in the aquifer. Based on the model, different scenarios are designed to examine the combined effect of recharge intensity and intermittent periods. The research results show that: the distance between infiltration basin and pumping well should be shortened appropriately, but not too close; increasing recharge intensity helps to enlarge the effective storage capacity, but it can also reduce the effective storage rate, which goes against the purpose of effective utilization of water resources; and, the recharge intensity and recharge duration should be given full consideration by the actual requirements when we take the approach of intermittent recharge to make a reasonable choice.

  16. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1998-10-01

    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  17. Rechargeable silver-modified mercuric oxide-zinc cell for cardiac pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyers, G F; Hughes, H C; Brownlee, R R; Manley, N J; Gorman, I N

    1976-11-04

    Tests were conducted on rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker batteries under simulated and actual biologic conditions, using a variety of discharge rates and charging schedules. In tests on 96 cells at a 6.4 milliampere (ma) discharge, recharging once every 15 months of simulated pacing at a 25 microampere (mua) drain, the earliest cell failure occurred after an equivalent of 50 years of pacing. The mean pacing equivalent for all 96 cells was more than 140 years. In 6.4 ma discharge tests on 24 cells, recharging once every 8 days of simulated pacing, only 1 cell in 24 failed after an equivalent of more than 500 years of pacing (actual time 2 years). In tests on 13 cells pacing at a 200 mua drain without recharging, the simulated mean duration of pacing before total discharge was 4.8 years. Seven other cells at a 200 mua drain with periodic recharging continue to function normally after more than 7 years of actual time, simulating 56 years of pacing at a 25 mua drain. Cardiac pacemakers using the rechargeable mercury-zinc cell have been implanted in animals for more than 2 1/2 years and in patients for more than 1 year with all units continuing to function satisfactorily. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that a rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker will function continuously for more than 4 years without recharging and that periodic recharging will extend pacing life far beyond that predicted for lithium and nuclear primary power sources.

  18. Using noble gas tracers to constrain a groundwater flow model with recharge elevations: A novel approach for mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jessica M.; Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Mayer, K. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Environmental tracers provide information on groundwater age, recharge conditions, and flow processes which can be helpful for evaluating groundwater sustainability and vulnerability. Dissolved noble gas data have proven particularly useful in mountainous terrain because they can be used to determine recharge elevation. However, tracer-derived recharge elevations have not been utilized as calibration targets for numerical groundwater flow models. Herein, we constrain and calibrate a regional groundwater flow model with noble-gas-derived recharge elevations for the first time. Tritium and noble gas tracer results improved the site conceptual model by identifying a previously uncertain contribution of mountain block recharge from the Coast Mountains to an alluvial coastal aquifer in humid southwestern British Columbia. The revised conceptual model was integrated into a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model and calibrated to hydraulic head data in addition to recharge elevations estimated from noble gas recharge temperatures. Recharge elevations proved to be imperative for constraining hydraulic conductivity, recharge location, and bedrock geometry, and thus minimizing model nonuniqueness. Results indicate that 45% of recharge to the aquifer is mountain block recharge. A similar match between measured and modeled heads was achieved in a second numerical model that excludes the mountain block (no mountain block recharge), demonstrating that hydraulic head data alone are incapable of quantifying mountain block recharge. This result has significant implications for understanding and managing source water protection in recharge areas, potential effects of climate change, the overall water budget, and ultimately ensuring groundwater sustainability.

  19. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R 2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Groundwater recharge in the Kolokani-Nara region in Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Dray, M.; Zuppi, G.M.; Guerre, A.; Tazioli, G.S.; Traore, S.

    1984-01-01

    The area studied is part of the Nara, Kolokani, Banamba and Koulikoro regions and lies between the Mauritanian frontier and Bamako. It is a Sahel zone devoid of active surface hydrography, the annual rainfall varying between 1000 mm in the south and 400 mm in the north. The altitude decreases from 600 m to 250 m from the Mandingues Plateaux to the Nara plain. The Nara area consists of a basin filled with Cambrian schists containing seams of dolomitic limestones and sandstones cemented by limestone. The thickness of the series is thought to be about 300-500 m. The area of the Mandingues Plateaux is composed of Lower Cambrian sandstone-schist formations with a thickness of several hundred metres, covered with a crust of weathering. The two formations have aquifers of the same type - they are discontinuous with predominantly fissure-type permeability. The permeable zones in the Cambrian schist aquifers are more discontinuous than those in the Cambrian sandstones and are less developed in depth. The recharge conditions, on the other hand, are quite good on account of the sand cover which allows rapid infiltration of rain water. The Lower Cambrian aquifer is highly heterogeneous but much less discontinuous. The transfer of groundwater takes place at the level of small local sub-basins over short distances. The hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data point to the existence of recent recharge and mixing with older water. The groundwater renewal rate indicates, in many cases, limited water reserves. Infiltration is associated, in some cases, with storms of greater intensity and, in other cases, also with small sudden showers. Under natural conditions, the infiltrated water is generally used up by evapotranspiration. Under conditions of exploitation, a fraction of this recharge is recovered either almost directly or indirectly by replacement of the water taken from the fissured zones of the substratum. (author)

  2. Representative recharge rates in a complex unsaturated hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.; Newman, B.; Birdsell, K.

    1997-01-01

    This study summarizes analyses used for the determination of representative recharge rates in a semi-arid terrain of complex topography for the purpose of modeling the performance assessment of a mesa top disposal facility. Four recharge rates are identified based on different terrains. The terrain is first broadly grouped into canyon bottoms and mesa tops, with each covering about half the topography. The canyon bottoms are considered wet or dry depending on the local infiltration conditions and the influence of mans' activities. The mesa tops are separated into locations which are undisturbed and disturbed by laboratory operations. Disturbed locations at the disposal facility include the disposal pits utilized for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste, covering approximately half the mesa top area. Several sources of data and analyses have been synthesized to estimate the resulting recharge rates. Data and analyses include: (1) detailed surface water balance calculations with site-specific parameter values as input; (2) chloride ion profiles and analysis of implied flux at several borehole locations; (3) analyses of liquid and vapor phase vertical flux from moisture profiles with stratigraphic unit averaged unsaturated hydrologic properties; (4) comparison of moisture content field data with values implied from Darcy flux calculations for assumed unit gradient conditions and for stratigraphic unit averaged unsaturated hydrologic properties; (5) liquid flux calculated under self-consistent gradients from field observed moisture profiles and analytic determinations of in-situ moisture potential and conductivity at limited locations; (6) distributions in near surface soil moisture contents expressed as an equivalent vertical flux under unit gradient assumptions; and (7) limited comparisons to tracers available from past disposal operations

  3. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR in Sustainable Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Page

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet increasing urban water requirements in a sustainable way, there is a need to diversify future sources of supply and storage. However, to date, there has been a lag in the uptake of managed aquifer recharge (MAR for diversifying water sources in urban areas. This study draws on examples of the use of MAR as an approach to support sustainable urban water management. Recharged water may be sourced from a variety of sources and in urban centers, MAR provides a means to recycle underutilized urban storm water and treated wastewater to maximize their water resource potential and to minimize any detrimental effects associated with their disposal. The number, diversity and scale of urban MAR projects is growing internationally due to water shortages, fewer available dam sites, high evaporative losses from surface storages, and lower costs compared with alternatives where the conditions are favorable, including water treatment. Water quality improvements during aquifer storage are increasingly being documented at demonstration sites and more recently, full-scale operational urban schemes. This growing body of knowledge allows more confidence in understanding the potential role of aquifers in water treatment for regulators. In urban areas, confined aquifers provide better protection for waters recharged via wells to supplement potable water supplies. However, unconfined aquifers may generally be used for nonpotable purposes to substitute for municipal water supplies and, in some cases, provide adequate protection for recovery as potable water. The barriers to MAR adoption as part of sustainable urban water management include lack of awareness of recent developments and a lack of transparency in costs, but most importantly the often fragmented nature of urban water resources and environmental management.

  4. Simulation of runoff and recharge and estimation of constituent loads in runoff, Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a watershed model (Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN) to simulate runoff and recharge and to estimate constituent loads in surface-water runoff in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area in Bexar County, Texas. Rainfall and runoff data collected during 1970–98 from four gaged basins in the outcrop and catchment area were used to calibrate and test the model. The calibration parameters were applied in simulations of the four calibration basins and six ungaged basins that compose the study area to obtain runoff and recharge volumes for 4 years, 1997–2000. In 1997, simulated runoff from the study area was 5.62 inches. Simulated recharge in the study area was 7.85 inches (20 percent of rainfall). In 1998, simulated runoff was 11.05 inches; simulated recharge was 10.99 inches (25 percent of rainfall). In 1999, simulated runoff was 0.66 inch; simulated recharge was 3.03 inches (19 percent of rainfall). In 2000, simulated runoff was 5.29 inches; simulated recharge was 7.19 inches (21 percent of rainfall). During 1997– 2000, direct infiltration of rainfall accounted for about 56 percent of the total Edwards aquifer recharge in Bexar County. Streamflow losses contributed about 37 percent of the recharge; flood impoundment contributed 7 percent. The simulated runoff volumes were used with event-mean-concentration data from basins in the study area and from other Bexar County basins to compute constituent loads and yields for various land uses. Annual loads for suspended solids, dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and total lead were consistently largest from undeveloped land and smallest from commercial land or transportation corridors. Annual loads and yields varied with rainfall, with the maximum loads produced in the wettest year (1998) and the minimum loads produced in the driest year (1999).

  5. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  6. Managing aquifer recharge: How can isotope hydrology help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the emerging solutions to ever increasing water demand is a practice known as managed aquifer recharged (MAR) that involves diverting runoff water or recycled water into aquifers for storage and later extraction. During the last 50 years, the increased demand for freshwater has created shortages throughout the world. The projected growth in population combined with a changing climate is likely to make the situation worse. New solutions are needed to meet future water demands. One of the emerging solutions is a process known as managed aquifer recharge (MAR) that involves diverting surplus runoff water or recycled wastewater into aquifers for storage and later extraction. MAR is now practised for the combined management of groundwater and surface water in many parts of the world. While there are many potential benefits of MAR, one needs to be mindful of many potential side-effects that may arise when altering the natural water and chemical cycles within the subsurface. For example, understanding the movement and fate of injected water as well as changes to the water quality during transit through the soil and groundwater is needed. Contaminants from industry, agriculture, or municipal sources that are part of the source water supply may affect the ambient groundwater quality. The introduction of disinfection by-products, infective micro-organisms, and organic compounds with unknown health risks into groundwater supplies is a significant concern. It is paramount to understand the fate and transport of potential contaminants near MAR sites. Only from this understanding can robust and appropriate regulations be developed. Stable isotopes of water and conservative ions are used as 'fingerprints' that can trace movement and fate of water. Also, dating with tritium and its daughter, 3 He, and deliberate tracer experiments are used to estimate water residence time within the subsurface. This knowledge is needed to established hydraulic connections and travel times

  7. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Rempel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recently, phase-change materials. While broadly similar, these substances absorb and release heat in unique patterns characteristic of their mineralogies, densities, fluidities, emissivities, and latent heats of fusion. Current architectural practice, however, shows little awareness of these differences and the resulting potential to match materials to desired thermal performance. This investigation explores that potential, illustrating the correspondence between physical parameters and thermal storage-and-release patterns in direct-, indirect-, and isolated-gain passive solar configurations. Focusing on heating applications, results demonstrate the superiority of water walls for daytime warmth, the tunability of granite and concrete for evening warmth, and the exceptional ability of phase-change materials to sustain near-constant heat delivery throughout the night.

  8. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  9. Energy. Which fuels for tomorrow? Status of bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleaux-Mulot, R.; Ratel, H.

    2005-01-01

    France wants to include up to 5.75% of bio-fuels in its automotive fuels by 2008. This article presents the advantages and drawbacks of this policy: reduction of the fossil fuels dependence, positive impact on the greenhouse effect but possible environmental impacts linked with intensive cultivation techniques, no problem of compatibility with the vehicles engine but the production costs remain three times higher than for petroleum. (J.S.)

  10. Direct liquid methanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfei; Peng, Ranran; Dong, Dehua; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    Anode coking problem of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) when using hydrocarbon fuels has been the major barrier for the practice and commercialization of well-developed high performance SOFC. In this work, based on fuels consideration, we chose liquid methanol as the candidate fuel for SOFC with the configuration of NiO/SDC-SDC-SSC/SDC. For comparison, traditional fuels, hydrogen and ammonia, were tested. With methanol as fuel, the maximum power densities were 698, 430 and 223 mW cm -2 at 650, 600 and 550 °C, respectively, which were higher than that with ammonia and lower than that of hydrogen. The electrochemical properties of the cells with the three fuels were investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. The long-term stability of the cell with methanol, methane and ethanol were also studied at a constant output voltage of 0.5 V.

  11. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  13. Unified fuel elements development for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Stetsky, Y.; Dobrikova, I.

    1998-01-01

    Square cross-section rod type fuel elements have been developed for russian pool-type research reactors. new fuel elements can replace the large nomenclature of tubular fuel elements with around, square and hexahedral cross-sections and to solve a problem of enrichment reduction. the fuel assembly designs with rod type fuel elements have been developed. The overall dimensions of existing the assemblies are preserved in this one. the experimental-industrial fabricating process of fuel elements, based on a joint extrusion method has been developed. The fabricating process has been tested in laboratory conditions, 150 experimental fuel element samples of the various sizes were produced. (author)

  14. Using Tracer Tests to Estimate Vertical Recharge and Evaluate Influencing Factors for Irrigated Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Jin, M.; Brusseau, M.; Ma, B.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimation of vertical groundwater recharge is critical for (semi) arid regions, especially in places such as the North China Plain where vertical recharge comprises the largest portion of recharge. Tracer tests were used to estimate vertical recharge beneath agricultural systems irrigated by groundwater, and to help delineate factors that influence recharge. Bromide solution was applied to trace infiltration in the vadose zone beneath irrigated agricultural fields (rotated winter wheat and summer maize, orchards, and cotton) and non-irrigated woodlands at both piedmont plain (Shijiazhaung) and alluvial and lacustrine plains (Hengshui) in the North China Plain. The tracer tests lasted for more than two years, and were conducted at a total of 37 sites. Tracer solution was injected into the subsurface at a depth of 1.2 m before the rainy season. Soil samples were then collected periodically to observe bromide transport and estimate recharge rates at the point-scale. For these experiments, the only irrigation the fields received was that applied by the landowners. In addition to these tests, a controlled irrigation experiment was conducted at a single wheat and maize site. The results showed that recharge rates were lower for the alluvial and lacustrine plains sites, which comprise finer-textured soils than those present in the piedmont plain. Specifically, the recharge rate ranged between 56-466 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 110-564 mm/a beneath orchard, and 0-21 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.17 for the piedmont plain sites, while the recharge rate ranged between 26-165 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 6-40 mm/a beneath orchard, 87-319 mm/a beneath cotton, and 0-32 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.10 for the alluvial and lacustrine plain sites. Irrigation provided the primary contribution to recharge, with precipitation providing a minor contribution. The results of both the uncontrolled and controlled

  15. Influence of quick groundwater recharge on base flow in karstic catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zarfl, Christiane; Basu, Nandita B.; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-04-01

    Flow from karst springs is important for the groundwater flow and its recharge which, in turn can determine the pattern of base flow. This behaviour can be well observed in the Ammer catchment, located in southwestern Germany. It covers an area of approximately 130.5 km2 with several karst springs contributing most of the groundwater flow to the Ammer River. Its discharge shows a very special behaviour with a sharp increase every winter. It is supposed that the groundwater storage layer of this catchment can store large volumes of water because of karstification of the aquifers. Recharge from the subsurface storage to the groundwater storage when subsurface storage reaches a threshold makes groundwater storage increase rapidly, which is also reflected in a quickly rising base flow. We set up a semi-distributed hydrologic model to reproduce this behaviour and gain additional insights on the underlying processes of these discharge dynamics. The model is composed out of three main components: soil moisture, subsurface storage and groundwater storage. Besides percolation from subsurface storage to groundwater storage, quick recharge was introduced into this model for interpreting the sharp rise of base flow. This model was used for five years of simulation (from 2003 to 2007). Results indicate that: (a) percolation is an every day process whereas quick recharge only occurs over few days within a year, mostly from December to April and also in June when precipitation is very large; (b) the annual average recharge from percolation and quick recharge account for 18% and 82% of the total groundwater recharge, respectively, but the quick recharge rate is seven times higher than the percolation rate; and (c) for a single event of sharp increase in base flow quick recharge contributes 70%-78% to groundwater recharge, but in case of a single event of gradual increase of the base flow quick recharge contributes only 30%.

  16. Assessing the recharge of a coastal aquifer using physical observations, tritium, groundwater chemistry and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Isaac R; Zhang, Chenming; Maher, Damien T; Atkins, Marnie L; Holland, Rodney; Morgenstern, Uwe; Li, Ling

    2017-02-15

    Assessing recharge is critical to understanding groundwater and preventing pollution. Here, we investigate recharge in an Australian coastal aquifer using a combination of physical, modelling and geochemical techniques. We assess whether recharge may occur through a pervasive layer of floodplain muds that was initially hypothesized to be impermeable. At least 59% of the precipitation volume could be accounted for in the shallow aquifer using the water table fluctuation method during four significant recharge events. Precipitation events rates were estimated in the area underneath the floodplain clay layer rather than in the sandy area. A steady-state chloride method implied recharge rates of at least 200mm/year (>14% of annual precipitation). Tritium dating revealed long term net vertical recharge rates ranging from 27 to 114mm/year (average 58mm/year) which were interpreted as minimum net long term recharge. Borehole experiments revealed more permeable conditions and heterogeneous infiltration rates when the floodplain soils were dry. Wet conditions apparently expand floodplain clays, closing macropores and cracks that act as conduits for groundwater recharge. Modelled groundwater flow paths were consistent with tritium dating and provided independent evidence that the clay layer does not prevent local recharge. Overall, all lines of evidence demonstrated that the coastal floodplain muds do not prevent the infiltration of rainwater into the underlying sand aquifer, and that local recharge across the muds was widespread. Therefore, assuming fine-grained floodplain soils prevent recharge and protect underlying aquifers from pollution may not be reasonable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A geochemical and isotopic approach to recharge evaluation in semi-arid zones. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, W.M.; Walton, N.R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The magnitude of any recharge to aquifers in semi-arid and arid zones is the principal uncertainty in estimating a water balance. Recent studies in Cyprus and Libyan Arab Jamahiriya are currently being used to demonstrate the application of geochemical and isotopic techniques, to the determination of both current and palaeo-recharge. In Cyprus, solute profiles of the unsaturated zone have been interpreted to provide estimates of the direct recharge component using a steady-state, mass-balance approach; results from the chloride profiles compare well with recharge estimates using tritium. In addition, it is found that some solute peaks, notably for specific electrical conductance, give a reasonably accurate record of the rainfall history during the period 1950-1975. The solute profile method is relatively unsophisticated and could be more widely applied to recharge estimation in other semi-arid areas of the world. In Libya, a clear distinction can be made using the combined isotopic, hydrological and geochemical results between regional groundwaters recharged to the upper, unconfined aquifer of the Sirte Basin before 13,000 years BP and younger waters recharged locally during the period 5000-7800 years BP. A well-defined fresh-water channel, superimposed upon the regional water quality pattern, can be traced within the aquifer for some 130 km and represents direct evidence of recharge during the Holocene. Some shallow groundwaters of similar composition to the fresh-water channel are also considered to represent recent, if intermittent, recharge which took place during historical times. It is concluded that geochemical and isotopic studies of both the unsaturated zone and of shallow groundwaters in semi-arid regions, can be used to determine not only the present-day direct recharge component, but also a recharge chronology of immediate historic times, which may be important in the estimation of long-term water resources. (author)

  18. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  19. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  20. Development and commercialisation of rechargeable wooden LED lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this project was to work with local staff at Kathmandu Alternative Power and Energy Group to commercialise a product which would generate recurring income for the organisation, to enable staff to learn the process of commercialisation and to provide employment and skills in the local community. Rechargeable Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps were deemed suitable for these aims, as they are a simple product, yet one that is urgently required in Nepal due to the prevalence of ‘load-shedding’ – scheduled electrical blackouts. After reviewing the market, it was found that it would be impossible to compete with the price of cheap imported Chinese rechargeable LED lamps, so an alternative approach was taken. This involved sourcing wooden off-cuts from a local furniture factory and transforming them into attractive desk lamps, with the target market being affluent Nepalis, ex-pats living in Nepal and tourists. Successful initial sales were achieved through a Kathmandu-based ex-pat email group, hotel-markets and souvenir stores. KAPEG staff have continued the project, producing variations on the initial design including Himalayan rock salt lamps, employing local people to manufacture lamps and selling them at markets in Kathmandu. Staffing and marketing challenges remain to ensure the lamp manufacture and sales continue.

  1. Residence Times in Central Valley Aquifers Recharged by Dammed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustale, M.; Paukert Vankeuren, A. N.; Visser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource for California, providing between 30-60% of the state's water supply. Recent emphasis on groundwater sustainability has induced a push to characterize recharge rates and residence times for high priority aquifers, including most aquifers in California's Central Valley. Flows in almost all rivers from the western Sierra to the Central Valley are controlled by dams, altering natural flow patterns and recharge to local aquifers. In eastern Sacramento, unconfined and confined shallow aquifers (depth BGS. Variation in groundwater age in the vertical and horizontal directions are used to determine groundwater flow path and velocity. These data are then used to calculate residence time of groundwater in the unconfined and confined aquifer systems for the Central Valley in eastern Sacramento. Applying groundwater age tracers can benefit future compliance metrics of the California Sustainable Groundwater Resources Act (SGMA), by quantifying river seepage rates and impacts of groundwater management on surface water resources. 1Moran et al., UCRL-TR-203258, 2004.

  2. Agricultural transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations on the title subject are focused on the question whether advantages and disadvantages of agricultural fuels compared to fossil fuels justify the Dutch policy promotion of the use of agricultural products as basic materials for agricultural fuels. Attention is paid to energetic, environmental and economical aspects of both fuel types. Four options to apply agricultural transportation fuels are discussed: (1) 10% bio-ethanol in euro-unleaded gasoline for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (2) the substitution of 15% methyl tertiair butyl ether (MTBE) by ethyl tertiair butyl ether (ETBE) as a substituent for lead in unleaded super plus gasoline (Sp 98) for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (3) 50% KME (rapeseed oil ester) in low-sulfur diesel (0.05%S D) for engines of vans without a catalyst; and (4) the substitution of 0.05% S D by bio-ethanol or KME for buses with fuel-adjusted engines, equipped with a catalyst. Also the substitution by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or E 95 was investigated in option four. Each of the options investigated can contribute to a reduction of the use of fossil energy and the environmental effects of the use of fossil fuels, although some environmental effects from agricultural fuels must be taken into consideration. It is recommended to seriously pay attention to the promotion of agricultural fuels, not only in the Netherlands, but also in an international context. Policy instruments to be used in the stimulation of the use of such fuels are the existing European Community subsidies on fallow lands, exemption of the European Community energy levy, and the use of tax differentiation. Large-scale demonstration projects must be started to quantify hazardous emissions and to solve still existing technical problems. 8 figs., 3 tabs., refs., 4 appendices

  3. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  4. Fuel cells: A handbook (Revision 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Stauffer, D.B.; Engleman, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of reaction directly into electrical energy. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode (negative electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric current. A fuel cell, although having similar components and several characteristics, differs from a typical battery in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device, that is, the maximum energy that is available is determined by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself. Thus, the battery will cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device which theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

  5. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations

  6. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  7. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raicy Mani Christy

    2017-07-17

    Jul 17, 2017 ... improvement in quality at greater depths could not be achieved. However, ponds of larger size with recharge shafts can directly recharge the aquifer and help to improve the quality of water at greater depths. Keywords. Seawater intrusion; ground penetrating radar; electrical resistivity method; groundwater.

  8. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    20 considerable improvement in quality at greater depths could not be achieved. However, ponds of. 21 larger size with recharge shafts can directly recharge the aquifer and help to improve the quality. 22 of water at greater depths. 23. Keywords: Seawater intrusion; ground penetrating radar; electrical resistivity method;. 24.

  9. Enhancement of wadi recharge using dams coupled with aquifer storage and recovery wells

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M. M.

    2014-06-25

    Wadi channel recharge to the underlying alluvial aquifer is naturally limited by the flashy nature of flood events, evapotranspiration losses of water from the vadose zone, and aquifer heterogeneity, particularly low vertical hydraulic conductivity. Anthropogenic lowering of the water table in many wadi aquifers has also reduced the potential recharge by increasing the thickness of the vadose zone, causing interflow water loss from surface emergence and evaporation. A method to enhance recharge is to slow the flow within wadi channels by placement of dam structures, thereby ponding water and increasing the vertical head gradient to create a more rapid rate of infiltration and percolation. Effectiveness of wadi dams to enhance aquifer recharge reduces over time due to mud deposition within the reservoir caused by storm events. Up to 80 % of the water in old wadi reservoirs is lost to free-surface evaporation before infiltration and recharge can occur. One method to maintain or increase the rate of recharge is to convey clean water by gravity flow from the reservoir down-gradient to artificially recharge the aquifer using existing wells. This type of system is a low-cost and low-energy recharge method which could greatly enhance groundwater storage in wadi aquifers. Modeling results show that existing wells could store up to 1,000 m3/day under gravity-feed conditions and up to 3,900 m3/day with the shut-in of the well to produce a pressurized system. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS) artificial recharge scientific and operational support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , Stellenbosch, South Africa 2City of Cape Town, South Africa CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: njovanovic@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za WHAT IS MANAGED AQUIFER RECHARGE? Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is defined by the transfer of surface...

  11. Groundwater recharge estimation under semi arid climate: Case of Northern Gafsa watershed, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Achraf; Abdollahi, Khodayar; Fatahi, Rouhallah; Abida, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Natural groundwater recharge under semi arid climate, like rainfall, is subjected to large variations in both time and space and is therefore very difficult to predict. Nevertheless, in order to set up any strategy for water resources management in such regions, understanding the groundwater recharge variability is essential. This work is interested in examining the impact of rainfall on the aquifer system recharge in the Northern Gafsa Plain in Tunisia. The study is composed of two main parts. The first is interested in the analysis of rainfall spatial and temporal variability in the study basin while the second is devoted to the simulation of groundwater recharge. Rainfall analysis was performed based on annual precipitation data recorded in 6 rainfall stations over a period of 56 years (1960-2015). Potential evapotranspiration data were also collected from 1960 to 2011 (52 years). The hydrologic distributed model WetSpass was used for the estimation of groundwater recharge. Model calibration was performed based on an assessment of the agreement between the sum of recharge and runoff values estimated by the WetSpass hydrological model and those obtained by the climatic method. This latter is based on the difference calculated between rainfall and potential evapotranspiration recorded at each rainy day. Groundwater recharge estimation, on monthly scale, showed that average annual precipitation (183.3 mm/year) was partitioned to 5, 15.3, 36.8, and 42.8% for interception, runoff, actual evapotranspiration and recharge respectively.

  12. Groundwater recharge in desert playas: current rates and future effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Owen P.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2018-01-01

    Our results from playas, which are topographic low areas situated in closed-catchments in drylands, indicated that projected climate change in Southwestern USA would have a net positive impact over runon and groundwater recharge beneath playas. Expected increased precipitation variability can cause up to a 300% increase in annual groundwater recharge beneath playas. This increase will overshadow the effect of decreased precipitation amount that could cause up to a 50% decrease in recharge beneath playas. These changes could have a significant impact on groundwater and carbon storage. These results are important given that groundwater resources in Southwestern USA continue to decline due to human consumption outpacing natural recharge of aquifers. Here, we report on groundwater recharge rates ranging from less than 1 mm to greater than 25 mm per year beneath desert playas. Playas located in larger and steeper catchments with finer-textured soils had the highest rates of recharge. Vegetation cover had no effect on recharge beneath playas. We modeled catchment runoff generation and found that the amount of runon a playa receives annually strongly correlated to the rate of groundwater recharge beneath that playa. Runon occurred during precipitation events larger than 20 mm and increased linearly with events above that threshold.

  13. Present-day groundwater recharge estimation in parts of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, S. N.; Mukherjee, A.; Wada, Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Taylor, R. G.; Rodell, M.; Malakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Large part of global population has been dependent on groundwater as a source of fresh water. The demand would further increase with increasing population and stress associated with climate change. We tried to provide regional-scale groundwater recharge estimates in a large part of Indian Sub-Continent. A combination of ground-based, satellite-based and numerical model simulated recharge estimates were presented in the densely populated region. Three different methods: an intense network of observational wells (n>13,000 wells), a satellite (TRMM) and global land-surface model (CLM) outputs, and a global-scale hydrological model (PCR GLOBWB) were employed to calculate recharge estimates. Groundwater recharge values exhibit large spatial variations over the entire region on the basis of aquifer hydrogeology, precipitation and groundwater withdrawal patterns. Groundwater recharge estimates from all three estimation techniques were found to be higher (>300 mm/year) in fertile planes of Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra (IGB) river basins. A combination of favorable hydrogeologic conditions (porosity, permeability etc.), comparatively higher rates of precipitation, and return flow from rapidly withdrawn irrigation water might influence occurrence of high recharge rates. However, central and southern study area experiences lower recharge rates (policy makers to understand groundwater recharge process over the densely populated region and finally would facilitate to implement sustainable policy for securing water security.

  14. Silicon nanowires as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Son, Eun Jin; Park, Chan Beum

    2012-11-01

    We report a new possible application of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis. H-SiNWs transfer hydride efficiently to regenerate NADH by oxidizing Si-Hx bonds. The oxidized H-SiNWs were readily recharged for the continuous regeneration of NADH and enzymatic reactions.

  15. A preliminary analysis of the groundwater recharge to the Karoo formations, mid-Zambesi basin, Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Owen, R.; Dahlin, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary study is being carried out on recharge to the Karoo sandstone aquifer in the western part of Zimbabwe, where recharge is controlled by the presence of a thick, confining basalt layer. The aquifer is geographically extensive, and has been identified throughout the southern part...

  16. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  17. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  18. Quantifying ground water recharge at multiple scales using PRMS and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S

    2004-01-01

    Management of ground water resources requires a method to calculate demonstrably accurate recharge rates at local to regional scales using readily available information bases. Many methods are available to calculate recharge, but most are unable to satisfy all these conditions. A distributed parameter model is shown to meet the stated needs. Such models are input intensive, however, so a procedure to define most inputs from GIS and hydrogeological sources is presented. It simplifies the PRMS calibration observed streamflow hydrographs by reducing degrees of freedom from dozens to four. For seven watersheds (60 to 500 km2), the GIS-aided calibrations have average errors of 5% on recharge and 2% on total streamflow, verifying the accuracy of the process. Recharge is also calculated for 63 local-scale subwatersheds (average size 37 km2). For the study area, calculated recharges average 11 cm/yr. Soil and rock conductivity, porosity, and depth to the water table are shown to be the physical properties which dominate the spatial variability of recharge. The model has been extended to uncalibrated watersheds where GIS and climatic information are known. It reproduces total annual discharge and recharge to within 9% and 10%, respectively, indicating the process can also be used to calculate recharge in ungauged watersheds. It has not been tested outside the study area, however.

  19. Entropy based groundwater monitoring network design considering spatial distribution of annual recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James M.; Coulibaly, Paulin; Guo, Yiping

    2016-10-01

    This study explores the inclusion of a groundwater recharge based design objective and the impact it has on the design of optimum groundwater monitoring networks. The study was conducted in the Hamilton, Halton, and Credit Valley regions of Ontario, Canada, in which the existing Ontario Provincial Groundwater Monitoring Network was augmented with additional monitoring wells. The Dual Entropy-Multiobjective Optimization (DEMO) model was used in these analyses. The value of using this design objective is rooted in the information contained within the estimated recharge. Recharge requires knowledge of climate, geomorphology, and geology of the area, thus using this objective function can help account for these physical characteristics. Two sources of groundwater recharge data were examined and compared, the first was calculated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and the second was an aggregation of recharge found using both the PRMS and Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSP-F). The entropy functions are used to identify optimal trade-offs between the maximum information content and the minimum shared information between the monitoring wells. The recharge objective will help to quantify hydrological characteristics of the vadose zone, and thus provide more information to the optimization algorithm. Results show that by including recharge as a design objective, the spatial coverage of the monitoring network can be improved. The study also highlights the flexibility of DEMO and its ability to incorporate additional design objectives such as the groundwater recharge.

  20. Groundwater Diffuse Recharge and its Response to Climate Changes in Semi-Arid Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes and rates of groundwater recharge in arid and semi-arid areas is crucial for utilizing and managing groundwater resources sustainably. We obtained three chloride profiles of the unsaturated-zone in the desert/loess transition zone of northwestern China and reconstructed the groundwater recharge variations over the last 11, 21, and 37 years, respectively, using the generalized chloride mass balance (GCMB method. The average recharge rates were 43.7, 43.5, and 45.1 mm yr-1, respectively, which are similar to those evaluated by the chloride mass balance (CMB or GCMB methods in other semi-arid regions. The results indicate that the annual recharge rates were not in complete linear proportion to the corresponding annual precipitations, although both exhibited descending tendencies on the whole. Comparisons between the daily precipitation aggregate at different intensity and recharge rates reveal that the occurrence of relatively heavy daily precipitation per year may contribute to such nonlinearity between annual precipitation and recharge. The possible influences of vegetation cover alterations following precipitation change cannot be excluded as well. The approximately negative correlation between the average annual recharge and temperature suggests that changes in temperature have had significant influences on recharge.

  1. The Guarani Aquifer System: estimation of recharge along the Uruguay-Brazil border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrea A.; Rodríguez, Leticia B.; Vives, Luis S.

    2010-11-01

    The cities of Rivera and Santana do Livramento are located on the outcropping area of the sandstone Guarani Aquifer on the Brazil-Uruguay border, where the aquifer is being increasingly exploited. Therefore, recharge estimates are needed to address sustainability. First, a conceptual model of the area was developed. A multilayer, heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater-flow model was built to validate the conceptual model and to estimate recharge. A field campaign was conducted to collect water samples and monitor water levels used for model calibration. Field data revealed that there exists vertical gradients between confining basalts and underlying sandstones, suggesting basalts could indirectly recharge sandstone in fractured areas. Simulated downward flow between them was a small amount within the global water budget. Calibrated recharge rates over basalts and over outcropping sandstones were 1.3 and 8.1% of mean annual precipitation, respectively. A big portion of sandstone recharge would be drained by streams. The application of a water balance yielded a recharge of 8.5% of average annual precipitation. The numerical model and the water balance yielded similar recharge values consistent with determinations from previous authors in the area and other regions of the aquifer, providing an upper bound for recharge in this transboundary aquifer.

  2. How Might Recharge Change Under Projected Climate Change in the Western U.S.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, R.; Meixner, T.; Dominguez, F.; Bhattarai, N.; Rodell, M.; Ajami, H.; Gochis, D.; Castro, C.

    2017-10-01

    Although groundwater is a major water resource in the western U.S., little research has been done on the impacts of climate change on groundwater storage and recharge in the West. Here we assess the impact of projected changes in climate on groundwater recharge in the near (2021-2050) and far (2071-2100) future across the western U.S. Variable Infiltration Capacity model was run with RCP 6.0 forcing from 11 global climate models and "subsurface runoff" output was considered as recharge. Recharge is expected to decrease in the West (-5.8 ± 14.3%) and Southwest (-4.0 ± 6.7%) regions in the near future and in the South region (-9.5 ± 24.3%) in the far future. The Northern Rockies region is expected to get more recharge in the near (+5.3 ± 9.2%) and far (+11.8 ± 12.3%) future. Overall, southern portions of the western U.S. are expected to get less recharge in the future and northern portions will get more. Climate change interacts with land surface properties to affect the amount of recharge that occurs in the future. Effects on recharge due to change in vegetation response from projected changes in climate and CO2 concentration, though important, are not considered in this study.

  3. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suwartha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recharge pond and river at three sampling point to determine existing water quality of the pond. The results showed that recharge rate of the pond between dry season (3.2 mm/day and wet season (6.1 mm/day are considered as insignificant different. The water balance of the recharge pond shows an excessive rate. Various physics and chemical parameters (turbidity, color, TDS, pH, and  Cl are found to have concentration lower than the water quality standard. The results suggest that the pond surface water is remain suitable to be recharged into aquifer zone so that sustaining ground water conservation campaign, and it is potential to be utilized as an additional  raw water source for domestic water demand of UI Campus Depok.

  4. Characterization program, management and isotopic inventory calculation, radiological and fuel thermal irradiated in nuclear power Cofrentes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albendea, M.; Diego, J. L. de; Urrea, M.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization is a very detailed and user-friendly program takes into account the history of irradiation individualized and real all the fuel, even taking into account the interim periods are periods of discharge and recharge cycles and which have not been used.

  5. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mitsuya; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Mochida, Takaaki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the fuel economy by increasing the reactivity at the latter burning stage of fuel assemblies and thereby increasing the burn-up degree. Constitution: At the later stage of the burning where the infinite multiplication factor of a fuel assembly is lowered, fuel rods are partially discharged to increase the fuel-moderator volume ratio in the fuel assembly. Then, plutonium is positively burnt by bringing the ratio near to an optimum point where the infinite multiplication factor becomes maximum and the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased by utilizing the spectral shift effect. The number of the fuel rods to be removed is selected so as to approach the fuel-moderator atom number ratio where the infinite multiplication factor is maximum. Further, the positions where the thermal neutron fluxes are low are most effective for removing the rods and those positions between which no fuel rods are present and which are adjacent with neither the channel box nor the water rods are preferred. The rods should be removed at the time when the burning is proceeded at lest for one cycle. The reactivity is thus increased and the burn-up degree of fuels upon taking-out can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Fuel Handbook[Wood and other renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-03-15

    This handbook on renewable fuels is intended for power and heat producers in Sweden. This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method to evaluate different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but does not include household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or fuels that have potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 26 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experiences and literature references are outlined for each fuel. [Special properties, operating experiences and literature references are not included in this English version] The handbook also contains: A proposed methodology for introduction of new fuels. A recommendation of analyses and tests to perform in order to reduce the risk of problems is presented. [The recommendation of analyses and tests is not included in the English version] A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with references to relevant documentation. [Only laws and taxes regarding EU are included] Theory and background to evaluate a fuel with respect to combustion, ash and corrosion properties and methods that can be used for such evaluations. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks on biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and links to web sites where further information about the fuels can be found. The appendices includes: A methodology for trial firing of fuels. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition, key number and free fall velocity [Free fall velocity is not included in the English version]. In addition, conversion routines between different units for a number of different applications are provided. Fuel analyses are presented in the appendix. (The report is a translation of parts of the report VARMEFORSK--911 published in 2005)

  7. Strategic and tactical fuel treatment evaluation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Skog

    2007-01-01

    Strategic identification and local placement of fuel treatments are significant regional and local forest management problems addressed by two tools developed by Forest Service Research and Development.

  8. A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Russell S.; Binning, Philip; Kalma, Jetse D.

    2005-01-01

    The water table fluctuation method for determining recharge from precipitation and water table measurements was originally developed on an event basis. Here a new multievent time series approach is presented for inferring groundwater recharge from long-term water table and precipitation records. Additional new features are the incorporation of a variable specific yield based upon the soil moisture retention curve, proper accounting for the Lisse effect on the water table, and the incorporation of aquifer drainage so that recharge can be detected even if the water table does not rise. A methodology for filtering noise and non-rainfall-related water table fluctuations is also presented. The model has been applied to 2 years of field data collected in the Tomago sand beds near Newcastle, Australia. It is shown that gross recharge estimates are very sensitive to time step size and specific yield. Properly accounting for the Lisse effect is also important to determining recharge.

  9. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector. Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a...

  10. Chloride-mass-balance for predicting increased recharge after land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Zhang, Z.F.; Tyler, S.W.; Albright, W.H.; Singleton, M.J.

    2004-02-23

    The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6-m-deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20 percent of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

  11. Managed aquifer recharge as environmental tool risk mitigation linked to the presence of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Roma, Antonella; Nieto Yàbar, Daniel; Pepi, Salvatore; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-04-01

    The pollution due to some herbicides which was used in flood plains and karst areas of various regions in the world is causing major problems in supplying drinking water from surface water bodies and aquifers. Pesticides and herbicides are widely used in agriculture, vineyards, industry and public hygiene. They are spread on soil surface, in air, into deep soil causing problems in surface water bodies and aquifers. In Italy the interest of presence of pesticides in water resources began around 1980 after episodes of drinking water contamination due to some herbicides and atrazine (ATR). After years away from the ban on the use of atrazine (use prohibition in the 90's), its degradation products are still present in groundwater of large areas of the plains of Nord Italy (Bottoni et al.,2013). Intensive use of triazines has become harmful for the local population that live in the Veneto-Friuli plain where the high gravels permeability of alluvial fans allowed to the widespread diffusion of triazines and related metabolites. The main mechanism of atrazine action in soil is microbial degradation, the kinetics of these products is closely connected with the availability of nitrates in the soil. The half-life of atrazine is 30-180 days but its disintegration is blocked by nitrates presence (Jones et al 1982). ATR is trapped in cohesive levels as peat and silty clay soils and periodically released by the interaction water sediment. Artificial recharge in areas with highly permeable aquifers allows to realize qualitative and quantitative regeneration because water low in nitrates and Dissolved Oxygen can promote the biological and chemical disintegration of pesticides such as atrazine and its metabolites. A case study is represented by the Friuli plain, near the Tagliamento river. Based on the WARBO project data that has applied artificial recharge in Mereto di Tomba test site where the dissolved nitrate content of water in some cases exceed the 50 mg/L limit according to

  12. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaoka, Noriyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain a satisfactory integrity by preventing the increase of corrosion at the outer surface of a fuel can near the point of contact between the fuel can and the spacer due to the use of fuel pellets incorporated with burnable poisons. Constitution: Since reactor coolants are at high temperature and high pressure, zirconium and water are brought into reaction to proceed oxidation at the outer surface of a fuel can to form uniform oxidation layers. However, abrasion corrosion is additionally formed at the contact portion between the spacer and the fuel can, by which the corrosion is increased by about 25 %. For preventing such nodular corrosion, fuel pellets not incorporated with burnable poisons are charged at a portion of the fuel rod where the spacer is supported and fuel pellets incorporated with burnable poisons are charged at the positions other than about to thereby suppress the amount of the corrosion at the portion where the corrosion of the fuel can is most liable to be increased to thereby improve the fuel integrity. That is, radiolysis of coolants due to gamma-rays produced from gadolinium is lowered to reduce the oxygen concentration near the outer surface thereby preventing the corrosion. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  14. Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

  15. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-03

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  16. Nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William; Reichman, Benjamin; Chao-Ian, Hu; Wong, Diana; Nei, Jean

    2018-02-20

    Certain nickel hydroxide active cathode materials for use in alkaline rechargeable batteries are capable of transferring >1.3 electrons per Ni atom under reversible electrochemical conditions. The specific capacity of the nickel hydroxide active materials is for example .gtoreq.325 mAh/g. The cathode active materials exhibit an additional discharge plateau near 0.8 V vs. a metal hydride (MH) anode. Ni in an oxidation state of less than 2, such as Ni.sup.1+, is able to participate in electrochemical reactions when using the present cathode active materials. It is possible that up to 2.3 electrons, up to 2.5 electrons or more may be transferred per Ni atom under electrochemical conditions.

  17. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

    2011-08-01

    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  18. Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

  19. 36CI in the vadose zone: Matching rainfall to recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.; Fifield, K.; Liu, K.; Di Tada, M.

    1998-01-01

    36 Cl has become a popular tool for hydrogeologists to use when evaluating flow rates, ages and origins of groundwaters, in particular in systems where flow paths are long and/or flow rates are slow. The ratio 36 Cl/Cl and total chloride are measured in water samples, and the different processes acting upon the stable and radioactive isotopes were assessed. By comparing the theoretical fallout of 36 Cl to that observed in rainfall, and that seen in shallow, recharge groundwaters, it was possible to evaluate the processes involved in the incorporation of chloride to groundwater systems. It was found that 36 Cl concentration in shallow groundwater aquifers reflects quite well theoretical and rainfall values, though local climatic effects are important

  20. Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

    Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas

  1. Analysis of subsurface temperature data to quantify groundwater recharge rates in a closed Altiplano basin, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, C. P.; Ferré, T. P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying groundwater recharge is a fundamental part of groundwater resource assessment and management, and is requisite to determining the safe yield of an aquifer. Natural groundwater recharge in arid and semi-arid regions comprises several mechanisms: in-place, mountain-front, and mountain-block recharge. A field study was undertaken in a high-plain basin in the Altiplano region of northern Chile to quantify the magnitude of in-place and mountain-front recharge. Water fluxes corresponding to both recharge mechanisms were calculated using heat as a natural tracer. To quantify in-place recharge, time-series temperature data in cased boreholes were collected, and the annual fluctuation at multiple depths analyzed to infer the water flux through the unsaturated zone. To quantify mountain-front recharge, time-series temperature data were collected in perennial and ephemeral stream channels. Streambed thermographs were analyzed to determine the onset and duration of flow in ephemeral channels, and the vertical water fluxes into both perennial and ephemeral channels. The point flux estimates in streambeds and the unsaturated zone were upscaled to channel and basin-floor areas to provide comparative estimates of the range of volumetric recharge rates corresponding to each recharge mechanism. The results of this study show that mountain-front recharge is substantially more important than in-place recharge in this basin. The results further demonstrate the worth of time-series subsurface temperature data to characterize both in-place and mountain-front recharge processes.

  2. Lithologic influences on groundwater recharge through incised glacial till from profile to regional scales: Evidence from glaciated Eastern Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, John B.; Steele, Gregory V.; Nasta, Paolo; Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    Variability in sediment hydraulic properties associated with landscape depositional and erosional features can influence groundwater recharge processes by affecting soil-water storage and transmission. This study considers recharge to aquifers underlying river-incised glaciated terrain where the distribution of clay-rich till is largely intact in upland locations but has been removed by alluvial erosion in stream valleys. In a stream-dissected glacial region in eastern Nebraska (Great Plains region of the United States), recharge estimates were developed for nested profile, aquifer, and regional scales using unsaturated zone profile measurements (matric potentials, Cl- and 3H), groundwater tracers (CFC-12 and SF6), and a remote sensing-assisted water balance model. Results show a consistent influence of till lithology on recharge rates across nested spatial scales despite substantial uncertainty in all recharge estimation methods, suggesting that minimal diffuse recharge occurs through upland glacial till lithology whereas diffuse recharge occurs in river valleys where till is locally absent. Diffuse recharge is estimated to account for a maximum of 61% of total recharge based on comparison of diffuse recharge estimated from the unsaturated zone (0-43 mm yr-1) and total recharge estimated from groundwater tracers (median 58 mm yr-1) and water balance modeling (median 56 mm yr-1). The results underscore the importance of lithologic controls on the distributions of both recharge rates and mechanisms.

  3. Geochemical processes during managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Y.; Holtzman, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Russak, A.; Katz, Y.; Kurtzman, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study the geochemical processes along the variably-saturated zone during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with reverse-osmosis desalinated seawater (DSW) to an infiltration pond at the Menashe site, located above the Israeli coastal aquifer. The DSW is post-treated by calcite dissolution (remineralization) in order to meet the Israeli desalinated water quality criteria. Suction cups and monitoring wells inside the pond were used to monitor water quality during two MAR events on 2015 and 2016. Results show that cation exchange is dominant, driven by the high Ca2+ concentration in the post-treated DSW. Stable isotope analysis shows that the composition of the shallow groundwater is similar to the recharged DSW, but with enrichment of Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and HCO3-. A calibrated variably-saturated reactive transport model was used to predict the geochemical evolution during 50 years of MAR with two water quality scenarios: post-treated DSW and soft DSW (without post-treatment). The latter scenario was aimed to test soil-aquifer-treatment as an alternative post-treatment technique. In terms of water quality, the results of the two scenarios were found within the range of the desalinated water criteria. Mg2+ enrichment was stable ( 2.5 mg L-1), higher than the zero concentration found in the Israeli DSW. Calcite content reduction was low (<1%) along the variably-saturated profile, after 50 years of MAR. This suggests that using soil-aquifer-treatment as a remineralization technique for DSW is potentially a sustainable practice, which is limited only by the current hydraulic capacity of the Menashe MAR site.

  4. Recharge the Rain: Community Resilience Through STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, B.; Shipek, C.

    2017-12-01

    Starting in January 2017, Recharge the Rain moves sixth through twelfth grade teachers, students and the public through a continuum from awareness, to knowledge gain, to conceptual understanding, to action; building community resiliency to hazards associated with increased temperatures, drought and flooding in Arizona. Watershed Management Group with Arizona Project WET are utilizing NOAA assets, experts from the National Weather Service and Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS), and Pima County hazard mitigation plan and planning tools to inform citizens and galvanize their commitment to building a community, resilient to the effects of a warming climate. In the first of four years, the project is 1) developing climate-literacy curriculum with 16 Tucson-area teachers that incorporates systems-thinking and increases understanding of earth systems, weather and climate, 2) training teachers and community docents in water harvesting practices and citizen-science data collection, 3) laying the framework for the development of rainwater harvesting engineering design curriculum, 4) involving Tucson community members in water harvesting principles through project implementation workshops, special events, and tours. In years two through four, the project will build resiliency to the effects of climate threats by 1) installing student-designed rainwater harvesting systems, 2) providing community tours of schoolyard systems to educate the public, 3) expanding the program to incorporate curriculum use in Phoenix-area teachers' classrooms and 4) finalizing a replicable model for other communities facing similar threats. What are the lessons learned after one year of Recharge the Rain? How can these lessons be used to inform this project and other projects in building resilient communities?

  5. Response to recharge variation of thin rainwater lenses and their mixing zone with underlying saline groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eeman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In coastal zones with saline groundwater, fresh groundwater lenses may form due to infiltration of rain water. The thickness of both the lens and the mixing zone, determines fresh water availability for plant growth. Due to recharge variation, the thickness of the lens and the mixing zone are not constant, which may adversely affect agricultural and natural vegetation if saline water reaches the root zone during the growing season. In this paper, we study the response of thin lenses and their mixing zone to variation of recharge. The recharge is varied using sinusoids with a range of amplitudes and frequencies. We vary lens characteristics by varying the Rayleigh number and Mass flux ratio of saline and fresh water, as these dominantly influence the thickness of thin lenses and their mixing zone. Numerical results show a linear relation between the normalised lens volume and the main lens and recharge characteristics, enabling an empirical approximation of the variation of lens thickness. Increase of the recharge amplitude causes increase and the increase of recharge frequency causes a decrease in the variation of lens thickness. The average lens thickness is not significantly influenced by these variations in recharge, contrary to the mixing zone thickness. The mixing zone thickness is compared to that of a Fickian mixing regime. A simple relation between the travelled distance of the centre of the mixing zone position due to variations in recharge and the mixing zone thickness is shown to be valid for both a sinusoidal recharge variation and actual records of daily recharge data. Starting from a step response function, convolution can be used to determine the effect of variable recharge in time. For a sinusoidal curve, we can determine delay of lens movement compared to the recharge curve as well as the lens amplitude, derived from the convolution integral. Together the proposed equations provide us with a first order approximation of lens

  6. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Cells: State of the Art; Problems and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    as in ref. (41), have used an alloying substrate. We have several times reported on poor results due to solution reduction reac- tivity on the...the reaction. discharge-4-CH- x + nxLi Ncharge + CH -Lin+x Here, the potential for the reduction of the polymer to its anion is invar - iably lower than

  7. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. MMCS: Multi-Module Charging Strategy for Increasing the Lifetime of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yi Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless charging technology has provided an alternative to charging equipment. Wireless charging technology has already proved to be useful in our daily lives in phones, buses, restaurants, etc. Wireless charging technology can also be applied in energy-bounded wireless sensor networks (WSNs, and these are called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. The optimized charging path problem is the most widely discussed issue in employing WRSNs with wireless charging vehicles (WCVs. This problem involves determining the most efficient path for charging sensor nodes. Further, charging-scheduling problems also need to be considered in the optimized charging path problem. In this paper, we proposed a multi-module charging strategy (MMCS used to prolong the lifetime of the entire WRSN. MMCS can be divided into three stages: the charging topology, charging scheduling, and charging strategy stages, with multiple modules in each stage. The best module combination of MMCS is the distance-based module in the charging topology stage, delay-based module in the charging schedule stage, and the average lifetime module in the charging strategy stage. The best module combination enables prolonging the lifetime efficiently, as it considers not only the priority of urgent nodes but also the travel distance of WCV; the delay-based module of the charging schedule stage considers the delay effect on the follow-up nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed MMCS can improve the lifetime of the entire WRSN and that it substantially outperforms the nearest job next with preemption (NJNP method in terms of lifetime improvement of the entire WRSN.

  10. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  13. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  14. Fuel cell sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of fuel cell technology is summarized, and the potential for utility-type fuel cell installations is assessed on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the construction of the first fuel cell by Sir William Grove. The only functional fuel-cell systems developed to date, the hydrogen-oxygen cells used by NASA, are indicated, and hydrazine and alcohol (methanol) cells are considered. Areas requiring development before the implementation of fuel cells as general purpose utility-type electric generators include catalysts for naturally occurring hydrocarbons or processes for low-cost methanol or hydrazine production, efficient means of scrubbing and enriching air, self-regulating systems, and 15- to 20-fold power density increases. It is argued that although ideas for eliminating certain of the above-mentioned problems have been proposed, fuel-cell systems can never be expected to equal the efficiency, reliability and low cost of conventional power plants, and thus developmental support should be discontinued.

  15. Geochemical and isotopic studies of unsaturated zone moisture and recharge processes in semi-arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, W.

    1988-07-01

    Against the background of recent droughts in the Sahel and the overexploitation of scarce water resources, new and improved techniques for recharge estimation in arid lands are now needed. Results have been obtained from the Butana area of Sudan where rainfall is presently well below 200 mm a -1 . Profiles of the unsaturated zone moisture were analysed for solutes and oxygen (δ 18 O) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios to estimate the extent of current recharge. Chloride concentrations were compared with those from rainfall inputs and the ratio used to estimate long term recharge values. Direct recharge proved to be below 1 mm a -1 and the unsaturated zone (25 m approx) contained around 2000 years storage. Isotopic profiles indicated that in some areas discharge from the water table was occurring. Within the Butana region of Sudan, therefore, current recharge rates in interfluve areas are effectively zero. Lateral recharge is however occurring, based on the presence of tritium, from the wadi systems. This forms the only replenishable resource which has been successfully exploited by traditional means, although under stress in the present dry period. The River Nile can be shown from isotopic results to recharge laterally some 10 km; but the deeper resources elsewhere are palaeowaters replenished during Holocene wet periods (6000-8000 BP). 2 refs, 6 figs

  16. Understanding and quantifying focused, indirect groundwater recharge from ephemeral streams using water table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Acworth, R. I.; Andersen, M. S.; Larsen, J. R.; McCallum, A. M.; Rau, G. C.; Tellam, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and managing groundwater resources in drylands is a challenging task, but one that is globally important. The dominant process for dryland groundwater recharge is thought to be as focused, indirect recharge from ephemeral stream losses. However, there is a global paucity of data for understanding and quantifying this process and transferable techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge in such contexts are lacking. Here we develop a generalized conceptual model for understanding water table and groundwater head fluctuations due to recharge from episodic events within ephemeral streams. By accounting for the recession characteristics of a groundwater hydrograph, we present a simple but powerful new water table fluctuation approach to quantify focused, indirect recharge over both long term and event time scales. The technique is demonstrated using a new, and globally unparalleled, set of groundwater observations from an ephemeral stream catchment located in NSW, Australia. We find that, following episodic streamflow events down a predominantly dry channel system, groundwater head fluctuations are controlled by pressure redistribution operating at three time scales from vertical flow (days to weeks), transverse flow perpendicular to the stream (weeks to months), and longitudinal flow parallel to the stream (years to decades). In relative terms, indirect recharge decreases almost linearly away from the mountain front, both in discrete monitored events as well as in the long-term average. In absolute terms, the estimated indirect recharge varies from 80 to 30 mm/a with the main uncertainty in these values stemming from uncertainty in the catchment-scale hydraulic properties.

  17. The Impact of a Check Dam on Groundwater Recharge and Sedimentation in an Ephemeral Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Djuma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread presence of groundwater recharge check dams, there are few studies that quantify their functionality. The objectives of this study are (i to assess groundwater recharge in an ephemeral river with and without a check dam and (ii to assess sediment build-up in the check-dam reservoir. Field campaigns were carried out to measure water flow, water depth, and check-dam topography to establish water volume, evaporation, outflow, and recharge relations, as well as sediment build-up. To quantify the groundwater recharge, a water-balance approach was applied at two locations: at the check dam reservoir area and at an 11 km long natural stretch of the river upstream. Prediction intervals were computed to assess the uncertainties of the results. During the four years of operation, the check dam (storage capacity of 25,000 m3 recharged the aquifer with an average of 3.1 million m3 of the 10.4 million m3 year−1 of streamflow (30%. The lower and upper uncertainty limits of the check dam recharge were 0.1 and 9.6 million m3 year−1, respectively. Recharge from the upstream stretch was 1.5 million m3 year−1. These results indicate that check dams are valuable structures for increasing groundwater resources in semi-arid regions.

  18. The fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this brochure the fuel cycle is presented. The following fuel cycle steps are described: (1) Front of the fuel cycle (Mining and milling; Treatment; Refining, conversion and enrichment; Fuel fabrication); (2) Use of fuel in nuclear reactors; (3) Back end of the fuel cycle (Interim storage of spent fuel; spent fuel reprocessing; Final disposal of spent fuel)

  19. Artificial groundwater recharge zones mapping using remote sensing and GIS: a case study in Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S N; Kumar, K S; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

  20. Groundwater origin and recharge in the hyperarid Cordillera de la Costa, Atacama Desert, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christian; Gamboa, Carolina; Custodio, Emilio; Jordan, Teresa; Godfrey, Linda; Jódar, Jorge; Luque, José A; Vargas, Jimmy; Sáez, Alberto

    2018-05-15

    The Cordillera de la Costa is located along the coastline of northern Chile, in the hyperarid Atacama Desert area. Chemical and isotopic analyses of several small coastal springs and groundwater reservoirs between 22.5 °S and 25.5 °S allow understanding groundwater origin, renewal time and the probable timing of recharge. The aquifers are mostly in old volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits. All spring waters are brackish, of the sodium chloride type due to intensive concentration of precipitation due aridity and for deep groundwater to additional water-rock interaction in slowly renewed groundwater and mixing with deep seated brines. The heavy δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in spring water are explained by recharge by the arrival of moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean and the originally lighter values in the deep wells can be associated to past recharge by air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean. Current recharge is assumed almost nil but it was significant in past wetter-than-present periods, increasing groundwater reserves, which are not yet exhausted. To explain the observed chloride content and radiocarbon ( 14 C) activity, a well-mixed (exponential) flow model has been considered for aquifer recharge. The average residence time of groundwater feeding the springs has been estimated between 1 and 2kyr, up to 5kyr and between 7 and 13kyr for deep well water, assuming that current recharge is much less than during the previous wetter period. The recharge period feeding the coastal springs could have been produced 1 to 5kyr BP, when the area was already inhabited, and recharge in the Michilla mine was produced during the 10 to 14.5kyr BP CAPE (Central Andean Pluvial Event) pluvial events of the central Andes. The approximate coincidence of turnover time with the past wet periods, as revealed by paleoclimate data, points to significant recharge during them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Land cover controls on depression-focused recharge: an example from southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttle, J. M.; Greenwood, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM) is a critical hydrogeologic feature in southern Ontario. Although previous research has highlighted the implications of spatially-focused recharge in closed topographic depressions for regional groundwater resources, such depression-focused recharge (DFR) has not been empirically demonstrated on the ORM. Permeable surficial sands and gravels mantling much of the ORM imply that water fluxes will largely be vertical recharge rather than lateral downslope transfer into depressions. Nevertheless, lateral fluxes may occur in winter and spring, when concrete frost development encourages surface runoff of rainfall and snowmelt. The potential for DFR was examined under forest and agricultural land cover with similar soils and surficial geology. Soil water contents, soil temperatures and ground frost thickness were measured at the crest and base of closed depressions in two agricultural fields and two forest stands on permeable ORM outcrops. Recharge from late-fall to the end of spring snowmelt was estimated via 1-d water balances and surface-applied bromide tracing. Both forest and agricultural sites experienced soil freezing; however, greater soil water contents prior to freeze-up at the latter led to concrete soil frost development. This resulted in lateral movement of snowmelt and rainfall into topographic depressions and surface ponding, which did not occur in forest depressions. Water balance recharge exceeded estimates from the bromide tracer approach at all locations; nevertheless, both methods indicated DRF exceeded recharge at the depression crest in agricultural areas with little difference in forest areas. Water balance estimates suggest winter-spring DFR (1300 - 2000 mm) is 3-5× recharge on level agricultural sites. Differences in the potential for DFR between agricultural and forest land covers have important implications for the spatial variability of recharge fluxes and the quality of recharging water on the ORM.

  2. Partitioning sources of recharge in environments with groundwater recirculation using carbon-14 and CFC-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah A.; Cook, Peter G.; Dogramaci, Shawan; Kipfer, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater recirculation occurs when groundwater is pumped from an aquifer onto the land surface, and a portion of that water subsequently infiltrates back to the aquifer. In environments where groundwater is recirculated, differentiation between various sources of recharge (e.g. natural rainfall recharge vs. recirculated water) can be difficult. Groundwater age indicators, in particular transient trace gases, are likely to be more sensitive tracers of recharge than stable isotopes or chloride in this setting. This is because, unlike stable isotopes or chloride, they undergo a process of equilibration with the atmosphere, and historical atmospheric concentrations are known. In this paper, groundwater age indicators (14C and CFC-12) were used as tracers of recharge by surplus mine water that is discharged to streams. Ternary mixing ratios were calculated based on 14C and CFC-12 concentrations measured along three transects of piezometers and monitoring wells perpendicular to the creeks, and from dewatering wells. Uncertainty in calculated mixing ratios was estimated using a Monte Carlo approach. Ternary mixing ratios in dewatering wells suggest that recharge by mine water accounted for between 10% and 87% of water currently abstracted by dewatering wells. The calculated mixing ratios suggest that recharge by mine water extends to a distance of more than 550 m from the creeks. These results are supported by seepage flux estimates based on the water and chloride balance along the creeks, which suggest that 85-90% of mine water discharged to the creeks recharges the aquifer and recharge by mine water extends between 110 and 730 m from the creeks. Mixing calculations based on gaseous groundwater age indicators could also be used to partition recharge associated with agricultural irrigation or artificial wetland supplementation.

  3. Fuel performance annual report for 1984. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.; Dunenfeld, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    This annual report, the seventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1984 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included. 279 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. MOTOR FUEL TAXES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2011-01-01

    Motor fuel taxes are primarily revenue-raising taxes. However, due to high fuel consumption these taxes can be quite an efficient source of general budget revenue in many countries. It seems that the taxes on motor fuels may also be useful instruments for environmental policy or climate change policy. Environmental objectives can be achieved through change of behavior of drivers. The paper presents theoretical basis for taxes levied on motor fuels. Attention is paid to the problem of external...

  5. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes IV: Geochemical, thermal and mass consequences of energy-constrained recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-RAFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendy A. Bohrson Department of Geological Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington, 98926, USA; Frank J. Spera Institute for Crustal Studies and Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106, USA

    2003-01-01

    A wealth of geochemical and petrological data provide evidence that the processes of fractional crystallization, assimilation, and magma recharge (replenishment) dominate the chemical signatures of many terrestrial igneous rocks. Previous work [Spera and Bohrson, 2001 ; Bohrson and Spera, 2001] has established the importance of integrating energy, species and mass conservation into simulations of complex magma chamber processes. An extended version of the energy-constrained formulation, Energy-Constrained Recharge, Assimilation, Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC), tracks mass and compositional variations of melt, cumulates, and enclaves in a magma body undergoing simultaneous recharge, assimilation, and fractional crystallization [Spera and Bohrson, 2002]. Because many EC-RAFC results are distinct from those predicted by extant RAFC formulations, the primary goal of this paper is to present a range of geochemical and mass relationships for selected cases that highlight issues relevant to modern petrology. Among the plethora of petrologic problems that have important, well-documented analogues in nature are the geochemical distinctions that arise when a magma body undergoes continuous versus episodic recharge, the connection between erupted magmas and associated cumulate bodies, the behavior of recharge-fractionation dominated systems (RFC), thermodynamic conditions that promote the formation of enclaves versus cumulates, and the conditions under which magma bodies may be described as chemically homogeneous. Investigation of the effects of continuous versus episodic recharge for mafic magma undergoing RAFC in the lower crust indicates that the resulting geochemical trends for melt and solids are sensitive to the intensity and composition of recharge, suggesting that EC-RAFC may be used as a tool to distinguish the nature of the recharge events. Compared to the record preserved in melts, the geochemical and mass characteristics of solids associated with particular

  6. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  7. High efficiency iron electrode and additives for use in rechargeable iron-based batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Aniszfeld, Robert; Manohar, Aswin; Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo

    2017-02-21

    An iron electrode and a method of manufacturing an iron electrode for use in an iron-based rechargeable battery are disclosed. In one embodiment, the iron electrode includes carbonyl iron powder and one of a metal sulfide additive or metal oxide additive selected from the group of metals consisting of bismuth, lead, mercury, indium, gallium, and tin for suppressing hydrogen evolution at the iron electrode during charging of the iron-based rechargeable battery. An iron-air rechargeable battery including an iron electrode comprising carbonyl iron is also disclosed, as is an iron-air battery wherein at least one of the iron electrode and the electrolyte includes an organosulfur additive.

  8. A rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery fabricated with nickel hexacyanoferrate and nanostructured zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ke; Song, Bin; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2016-07-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries are very attractive as a promising alternative energy storage system, although their reversible capacity is typically limited. A new rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery with nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and the nanostructured zinc anode is fabricated. The rational combination of two materials with mild aqueous electrolyte renders the devices with an average operating voltage close to 1.5 V, higher specific capacity of 76.2 mAh g-1, and a good cycling stability with 81% capacity retention for 1000 cycles. These remarkable features can provide guidance for the development of rechargeable batteries from the naturally abundant electrode materials with neutral aqueous electrolytes.

  9. Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, P.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.; O' Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

    1998-11-24

    We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate damage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are combined into one set and solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the probabilistic character of measures of battery behavior.

  10. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  12. Comparison of spatially and temporally distributed recharge simulated using coupled and decoupled watershed hydrology models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, J. A.; Woolfenden, L. R.; Niswonger, R. G.; Nishikawa, T.

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of the temporal and spatial distribution of watershed-scale recharge is often required for the development of transient groundwater-flow models and for quantifying water budgets. The temporal distribution of recharge has often been empirically estimated by scaling precipitation distributions. For larger watersheds, however, temporal change in the spatial distribution of recharge is affected by spatial and temporal variability in precipitation and air temperature, combined with the effects of heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of the watershed; these factors make it difficult to represent transient recharge using empirical scaling methods. Precipitation-runoff models, calibrated to available streamflow records, have been used to simulate the changing distribution and magnitude of recharge, but the uncertainty in simulated recharge estimates usually is high due to the uncertainty in input data and other components of the water balance. In this study, GSFLOW, an integrated hydrologic model, was used to evaluate differences in simulated water balances and the magnitude and distribution of transient recharge using decoupled and coupled simulations of surface-water and groundwater flow in the Santa Rosa Plain watershed (SRPW), California, USA. GSFLOW is an integration of the precipitation-runoff model PRMS and the groundwater flow model MODFLOW. GSFLOW was run as a decoupled (PRMS-only) precipitation-runoff model, independent of the MODFLOW, to develop a preliminary ensemble of estimated water balances and recharge simulations. The ensemble consisted of a set of 60-year (water years 1950 through 2010) daily simulation results, all of which provided satisfactory calibration results to available daily streamflow records at 12 gaging sites within the SRPW. The PRMs parameter files developed for the calibrated PRMS-only simulations were used as input for the coupled GSFLOW simulations that were calibrated to available well hydrographs for water years

  13. Advanced fuel cycles for WWER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semchenkov, Y. M.; Pavlovichev, A. M.; Pavlov, V. I.; Spirkin, E. I.; Styrin, Y. A.; Kosourov, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Main stages of Russian uranium fuel development regarding improvement of safety and economics of fuel load operation are presented. Intervals of possible changes in fuel cycle duration have been demonstrated for the use of current and perspective fuel. Examples of equilibrium fuel load patterns have been demonstrated and main core neutronics parameters have been presented. Problems on the use of axial blankets with reduced enrichment in WWER-1000 fuel assemblies are considered. Some results are presented regarding core neutronic characteristics of WWER-1000 at the use of regenerated uranium and uranium-plutonium fuel. Examples of equilibrium fuel cycles for the core partially loaded with MOX fuel from weapon-grade plutonium are also considered (Authors)

  14. Development of gadolinia bearing fuel for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Kazuichiro

    1986-01-01

    In the PWR power plants in Japan, the long-period operation cycle was extended legally to a maximum of 13 months from the conventional about 9 months in fiscal 1980. With this move, as a new type of fuel with burnable-poison-rod function, the development was started of gadolinia-bearing (gadolinium oxide) fuel, gadolinia being contained in the fuel pellets. The basic technology studies were completed in fiscal 1984. Actual irradiation of the fuel in Unit 2 of the Oi Power Station was then started in July 1984, demonstrating validity of the design. Meanwhile, the rapid power-up fest and the fuel center temperature measurement are conducted in an overseas reactor from fiscal 1983. The following are described: functions of the burnable absorber, the need for gadolinia-bearing fuel, experiences with gadolinia-bearing fuel, problems in the design and production of gadolinia-bearing fuel, the development of gadolinia-bearing fuel. (Mori, K.)

  15. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  16. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Electrochemical Techniques for Intercalation Electrode Materials in Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Han, Fudong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-04-18

    Understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of electrode materials is of great importance to develop new materials for high performance rechargeable batteries. Compared with computational understanding of physical and chemical properties of electrode materials, experimental methods provide direct and convenient evaluation of these properties. Often, the information gained from experimental work can not only offer feedback for the computational methods but also provide useful insights for improving the performance of materials. However, accurate experimental quantification of some properties can still be challenging. Among them, chemical diffusion coefficient is one representative example. It is one of the most crucial parameters determining the kinetics of intercalation compounds, which are by far the dominant electrode type used in rechargeable batteries. Therefore, it is of significance to quantitatively evaluate this parameter. For this purpose, various electrochemical techniques have been invented, for example, galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). One salient advantage of these electrochemical techniques over other characterization techniques is that some implicit thermodynamic and kinetic quantities can be linked with the readily measurable electrical signals, current, and voltage, with very high precision. Nevertheless, proper application of these techniques requires not just an understanding of the structure and chemistry of the studied materials but sufficient knowledge of the physical model for ion transport within solid host materials and the analysis method to solve for chemical diffusion coefficient. Our group has been focusing on using various electrochemical techniques to investigate battery materials, as well as developing models for studying some emerging materials. In this Account, the

  18. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  19. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteri...... variation in the path length through the proton conductive phase. In addition the trade-off between mass transfer losses and activation losses deriving from the catalyst layer density is developed.......The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... on a perforated silicon plate which acts as a mechanical support structure a proton conducting polymer membrane, which connects catalyst layers deposited through spray coating on either side of the silicon device. An improvement of this design is also presented which integrates the catalyst layer into the current...

  20. A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Liang Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.

  1. Joint Mobile Data Collection and Wireless Energy Transfer in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ping; Li, Ya-Ting; Liu, Wei-Rong; Duan, Gui-Hua; Chen, Ying-Wen; Xiong, Neal

    2017-08-16

    In wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs), there is a way to use mobile vehicles to charge node and collect data. It is a rational pattern to use two types of vehicles, one is for energy charging, and the other is for data collecting. These two types of vehicles, data collection vehicles (DCVs) and wireless charging vehicles (WCVs), are employed to achieve high efficiency in both data gathering and energy consumption. To handle the complex scheduling problem of multiple vehicles in large-scale networks, a twice-partition algorithm based on center points is proposed to divide the network into several parts. In addition, an anchor selection algorithm based on the tradeoff between neighbor amount and residual energy, named AS-NAE, is proposed to collect the zonal data. It can reduce the data transmission delay and the energy consumption for DCVs' movement in the zonal. Besides, we design an optimization function to achieve maximum data throughput by adjusting data rate and link rate of each node. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed algorithm is validated by numerical simulation results in WRSNs.

  2. Beyond flexible batteries: aesthetically versatile, printed rechargeable power sources for smart electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Young

    2017-05-01

    Forthcoming wearable/flexible electronics with compelling shape diversity and mobile usability have garnered significant attention as a kind of disruptive technology to drastically change our daily lives. From a power source point of view, conventional rechargeable batteries (represented by lithium-ion batteries) with fixed shapes and dimensions are generally fabricated by winding (or stacking) cell components (such as anodes, cathodes and separator membranes) and then packaging them with (cylindrical-/rectangular-shaped) metallic canisters or pouch films, finally followed by injection of liquid electrolytes. In particular, the use of liquid electrolytes gives rise to serious concerns in cell assembly, because they require strict packaging materials to avoid leakage problems and also separator membranes to prevent electrical contact between electrodes. For these reasons, the conventional cell assembly and materials have pushed the batteries to lack of variety in form factors, thus imposing formidable challenges on their integration into versatile-shaped electronic devices. Here, as a facile and efficient strategy to address the aforementioned longstanding challenge, we demonstrate a new class of printed solid-state Li-ion batteries and also all-inkjet-printed solid-state supercapacitors with exceptional shape conformability and aesthetic versatility which lie far beyond those achievable with conventional battery technologies.

  3. Nuclear fuel reliability in NPP KRSKO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolovic, A.; Kurincic, B.

    2001-01-01

    The importance of achieving and maintaining high fuel integrity comes from negative consequences of operation with failed fuel. Failed fuel has a significant effect on operating cost and performance, and increases the radiological consequences to environment. Fuel failures represent a breach in the first barrier (cladding) preventing the release of fission products. Historically NPP Krsko experienced some degradation of fuel cladding integrity. To resolve this problem and to ensure the safe, reliable and cost effective operation of nuclear fuel, NPP Krsko established 'Fuel Integrity Program'. The key elements of the Program are: continuous monitoring and trending of the fuel behaviour through operating cycle, evaluation of key performance indicators (RCS isotopes, operational parameters) to determine whether the fuel defects exist, implementation of appropriate actions to reduce and mitigate the consequences of fuel defects (four action levels), 100% examination of fuel to remove the defective fuel from operation (Ultrasonic (UT), In Mast Sipping (IMS) and visual inspection), evaluating the worldwide experience and fuel performance and, integrating the experience and knowledge into new fuel design (ZIRLO TM cladding, debris filter bottom nozzle, removable top nozzle). Since start of commercial operation fuel integrity has been evaluated considering certain aspects like operation and fuel handling, fuel rod burnup and cycle length, cladding material properties, etc. As a result of successful Fuel Integrity Program NPP Krsko has achieved high performance level in terms of fuel integrity in past four cycles. Also, NPP Krsko calculations show good matching between analytical prediction of number of failed fuel rods from primary coolant activity analysis and inspection results with the Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods.(author)

  4. HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In the spring of 1987, the HTGR fuel cycle project has been existing for ten years, and for this reason a status seminar has been held on May 12, 1987 in the Juelich Nuclear Research Center, that gathered the participants in this project for a discussion on the state of the art in HTGR fuel element development, graphite development, and waste management. The papers present an overview of work performed so far and an outlook on future tasks and goals, and on taking stock one can say that the project has been very successful so far: The HTGR fuel element now available meets highest requirements and forms the basis of today's HTGR safety philosophy; research work on graphite behaviour in a high-temperature reactor has led to complete knowledge of the temperature or neutron-induced effects, and with the concept of direct ultimate waste disposal, the waste management problem has found a feasible solution. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  6. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  7. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data

  8. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J.V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C.F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  9. Novel Anodes for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TIAX proposes to develop as a novel negative electrode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. This material will fill the gap between the...

  10. A water-budget model and estimates of groundwater recharge for Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    On Guam, demand for groundwater tripled from the early 1970s to 2010. The demand for groundwater is anticipated to further increase in the near future because of population growth and a proposed military relocation to Guam. Uncertainty regarding the availability of groundwater resources to support the increased demand has prompted an investigation of groundwater recharge on Guam using the most current data and accepted methods. For this investigation, a daily water-budget model was developed and used to estimate mean recharge for various land-cover and rainfall conditions. Recharge was also estimated for part of the island using the chloride mass-balance method. Using the daily water-budget model, estimated mean annual recharge on Guam is 394.1 million gallons per day, which is 39 percent of mean annual rainfall (999.0 million gallons per day). Although minor in comparison to rainfall on the island, water inflows from water-main leakage, septic-system leachate, and stormwater runoff may be several times greater than rainfall at areas that receive these inflows. Recharge is highest in areas that are underlain by limestone, where recharge is typically between 40 and 60 percent of total water inflow. Recharge is relatively high in areas that receive stormwater runoff from storm-drain systems, but is relatively low in urbanized areas where stormwater runoff is routed to the ocean or to other areas. In most of the volcanic uplands in southern Guam where runoff is substantial, recharge is less than 30 percent of total water inflow. The water-budget model in this study differs from all previous water-budget investigations on Guam by directly accounting for canopy evaporation in forested areas, quantifying the evapotranspiration rate of each land-cover type, and accounting for evaporation from impervious areas. For the northern groundwater subbasins defined in Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. (1982), mean annual baseline recharge computed in this study is 159.1 million gallons

  11. Recharge Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Szecsody, Jim E.

    2004-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assisted CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., (CHG) by providing estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The IDF will be located in the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site and will receive several types of waste including immobilized low-activity waste. The recharge estimates for each scenario were derived from lysimeter and tracer data collected by the IDF PA Project and from modeling studies conducted for the project. Recharge estimates were provided for three specific site features (the surface barrier; possible barrier side slopes; and the surrounding soil) and four specific time periods (pre-Hanford; Hanford operations; surface barrier design life; post-barrier design life). CHG plans to conduct a performance assessment of the latest IDF design and call it the IDF 2005 PA; this recharge data package supports the upcoming IDF 2005 PA.

  12. Arsenic mobilization and attenuation by mineral–water interactions: implications for managed aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has a potential for addressing deficits in water supplies worldwide. It is also widely used for preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining the groundwater table, and augmenting ecological stream flows among many beneficial environmental application...

  13. Incorporation of Satellite Data and Uncertainty in a Nationwide Groundwater Recharge Model in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Westerhoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A nationwide model of groundwater recharge for New Zealand (NGRM, as described in this paper, demonstrated the benefits of satellite data and global models to improve the spatial definition of recharge and the estimation of recharge uncertainty. NGRM was inspired by the global-scale WaterGAP model but with the key development of rainfall recharge calculation on scales relevant to national- and catchment-scale studies (i.e., a 1 km × 1 km cell size and a monthly timestep in the period 2000–2014 provided by satellite data (i.e., MODIS-derived evapotranspiration, AET and vegetation in combination with national datasets of rainfall, elevation, soil and geology. The resulting nationwide model calculates groundwater recharge estimates, including their uncertainty, consistent across the country, which makes the model unique compared to all other New Zealand estimates targeted towards groundwater recharge. At the national scale, NGRM estimated an average recharge of 2500 m 3 /s, or 298 mm/year, with a model uncertainty of 17%. Those results were similar to the WaterGAP model, but the improved input data resulted in better spatial characteristics of recharge estimates. Multiple uncertainty analyses led to these main conclusions: the NGRM model could give valuable initial estimates in data-sparse areas, since it compared well to most ground-observed lysimeter data and local recharge models; and the nationwide input data of rainfall and geology caused the largest uncertainty in the model equation, which revealed that the satellite data could improve spatial characteristics without significantly increasing the uncertainty. Clearly the increasing volume and availability of large-scale satellite data is creating more opportunities for the application of national-scale models at the catchment, and smaller, scales. This should result in improved utility of these models including provision of initial estimates in data-sparse areas. Topics for future

  14. Irrigated agriculture and future climate change effects on groundwater recharge, northern High Plains aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Zachary H.; Gurdak, Jason J.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Woodward, Duane; Wolf, Cassandra

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the controls of agriculture and climate change on recharge rates is critically important to develop appropriate sustainable management plans for groundwater resources and coupled irrigated agricultural systems. In this study, several physical (total potential (ψT) time series) and chemical tracer and dating (3H, Cl−, Br−, CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) methods were used to quantify diffuse recharge rates beneath two rangeland sites and irrigation recharge rates beneath two irrigated corn sites along an east-west (wet-dry) transect of the northern High Plains aquifer, Platte River Basin, central Nebraska. The field-based recharge estimates and historical climate were used to calibrate site-specific Hydrus-1D models, and irrigation requirements were estimated using the Crops Simulation Model (CROPSIM). Future model simulations were driven by an ensemble of 16 global climate models and two global warming scenarios to project a 2050 climate relative to the historical baseline 1990 climate, and simulate changes in precipitation, irrigation, evapotranspiration, and diffuse and irrigation recharge rates. Although results indicate statistical differences between the historical variables at the eastern and western sites and rangeland and irrigated sites, the low warming scenario (+1.0 °C) simulations indicate no statistical differences between 2050 and 1990. However, the high warming scenarios (+2.4 °C) indicate a 25% and 15% increase in median annual evapotranspiration and irrigation demand, and decreases in future diffuse recharge by 53% and 98% and irrigation recharge by 47% and 29% at the eastern and western sites, respectively. These results indicate an important threshold between the low and high warming scenarios that if exceeded could trigger a significant bidirectional shift in 2050 hydroclimatology and recharge gradients. The bidirectional shift is that future northern High Plains temperatures will resemble present central High Plains

  15. Assessing recharge using remotely sensed data in the Guarani Aquifer System outcrop zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M. C.; Oliveira, P. T. S.; Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential hydrology component for sustainable water withdrawal from an aquifer. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest (~1.2 million km2) transboundary groundwater reservoir in South America, supplying freshwater to four countries: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. However, recharge in the GAS outcrop zones is one of the least known hydrological variables, in part because studies from hydrological data are scarce or nonexistent. We assess recharge using the water-budget as the difference of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). Data is derived from remotely sensed estimates of P (TRMM 3B42 V7) and ET (MOD16) in the Onça Creek watershed over the 2004­-12 period. This is an upland-flat watershed (slope steepness < 1%) dominated by sand soils and representative of the GAS outcrop zones. We compared the remote sensing approach against Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method and another water-budget using ground-based measurements. Uncertainty propagation analysis were also performed. On monthly basis, TRMM P exhibited a great agreement with ground-based P data (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 41 mm). Historical (2004-12) mean(±sd) satellite-based recharge (Rsat) was 537(±224) mm y-1, while ground-based recharge using water-budget (Rgr) and WTF (Rwtf) method was 469 mm y-1 and 311(±150) mm y-1, respectively. We found that ~440 mm y-1 is a reasonable historical mean (between Rsat, Rgr and Rwtf) recharge for the study area over 2004-2012 period. The latter mean recharge estimate is about 29% of the mean historical P (1,514 mm y-1). Our results provide the first insight about an intercomparison of water budget from remote sensing and measured data to estimate recharge in the GAS outcrop zone. These results should be useful for future studies on assessing recharge in the GAS outcrop zones. Since accurate and precise recharge estimation still is a gap, our recharge satellite-based is considered acceptable for the Onça Creek

  16. Fuel performance annual report, period through December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, M.D.

    1979-12-01

    This annual report, intended to be the first in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries are given for the reporting period of on-site fuel surveillance programs, fuel performance problems, and changes in commercial fuel designs. The report provides many references to more detailed information and to related NRC evaluations. 57 references

  17. Measuring artificial recharge with fiber optic distributed temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew W; Bauer, Brian; Hutchinson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat was used as a tracer to measure infiltration rates from a recharge basin. The propagation of diurnal oscillation of surface water temperature into the basin bed was monitored along a transect using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS). The propagation rate was related to downward specific discharge using standard theory of heat advection and dispersion in saturated porous media. An estimate of the temporal variation of heat propagation was achieved using a wavelet transform to find the phase lag between the surface temperature diurnal oscillation and the correlated oscillation at 0.33 and 0.98 m below the bed surface. The wavelet results compared well to a constant velocity model of thermal advection and dispersion during periods of relatively constant discharge rates. The apparent dispersion of heat was found to be due primarily to hydrodynamic mechanisms rather than thermal diffusion. Specific discharge estimates using the FODTS technique also compared well to water balance estimates over a four month period, although there were occasional deviations that have yet to be adequately explained. The FODTS technique is superior to water balance in that it produces estimates of infiltration rate every meter along the cable transect, every half hour. These high resolution measurements highlighted areas of low infiltration and demonstrated the degradation of basin efficiency due to source waters of high suspended solids. FODTS monitoring promises to be a useful tool for diagnosing basin performance in an era of increasing groundwater demand. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Najeeb W; Detweiler, Carrick

    2017-07-17

    When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN), one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes' power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values.

  19. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb W. Najeeb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN, one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes’ power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values.

  20. Recharging the battery of implantable biomedical devices by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, Carlos; Peña, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    This article describes a new powering system for implantable medical devices that could significantly increase their lifetime. The idea is based on the substitution of the usual implantable device battery for an electric accumulator (rechargeable battery), which is fed by the electric power generated by a photovoltaic converter inside the implantable device. Light impinges on the photovoltaic device through an optical fiber going from the photovoltaic device to just beneath the patient's epidermis. Light can enter the optical fiber by passing through the skin. A complete power-by-light system has been developed and tested with a real implantable pulse generator for spinal cord stimulation. The feasibility of the proposed system has been evaluated theoretically. For example, after 13 h/week of laser exposure, the lifetime of the implantable device would increase by 50%. Other combinations resulting in lifetime increases of more than 100% are also possible. So, the proposed system is now ready to take a further step forward: in vivo animal testing.

  1. A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yifei; An, Qinyou; Cheng, Yingwen; Liang, Yanliang; Ren, Yang; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Dong, Hui; Tang, Zhongjia; Li, Guosheng; Yao, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Growing global demand of safe and low-cost energy storage technology triggers strong interests in novel battery concepts beyond state-of-art Li-ion batteries. Here we report a high-voltage rechargeable Mg–Na hybrid battery featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Na-intercalation cathode as a low-cost and safe alternative to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. A prototype device using a Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode, a Mg anode, and a Mg–Na dual salt electrolyte exhibits the highest voltage (2.60 V vs. Mg) and best rate performance (86% capacity retention at 10C rate) among reported hybrid batteries. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), atomic-pair distribution function (PDF), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal the chemical environment and structural change of Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode during the Na ion insertion/deinsertion process. XANES study shows a clear reversible shift of vanadium K-edge and HRXRD and PDF studies reveal a reversible two-phase transformation and V–O bond length change during cycling. The energy density of the hybrid cell could be further improved by developing electrolytes with a higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window. This work represents a significant step forward for practical safe and low-cost hybrid batteries.

  2. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  3. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  4. Universal quinone electrodes for long cycle life aqueous rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanliang; Jing, Yan; Gheytani, Saman; Lee, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Ping; Facchetti, Antonio; Yao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Aqueous rechargeable batteries provide the safety, robustness, affordability, and environmental friendliness necessary for grid storage and electric vehicle operations, but their adoption is plagued by poor cycle life due to the structural and chemical instability of the anode materials. Here we report quinones as stable anode materials by exploiting their structurally stable ion-coordination charge storage mechanism and chemical inertness towards aqueous electrolytes. Upon rational selection/design of quinone structures, we demonstrate three systems that coupled with industrially established cathodes and electrolytes exhibit long cycle life (up to 3,000 cycles/3,500 h), fast kinetics (>=20C), high anode specific capacity (up to 200-395 mAh g-1), and several examples of state-of-the-art specific energy/energy density (up to 76-92 Wh kg-1/ 161-208 Wh l-1) for several operational pH values (-1 to 15), charge carrier species (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+), temperature (-35 to 25 °C), and atmosphere (with/without O2), making them a universal anode approach for any aqueous battery technology.

  5. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  6. Focused ground-water recharge in the Amargosa Desert basin: Chapter E in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998–2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Niño that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04–0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1–0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12–15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9–22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early

  7. FUEL ELEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  8. Effect of temporal averaging of meteorological data on predictions of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batalha Marcia S.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of infiltration and groundwater recharge are critical for many hydrologic, agricultural and environmental applications. Anticipated climate change in many regions of the world, especially in tropical areas, is expected to increase the frequency of high-intensity, short-duration precipitation events, which in turn will affect the groundwater recharge rate. Estimates of recharge are often obtained using monthly or even annually averaged meteorological time series data. In this study we employed the HYDRUS-1D software package to assess the sensitivity of groundwater recharge calculations to using meteorological time series of different temporal resolutions (i.e., hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly averaged precipitation and potential evaporation rates. Calculations were applied to three sites in Brazil having different climatological conditions: a tropical savanna (the Cerrado, a humid subtropical area (the temperate southern part of Brazil, and a very wet tropical area (Amazonia. To simplify our current analysis, we did not consider any land use effects by ignoring root water uptake. Temporal averaging of meteorological data was found to lead to significant bias in predictions of groundwater recharge, with much greater estimated recharge rates in case of very uneven temporal rainfall distributions during the year involving distinct wet and dry seasons. For example, at the Cerrado site, using daily averaged data produced recharge rates of up to 9 times greater than using yearly averaged data. In all cases, an increase in the time of averaging of meteorological data led to lower estimates of groundwater recharge, especially at sites having coarse-textured soils. Our results show that temporal averaging limits the ability of simulations to predict deep penetration of moisture in response to precipitation, so that water remains in the upper part of the vadose zone subject to upward flow and evaporation.

  9. The effect of modeled recharge distribution on simulated groundwater availability and capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, F D; Pool, D R; Leake, S A

    2015-01-01

    Simulating groundwater flow in basin-fill aquifers of the semiarid southwestern United States commonly requires decisions about how to distribute aquifer recharge. Precipitation can recharge basin-fill aquifers by direct infiltration and transport through faults and fractures in the high-elevation areas, by flowing overland through high-elevation areas to infiltrate at basin-fill margins along mountain fronts, by flowing overland to infiltrate along ephemeral channels that often traverse basins in the area, or by some combination of these processes. The importance of accurately simulating recharge distributions is a current topic of discussion among hydrologists and water managers in the region, but no comparative study has been performed to analyze the effects of different recharge distributions on groundwater simulations. This study investigates the importance of the distribution of aquifer recharge in simulating regional groundwater flow in basin-fill aquifers by calibrating a groundwater-flow model to four different recharge distributions, all with the same total amount of recharge. Similarities are seen in results from steady-state models for optimized hydraulic conductivity values, fit of simulated to observed hydraulic heads, and composite scaled sensitivities of conductivity parameter zones. Transient simulations with hypothetical storage properties and pumping rates produce similar capture rates and storage change results, but differences are noted in the rate of drawdown at some well locations owing to the differences in optimized hydraulic conductivity. Depending on whether the purpose of the groundwater model is to simulate changes in groundwater levels or changes in storage and capture, the distribution of aquifer recharge may or may not be of primary importance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable use of groundwater must ensure not only that the future resource is not threatened by overuse, but also that natural environments that depend on the resource, such as stream baseflows, riparian vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are protected. To properly manage groundwater resources, accurate information about the inputs (recharge) and outputs (pumpage and natural discharge) within each groundwater basin is needed so that the long-term behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable yield can be estimated or reassessed. As a first step towards this effort, this work highlights some key groundwater recharge studies in the Kansas High Plains at different scales, such as regional soil-water budget and groundwater modeling studies, county-scale groundwater recharge studies, as well as field-experimental local studies, including some original new findings, with an emphasis on assumptions and limitations as well as on environmental factors affecting recharge processes. The general impact of irrigation and cultivation on recharge is to appreciably increase the amount of recharge, and in many cases to exceed precipitation as the predominant source of recharge. The imbalance between the water input (recharge) to the High Plains aquifer and the output (pumpage and stream baseflows primarily) is shown to be severe, and responses to stabilize the system by reducing water use, increasing irrigation efficiency, adopting water-saving land-use practices, and other measures are outlined. Finally, the basic steps necessary to move towards sustainable use of groundwater in the High Plains are delineated, such as improving the knowledge base, reporting and providing access to information, furthering public education, as well as promoting better understanding of the public's attitudinal motivations; adopting the ecosystem and adaptive management approaches to managing groundwater; further improving water efficiency; exploiting the full potential of dryland and

  11. Groundwater recharge in a multi-aquifer system in Iloilo, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronia, M. C. M.

    2016-12-01

    For rapidly urbanizing areas, groundwater utilization has been subject to contentions concerning its allocation and supply. The Philippines, an industrializing and developing country, primarily taps surface water for supply but has been extracting groundwater in increasing amounts in recent years. Despite abundant rainfall, the recharge and rainfall proportion for the Philippines just ranges from 7 to 10 percent, causing low recharge rates. Iloilo, a developing metropolis in central Philippines, has started to run into groundwater supply shortages. The city has already been tapping 93% of its supply from deep aquifers for years but low and unpredictable recharge and lack of groundwater studies increase uncertainties to the city's water situation. This study analyzed the relationship among the city's volcanic and clastic multi-aquifer systems and groundwater recharge during the wet season. Constant-rate pumping tests were performed and time-drawdown data were collected on wells at different depths scattered across the city. Hydrographs were computed and analyzed for the basin to determine rainfall-recharge relationship for the aquifer system and were compared to available historical data. Results showed shallow aquifers with depths less than 20 meters, as expected, were still subject to recharge especially during wet season. However, urbanization and increased abstraction from unregulated wells further worsened by an El Niño-induced 6-month drought had started to dry up the shallow perched aquifers, resulting to a net decrease in available supply. Aquifer recharge at depths between 50 to 70 meters has decreased substantially, potentially threatening the city's water supply for the long term. Nonetheless, characterizing and quantifying the relationship of the Iloilo aquifer system and recharge have given a much better picture of the situation that will benefit the city in water resource planning and allocation in light of future hydrological and climate risks.

  12. Recharge and Aquifer Response: Manukan Island’s Aquifer, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarva Mangala Praveena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Manukan Island is a small island located in North-West of Sabah, Malaysia was used as a case study area for numerical modeling of an aquifer response to recharge and pumping rates. The results in this study present the variations of recharge into the aquifer under the prediction simulations. The recharge rate increases the water level as indicated by hydraulic heads. This shows that it can alter groundwater of Manukan Island which has been suffering from an overexploration in its unconfined the aquifer. The increase in recharge rate (from 600 mm/year to 750 mm/year increases the water level indicated by hydraulic heads. A reduction in pumping rate (from 0.072 m3/day to 0.058 m3/day not only increases the amount of water levels in aquifer but also reduces the supply hence a deficit in supply. The increase in hydraulic heads depends on the percentage reduction of pumping and recharges rates. The well water has 1978.3 mg/L chloride with current pumping (0.072 m3/day and recharge rates (600 mm/year. However, with an increased of recharge rate and current pumping rate it has decreased about 1.13%. In addition, reduction in pumping rate made the chloride concentration decreased about 2.8%. In general, a reduction in pumping with an increase in recharge rate leads to a decreased in chloride concentrations within the vicinity of cone of depression. Next, to further develop the numerical model, the model should focus on climate change variables such as consequences of climate change are increase in air temperature, increase in sea surface temperature, and more extreme weather conditions. These parameters are considered critical parameters for climate change impact modeling in aquifers. The behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable pumping rate can be done by applying a computer modeling component.

  13. Regional Assessment of Recharge Elevation of Tap Water Sources Using the Isoscape Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Yamada, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The importance of mountains as “natural water towers” has been quantified by comparing water budgets in upstream (mountain) and downstream (lowland) areas, but their importance for tap water supplies has not been assessed. Here, we propose an isoscape approach to estimate the mean recharge elevation of tap water sources (rivers, reservoirs, springs, and wells) and apply it to a region in central Japan as a case study. Errors in the estimation of mean recharge elevation were estimated at 90–14...

  14. 3D Ordered Mesoporous Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Gyu; Lee, Dong Un; Seo, Min Ho; Cano, Zachary Paul; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-05-01

    To enhance energy efficiency and durability, a highly active and durable 3D ordered mesoporous cobalt oxide framework has been developed for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The bifunctional air electrode consisting of 3DOM Co3 O4 having high active surface area and robust structure, results in superior charge and discharge battery voltages, and durable performance for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Changes in Projected Spatial and Seasonal Groundwater Recharge in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2017-07-01

    The Colorado River is an important source of water in the western United States, supplying the needs of more than 38 million people in the United States and Mexico. Groundwater discharge to streams has been shown to be a critical component of streamflow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), particularly during low-flow periods. Understanding impacts on groundwater in the basin from projected climate change will assist water managers in the region in planning for potential changes in the river and groundwater system. A previous study on changes in basin-wide groundwater recharge in the UCRB under projected climate change found substantial increases in temperature, moderate increases in precipitation, and mostly periods of stable or slight increases in simulated groundwater recharge through 2099. This study quantifies projected spatial and seasonal changes in groundwater recharge within the UCRB from recent historical (1950 to 2015) through future (2016 to 2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections. Simulation results indicate that projected increases in basin-wide recharge of up to 15% are not distributed uniformly within the basin or throughout the year. Northernmost subregions within the UCRB are projected an increase in groundwater recharge, while recharge in other mainly southern subregions will decline. Seasonal changes in recharge also are projected within the UCRB, with decreases of 50% or more in summer months and increases of 50% or more in winter months for all subregions, and increases of 10% or more in spring months for many subregions. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peters

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mount Shasta (4322 m is famous for its spring water. Water for municipal, domestic and industrial use is obtained from local springs and wells, fed by annual snow melt and sustained perennially by the groundwater flow system. We examined geochemical and isotopic tracers in samples from wells and springs on Mount Shasta, at the headwaters of the Sacramento River, in order to better understand the hydrologic system. The topographic relief in the study area imparts robust signatures of recharge elevation to both stable isotopes of the water molecule (δ18O and δD and to dissolved noble gases, offering tools to identify recharge areas and delineate groundwater flow paths. Recharge elevations determined using stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures are in close agreement and indicate that most snowmelt infiltrates at elevations between 2000 m and 2900 m, which coincides with areas of thin soils and barren land cover. Large springs in Mt Shasta City discharge at an elevation more than 1600 m lower. High elevation springs (>2000 m yield very young water (<2 years while lower elevation wells (1000–1500 m produce water with a residence time ranging from 6 years to over 60 years, based on observed tritium activities. Upslope movement of the tree line in the identified recharge elevation range due to a warming climate is likely to decrease infiltration and recharge, which will decrease spring discharge and production at wells, albeit with a time lag dependent upon the length of groundwater flow paths.

  17. Mitigation of non-point source of fluoride on groundwater by dug well recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, G.; Lakshmanan, E.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater used for drinking purpose is affected in many regions due to the presence of excess fluoride. The excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis to human in many states of India, including Tamil Nadu. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing hydrogeochemistry of groundwater and the feasibility of dug well recharge to reduce the fluoride concentration in Vaniyar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The major source for fluoride in groundwater of this area is the epidote hornblende gneissic and charnockite which are the major rocks occurring in this region. As a pilot study a cost effective induced recharge structure was constructed at Papichettipatty village in the study region. The study shows that the groundwater level around the recharge site raised up to 2 m from 14.5 m (bgl) and fluoride concentration has decreased from 3.8 mg/l to 0.9 mg/l due to dilution. The advantage of this induced recharge structure is of its low cost, the ease of implementation, improved groundwater recharge and dilution of fluoride in groundwater. An area of about 1.5 km2 has benefited due to this dug well recharge system.

  18. Rechargeable calcium phosphate orthodontic cement with sustained ion release and re-release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-11-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) due to enamel demineralization are major complications for orthodontic treatments. Calcium phosphate (CaP) dental resins with Ca and P ion releases are promising for remineralization. However, previous Ca and P releases lasted for only weeks. Experimental orthodontic cements were developed using pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at mass ratio of 1:1 (PE); and PE plus 10% of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 5% of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) (PEHB). Particles of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were incorporated into PE and PEHB at 40% filler level. Specimens were tested for bracket-enamel shear bond strength, water sorption, CaP release, and ion recharge and re-release. PEHB+40ACP had higher bracket-enamel bond strength and ion release and rechargeability than PE+40ACP. ACP incorporation into the novel orthodontic cement did not adversely affect the bracket-enamel bond strength. Ion release and re-release from the novel ACP orthodontic cement indicated favorable release and re-release patterns. The recharged orthodontic cement could release CaP ions continuously for four weeks without further recharge. Novel rechargeable orthodontic cement containing ACP was developed with a high bracket-enamel bond strength and the ability to be repeatedly recharged to maintain long-term high levels of CaP ion releases.

  19. Contribution to the study of the recharge of Morondava hydrogeological basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAHOBISOA, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Stables isotopes and radioisotopes, combinated with hydrogeological data and hydrochemical data have been applied in the investigation of the groundwater recharge of the Morondava plain. This area is located in the south western of Madagascar, in the catchment of Morondava river. The dominant hydrochemical type of the groundwaters in the study area is of calcium-bicarbonate, with sodium chloride type in the coastal and central areas. They may originate from dissolution of limestone; or from hydrolysis of Anorthite; or from sea sprays. The phreatic aquifer receives both direct and lateral recharge by rainfall. The average recharge rate is estimated to 165,7 to 182,7 mm/a corresponding to a recharge of 250 614.10 3 to 276 318.10 3 m 3 /a. As for the deeper aquifer, the groundwater recharge area is mainly located in Tsiandava plateau according to the isotopic recharge altitude calculations. As for the phreatic aquifer, tritium values have provided a mean residence time of 56 years. As for the deeper aquifers, the 14 C groundwater age ranges between 1400 and 1985 years [fr

  20. Groundwater recharge estimates of the Indian Wells Basin (California) using geochemical analysis of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, K. E.; Hagedorn, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying recharge in groundwater basins located in an arid climate is difficult due to the effects of evapotranspiration and generally low rates of inflow. Constraining recharge for the Indian Wells Valley (IWV) will allow a more refined assessment of groundwater sustainability in the basin. In this study, a well-mixed reservoir model, the decay rate of tritium, groundwater tritium data acquired from USGS, and atmospheric tritium data acquired from IAEA allow for calculation of renewal rate within IWV. The resulting renewal rate throughout the basin show correlation to travel time from the source of recharge to the measurement location in keeping with the well-mixed reservoir model. The renewal rate can be used with porosity and effective aquifer thickness to generate recharge rates ranging from 4.7 cm/yr to 10 cm/yr. Refinement of the porosity and effective aquifer thickness values at each sample location is necessary to constrain recharge rates. Groundwater modeling generated recharge rates (9.32 cm/yr) fall within this range. These results are in keeping with the well-mixed aquifer model and fall within a reasonable range for an arid climate, which shows the applicability of the method.