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Sample records for fuel preliminary food

  1. Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel Preliminary Food & Fuel Gap Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Grosshans; Kevin M. Kostelnik; Jake Jacobson

    2007-04-01

    To promote economic growth and energy security, and to protect the environment, the U.S. is pursuing a national strategy of energy independence and climatic protection in which domestic renewable carbon-neutral biofuels displace 30 percent of U.S. oil consumption by the mid-21st century. Such fuels, including ethanol and biodiesel, will be produced from biological feed stocks (biomass). The availability of this billion-ton biomass will hinge on the application of modern scientific and engineering tools to create a highly-integrated biofuel production system. Efforts are underway to identify and develop energy crops, ranging from agricultural residues to genetically engineered perennials; to develop biology-based processing methods; and, to develop large-scale biorefineries to economically convert biomass into fuels. In addition to advancing the biomass-to-biofuel research and development agenda, policy makers are concurrently defining the correct mix of governmental supports and regulations. Given the volumes of biomass and fuels that must flow to successfully enact a national biomass strategy, policies must encourage large-scale markets to form and expand around a tightly integrated system of farmers, fuel producers and transporters, and markets over the course of decades. In formulating such policies, policy makers must address the complex interactions of social, technical, economic, and environmental factors that bound energy production and use. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering national laboratory dedicated to supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The INL Bioenergy Program supports the DOE and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Key multidisciplinary INL capabilities are being leveraged to address major science and technology needs associated with the cost-effective utilization of biomass. INL’s whole crop utilization (WCU) vision is focused on the use of the entire crop, including both the grain and

  2. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  3. KALIMER fuel system preliminary design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B.O.; Nam, C.; Paek, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    This document provides general design concepts, design basis, preliminary design specification and design technologies which are needed for designing the fuel/non-fuel rods and assembly ducts of the KALIMER fuel system. The core of LMFBR consists of driver fuel assembly, blanket assembly, reflector assembly, shielding assembly, control assembly and GEM (Gas Expansion Module) as well as USS, dummy assembly, detector assembly. These core components must be designed to withstand the high temperature, high flux for a long irradiation exposure time. Due to the high temperature and high flux, irradiation creep and swelling as well as thermal-mechanical deformation are occurred at the fuel/non-fuel system and cause the deformations of materials and the geometric deflections at fuel/non-fuel rods, assembly ducts and components. In order to overcome these intricate phenomena through the engineering design, the design basis including theoretical analysis methodologies and design considerations, material characteristics of fuel system, and the specifications and drawings of fuel/non-fuel rods and assembly ducts, respectively, are presented. This document is preliminary design description which is produced in the conceptual design stage, and does not present the detailed and finalized design data which can be for the manufacturing. (author). 22 refs

  4. Fabrication of preliminary fuel rods for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Woo, Youn Myung; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Metal fuels was selected for fueling many of the first reactors in the US, including the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho, the FERMI-I reactor, and the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) in the UK. Metallic U.Pu.Zr alloys were the reference fuel for the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. U-Zr-Pu alloy fuels have been used for SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for SFR has been in development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. For the final goal of SFR fuel rod fabrication with good performance, recently, three preliminary fuel rods were fabricated. In this paper, the preliminary fuel rods were fabricated, and then the inspection for QC(quality control) of the fuel rods was performed

  5. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...... analysis indicates that urban households and households in the southern region are more vulnerable to food price increases. Rural households, particularly in the North and Center, often benefit from being in a net seller position. Longer-term analysis using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model...

  6. Preliminary concepts: safeguards for spent light-water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    The technology available for safeguarding spent nuclear fuels from light-water power reactors is reviewed, and preliminary concepts for a spent-fuel safeguards system are presented. Essential elements of a spent-fuel safeguards system are infrequent on-site inspections, containment and surveillance systems to assure the integrity of stored fuel between inspections, and nondestructive measurements of the fuel assemblies. Key safeguards research and development activities necessary to implement such a system are identified. These activities include the development of tamper-indicating fuel-assembly identification systems and the design and development of nondestructive spent-fuel measurement systems

  7. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  8. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  9. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of supply decentralization of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, C.O.C. da.

    1990-03-01

    Energy policy in Brazil has been made in a centralized way. The total transportation costs for liquid fuel were calculated the local production of an alternative fuel was examined. It was concluded that locally produced alcohol, although is not competitive with diesel, can substitute, at this moment, the alcohol imported from other regions and approaches competitiveness with gasoline. (author)

  11. Oxygenates in automotive fuels. Consequence analysis - preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygenates is used in gasoline due to several reasons. They are added as high-octane components in unleaded gasoline and as agents to reduce the emission of harmful substances. Oxygenates produced from biomass might constitute a coming market for alternative fuels. This preliminary study describes the prerequisites and consequences of such an oxygenate utilization. 39 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Preliminary concepts for detecting national diversion of LWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.; Cravens, M.N.

    1978-04-01

    Preliminary concepts for detecting national diversion of LWR spent fuel during storage, handling and transportation are presented. Principal emphasis is placed on means to achieve timely detection by an international authority. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program

  13. Preliminary assessment on compatibility of DUPIC fuel with CANDU-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang-Bok; Roh, G.H.; Jeong, C.J.; Rhee, B.W.; Choi, J.W.; Boss, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU-6 reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will be qualitatively analyzed later. (author)

  14. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  15. Preliminary design report for the prototypical fuel rod consolidation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents NUTECH's preliminary design of a dry, spent fuel rod consolidation system. This preliminary design is the result of Phase I of a planned four phase project. The present report on this project provides a considerable amount of detail for a preliminary design effort. The design and all of its details are described in this Preliminary Design Report (PDR). The NUTECH dry rod consolidation system described herein is remotely operated. It provides for automatic operation, but with operator hold points between key steps in the process. The operator has the ability to switch to a manual operation mode at any point in the process. The system is directed by the operator using an executive computer which controls and coordinates the operation of the in-cell equipment. The operator monitors the process using an in-cell closed circuit television (CCTV) system with audio output and equipment status displays on the computer monitor. The in-cell mechanical equipment consists of the following: (1) two overhead cranes with manipulators; (2) a multi-degree of freedom fuel handling table and its clamping equipment; (3) a fuel assembly end fitting removal station and its tools; (4) a consolidator (which pulls rods, assembles the consolidated bundle and loads the canister); (5) a canister end cap welder and weld inspection system; (6) decontamination systems; and (7) the CCTV and microphone systems

  16. Fuel and food: the competition of bio fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonelli, C.; Soave, C.

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve the target of 5.75% of bio fuels by 2010 (as indicated bu EU), we must produce in Italy 1 million tons of bio ethanol/year. Using cereals as a feedstock will severely complete with their use as food. We need new crops (lignocellulose crops) specifically selected and bred to fit specific energy needs. Main properties of these crops are indicated as well as the breeding strategies to be used to improve the existing species towards the target of producing higher amount of bio ethanol [it

  17. Preliminary study on metallic inclusion in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Imoto, Shosuke

    1984-01-01

    In recent postirradiation tests, metallic fission products such as Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd are known to precipitate as metallic inclusions in the fuel. These inclusions remain as insoluble residues and provide various problems in different fields of the reprocessing. In this report are presented preliminary results of the study on the ternary phase diagram of Mo-Ru-Pd system and on their properties in nitric acid or various oxidative environments. It is concluded that (1) most of metallic inclusions which are insoluble in nitric acid show epsilon phase, Ru base hcp alloy, in which a large amount of Mo and Pd are soluble, (2) Pd, however, seems to deposit separately in the fuel pin because of its high vapor pressure, (3) Mo fraction in the inclusion would be highly dependent on oxygen potential in the fuel pin. (author)

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  19. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  20. Brachypodium distachyon genomics for sustainable food and fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasses are a vital source of food for humanity and are projected to be become an important source of renewable fuel. To provide food, feed and fuel for an ever expanding human population it will be necessary to improve existing grass crops (e.g. wheat, maize, rice) and domesticate perennial grasses...

  1. Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, Raymond R.; Kostelnik, Kevin, M.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-04-01

    The DOE Biomass Program recently implemented the Biofuels Initiative, or 30x30 program, with the dual goal of reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil by making cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with gasoline by 2012 and by replacing 30 percent of gasoline consumption with biofuels by 2030. Experience to date with increasing ethanol production suggests that it distorts agricultural markets and therefore raises concerns about the sustainability of the DOE 30 X 30 effort: Can the U.S. agricultural system produce sufficient feedstocks for biofuel production and meet the food price and availability expectations of American consumers without causing environmental degradation that would curtail the production of both food and fuel? Efforts are underway to develop computer-based modeling tools that address this concern and support the DOE 30 X 30 goals. Beyond technical agronomic and economic concerns, however, such models must account for the publics’ growing interest in sustainable agriculture and in the mitigation of predicted global climate change. This paper discusses ongoing work at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies that investigates the potential consequences and long-term sustainability of projected biomass harvests by identifying and incorporating “sustainable harvest indicators” in a computer modeling strategy.

  2. Preliminary plan for decommissioning - repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Tiberg, Liselotte

    2010-06-01

    The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is part of the KBS-3 system, which also consists of a central facility for interim storage and encapsulation of the spent nuclear fuel and a transport system. The nuclear fuel repository will be a nuclear facility. Regulation SSMFS 2008:1 (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations on safety of nuclear facilities) requires that the licensee must have a current decommissioning plan throughout the facility lifecycle. Before the facility is constructed, a preliminary decommissioning plan should be reported to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. This document is a preliminary decommissioning plan, and submitted as an attachment to SKB's application for a license under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct, own and operate the facility. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel consists of an above ground part and a below ground part and will be built near Forsmark and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR. The parts above and below ground are connected by a ramp and several shafts, e.g. for ventilation. The below ground part consists of a central area, and several landfill sites. The latter form the repository area. The sealed below ground part constitutes the final repository. The decommissioning is taking place after the main operation has ended, that is, when all spent nuclear fuel has been deposited and the deposition tunnels have been backfilled and plugged. The decommissioning involves sealing of the remaining parts of the below ground part and demolition of above ground part. When decommissioning begins, there will be no contamination in the facility. The demolition is therefore performed as for a conventional plant. Demolition waste is sorted and recycled whenever possible or placed in landfill. Hazardous waste is managed in accordance with current regulations. A ground investigation is performed and is the basis for after-treatment of the site. The timetable for the

  3. Preliminary study on direct recycling of spent PWR fuel in PWR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Nuha; Novitriana; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary study on direct recycling of PWR spent fuel to support SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario has been conducted. Several spent PWR fuel compositions in loaded PWR fuel has been evaluated to obtain the criticality of reactor. The reactor can achieve it criticality for U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel is at least 4.0 a% with the minimum fraction of the spent fuel in the core is 15.0 %. The neutron spectra become harder with the escalating of U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel as well as the amount of the spent fuel in the core.

  4. In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of JP-8 and a Fischer- Tropsch synthetic jet fuel following subacute inhalation exposure in rats. Toxicol Sci 116(1): 239-248. Gallinat, J...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0084 IN VITRO STUDIES AND PRELIMINARY MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR JET FUEL AND NOISE INDUCED AUDITORY IMPAIRMENT...April 2014 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory

  5. Development and preliminary analyses of material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle has been developed using ORIGEN-2 code as basic engine. This model has feature of: It can treat more than 1000 nuclides including minor actinides and fission products. It has flexibility of modeling and graph output using a engineering work station. I made preliminary calculation of LWR fuel high burnup effect (reloading fuel average burnup of 60 GWd/t) on nuclear fuel cycle. The preliminary calculation shows LWR fuel high burnup has much effect on Japanese Pu balance problem. (author)

  6. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It could be refined further to produce domestic kerosene and gasoline. The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water ...

  7. Preliminary concepts: coordinated safeguards for materials management in a thorium--uranium fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This report addresses preliminary concepts for coordinated safeguards materials management in a typical generic thorium--uranium-fueled light-water reactor (LWR) fuels reprocessing plant. The reference facility is designed to recover thorium and uranium from first-generation (denatured 235 U) startup fuels, first-recycle and equilibrium (denatured 233 U) thorium--uranium LWR fuels, and to recover the plutonium generated in the 238 U denaturant as well. 12 figures, 3 tables

  8. Save energy: using cellulosic wastes for fuel and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Y.P.

    The development of technology to convert biomass into liquid fuels for transportation uses could reduce dependence on oil imports and make India's economy more stable. The enthusiasm for alcohol fuels, however, competes with food growing. Efforts to find unconventional sources of protein to deal with the malnutrition that accompanies overpopulation also focus on cellulosic wastes and micro-organisms that break down cellulose. India's scientists are looking at microbial proteins from cellulose wastes as a cattle and protein feed. Although micro-organisms are rich and balanced in amino acids, there are some health problems in human consumption of microbial food which need to be resolved before they can provide both economic fuel and food for developing countries.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  11. Preliminary study or RSG-GAS reactor fuel element integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejoedi, A.; Tarigan, A.; Sujalmo; Prayoga, S.; Suhadi

    1996-01-01

    After 8 years of operation, RSG-GAS was able to reach 15 cycles of reactor operation with 116 irradiated fuels, whereas 49 fuels were produced by NUKEM; and the other 67 were produced by PEBN-BATAN. At the 15 T h cycles, it have been used 40 standard fuels and 8 control fuels (Forty standard fuels and eight control fuels have been used in the 15 t h core cycles). Several activities have been performed in the reactor, to investigate the fuel integrity, among of them are: .fuel visual test with under water camera, which the results were recorder in the video cassette, primary water quality test during, reactor operation, fuel failure detector system examination and compared the PIE results in the Radiometallurgy Installation (RMI). The results showed that the fuel integrity, before and after irradiation, have still good performance and the fission products have not been released yet

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  13. Preliminary nuclear design for test MOX Fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Jeong, Hyung Guk; Noh, Jae Man; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young Jin; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1997-10-01

    As a part of activity for future fuel development project, test MOX fuel rods are going to be loaded and irradiated in Halden reactor core as a KAERI`s joint international program with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). PSI will fabricate test MOX rods with attrition mill device which was developed by KAERI. The test fuel assembly rig contains three MOX rods and three inert matrix rods. One of three MOX rods will be fabricated by BNFL, the other two MOX fuel rods will be manufacturing jointly by KAERI and PSI. Three inert matrix fuel rods will be fabricated with Zr-Y-Er-Pu oxide. Neutronic evaluation was preliminarily performed for test fuel assembly suggested by PSI. The power distribution of test fuel rod in test fuel assembly was analyzed for various fuel rods position in assembly and the depletion characteristic curve for test fuel was also determined. The fuel rods position in test fuel assembly does not effect the rod power distribution, and the proposal for test fuel rods suggested by PSI is proved to be feasible. (author). 2 refs., 13 tabs., 16 figs.

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  15. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from....... Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus...... imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  16. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  17. Fiber, food, fuel, and fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L; Marx, D H

    1979-10-26

    Virtually all plants of economic importance form mycorrhizae. These absorbing organs of higher plants result from a symbiotic union of beneficial soil fungi and feeder roots. In forestry, the manipulation of fungal symbionts ecologically adapted to the planting site can increase survival and growth of forest trees, particularly on adverse sites. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, which occur not only on many trees but also on most cultivated crops, are undoubtedly more important to world food crops. Imperatives for mycorrhizal research in forestry and agriculture are (i) the development of mass inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi, (ii) the interdisciplinary coordination with soil management, plant breeding, cultivation practices, and pest control to ensure maximum survival and development of fungal symbionts in the soil, and (iii) the institution of nursery and field tests to determine the circumstances in which mycorrhizae benefit plant growth in forestry and agri-ecosystems.

  18. Food, Feed and Fuel: a Story About Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.; Burke, M. B.; Mooney, H. A.; Steinfeld, H.

    2008-12-01

    Humans obtain metabolic energy by eating food. Nitrogen is required to grow food, but natural supplies of N for human purposes have been inadequate since the beginning of the twentieth century. The Haber-Bosch process now provides a virtually inexhaustible supply of nitrogen, limited primarily by the cost of energy. However, most nitrogen used in food production is lost to the environment, where it cascades through environmental reservoirs contributing to many of the major environmental issues of the day. Furthermore, growing international trade in nitrogen-containing commodities is increasingly replacing wind and water as an important international transporter of nitrogen around the globe. Finally, the rapid growth in crop-based biofuels, and its attendant effects on the global production and trade of all agricultural commodities, could greatly affect global patterns of N use and loss. In the light of the findings above, this paper examines the role of nitrogen in food, feed and fuel production. It describes the beneficial consequences for food production and the negative consequences associated with the commodity nitrogen cascade and the environmental nitrogen cascade. The paper reviews estimates of future projections of nitrogen demands for food and fuel, including the impact of changing diets in the developing world. The paper concludes by presenting the potential interactions among global change, agricultural production and the nitrogen and carbon cycles.

  19. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus of Unconventional Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, L.; Davis, K. F.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2017-12-01

    Extraction of unconventional fossil fuels has increased human pressure on freshwater resources. Shale formations are globally abundant and widespread. Their extraction through hydraulic fracturing, a water-intensive process, may be limited by water availability, especially in arid and semiarid regions where stronger competition is expected to emerge with food production. It is unclear to what extent and where shale resource extraction could compete with local water and food security. Although extraction of shale deposits materializes economic gains and increases energy security, in some regions it may exacerbate the reliance on food imports, thereby decreasing regional food security. We consider the global distribution of known shale deposits suitable for oil and gas extraction and evaluate their impacts on water resources for food production and other human and environmental needs. We find that 17% of the world's shale deposits are located in areas affected by both surface water and groundwater stress, 50% in areas with surface water stress, and about 30% in irrigated areas. In these regions shale oil and shale gas production will likely threaten water and food security. These results highlight the importance of hydrologic analyses in the extraction of fossil fuels. Indeed, neglecting water availability as one of the possible factors constraining the development of shale deposits around the world could lead to unaccounted environmental impacts and business risks for firms and investors. Because several shale deposits in the world stretch across irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions, an adequate development of these resources requires appropriate environmental, economic and political decisions.

  20. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Consumers' perceptions regarding tradeoffs between food and fuel expenditures: A case study of U.S. and Belgian fuel users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipper, Daniel; Popp, Michael; Vickery, Gina; Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels have been suggested as a sustainable alternative to fossil-based fuels, but when produced with inputs traditionally used as food and feed grain, the production of biofuels has contributed to price increases in the food sector. In the fall of 2006, a survey was administered to compare consumer perceptions regarding the tradeoff between renewable fuels and food in the United States (U.S.) (n = 242) and Belgium (n = 363). Results show that respondents in both countries prefer lower food prices to lower fuel prices (67.6% in the U.S. and 78.9% in Belgium). A logit model was estimated to determine which variables impacted whether a consumer favored policies that lower fuel prices at the cost of higher food prices. While the sample of Belgian respondents appeared to realize that lower fuel prices eventually had to come at the cost of higher food prices, the sample of U.S. respondents felt domestic agriculture could provide some low-cost, environmentally friendly alternatives with little impact on food prices. Accessible public transportation in Belgium acted as an important fuel saving strategy in that country and led respondents to emphasize food price decreases over fuel price decreases. Also, respondents with heightened awareness towards the environment recognized that the expansion of renewable fuels may need to come at the cost of higher food prices. These attitudes were similar in both countries. Finally, in both countries older respondents placed more importance on lower food prices than lower fuel prices. (author)

  2. Preliminary test results for post irradiation examination on the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Shohei; Umeda, Masayuki; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Sozawa, Shizuo; Shimizu, Michio; Ishigaki, Yoshinobu; Obata, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The future post-irradiation program for the first-loading fuel of the HTTR is scheduled using the HTTR fuel handling facilities and the Hot Laboratory in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to confirm its irradiation resistance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the core. This report describes the preliminary test results and the future plan for a post-irradiation examination for the HTTR fuel. In the preliminary test, fuel compacts made with the same SiC-coated fuel particle as the first loading fuel were used. In the preliminary test, dimension, weight, fuel failure fraction, and burnup were measured, and X-ray radiograph, SEM, and EPMA observations were carried out. Finally, it was confirmed that the first-loading fuel of the HTTR showed good quality under an irradiation condition. The future plan for the post-irradiation tests was described to confirm its irradiation performance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the HTTR core. (author)

  3. The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa

    2003-01-01

    Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission......Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission...

  4. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information

  5. A preliminary assessment of thorium as a fuel for thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, M.F.; Halsall, M.J.

    1965-08-01

    This report presents a preliminary survey of the contributing factors to total fuel cost, for a variety of potentially economic fuel cycles. U 238 and Th 232 are considered as fertile materials with enrichments of U 235 , U 233 and plutonium. The total fuel cost comprises: (a) a fuel supply cost which is derived from a manufacturing cost and the fuel burnup, (b) as spent fuel credit, and (c) inventory charges. The interrelation of these three factors and their dependence on reactor flux, fuel burnup, the heat rating of the fuel and the interest rate are considered for each combination of fertile and fissile material. Results show inventory charges, spent fuel credit (hence processing costs) and fabrication costs have an important effect on the fuelling cost. In addition, using highly rated thorium-based fuels will affect reactor capital costs. Further, more detailed studies of reactor design, fuel design and fuel management schemes are now required to verify the attraction of using thorium as a reactor fuel. (author)

  6. Design and preliminary results of a fuel flexible industrial gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The design characteristics are presented of a fuel tolerant variable geometry staged air combustor using regenerative/convective cooling. The rich/quench/lean variable geometry combustor is designed to achieve low NO(x) emission from fuels containing fuel bound nitrogen. The physical size of the combustor was calculated for a can-annular combustion system with associated operating conditions for the Allison 570-K engine. Preliminary test results indicate that the concept has the potential to meet emission requirements at maximum continuous power operation. However, airflow sealing and improved fuel/air mixing are necessary to meet Department of Energy program goals.

  7. Preliminary design and analysis on nuclear fuel cycle for fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Wang Minghuang; Jiang Jieqiong

    2012-01-01

    A wet-processing-based fuel cycle and a dry-processing were designed for a fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner (FDS-SFB). Mass flow of SFB was preliminarily analyzed. The feasibility analysis of initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing were preliminarily evaluated. The results of mass flow of FDS-SFB demonstrated that the initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing of nuclear fuel cycle of FDS-SFB is preliminarily feasible. (authors)

  8. Resilience in the Romanian Food Industry. Preliminary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical situations occurring in the food chain represent a cause for concern for companies, consumers and government authorities. Food product supply continuity assurance is supported by economic considerations coming from producers or food product merchants, by the increasing demand that exists on the market or by the political implications regarding food security assurance among the population. The study focuses on assessing the extent to which the food sector economic agents are prepared to face potential critical situations in the unfolding of their business activities. In Romania there haven’t been carried out any studies regarding food chain resilience regarding critical incidents and the economic impact of these incidents on the food sector. The main objective of the research was the Romanian food chain resilience assessment to critical situations, having a highly applicative character. It was based on questionnaires given to a representative sample of companies and it highlighted the food companies’ resilience to critical situations. The responding economic agents were mainly from the agro-food production, food distribution, food production and distribution, and other related domains. The research regarding food chain resilience to critical situations in Romania showed a primary character of the concept; therefore, this sector must be developed both at a strategic and operational level.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The wax content decreases as temperature increases .The highest quantity ... polyethylene are generated . The producers of ... increase in the volume of waste generated daily by its usage in .... aviation industry and other domestic fuel users.

  10. Prototypical spent fuel rod consolidation equipment preliminary design report: Volume 1, Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This design report describes the NUS Preliminary Design of the Prototype Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation Equipment for the Department of Energy. The sections of the report elaborate on each facet of the preliminary design. A concept summary is provided to assist the reader in rapidly understanding the complete design. The NUS Prototype Spent Fuel Rod Consolidation System is an automatically controlled system to consolidate a minimum of 750 MT (heavy metal)/year of US commercial nuclear reactor fuel, at 75% availability. The system is designed with replaceable components utilizing the latest state-of-the-art technology. This approach gives the system the flexibility to be developed without costly development programs, yet accept new technology as it evolves over the next ten years. Capability is also provided in the system design to accommodate a wide variety of fuel conditions and to recover from any situation which may arise

  11. Familiarizing with Toy Food: Preliminary Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A qualitative content analysis of children and parents interacting with toy food in their homes in view of recommendations for developing healthful food preferences. Methods: YouTube videos (n = 101) of children and parents interacting in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Toy food was categorized…

  12. Preliminary Analysis of the Bundle-Duct Interaction for the fuel of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Cheon, Jin Sik; Hahn, Do Hee; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    BDI (Bundle-Duct Interaction) occurs in the fuel of SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) due to the radial expansion and bowing of a fuel pin bundle. Under the BDI condition, excess cladding strain and hot spots would occur. Therefore, BDI, which is the dominant deformation mechanisms in a fuel pin bundle, should be considered to evaluate the FBR fuel integrity. The analysis codes such as ETOILE and BMBOO, have been developed to evaluate the BDI behavior. The bundle duct interaction model is also being developed for SFR in Korea. This model is based on ANSYS. In this paper, the fuel pin configuration model for the BDI calculation was established. The preliminary analysis of the bundle-duct interaction was performed to evaluate the fuel design concept.

  13. Preliminary analysis of aircraft fuel systems for use with broadened specification jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.; Thomas, I.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted on the use of broadened specification hydrocarbon fuels in present day aircraft. A short range Boeing 727 mission and three long range Boeing 747 missions were used as basis of calculation for one-day-per-year extreme values of fuel loading, airport ambient and altitude ambient temperatures with various seasonal and climatic conditions. Four hypothetical fuels were selected; two high-vapor-pressure fuels with 35 kPa and 70 kPa RVP and two high-freezing-point fuels with -29 C and -18 C freezing points. In-flight fuel temperatures were predicted by Boeing's aircraft fuel tank thermal analyzer computer program. Boil-off rates were calculated for the high vapor pressure fuels and heating/insulation requirements for the high freezing point fuels were established. Possible minor and major heating system modifications were investigated with respect to heat output, performance and economic penalties for the high freezing point fuels.

  14. Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.

  15. Preliminary Design Report Shippingport Spent Fuel Drying and Inerting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A process description and system flow sheets have been prepared to support the design/build package for the Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister drying and inerting process skid. A process flow diagram was prepared to show the general steps to dry and inert the Shippingport fuel loaded into SSFCs for transport and dry storage. Flow sheets have been prepared to show the flows and conditions for the various steps of the drying and inerting process. Calculations and data supporting the development of the flow sheets are included

  16. Fuel and Food Are Not Made of Energy-- A Constructive View of Respiration and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We often say that food and fuels "contain" energy, whereas energy is stored in the fuel-oxygen system generated during photosynthesis. This article suggests revised approaches to teaching that make a clear distinction between matter (food, fuel, oxygen) and energy. (Contains 1 table, 5 boxes, and 6 figures.)

  17. Preliminary studies on readiness of biojet fuel for commercial aviation: The feasibility and potential in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, H. Mohd; Mahammad Taher, M. N.; Rodrigo, G. A.; Rahman, N. A. Abdul; Othman, J.; Yahaya, N. H. R.

    2017-12-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a new alternative energy using biojet fuel in commercial aviation. The demand of air travels leads the authority, airlines and government in seeking for new renewable and sustainable energy for aircraft operation in the future. This study looks into the level of readiness in using biofuel. 40 personnel who are working in the aviation industries have participated and completed the survey questionnaires. The preliminary findings suggest that the impact towards this new fuel will lead to a better environment, less cost, better maintenance and energy sustainability. The usage of biojet fuel seems possible to be pursued in Malaysia.

  18. Prototypical spent fuel rod consolidation equipment preliminary design report: Volume 2, Drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume consists of 65 E size drawings and 4 sketches of the NUS spent fuel rod consolidation equipment. The drawings have been grouped into categories; a detailed list of the drawings is included. The sketches prepared during the preliminary design process have been included

  19. The preliminary study of urbanization, fossil fuels consumptions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... As a result the demand of more energy in form of fossil fuels increased for domestic, industrial and transportation purpose. ... During 1980 to 2007 the consumption of oil and petrol, natural gas and coal increased to ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  1. Summary of Preliminary Criticality Analysis for Peach Bottom Fuel in the DOE Standardized Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is developing a standardized set of canisters for DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). These canisters will be used for DOE SNF handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository. Several fuels are being examined in conjunction with the DOE SNF canisters. This report summarizes the preliminary criticality safety analysis that addresses general fissile loading limits for Peach Bottom graphite fuel in the DOE SNF canister. The canister is considered both alone and inside the 5-HLW/DOE Long Spent Fuel Co-disposal Waste Package, and in intact and degraded conditions. Results are appropriate for a single DOE SNF canister. Specific facilities, equipment, canister internal structures, and scenarios for handling, storage, and transportation have not yet been defined and are not evaluated in this analysis. The analysis assumes that the DOE SNF canister is designed so that it maintains reasonable geometric integrity. Parameters important to the results are the canister outer diameter, inner diameter, and wall thickness. These parameters are assumed to have nominal dimensions of 45.7-cm (18.0-in.), 43.815-cm (17.25-in), and 0.953-cm (0.375-in.), respectively. Based on the analysis results, the recommended fissile loading for the DOE SNF canister is 13 Peach Bottom fuel elements if no internal steel is present, and 15 Peach Bottom fuel elements if credit is taken for internal steel

  2. From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

  3. Time-Frequency Dynamics of Biofuel-Fuel-Food System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Janda, K.; Krištoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2013), s. 233-241 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : biofuels * correlations * wavelet coherence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/vacha-time-frequency dynamics of biofuels-fuels-food system.pdf

  4. Preliminary design report: Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissell, W.H.; Ciez, A.P.; Mitchell, J.L.; Winkler, C.J.

    1986-12-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Preliminary Design for the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project per Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC07-86ID12649 and under direction of the DOE Idaho Operations Office. The preliminary design is the first step to providing the Department of Energy with a fully qualified, licensable, cost-effective spent fuel rod consolidation system. The design was developed using proven technologies and equipment to create an innovative approach to previous rod consolidation concepts. These innovations will better enable the Westinghouse system to: consolidate fuel rods in a precise, fully-controlled, accountable manner; package all rods from two PWR fuel assemblies or from four BWR fuel assemblies in one 8.5 inch square consolidated rods canister; meet all functional requirements; operate with all fuel types common to the US commercial nuclear industry with minimal tooling changeouts; and meet consolidation production process rates, while maintaining operator and public health and safety. This Preliminary Design Report provides both detailed descriptions of the equipment required to perform the rod consolidation process and the supporting analyses to validate the design

  5. Preliminary Hazards Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) systematically examines the K-Basin facilities and their supporting systems for hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) which have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. The operational activities examined are fuel encapsulation, fuel storage and cooling. Encapsulation of sludges in the basins is not examined. A team of individuals from Westinghouse produced a set of Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) tables documenting their examination of abnormal process conditions in the systems and activities examined in K-Basins. The purpose of this report is to reevaluate and update the HAZOP in the original Preliminary Hazard Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage originally developed in 1991

  6. FFTF initial fuel loading, preanalyses, and comparison with preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Daughtry, J.W.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Petrowicz, N.E.; Bennett, R.A.; Ombrellaro, P.A.

    1980-02-01

    Disadvantages of conventional loading from the center out were circumvented by loading one trisector at a time, and connecting the control rod drivelines in each sector after it was loaded so that the rods could be operated during the loading of subsequent trisectors. This sequence was interrupted once during the loading of the final sector, to achieve initial criticality at an approximately minimum critical loading and to measure absolute subcriticality by the rod drop technique. An in-core detector was preferable to the standard FTR ex-core detectors for monitoring the initial fuel loading. Consequently, special fission chambers were installed in an instrument thimble near the core center to monitor the initial fuel loading

  7. Preliminary analysis on incore performance of nuclear fuel: pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, S.K.; Chang, M.H.; Lee, C.C.; Chung, Y.H.; Kuk, K.Y.; Park, C.Y.; Lee, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis has been performed for thermal hydraulic design parameters of Wolsung-1 reactor core in steady state with the help of a computer code COBRA-IV-I. The design parameters are coolant enthalpy, flow velocity, coolant quality, pressure and fuel temperature distribution. The maximum power channel has been taken into account in this work. The results appear to be reasonably agreeable with data from PSR'S, with the maximum difference between this work and PSR'S being 4.3%

  8. Rural bioenergy: innovative integrated biosystem design for fuel and food from agrowastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvam, Pagandai V. Pannir; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de S. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)], email: pannirbr@gmail.com; Almeida, Louizy Minora C.A. de; Israel, Samy B.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the leader known for its ethanol biofuel development, but also for biomass charcoal, yet lacks in clean rural biofuel production. This paper deals with the system design for sustainable rural projects developments based on the the bioenergy production from biomass wastes using Innovative process equipment design and the process optimization. With the economic objective towards sustainable clean small scale rural energy production, and also the co-production of hot, cold thermal energy, at first, several preliminary projects had been developed and analysed. Then, a detailed project engineering and the results on economical viability were obtained. The dynamic material, energy and cash flow models of the complex integrated food processing and small scale energy productions, were at first constructed using excel electronic spread sheet for Windows. Computer aided system for process modeling and simulation using SUPERPRO, Intelligent Inc. Economic feasibilities studies using genetics algorithms are under developments. The preliminary analysis of cost and investments of the the integrated biomass utilisation projects which are included for this study are: biological aerobic treatment process, methane gas production using anaerobic digestion process, aerobic composting, drying of tropical fruits, effluent treatments, biogas and syngas production as well as cogeneration of energy production for drying and cooling using biogas. These models allowed us the identification of tech economical and scale up problems. The results obtained with several preliminary project development with few case studies are reported for integrated project developments for fuel and food using process and cost simulation models. Several economic problems related with implementation of the small scale rural energy system for sustained local developments based on tropical fruit producing rural areas are analysed and a concept of the integrated bio system for micro enterprise has been

  9. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of the Fuel Bundle Stiffness by ANSYS for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Cheon, Jin Sik; Hahn, Do Hee; Lee, Chan Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    In SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) the temperature of the fuel pin is higher than that of the hexagonal duct, so the thermal expansion rate of the fuel bundle is higher than that of the duct. The neutron fluence and the fuel pin pressure are also increased according to the burnup. So the radial expansion and bowing of a fuel pin bundle would occur, and then fuel bundle would interact with a duct. This phenomenon is called bundle-to-duct interaction (BDI). Under the BDI condition, excess cladding strain and hot spots would occur. Therefore BDI as well as the core mechanics should be considered to evaluate the FBR fuel integrity. The analysis codes such as ETOILE, SHADOW, and MARSE, have been developed to evaluate the BDI behavior. The ANSYS based model is also being developed to analysis the bundle duct interaction for SFR in Korea. In this paper, the fuel pin/bundle model for analyzing the bending deflection and oval deformation was described. The preliminary analysis of the fuel bundle stiffness was performed by the developed model.

  11. A preliminary approach to identify irradiated foods by thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Choonshik; Kim, Hyoung-Ook; Lim, Yoongho

    2012-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is one of the physical methods for the identification of irradiated foods. Among the currently developed methods, TL is the most widely used method for the identification of irradiated foods. However, in order to use this method, silicate minerals should be isolated from food samples. The process for the isolation of silicate minerals is time consuming and laborious. In this work, we have investigated the applicability of the TL method using iron-containing minerals instead of silicate minerals. In the TL analyses of dried spices, TL glow curves of iron-containing minerals showed maximum temperatures between 150 and 250 °C which were the same as those of silicate minerals. The process for the mineral separation of the proposed method is simple, fast, easy, and reliable. Moreover, the analysis results including TL ratio have not shown significant differences compared with the silicate minerals method. As a result, the TL measurements using the iron-containing minerals could be an excellent method for the identification of the irradiated foods, including dried spices. - Highlights: ► A thermoluminescence method using iron-containing minerals is proposed. ► Current method using silicate minerals is time consuming and laborious. ► However, the proposed method is simple, fast, easy, and reliable. ► Analysis results are similar to those of the silicate minerals method.

  12. LEU fuel development at CERCA. Status as of October 1997. Preliminary developments of MTR plates with UMo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Lavastre, Y.; Grasse, M.

    1997-01-01

    UMo fuels are considered by the RERTR programme because of their higher density as compared to U 3 Si 2 . This paper is focused on the preliminary results about the manufacture feasibility of Uranium/Molybdenum fuel plates carried out by CERCA. A special procedure of casting and heat treatment has been developed in order to get an homogeneous gamma phase of UMo alloy Although U-5%Mo allows to reach densities up to 9.9 U/cm3 with the advanced process developed by CERCA for the high loaded plates, it is not a good candidate on the thermal stability point of view. U-9%Mo alloy seems to gather all the criteria for a good fuel alloy but it is a little less effective on the Uranium density point of view as compared to U-5%Mo alloy. In any case, the preliminary feasibility results are very much encouraging because UMo alloys seem to be compatible with the Aluminium matrix when taking special care while manufacturing. A good compromise could be an intermediate percentage of Molybdenum or the addition of metal traces in order to thermally stabilise 5%Mo. (author)

  13. Preliminary cost analysis of a universal package concept in the spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary cost assessment of a universal spent fuel package concept as it applies to the backend of the once through nuclear fuel cycle; i.e., a package that would be qualified for spent fuel storage, transportation, and disposal. To provide this preliminary cost assessment, costs for each element of the spent fuel management system have been compiled for system scenarios employing the universal package, and these costs are compared against system costs for scenarios employing the universal package, and these costs are compared against system costs for scenarios employing other types of storage, transportation, and disposal packages. The system elements considered in this study are storage at the nuclear power plant, spent fuel transportation, a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and a geologic repository. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, most of these system elements and associated functions will be the responsibility of the Department of Energy. 10 refs., 25 figs., 22 tabs

  14. Experimental-demonstrative system for energy conversion using hydrogen fuel cell - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Patularu, I.; Culcer, M.; Lazar, R.E.; Carcadea, E.; Mirica, D. . E-mail address of corresponding author: daniela@icsi.ro; Stoenescu, D.)

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (natural gas, methane, biomass, etc.), it can be burned or chemically react having a high yield of energy conversion, being a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system made by a sequence of hydrogen purification units and a CO removing reactors until a CO level lower than 10ppm, that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stack. (author)

  15. Fuel-coolant interactions: preliminary experiments on the effect of gases dissolved in the 'coolant'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Davies, D.; Jones, P.G.

    1976-12-01

    A simple apparatus has been used to study fuel-coolant interactions under reasonably well controlled conditions. Preliminary experiments have used water as the 'coolant' and molten tin at 800 0 C as the 'fuel' and have investigated how the violence of the interaction is affected by dissolving gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide) in the water. It was found that saturating the water with carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide completely suppresses the violent interaction. Experiments in which the concentrations of these gases were varied showed that a certain critical concentration was needed; below this concentration the dissolved gas has no significant effect but above it the suppression is

  16. GRIST-2 preliminary test plan and requirements for fuel fabrication and preirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.M.; Harmon, D.P.; Torri, A.

    1978-12-01

    The preliminary version of the GRIST-2 test plan has been developed for the planned initial 5 years (1984 to 1989) of TREAT-Upgrade in-pile tests. These tests will be employed to study the phenomenology and integral behavior of GCFR core disruptive accidents (CDAs) and to support the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) CDA analyses for the demonstration plant licensing. The preliminary test plan is outlined. Test Phases I and II are for the fresh fuel (preconditioned or not) CDA behavior at the beginning-of-life (BOL) reactor state. Phase III is for the reactor state that contains irradiated fuel with a saturated content of helium and fission gas. Phase IV is for larger bundle tests and scaling effects

  17. Preliminary concepts for detecting diversion of LWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, T.A.

    Sandia Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, has been developing conceptual designs of advanced systems to rapidly detect diversion of LWR spent fuel. Three detection options have been identified and compared on the basis of timeliness of detection and cost. Option 1 is based upon inspectors visiting each facility on a periodic basis to obtain and review data acquired by surveillance instruments and to verify the inventory. Option 2 is based upon continuous inspector presence, aided by surveillance instruments. Option 3 is based upon the collection of data from surveillance instruments with periodic readout either at the facility or at a remote central monitoring and display module and occasional inspection. Surveillance instruments are included in each option to assure a sufficiently high probability of detection. An analysis technique with an example logic tree that was used to identify performance requirements is described. A conceptual design has been developed for Option 3 and the essential hardware elements are not being developed. These elements include radiation, crane and pool acoustic sensors, a Data Collection Module, a Local Collection Module, a Local Display Module and a Central Monitoring and Display Module. A demonstration, in operating facilities, of the overall system concept is planned for the March to June 1979 time frame

  18. Preliminary study on flexible core design of super FBR with multi-axial fuel shuffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarman; Yamaji, Akifumi; Someya, Takayuki; Noda, Shogo

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary study has been conducted on developing a new flexible core design concept for the Supercritical water-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (Super FBR) with multi-axial fuel shuffling. The proposed new concept focuses on the characteristic large axial coolant density change in supercritical water cooled reactors (SCWRs) when the coolant inlet temperature is below the pseudocritical point and large coolant enthalpy rise is taken in the core for achieving high thermal efficiency. The aim of the concept is to attain both the high breeding performance and good thermal-hydraulic performance at the same time. That is, short Compound System Doubling Time (CSDT) for high breeding, large coolant enthalpy rise for high thermal efficiency, and large core power. The proposed core concept consists of horizontal layers of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels and depleted uranium (DU) blanket layers at different elevation levels. Furthermore, the upper core and the lower core are separated and independent fuel shuffling schemes in these two core regions are considered. The number of fuel batches and fuel shuffling scheme of the upper core were changed to investigate influence of multi-axial fuel shuffling on the core characteristics. The core characteristics are evaluated with-three-dimensional diffusion calculations, which are fully-coupled with thermal-hydraulics calculations based on single channel analysis model. The results indicate that the proposed multi-axial fuel shuffling scheme does have a large influence on CSDT. Further investigations are necessary to develop the core concept. (author)

  19. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monikankana; Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW th with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application

  20. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-15

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.

  1. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-01

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions

  2. Preliminary report. Preliminary findings and views concerning the exemption of kerojet fuels from the Mandatory Petroleum Allocation and Price Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary findings indicate the following: kerojet fuel is not in short supply; it will not adversely impact on the supply of other petroleum products subject to the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act; competition and market forces are adequate; and it will not result in inequitable prices for kerojet or other products. Chapter II provides background information on the use, production, and distribution of kerojet. Chapter III analyzes the historical interaction of supply, demand, and price, and explores the market structure for kerojet during 1968 to 1976, prior to and during imposition of allocation and price controls. Chapter IV examines the effect upon kerojet supply, demand, price, and market structure of exempting kerojet from controls and indicates the benefits to be derived from such exemption. In Chapter V, the potential economic impacts of exemption are evaluated. Chapter VI provides a final summary of the DOE's findings and views in support of its preliminary judgment that kerojet should be exempted from allocation and price regulations. (MCW)

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  4. Biofuel impacts on world food supply: use of fossil fuel, land and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, D.; Marklein, A.; Toth, M. A.; Karpoff, M.; Paul, G. S.; McCormack, R.; Kyriazis, J.; Krueger, T.

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%. (author)

  5. FOOD VS. FUEL – A TURNING POINT FOR BIOETHANOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Harlander

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently concerns have been raised that biofuels would affect food prices. Bioethanol is made from sugar or starch containing plants that are also used in food production. In public perception this led to an emotional resistance against biofuels that in real terms is not substantiated. Generally, biofuels are a political product. Triggered by the oil crisis in the early 1970ies national fuel ethanol programmes were first launched in Brazil and in the United States. Concerns regarding energy security and sustainability together with the option of new markets for surplus agricultural production in recent years led to similar policy measures in the European Union and in numerous countries around the globe. Accordingly the industry invested heavily in new bioethanol plants - especially in the US – and created an additional demand for corn and wheat with some record-breaking prices noted in late 2007. A look back into statistics shows a drastic decline of real prices for decades and by now they are only back at the level of 30 years ago. One important detail is the real portion of grain used for bioethanol, which is still only 1.6 percent in the EU and therefore unlikely to be the real driver for the price development. Moreover the share of raw material is up to 70% of bioethanol production cost that makes the bioethanol industry itself a victim of price increases. Subsequently investor interest in this field slowed down, a development also watched in the US. The prospects of the agricultural markets of the European Commission conclude that Europe can do both, nutrition and biofuels.

  6. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed

  7. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed.

  8. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Bolwig, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may...... be a holistic approach to solving these issues. We study four approaches to providing food and fuel for cooking in a small-scale farming community. Present practice (PP) of synthetic fertilizer based food production and provision of wood fuel from outside the farming area is compared to three modeled...

  9. Preliminary report on the experiment performed in MARIUS reactor loaded with teledial fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estiot, J C; Morier, F

    1972-06-15

    The experimental work described in this paper is part of a collaborative programme agreed between CEA and the Dragon Project. The aim of the programme is the measurement of the relative conversion ratio in a reactor loaded with Teledial fuel elements. The results will allow us to check our calculational methods and assumptions upon which the calculations are based, in the case of a teledial core, which represents a very complicated geometry, specially, due to the presence of the U238 with its resonance. The programme of experiments described in the paper have been completed. Some preliminary results are presented in the second part of this report (Part 2).

  10. Preliminary study on the feasibility of ductless fuel assembly for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibahara, Itaru; Enokido, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary study on the feasibility of ductless fuel assembly for fast reactors has been conducted. The primary concern is with forecasting the thermal hydraulic characteristics and the heat removal efficiency from the core. The thermal hydraulic analysis revealed the coolant mixing in the core at steady state operating condition was not intensive and the coolant temperature increase was almost proportional to the power of each assembly. The hot spot analysis of the ductless core indicated that the hottest temperature in the core could be comparable with the temperature of the conventional ducted core, even in case the radial power flattening was not actively pursued but with adopting ducted radial blanket assemblies. Under off-normal conditions, the ductless core had improved heat removal capability which was caused by inter-assembly coolant flow. The study has indicated the feasibility of the ductless fuel assembly for fast reactors. The experiments to demonstrate the feasibility will be the next key process for the development. (author)

  11. Development and preliminary validation of the food intolerance Quality of Life Questionnaire (FIQLQ): Adult Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey; Barnett, Julie; Begen, Fiona M; Ryan, Kathleen; Lucas, Jane S

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of children and adults avoid certain foods because of perceived food intolerance. Valid and reliable health-related quality of life instruments are needed to measure changes following clinical, therapeutic or policy interventions. However, there are no disease-specific quality of life instruments for adults with food intolerances. To develop the Food Intolerance Quality of Life Questionnaire FIQLQ. Then to conduct psychometric validation including reliability and construct validity. We adapted the existing Food Allergy Quality of Life questionnaire (FAQLQ) for interviews with 14 adults with food intolerance. For preliminary psychometric validation, 229 adults with food intolerances completed the online electronic version of FIQLQ. The resultant FIQLQ had 18 items which loaded onto 3 subscales-Emotional Impact, Social and Dietary Restrictions, Reactions and Avoidance. Each subscale had excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α 0.81-0.94). Content, convergent and construct validity was supported by significant correlations of FIQLQ subscale scores with hypothesised variables including age, numbers of symptoms and level of stress experienced due to intolerance. The FIQLQ has good reliability, construct validity and internal consistency. It is short and easy to use, providing a good tool for evaluating quality of life in the clinical research setting and to inform health and regulatory policies.

  12. Preliminary CFD analysis methodology for flow in a LFR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, A.; Ioan, M.; Serbanel, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed in order to setup a methodology to be used for more complex coolant flow analysis inside ALFRED nuclear reactor fuel assembly. The core contains 171 separated fuel assembly, each consisting in a hexagonal array of 127 fuel rods. Three honey comb spacer grids are proposed along fuel rods with the aim to keep flow geometry intact during reactor operation. The main goal of this paper is to compute some hydraulic parameters: pressure, velocity, wall shear stress and turbulence parameters with and without spacer grids. In this analysis we consider an adiabatic case, so far no heat transfer is considered but we pave the road toward more complex thermo hydraulic analysis for ALFRED (LFR in general). The CAELINUX CFD distribution was used with its main components: Salome-Meca (for geometry and mesh) and Code-Saturne as mono-phase CFD solver. Paraview and Visist Postprocessors were used for data extraction and graphical displays. (authors)

  13. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  14. A crop production ecology (CPE) approach to sustainable production of biomass for food, feed and fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Conijn, J.G.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid increase in demand for agricultural products for food, feed and fuel, concerns are growing about sustainability issues. Can agricultural production meet the needs of increasing numbers of people consuming more animal products and using a larger share of crops as fuel for transport,

  15. Preliminary design report for prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, B.F.; Maillet, J.; O'Neill, G.L.; Tsitsichvili, J.; Tucoulat, D.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project (PCDP) is to develop and demonstrate the equipment system that will be used to consolidate the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel generated in the United States prior to its placement in a geological repository. The equipment must thus be capable of operating on a routine production basis over a long period of time with stringent requirements for safety, reliability, productivity and cost-effectiveness. Four phases are planned for the PCDP. Phase 1 is the Preliminary Design of generic consolidation equipment that could be installed at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility or in the Receiving ampersand Handling Facility at a geologic repository site. Phase 2 will be the Final Design and preparation of procurement packages for the equipment in a configuration capable of being installed and tested in a special enclosure within the TAN Hot Shop at DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In Phase 3 the equipment will be fabricated and then tested with mock fuel elements in a contractor's facility. Finally, in Phase 4 the equipment will be moved to the TAN facility for demonstration operation with irradiated spent fuel elements. 55 figs., 15 tabs

  16. Non destructive examination of UN / U-Si fuel pellets using neutrons (preliminary assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Voit, Stewart Lancaster [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Losko, Adrian S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tremsin, Anton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Tomographic imaging and diffraction measurements were performed on nine pellets; four UN/ U Si composite formulations (two enrichment levels), three pure U3Si5 reference formulations (two enrichment levels) and two reject pellets with visible flaws (to qualify the technique). The U-235 enrichments ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 wt.%. The nitride/silicide composites are candidate compositions for use as Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF). The monophase U3Si5 material was included as a reference. Pellets from the same fabrication batches will be inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho during 2016. The goal of the Advanced Non-destructive Fuel Examination work package is the development and application of non-destructive neutron imaging and scattering techniques to ceramic and metallic nuclear fuels. Data reported in this report were collected in the LANSCE run cycle that started in September 2015 and ended in March 2016. Data analysis is ongoing; thus, this report provides a preliminary review of the measurements and provides an overview of the characterized samples.

  17. Food allergy diagnosis in patients with elimination diet history. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Maureen Navarrete-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy diagnosis is performed by a double blind placebo controlled challenge; however, in a lot of patients, it is only based on clinical history, skin prick tests, or parents’ perception. There is a high frequency of elimination diets without an adequate approach. Objective: To analyze the results of diagnostic tests in a group of children with elimination diet-based on suspected food allergy and verify such studies with double blind placebo-controlled test challenge. Material and method: An observational, analytical and prospective study was done in a group of patients with elimination diet for suspected food allergy. We performed prick test, Prick-to-Prick test and patch test and the positive ones were verified by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge. Results: Fourty-three patients were included within a total of 1,935 tests. Both approach for immediate and late sensitivity had not statistically significant relationship between a positive test and the elimination of food. Until now, we had 4 (8% positive challenges out of 50. Conclusion: The frequency of allergy proved by double-blind placebo-controlled test in 50 challenges was of 8% (4/50, thus, in the preliminary report we found a high frequency of elimination diets without adequate support. It is very important that food allergy diagnosis is accurate and based on an appropriate approach; since the implementation of an elimination diet in pediatric population can have a negative influence on their growth and development.

  18. Preliminary decay heat calculations for the fuel loaded irradiation loop device of the RMB multipurpose Brazilian reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campolina, Daniel; Costa, Antonio Carlos L. da; Andrade, Edison P., E-mail: campolina@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclp@cdtn.br, E-mail: epa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SETRE/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The structuring project of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is responsible for meeting the capacity to develop and test materials and nuclear fuel for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. An irradiation test device (Loop) capable of performing fuel test for power reactor rods is being conceived for RMB reflector. In this work preliminary neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to determine parameters to the cooling system of the Loop basic design. The heat released as a result of radioactive decay of fuel samples was calculated using ORIGEN-ARP and it resulted less than 200 W after 1 hour of irradiation interruption. (author)

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  20. A Preliminary Study on the Reuse of the Recovered Uranium from the Spent CANDU Fuel Using Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. J.; Na, S. H.; Yang, J. H.; Kang, K. H.; Lee, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    During the pyroprocessing, most of the uranium is gathered in metallic form around a solid cathode during an electro-refining process, which is composed of about 94 weight percent of the spent fuel. In the previous study, a feasibility study has been done to reuse the recovered uranium for the CANDU reactor fuel following the traditional DUPIC (direct use of spent pressurized water reactor fuel into CANDU reactor) fuel fabrication process. However, the weight percent of U-235 in the recovered uranium is about 1 wt% and it is sufficiently re-utilized in a heavy water reactor which uses a natural uranium fuel. The reuse of recovered uranium will bring not only a huge economic profit and saving of uranium resources but also an alleviation of the burden on the management and the disposal of the spent fuel. The research on recycling of recovered uranium was carried out 10 years ago and most of the recovered uranium was assumed to be imported from abroad at that time. The preliminary results showed there is the sufficient possibility to recycle recovered uranium in terms of a reactor's characteristics as well as the fuel performance. However, the spent CANDU fuel is another issue in the storage and disposal problem. At present, most countries are considering that the spent CANDU fuel is disposed directly due to the low enrichment (∼0.5 wt%) of the discharge fissile content and lots of fission products. If mixing the spent CANDU fuel and the spent PWR fuel, the estimated uranium fissile enrichment will be about 0.6 wt% ∼ 1.0 wt% depending on the mixing ratio, which is sufficiently reusable in a CANDU reactor. Therefore, this paper deals with a feasibility study on the recovered uranium of the mixed spent fuel from the pyroprocessing. With the various mixing ratios between the PWR spent fuel and the CANDU spent fuel, a reactor characteristics including the safety parameters of the CANDU reactor was evaluated

  1. Preliminary conceptual designs for advanced packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    The present study assumes that the spent fuel will be disposed of in mined repositories in continental geologic formations, and that the post-emplacement control of the radioactive species will be accomplished independently by both the natural barrier, i.e., the geosphere, and the engineered barrier system, i.e., the package components consisting of the stabilizer, the canister, and the overpack; and the barrier components external to the package consisting of the hole sleeve and the backfill medium. The present document provides an overview of the nature of the spent fuel waste; the general approach to waste containment, using the defense-in-depth philosophy; material options, both metallic and nonmetallic, for the components of the engineered barrier system; a set of strawman criteria to guide the development of package/engineered barrier systems; and four preliminary concepts representing differing approaches to the solution of the containment problem. These concepts use: a corrosion-resistant meta canister in a special backfill (2 barriers); a mild steel canister in a corrosion-resistant metallic or nonmetallic hole sleeve, surrounded by a special backfill (2 barriers); a corrosion-resistant canister and a corrosion-resistant overpack (or hole sleeve) in a special backfill (3 barriers); and a mild steel canister in a massive corrosion-resistant bore sleeve surrounded by a polymer layer and a special backfill (3 barriers). The lack of definitive performance requirements makes it impossible to evaluate these concepts on a functional basis at the present time.

  2. Preliminary analysis of the creep behaviour of nuclear fuel-waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Leitch, B.W.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Kasprick, G.R.

    1996-12-01

    In the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, it is proposed that nuclear fuel waste be placed in a durable container and disposed of in a deep underground vault. Consideration of various disposal-container designs has identified either titanium or copper as the material suitable for constructing the container shell. As part of the R and D program to examine the structural integrity of the container, creep tests are being conducted on commercially pure titanium and oxygen-free copper. This report presents the preliminary data obtained. It also describes the evaluation of various constitutive equations to represent the creep curves, thus providing the basis for extrapolation of the creep behaviour over the design lifetime of the container. In this regard, a specific focus is placed on equations derived from the 0-Projection Concept. Recognizing that the container lifetime will be determined by the onset of tertiary creep leading to creep rupture, we present the results of the metallographic examination of creep damage. This shows that the tertiary stage in titanium is associated with the formation of transgranular cavities within the region of localized necking of the creep specimens. In contrast, creep damage in copper is in the form of intergranular cavities uniformly distributed throughout the gauge length. These results are analyzed within the context of the extant literature, and their implications for future container design are discussed. (author)

  3. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  4. Preliminary analysis of in-reactor behavior of three MOX fuel rods in the halden reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Byung Ho; Sohn, Dong Seong; Joo, Hyung Kook

    1999-09-01

    Preliminary analysis of in-reactor thermal performance for three MOX fuel rods that are going to be irradiated in the Halden reactor from the first quarter of the year 2000 have been conducted by using the computer code COSMOS. Using the assumption that microstructure of MOX fuel fabricated by SBR and dry milling method is the same, parametric studies have been carried out considering four kinds of uncertainties, which are thermal conductivity, linear power, manufacturing parameters, and model constant, to investigate the effect of each of uncertainty on in-reactor behavior. It is found that the uncertainty of model constants for FGR has a greatest impact of the all because the amount of gas released to the gap is one of the parameters that dominantly affects the gap conductance. The parametric analysis shows that, tn the case of MOX-1, calculational results vary widely depending on the choice of model constants for FGR. Therefore, the model constants for FGR for the present test need to be established through the measured fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure, stack length if any, and finally thermal conductivity derived from measured data during irradiation. On the other hand, the difference in thermal performance of MOX-3 resulting from the choice of FGR model constants is not so large as that for MOX-1. This might arise, since the temperature of the MOX-3 is high, the capacity of grain boundaries to retain gas atoms is not sufficient enough to accommodate the large amount of gas atoms reaching the grain boundaries through diffusion. (Author). 20 refs., 7 tabs., 47 figs

  5. Preliminary analysis of in-reactor behavior of three MOX fuel rods in the halden reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Byung Ho; Sohn, Dong Seong; Joo, Hyung Kook

    1999-09-01

    Preliminary analysis of in-reactor thermal performance for three MOX fuel rods that are going to be irradiated in the Halden reactor from the first quarter of the year 2000 have been conducted by using the computer code COSMOS. Using the assumption that microstructure of MOX fuel fabricated by SBR and dry milling method is the same, parametric studies have been carried out considering four kinds of uncertainties, which are thermal conductivity, linear power, manufacturing parameters, and model constant, to investigate the effect of each of uncertainty on in-reactor behavior. It is found that the uncertainty of model constants for FGR has a greatest impact of the all because the amount of gas released to the gap is one of the parameters that dominantlyaffects the gap conductance. The parametric analysis shows that, tn the case of MOX-1, calculational results vary widely depending on the choice of model constants for FGR. Therefore, the model constants for FGR for the present test need to be established through the measured fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure, stack length if any, and finally thermal conductivity derived from measured data during irradiation. On the other hand, the difference in thermal performance of MOX-3 resulting from the choice of FGR model constants is not so large as that for MOX-1. This might arise, since the temperature of the MOX-3 is high, the capacity of grain boundaries to retain gas atoms is not sufficient enough to accommodate the large amount of gas atoms reaching the grain boundaries through diffusion. (Author). 20 refs., 7 tabs., 47 figs.

  6. Preliminary study about refining wood fuel with torrefaction; Esiselvitys puupolttoaineen jalostamisesta torrefiointitekniikalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, E.; Heinimoe, J.

    2006-07-01

    The EU has started to reduce greenhouse gases which are the result of using fossil fuels. One way to do this is emission trade. There are plans to generate biofuels to replace non-renewable fuels. These biofuels can be processed with the old equipment in power plants. The advantage of biofuels is that their emission factor of carbon dioxide is agreed to be zero because wood consumes the same amount of carbon dioxide while it grows as it releases in combustion. One of these refined biofuels is torrefied wood. Its characteristics mostly correspond to coal, and it can be used in coal-fired power plants without changing equipment. Torrefaction means, in a manner of speaking, roasting wood in 250-270 deg C in oxygen-free conditions. In this process all the water is removed, as well as some of the volatile gases. The colour of the wood changes to chocolate brown, it gets lighter, does not smoke in combustion, repels water, is pulverized easily and releases only small amounts of particulate emissions. The durability and operating properties of torrefied wood are significantly different compared to the raw material. Torrefied wood also has better properties than e.g. wood coal. Torrefaction has been studied a little, and its combustion on the power plant scale has been tested on a small scale. Torrefied material is difficult and expensive to transport because of its proper-ties, so its density must be raised for transporting, e.g. by pelleting. Torrefaction combined with pelleting is, at its best, would be a competitive alternative when biomass, substituting coal, is processed off-site and transported in bulk by sea. Based on the data collected in this preliminary study it can be estimated that producing torrefied wood fuel in Finland has technical-economical possibilities. However, the application of the torrefaction process to Finnish conditions and domestic raw material demands investment in further studies before moving on to the actual implementation phase. (orig.)

  7. A preliminary evaluation of the ability of from-reactor casks to geometrically accommodate commercial LWR spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.; McLeod, N.B.; Rahimi, M.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The DOE has sponsored a number of cask design efforts to define several transportation casks to accommodate the various assemblies expected to be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System. At this time, three preliminary cask designs have been selected for the final design - the GA-4 and GA-9 truck casks and the BR-100 rail cask. The GA-4 cask is designed for PWR fuel only; the GA-9 cask is a longer cask with less shielding designed for BWR fuel only; and the BR-100 cask is designed to accommodate both PWR and BWR fuels. In total, this assessment indicates that the current Initiative I cask designs can be expected to dimensionally accommodate 100% of the PWR fuel assemblies (other than the extra-long South Texas Fuel) with control elements removed, and >90% of the assemblies having the control elements as an integral part of the fuel assembly. For BWR assemblies, >99% of the assemblies can be accommodated with fuel channels removed. Because of the button and spring interference, the basket openings in these casks will not accommodate assemblies in the BWR/2,3 and BWR/4-6 fuel classes with the fuel channels in place

  8. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose.

  9. Food versus fuel: What do prices tell us?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zibin; Lohr, Luanne; Escalante, Cesar; Wetzstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sorting out the impacts of biofuels on global agricultural commodity prices is impossible without turning to data and distinguishing between the short-run versus the long-run impacts. Using time-series prices on fuels and agricultural commodities, the aim is to investigate the long-run cointegration of these prices simultaneously with their multivariate short-run interactions. Results indicate no direct long-run price relations between fuel and agricultural commodity prices, and limited if any direct short-run relationships. In terms of short-run price movements, sugar prices are influencing all the other agricultural commodity prices except rice. With sugar the number one world input for ethanol, results indicate increased ethanol production is potentially influencing short-run agricultural commodity prices. Overall, results support the effect of agricultural commodity prices as market signals which restore commodity markets to their equilibria after a demand or supply event (shock).

  10. A preliminary evaluation of the ability of from-reactor casks to geometrically accommodate commercial LWR spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.; Joy, D.S.; McLeod, N.B.; Peterson, R.W.; Rahimi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of cask design efforts to define several transportation casks to accommodate the various assemblies expected to be accepted by the Federal Waste Management System. At this time, three preliminary cask designs have been selected for the final design--the GA-4 and GA-9 truck casks and the BR-100 rail cask. In total, this assessment indicates that the current Initiative I cask designs can be expected to dimensionally accommodate 100% of the PWR fuel assemblies (other than the extra-long South Texas Fuel) with control elements removed, and >90% of the assemblies having the control elements as an integral part of the fuel assembly. For BWR assemblies, >99% of the assemblies can be accommodated with fuel channels removed. This paper summarizes preliminary results of one part of that evaluation related to the ability of the From-Reactor Initiative I casks to accommodate the physical and radiological characteristics of the Spent Nuclear Fuel projected to be accepted into the Federal Waste Management System. 3 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Preliminary study on detection technology of the cladding weld of spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pan; Cui, Hongyan; Feng, Meiming; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng; Li, Wei

    2018-04-01

    As the first barrier of the Spent fuel storage pool, the steel cladding using different sizes (length×width) of 304L stainless steel with 3˜6mm thickness plate argon arc welded together which is direct contacted with boric acid water. Environmental humidity between the back of steel cladding and concrete, makes phosphate, chloride ion overflowed from the concrete that corroded on the weld zone with different mechanism. Part of the corrosion defects can penetrate leaded to leakage of boric acid water in penetration position accelerated crack propagation. In view of the above situation and combined with the actual needs of the power plant, the development of effective underwater nondestructive testing means of the weld area for periodic inspection and monitoring is necessary. A single method may lead to the missing of defects detection due to weld reinforcement unpolished. In this paper, eddy current array (ARRAY) and Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) are adapted to test the limit sensitivity and resolution through by the specimens with artificial defects which make their detection abilities close to satisfy engineering requirements. The preliminary study found that Φ0.5mm through-wall hole and with 2mm length and 0.3mm width through-wall crack in the weld can be good inspected.

  12. Preliminary design report: Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information on burnup credit as applied to the preliminary design of the BR-100 shipping cask. There is a brief description of the preliminary basket design and the features used to maintain a critically safe system. Following the basket description is a discussion of various criticality analyses used to evaluate burnup credit. The results from these analyses are then reviewed in the perspective of fuel burnups expected to be shipped to either the final repository or a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The hurdles to employing burnup credit in the certification of any cask are then outlines and reviewed. the last section gives conclusions reached as to burnup credit for the BR-100 cask, based on our analyses and experience. All information in this study refers to the cask configured to transport PWR fuel. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel satisfies the criticality requirements so that burnup credit is not needed. All calculations generated in the preparation of this report were based upon the preliminary design which will be optimized during the final design. 8 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Economic impacts from shifting cropland use from food to fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneses, Anton; Hanson, Kenneth; Shapouri, Hosein

    1998-01-01

    Without the availability of idle cropland, biomass energy crops will have to compete with other crops and pasture land use. In this paper, we investigate: (a) the economic feasibility of using cropland, traditionally used for pasture, hay and other commodity crops, for production of biomass crops to be used as an energy source for electric utilities; (b) the impact of biomass crop production on crop and livestock prices, farm income, and the cost of food to consumers. We find a $1-4 billion demand for biomass crops may result in a 2-12% impact on farm sector prices. This impact warrants further exploration into estimating the opportunity cost for biomass crop production when idle cropland is not available. (Author)

  14. Queueing in a spent fuel transportation system - preliminary analysis of implications for system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Wood, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Compliance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (PL 97-425) will require the transportation of large volumes of spent fuel to a central receiving facility (either a geologic repository or a monitored retrievable storage facility). Decisions on the transport mode and technology will evolve over the next several years, in anticipation of the deployment of a receiving facility in the late 1990s. Regardless of the particular transportation mode or modes and the details of cask technology, the transport system from many diverse sources to a single point will generate an essentially random arrival pattern. This random arrival pattern will lead to the formation of queues at the receiving facility. As is normal in any queueing system, the waiting time distribution caused by this queueing will depend on the receiving facility input processing rate and the characteristics of the traffic. Since this is a cyclic system, there is also a reverse effect in which (for a given size cask fleet) average wait time affects traffic intensity. Both effects must be accounted for to properly represent the system. This paper develops a simple analytic queueing model which accounts for both of these effects simultaneously. Since both effects are determined by receiving facility input rates and cask fleet size and characteristics, two major sets of system design parameters are linked by the queueing process. The model is used with estimated traffic and service parameters to predict the severity of queueing under plausible reference system conditions, and to establish shadow prices for the trade off between larger cask fleets and more efficient receiving facilities. Since many of the parameter values used in this estimation are quite preliminary, these results are presented primarily in the context of demonstrating the utility of the queueing model for future trade off studies

  15. Queueing in a spent fuel transportation system: a preliminary analysis of implications for system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Wood, T.W.

    1985-03-01

    Compliance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (PL 97-425) will require the transportation of large volumes of spent fuel to a central receiving facility (Either a geologic repository or a monitored retrievable storage facility). Decisions on the transport mode and technology will evolve over the next several years, in anticipation of the deployment of a receiving facility in the late 1990s. Regardless of the particular transportation mode or modes and the details of cask technology, the transport system from many diverse sources to a single point will generate an essentially random arrival pattern. This random arrival pattern will lead to the formation of queues at the receiving facility. As is normal in any queueing system, the waiting time distribution caused by this queueing will depend on the receiving facility input processing rate and the characteristics of the traffic. Since this is a cyclic system, there is also a reverse effect in which (for a given size cask fleet) average wait time affects traffic intensity. Both effects must be accounted for to properly represent the system. This paper develops a simple analytic queueing model which accounts for both of these effects simultaneously. Since both effects are determined by receiving facility input and cask fleet size characteristics, two major sets of system design parameters are linked by the queueing process. The model is used with estimated traffic and service parameters to predict the severity of queueing under plausible reference system conditions, and to establish ''shadow prices'' for the trade off between larger cask fleets and more efficient receiving facilities. Since many of the parameter values used in this estimation are quite preliminary, these results are presented primarily in the context of demonstrating the utility of the queueing model for future trade off studies. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. 4F CROPS: Future crops for food, feed, fibre and fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Alexopoulou, E.; Christou, M.; Eleftheriadis, I. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    As different sectors - food, feed, fiber, and fuels - compete for land, the yielding potential of the future non-food crops has to be as efficient as possible in order to minimize the competition for land. The main objective of 4F CROPS project is to survey and analyze all the parameters that will play an important role in successful non-food cropping systems in the agriculture of EU27 alongside the existing food crop systems. The work will start with the prediction of the future land use in short term (2020) and long term (2030), taking under consideration restrict factors for agriculture and the market demand for non-food crops. The cropping possibilities based on regional potential levels, ecology and climate will be determined. This group of non-food crops will be then subjected to a comparative cost analysis with conventional crops for the same time framework. Socio-economic impacts, like farmers' income, rural development, public development, and public acceptance will analyze. Then environmental implications will be assessed compared to their respective conventional products (fossil energy, conversional materials). Several environmental impacts will be assessed like soil quality and soil erosion, air quality and climate change, water issues, biodiversity and landscape by using LCA and EIE methods. The regulatory framework of the non-food crops will be considered including existing policies, co-existence and safety measures when the crops used for both food and non-food crops. All the collected information will be used for the formation of scenarios for successful non-food cropping alongside food cropping systems answering whether a completive bioeconomy is a viable option for EU27.

  17. The preliminary design and feasibility study of the spent fuel and high level waste repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.; Holub, J.; Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the year 1993, began the Program of Development of the Spent Fuel and High Level Waste Repository in the Conditions of the Czech Republic. During the first phase, the basic concept and structure of the Program has been developed, and the basic design criteria and requirements were prepared. In the conditions of the Czech Republic, only an underground repository in deep geological formation is acceptable. Expected depth is between 500 to 1000 meters and as host rock will be granites. A preliminary variant design study was realized in 1994, that analyzed the radioactive waste and spent fuel flow from NPPs to the repository, various possibilities of transportation in accordance to the various concepts of spent fuel conditioning and transportation to the underground structures. Conditioning and encapsulation of spent fuel and/or radioactive waste is proposed on the repository site. Underground disposal structures are proposed at one underground floor. The repository will have reserve capacity for radioactive waste from NPPs decommissioning and for waste non acceptable to other repositories. Vertical disposal of unshielded canisters in boreholes and/or horizontal disposal of shielded canisters is studied. As the base term of the start up of the repository operation, the year 2035 has been established. From this date, a preliminary time schedule of the Project has been developed. A method of calculating leveled and discounted costs within the repository lifetime, for each of selected 5 variants, was used for economic calculations. Preliminary expected parametric costs of the repository are about 0,1 Kc ($0.004) per MWh, produced in the Czech NPPs. In 1995, the design and feasibility study has gone in more details to the technical concept of repository construction and proposed technologies, as well as to the operational phase of the repository. Paper will describe results of the 1995 design work and will present the program of the repository development in next period

  18. Fuel-cycle facilities: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the mining and milling of uranium and thorium; uranium hexafluoride conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; reprocessing; storage options; waste disposal options; transportation; heavy-water-production facilities; and international fuel service centers.

  19. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  20. Fuel-cycle facilities: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the mining and milling of uranium and thorium; uranium hexafluoride conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; reprocessing; storage options; waste disposal options; transportation; heavy-water-production facilities; and international fuel service centers

  1. Incorporation of new tables into the preliminary structure of BDCN - nuclear fuel data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, J.B.S.; Andrade, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The structure of the new tables related to fuel elements, fuel rods and fuel pellets have been incorporated into the developing structure of BDCN - nuclear fuel data base, are described. The list of all 44 tables structured up to now, with identification of its primary keys, as well as the reduced set of data has been entered to run the simulations are also presented. The simulation tests have been ran using a microcomputer.(M.I.)

  2. Methodology and a preliminary data base for examining the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    An analytical model was developed to assess and examine the health effects associated with the production of electricity from uranium and coal fuels. The model is based on a systematic methodology that is both simple and easy to check, and provides details about the various components of health risk. A preliminary set of data that is needed to calculate the health risks was gathered, normalized to the model facilities, and presented in a concise manner. Additional data will become available as a result of other evaluations of both fuel cycles, and they should be included in the data base. An iterative approach involving only a few steps is recommended for validating the model. After each validation step, the model is improved in the areas where new information or increased interest justifies such upgrading. Sensitivity analysis is proposed as the best method of using the model to its full potential. Detailed quantification of the risks associated with the two fuel cycles is not presented in this report. The evaluation of risks from producing electricity by these two methods can be completed only after several steps that address difficult social and technical questions. Preliminary quantitative assessment showed that several factors not considered in detail in previous studies are potentially important. 255 refs., 21 figs., 179 tabs.

  3. A Preliminary Design Study of Ultra-Long-Life SFR Cores having Heterogeneous Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, GeonHee; You, WuSeung; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The PWR and CANDU reactors have provided electricity for several decades in our country but they have produced lots of spent fuels and so the safe and efficient disposal of these spent fuels is one of the main issues in nuclear industry. This type ultra-long-life cores are quite efficient in terms of the amount of spent fuel generation per electricity production and they can be used as an interim storage for PWR or CANDU spent fuel over several tens of years if they use the PWR or CANDU spent fuel as the initial fuel. Typically, the previous works have considered radially homogeneous fuel assemblies in which only blanket or driver fuel rods are employed and they considered axially or radially heterogeneous core configurations with the radially homogeneous fuel assemblies. These core configurations result in the propagation of the power distribution which can lead to the significant temperature changes for each fuel assembly over the time. In this work, the radially heterogeneous fuel assemblies are employed in new ultra-long-life SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) cores to minimize the propagation of power distribution by allowing the power propagation in the fuel assemblies. In this work, new small ultra-long life SFR cores were designed with heterogeneous fuel assemblies having both blanket and driver fuel rods to minimize the propagation of power distribution over the core by allowing power propagation from driver rods to blanket rods in fuel assemblies. In particular, high fidelity depletion calculation coupled with heterogeneous Monte Carlo neutron transport calculation was performed to assess the neutronic feasibility of the ultralong life cores. The results of the analysis showed that the candidate core has the cycle length of 77 EFPYs, a small burnup reactivity swing of 1590 pcm and acceptably small SVRs both at BOC and EOC.

  4. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae

    2014-01-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  5. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  6. Preliminary investigation study of code of developed country for developing Korean fuel cycle code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il; Lee, Ho Hee; Cho, Dong Keun; Park, Chang Je

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop Korean fuel cycle code, the analyses has been performed with the fuel cycle codes which are used in advanced country. Also, recommendations were proposed for future development. The fuel cycle codes are AS FLOOWS: VISTA which has been developed by IAEA, DANESS code which developed by ANL and LISTO, and VISION developed by INL for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) system analysis. The recommended items were proposed for software, program scheme, material flow model, isotope decay model, environmental impact analysis model, and economics analysis model. The described things will be used for development of Korean nuclear fuel cycle code in future

  7. Preliminary Study on the Fretting Wear Behaviors of a Duel Cooled Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.H.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, H.K. [KAERI, 150 Dukjin-dong Yuseon-gu Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Based on MIT's concept, an innovative fuel development project was launched by KAERI that a substantial power up-rating could be realized by introducing an internally and externally double cooled annular fuel for current PWR reactors. In order to apply this duel cooled fuel to an OPR 1000 reactor system, geometrical features of structural parts in a fuel assembly should be changed except an overall dimension of a fuel assembly. Typical changes are summarized as fuel rod diameter and weight, shape and position of a spacer grid spring, etc. When considering a duel cooled fuel rod, its vibration characteristic and fretting behavior should be verified because the modified shape and dimension of spacer grid spring, fuel rod diameter and weight, number of spacer grid assembly are closely related to a flow-induced vibration in a duel cooled fuel assembly. In this study, based on FIV test results of 4x4 fuel assembly, fretting wear tests of an outer duel cooled fuel rod were performed by using an embossing type spacer grid spring that could adjust its spring stiffness. The discussion was focused on the evaluation of the optimized spring stiffness and spring position in 1x1 cell by analyzing the fretting wear results. (authors)

  8. Thorium-Based Fuels Preliminary Lattice Cell Studies for Candu Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.; Rizoiu, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The choice of nuclear power as a major contributor to the future global energy needs must take into account acceptable risks of nuclear weapon proliferation, in addition to economic competitiveness, acceptable safety standards, and acceptable waste disposal options. Candu reactors offer a proven technology, safe and reliable reactor technology, with an interesting evolutionary potential for proliferation resistance, their versatility for various fuel cycles creating premises for a better utilization of global fuel resources. Candu reactors impressive degree of fuel cycle flexibility is a consequence of its channel design, excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, and simple fuel bundle. These features facilitate the introduction and exploitation of various fuel cycles in Candu reactors in an evolutionary fashion. The main reasons for our interest in Thorium-based fuel cycles have been, globally, to extend the energy obtainable from natural Uranium and, locally, to provide a greater degree of energy self-reliance. Applying the once through Thorium (OTT) cycle in existing and advanced Candu reactors might be seen as an evaluative concept for the sustainable development both from the economic and waste management points of view. Two Candu fuel bundles project will be used for the proposed analysis, namely the Candu standard fuel bundle with 37 fuel elements and the CANFLEX fuel bundle with 43 fuel elements. Using the Canadian proposed scheme - loading mixed ThO 2 -SEU CANFLEX bundles in Candu 6 reactors - simulated at lattice cell level led to promising conclusions on operation at higher fuel burnups, reduction of the fissile content to the end of the cycle, minor actinide content reduction in the spent fuel, reduction of the spent fuel radiotoxicity, presence of radionuclides emitting strong gamma radiation for proliferation resistance benefit. The calculations were performed using the lattice codes WIMS and Dragon (together with the corresponding nuclear data

  9. Electric energy production from food waste: Microbial fuel cells versus anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaodong; Ma, Yingqun; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A food waste resourceful process was developed by integrating the ultra-fast hydrolysis and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for energy and resource recovery. Food waste was first ultra-fast hydrolyzed by fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes in-situ produced from food waste. After which, the separated solids were readily converted to biofertilizer, while the liquid was fed to MFCs for direct electricity generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.245 kWh/kg food waste. It was estimated that about 192.5 million kWh of electricity could be produced from the food waste annually generated in Singapore, together with 74,390 tonnes of dry biofertilizer. Compared to anaerobic digestion, the proposed approach was more environmentally friendly and economically viable in terms of both electricity conversion and process cost. It is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management towards ultra-fast concurrent recovery of resource and electricity with zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary experience and near future utilization programmes of the MPR-30 fueled by LEU [low enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbie, B.; Soentono, S.

    1987-01-01

    The MTR type reactor MPR-30 G.A. Siwabessy, located at PUSPIPTEK Serpong has recently reached its first criticality. This multipurpose reactor is supposed to be the first MTR type reactor in the world that is designed and constructed to be fueled by low enriched uranium. Preliminary experience covering the approach to the first criticality and the excess reactivity loading as well as some thermal hydraulics and power ascension tests are briefly presented and discussed. The near future utilization programmes during and after commissioning are also presented. (Author)

  11. Preliminary experiments for the fabrication of clad for a spherical fuel for a research fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary experiments using 1100 aluminum 0,5mm thick hemispheres welded on 10mm diameter steel and ceramic spheres in order to determine a method to clad spherical fuel for a research fluidized bed nuclear reactor were studied. The processes of hot press, T.I.G. and resistance we use for welding. A qualitative compression and metalographic tests of welded pieces are performed. By the analysis of the results of the tests we conclude that the resistance welding was the best. The experimental methods and the results with their analysis are presented in the paper. (Author) [pt

  12. Preliminary neutronic assessment for ATF (Accident Tolerant Fuel) based on iron alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Alfredo; Carluccio, Thiago; Piovezan, Pamela; Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    After Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in 2011, the nuclear fuel performance under accident condition became a very important issue and currently different research and development program are in progress toward to reliability and withstand under accident condition. These initiatives are known as ATF (Accident Tolerant Fuel) R and D program, which many countries with different research institutes, fuel vendors and others are nowadays involved. Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) can be defined as enhanced fuel which can tolerate loss of active cooling system capability for a considerably longer time period and the fuel/cladding system can be maintained without significant degradation and can also improve the fuel performance during normal operations and transients, as well as design-basis accident (DBA) and beyond design-basis (BDBA) accident. Different materials have being proposed as fuel cladding candidates considering thermo-mechanical properties and lower reaction kinetic with steam and slower hydrogen production. The aim of this work is to perform a neutronic assessment for several cladding candidates based on iron alloy considering a standard PWR fuel rod (fuel pellet and dimension). The purpose of the assessment is to address different parameters that might contribute for possible neutronic reactivity gain in order to overcome the penalty due to increase of neutron absorption in the cladding materials. All the neutronic assessment is performed using MCNP, Monte Carlo code. (author)

  13. Preliminary LEU fuel cycle analyses for the Belgian BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel cycle calculations have been performed with reference HEU fuel and LEU fuel using Cd wires or boron as burnable absorbers. The 235 U content in the LEU element has increased 20% to 480g compared to the reference HEU element. The number of fuel plates has remained unchanged while the fuel meat thickness has increased to 0.76 mm from 0.51 mm. The LEU meat density is 5.1 Mg U/m 3 . The reference fuel cycle was a 31 element core operating at 56 MW with a 19.8 day cycle length and eight fresh elements loaded per cycle. Comparable fuel cycle characteristics can be achieved using the proposed LEU fuel element with either Cd wires or boron burnable absorbers. The neutron flux for E/sub n/ > 1 eV changes very little (<5%) in LEU relative to HEU cores. Thermal flux reductions are 5 to 10% in non-fueled positions, and 20 to 30% in fuel elements

  14. Preliminary Study of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene Plant Food Strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi Tang, M.; Liu, X.; Fritz, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, studies on the domestication and early cultivation of seed crops have contributed significantly to how we understand human-plant interactions, and their impact on human social organisation and the environment. It is becoming clear, however, that plants have been critical to the human diet for much longer and in more diverse ways than previously assumed. This paper is a preliminary attempt at identifying and addressing early prehistoric plant food strategies in China. In particular, very little is known about the use of vegetatively propagated plants, despite their significant representation in modern crops. Many ingredients of Chinese medicine are also roots and tubers (or vegetative storage organs, VSOs). Unlike seed crops, however, we lack a systematic criterion for examining diagnostic characters of different VSO taxa in the archaeological record. To address this issue, we characterized commonly consumed and historically significant VSOs in China, by studying experimentally charred modern samples under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. We then compared the characteristics of these modern VSO samples against plant remains from Late Pleistocene to early Holocene archaeological sites in China, such as Zengpiyan (Guangxi), Zhaoguodong (Guizhou), and Jiahu (Henan) sites. We found that different taxa of VSOs can be differentiated by using multiple lines of evidence, including: shape and size of various cells, texture and arrangement of cell walls, as well as anatomical arrangements of organs, especially the vascular bundles. Though identification can be difficult when fragile cell structures have collapsed or deteriorated, more robust features are often preserved for diagnosis. Our results suggest that the potential for studying the role of vegetatively propagated plants in early human-environmental interactions is overlooked, and can be expanded significantly with further investment in their systematic identification.

  15. PHOEBUS/UHTREX: a preliminary study of a low-cost facility for transient tests of LMFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, W.L.

    1976-08-01

    The results of a brief preliminary design study of a facility for transient nuclear tests of fast breeder reactor fuel are described. The study is based on the use of a reactor building originally built for the UHTREX reactor, and the use of some reactor hardware and reactor design and fabrication technology remaining from the Phoebus-2 reactor of the Rover nulcear rocket propulsion program. The facility is therefore currently identified as the PHOEBUS/UHTREX facility. This facility is believed capable of providing early information regarding fast reactor core accident energetics issues which will be very valuable to the overall LMFBR safety program. Facility performance in conjunction with a reference 127-fuel pin experiment is described. Low cost and early availability of the facility were emphasized in the selection of design features and parameters

  16. Preliminary project concerning the straw-fueled combined power-heat plant to be constructed at Glamsbjerg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Koch, T.

    1994-06-01

    Power and heat generation based on biomass gasification is of great importance due to its beneficial environmental effects and good economy. This report concerns a preliminary project on feasibility and problems of implementing a dual-purpose power plant, supplying both power and district heating to several schools, swimming pools and other public facilities at Glamsbjerg (Funen). The plant is to be based on thermal gasification (pyrolysis) of straw and use of the gas in a diesel engine. The diesels operate the power generator, and their waste heat should be utilized in the local district heating network. In order to establish a stable and flexible straw supply to the plant an evaluation of resources in the area has been carried out. Apart from straw-derived fuel the plant is planned to use natural gas for start and maintenance of the process. The prices of the combined plant and of the fuel processing are estimated in the report. (EG)

  17. PHOEBUS/UHTREX: a preliminary study of a low-cost facility for transient tests of LMFBR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, W.L. (comp.)

    1976-08-01

    The results of a brief preliminary design study of a facility for transient nuclear tests of fast breeder reactor fuel are described. The study is based on the use of a reactor building originally built for the UHTREX reactor, and the use of some reactor hardware and reactor design and fabrication technology remaining from the Phoebus-2 reactor of the Rover nulcear rocket propulsion program. The facility is therefore currently identified as the PHOEBUS/UHTREX facility. This facility is believed capable of providing early information regarding fast reactor core accident energetics issues which will be very valuable to the overall LMFBR safety program. Facility performance in conjunction with a reference 127-fuel pin experiment is described. Low cost and early availability of the facility were emphasized in the selection of design features and parameters.

  18. A preliminary assessment of two hospital food service systems using parameters of food safety and consumer opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, H; Edwards, J S

    2001-12-01

    The goal of any hospital caterer should be to provide food that meets nutritional requirements, satisfies the patient, improves morale and is microbiologically safe. Food distribution to hospital wards plays a critical role. The aim of this study was to compare two hospital food service systems using parameters of food safety and consumer opinion. An NHS hospital was selected where food delivery was due to change from a plated system to a cafeteria trolley system. Samples (50 g) of dishes (n = 27) considered to be high-risk were collected for three consecutive days from breakfast, lunch and supper meals. The samples were taken from a pre-ordered tray (similar to that of a patient) in the plated system and from the trolley on the ward in the cafeteria system of meal delivery (approximately six months after its introduction). Consumer opinions cards (n = 180) were distributed and interviews also conducted. Microbiologically, the quality of food items delivered by both systems was satisfactory. However, concern was raised with the plated system, not for hot foods cooling down but for chilled foods warming up and being sustained in ambient conditions. Overall consumer satisfaction and experience was enhanced with the trolley system. Food was hotter and generally perceived to be of a better quality. Satisfaction with cold desserts was not dependent on the delivery system.

  19. Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

  20. Contextualizing avian mortality. A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies. (author)

  1. Development of a mobility and fuel strategy for Germany. Preliminary investigation; Entwicklung einer Mobilitaets- und Kraftstoffstrategie fuer Deutschland. Voruntersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Mobility is a key element in our society and often synonymous with traffic. It is desirable to secure a clean and diversified energy supply, to design a more sustainable transport structure and to minimize the burden on people and environment. This requires an updating of the fuel strategy 2004 and its progress toward a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration presents a preliminary investigation of the development of a mobility strategy and fuel strategy in Germany. Over the past ten years, the transport sector has reduced its energy consumption only slightly. The targets for the energy reduction now are -10 % up to 2020 and -40 % up to 2050. The transport sector challenges a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to advance the necessary energy political as well as climate political changes the Federal Government wants to develop a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. For this purpose, the contribution under consideration provides nine concrete recommendations for action for this.

  2. Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

  3. Preliminary design study of pebble bed reactor HTR-PM base using once-through-then-out fuel recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topan Setiadipura; Jupiter S Pane; Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is one of the advanced reactor type implementing strong passive safety feature. In this type of design has the potential to do a cogeneration useful for the treatment of various minerals in various islands in Indonesia. The operation of the PBR can be simplified by implementing once-through-then-out (OTTO) fuel recirculation scheme in which pebble fuel only pass the core once time. The purpose of this research is to understand quantitative influence of the changing of fuel element recirculation on the PBR core performance and to find preliminary optimization design of PBR type reactor with OTTO recirculation scheme. PEBBED software was used to find PBR equilibrium core. The calculation result gives quantitative data on the impact of implementing a different fuel recirculation, especially using OTTO scheme. Furthermore, an early optimized PBR design based on HTR-PM using OTTO scheme was obtained where the power must be downgraded into 115 MWt in order to preserve the safety feature. The simplicity of the reactor operation and the reduction of reactor component with OTTO scheme still make this early optimized design an interesting alternative design, despite its power reduction from the reference design. (author)

  4. Preliminary study of the economics of enriching PWR fuel with a fusion hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.

    1978-09-01

    This study is a comparison of the economics of enriching uranium oxide for pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant fuel using a fusion hybrid reactor versus the present isotopic enrichment process. The conclusion is that privately owned hybrid fusion reactors, which simultaneously produce electrical power and enrich fuel, are competitive with the gaseous diffusion enrichment process if spent PWR fuel rods are reenriched without refabrication. Analysis of irradiation damage effects should be performed to determine if the fuel rod cladding can withstand the additional irradiation in the hybrid and second PWR power cycle. The cost competitiveness shown by this initial study clearly justifies further investigations

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  7. Food for fuel. The effect of U.S. energy policy on Indian poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravorty, Ujjayant [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Economics; Hubert, Marie-Helene [Rennes Univ. 1 (CREM) (France); Ural Marchand, Beyza [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics

    2012-08-15

    Many countries have adopted energy policies that promote biofuels as a substitute for gasoline in transportation. For instance, 40% of U.S. grain is now used for energy and this share is expected to rise significantly under the current Renewable Fuels Mandate. This paper examines the distributional effects of the U.S. mandate on India. First, we use a model with endogenous land use to estimate the effect of biofuel policy on the world price of food commodities, in particular rice, wheat, sugar and meat and dairy, which provide almost 70% of Indian food calories. We obtain world price increases of the order of 10% for most of these commodities. Using Indian micro-level survey data for consumption and income, we carefully estimate the effect of these price increases on household welfare. We account for negative consumption impacts as well as the positive effects through wages and income. We consider both perfect and imperfect pass-through from world to domestic prices. We show that the net impact on welfare is negative as well as regressive, i.e., U.S. biofuels policy affects the poorest people the most. About 42 million new poor may be created in India alone. Under imperfect pass-through, this number declines to 16 million. The main implication is that U.S. energy policy that mandates the production of fuel from food may lead to a sharp increase in world poverty.

  8. Experimental advances and preliminary mathematical modeling of the Swiss-roll mixed-reactant direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziznia, Amin; Oloman, Colin W.; Gyenge, Előd L.

    2014-11-01

    The Swiss-roll single-cell mixed reactant (SR-MRFC) borohydride - oxygen fuel cell equipped with Pt/carbon cloth 3D anode and either MnO2 or Ag gas-diffusion cathodes is investigated by a combination of experimental studies and preliminary mathematical modeling of the polarization curve. We investigate the effects of four variables: cathode side metallic mesh fluid distributor, separator type (Nafion 112® vs. Viledon®), cathode catalyst (MnO2 vs. Ag), and the hydrophilic pore volume fraction of the gas-diffusion cathode. Using a two-phase feed of alkaline borohydride solution (1 M NaBH4 - 2 M NaOH) and O2 gas in an SR-MRFC equipped with Pt/C 3D anode, MnO2 gas diffusion cathode, Viledon® porous diaphragm, expanded mesh cathode-side fluid distributor, the maximum superficial power density is 2230 W m-2 at 323 K and 105 kPa(abs). The latter superficial power density is almost 3.5 times higher than our previously reported superficial power density for the same catalyst combinations. Furthermore, with a Pt anode and Ag cathode catalyst combination, a superficial power density of 2500 W m-2 is achieved with superior performance durability compared to the MnO2 cathode. The fuel cell results are substantiated by impedance spectroscopy analysis and preliminary mathematical model predictions based on mixed potential theory.

  9. Preliminary performance analysis of exponential experimental system for the determination of neutron effective multiplication factor of PWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Heesung; Lee, Sang-Yun; Ro, Seung-Gy; Seo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2002-01-01

    An exponential experiment system which is composed of neutron detector, signal analysis system and neutron source, 10 mCi Cf-252 has been installed in the storage pool of PIEF at KAERI in order to experimentally determining neutron effective multiplication factors of PWR spent fuel assemblies. Preliminary functional characteristic tests of the experimental system are performed for C15, J14 and J44 assemblies loaded in the pool. As a result of preliminary tests, the average neutron counts obtained for 3 minutes in the plateau of the C15, J14 and J44 assemblies are about 1900, 3800 and 3200, respectively. A dip of the neutron flux density distribution is noticed in the spacer grid position. Neutron counts at those positions appear to be reduced to about 70 % in comparison to the fuel position. The measured axial neutron distribution shapes are compared with the result for the P14 assembly and Cs-137 gamma scanning data performed in KAERI. It is revealed that the spacer grid position measured is consistent with the design specifications within a 2.3 % error. The exponential decay constants for the C15 assembly were determined to be 0.152 and 0.165 for detector and source scanning, respectively. (author)

  10. Preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment: an in-reactor test of fuel behaviour and fission-product release and transport under LOCA/LOECC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, L W; Elder, P H; Devaal, J W; Irish, J D; Yamazaki, A R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The BTF-104 experiment is one of a series of in-reactor tests being performed to measure fuel behaviour and fission-product release from nuclear fuel subjected to accident conditions. The primary objective of the BTF-104 experiment was to measure fission-product releases from a CANDU-sized fuel element under combined Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Loss-of-Emergency-Core-Cooling (LOECC) conditions at an average fuel temperature of about 1550 deg C. The preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment are presented in this paper. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  12. Association between the use of biomass fuels on respiratory health of workers in food catering enterprises in Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraka, Margaret; Ochieng, Carolyne; Engelbrecht, Jacobus; Hongoro, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use has been found to be responsible for more than 1.6 million annual deaths and 2.7% of the global burden of disease. This makes it the second biggest environmental contributor to ill health, behind unsafe water and sanitation. The main objective of this study was to investigate if there was any association between use of bio-fuels in food catering enterprises and respiratory health of the workers. A cross-sectional design was employed, and data collected using Qualitative and quantitative techniques. The study found significantly higher prevalence of respiratory health outcomes among respondents in enterprises using biomass fuels compared to those using processed fuels. Biomass fuels are thus a major public health threat to workers in this sub-sector, and urgent intervention is required. The study recommends a switch from biomass fuels to processed fuels to protect the health of the workers.

  13. Preliminary neutronics calculation of fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xubo; Chen Yixue; Gao Bin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel in PWR was preliminarily studied in this paper. According to the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel characteristics, PWR assembly including fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel was designed. The parameters such as fuel temperature coefficient, moderator temperature coefficient and their variation were investigated. Results show that the neutron properties of uranium-based assembly and hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly are similar. The design of this paper has a smaller uniformity coefficient of power at the same fissile isotope mass percentage. The results will provide technical support for the future fusion-fission hybrid reactor and PWR combined with cycle system. (authors)

  14. Energy Harvesting From River Sediment Using a Microbial Fuel Cell: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Namour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have built a sedimentary fuel cell or Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC. The device works on the principle of microbial fuel cells by exploiting directly the energy contained in sedimentary organic matter. It converts in electricity the sediment potential, thanks to microorganisms able to waste electrons from their metabolism directly to a solid anode instead of their natural electron acceptors, such as oxygen or nitrate. The sediment microbial fuel cell was made of a non-corrodible anode (graphite buried in anoxic sediments layer and connected via an electrical circuit to a cathode installed in surface water. We present the first results of laboratory sedimentary fuel cell and a prototype installed in the river.

  15. Malaysian palm oil. Surviving the food versus fuel dispute for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Man Kee; Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2009-01-01

    For the past few decades, palm oil has gone through a revolution that few would have predicted. From a humble source of edible oil that was heavily criticized as being un-healthy and un-fit for human consumption, it has proven itself based on scientific findings that it is indeed one of the most nutritious edible oils in the world. Besides, palm oil, the cheapest vegetable oil in the market has diversified as one of the main feedstock for oleo-chemical industries. Recently, with the price of crude petroleum hitting records height every other day, palm oil has become one of the few feasible sources for biodiesel, a renewable substitute for petroleum-derived diesel. Nevertheless, the conversion of palm oil into biodiesel has again received criticism from various NGOs worldwide, mainly on extinction of orang utans, deforestation and particularly the food versus fuel dispute. It was claimed that the conversion of food crops to fuel would significantly increase the number of undernourished people in the world. Malaysia, being the world second largest producer of palm oil, is not spared from this criticism. On the contrary, in the present study it was found that palm oil is indeed the most economical and sustainable source of food and biofuel in the world market. Besides, it was shown that it has the capacity to fulfill both demands simultaneously rather than engaging in priority debate. Nevertheless, fuel is now a necessity rather than a luxury for economy and development purposes. A few strategies will then be presented on how palm oil can survive in this feud and emerged as the main supply of affordable and healthy source of edible oil while concurrently satisfying the market demand for biodiesel throughout the world. (author)

  16. Malaysian palm oil. Surviving the food versus fuel dispute for a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Man Kee; Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-08-15

    For the past few decades, palm oil has gone through a revolution that few would have predicted. From a humble source of edible oil that was heavily criticized as being un-healthy and un-fit for human consumption, it has proven itself based on scientific findings that it is indeed one of the most nutritious edible oils in the world. Besides, palm oil, the cheapest vegetable oil in the market has diversified as one of the main feedstock for oleo-chemical industries. Recently, with the price of crude petroleum hitting records height every other day, palm oil has become one of the few feasible sources for biodiesel, a renewable substitute for petroleum-derived diesel. Nevertheless, the conversion of palm oil into biodiesel has again received criticism from various NGOs worldwide, mainly on extinction of orang utans, deforestation and particularly the food versus fuel dispute. It was claimed that the conversion of food crops to fuel would significantly increase the number of undernourished people in the world. Malaysia, being the world second largest producer of palm oil, is not spared from this criticism. On the contrary, in the present study it was found that palm oil is indeed the most economical and sustainable source of food and biofuel in the world market. Besides, it was shown that it has the capacity to fulfill both demands simultaneously rather than engaging in priority debate. Nevertheless, fuel is now a necessity rather than a luxury for economy and development purposes. A few strategies will then be presented on how palm oil can survive in this feud and emerged as the main supply of affordable and healthy source of edible oil while concurrently satisfying the market demand for biodiesel throughout the world. (author)

  17. Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2016-05-18

    Beyond nutritional composition, food structure is increasingly recognized to play a role in food health potential, notably in satiety and glycemic responses. Food structure is also highly dependent on processing conditions. The hypothesis for this study is, based on a data set of 98 ready-to-eat foods, that the degree of food processing would correlate with the satiety index (SI) and glycemic response. Glycemic response was evaluated according to two indices: the glycemic index (GI) and a newly designed index, the glycemic glucose equivalent (GGE). The GGE indicates how a quantity of a certain food affects blood glucose levels by identifying the amount of food glucose that would have an effect equivalent to that of the food. Then, foods were clustered within three processing groups based on the international NOVA classification: (1) raw and minimally processed foods; (2) processed foods; and (3) ultra-processed foods. Ultra-processed foods are industrial formulations of substances extracted or derived from food and additives, typically with five or more and usually many (cheap) ingredients. The data were correlated by nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient on quantitative data. The main results show strong correlations between GGE, SI and the degree of food processing, while GI is not correlated with the degree of processing. Thus, the more food is processed, the higher the glycemic response and the lower its satiety potential. The study suggests that complex, natural, minimally and/or processed foods should be encouraged for consumption rather than highly unstructured and ultra-processed foods when choosing weakly hyperglycemic and satiating foods.

  18. Preliminary analysis of a large 1600 MWe PWR core loaded with 30% MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoro, Franco; Corsetti, Edoardo; Vimercati, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a full-core 3-D analysis of the performances of a large 1600 MWe PWR core, loaded with 30% MOX fuel, in accordance with the European Utility Requirements (EUR). These requirements state that the European next generation power plants have to be designed capable to use MOX (UO 2 - PuO 2 ) fuel assemblies up to 50% of the core, together with UO 2 fuel assemblies. The use of MOX assemblies has a significant impact on key physic parameters and on safety. A lot of studies have been carried out in the past to explore the feasibility of plutonium recycling strategies by loading LWR reactors with MOX fuel. Many of these works were based on lattice codes, in order to perform detailed analyses of the neutronic characteristics of MOX assemblies. With the aim to take into account their interaction with surrounding UO 2 fuel elements, and the global effects on the core at operational conditions, an integrated approach making use of a 3-D core simulation is required. In this light, the present study adopts the state-of-art numerical models CASMO-5 and SIMULATE-3 to analyze the behavior of the core fueled with 30% MOX and to compare it with that of a large PWR reference core, fueled with UO 2 . (author)

  19. Preliminary estimates of the impacts of alternative spent fuel acceptance rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.L.; McKee, R.W.; Short, S.M.

    1986-02-01

    The rate at which spent fuel is accepted by the federal waste management system is an important interface between the private nuclear power sector and the federal government, which will assume responsibility for spent fuel disposal. An analysis of alternative rates based on minimum age criteria indicates substantial incentives to limit acceptance rates so as to result in minimum 10 to 15 year fuel ages for repository acceptance [1500 to 2500 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per year]. These incentives include lower heat generation rates and systems costs

  20. Preliminary assessment of costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by barge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, R.L.; Meshkov, N.K.; Jones, R.H.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the costs and risks associated with transporting spent fuel by barge. The barge movements would be made in combination with rail movements to transport spent fuel from plants to a repository. For the purpose of this analysis, three candidate repository sites are analyzed: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington. This report complements a report prepared by Sandia National Laboratories in 1984 that analyzes the costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by rail and by truck to nine candidate repository sites

  1. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  2. Preliminary plan for decommissioning - repository for spent nuclear fuel; Preliminaer plan foer avveckling - slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Tiberg, Liselotte (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is part of the KBS-3 system, which also consists of a central facility for interim storage and encapsulation of the spent nuclear fuel and a transport system. The nuclear fuel repository will be a nuclear facility. Regulation SSMFS 2008:1 (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations on safety of nuclear facilities) requires that the licensee must have a current decommissioning plan throughout the facility lifecycle. Before the facility is constructed, a preliminary decommissioning plan should be reported to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. This document is a preliminary decommissioning plan, and submitted as an attachment to SKB's application for a license under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct, own and operate the facility. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel consists of an above ground part and a below ground part and will be built near Forsmark and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR. The parts above and below ground are connected by a ramp and several shafts, e.g. for ventilation. The below ground part consists of a central area, and several landfill sites. The latter form the repository area. The sealed below ground part constitutes the final repository. The decommissioning is taking place after the main operation has ended, that is, when all spent nuclear fuel has been deposited and the deposition tunnels have been backfilled and plugged. The decommissioning involves sealing of the remaining parts of the below ground part and demolition of above ground part. When decommissioning begins, there will be no contamination in the facility. The demolition is therefore performed as for a conventional plant. Demolition waste is sorted and recycled whenever possible or placed in landfill. Hazardous waste is managed in accordance with current regulations. A ground investigation is performed and is the basis for after-treatment of the site. The timetable

  3. Preliminary investigation of the use of monolithic U-Mo fuel in the MIT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Thomas H. Jr.; Kazimi, Mujid S.; Pilat, Edward E.; Xu Zhiwen

    2003-01-01

    Studies have begun on the use of monolithic LEU U-Mo fuel in the MIT Nuclear Research Reactor (MITR-II) using the Monte Carlo Transport code MCNP. These studies have included model benchmarking, LEU fuel optimization, burnup evaluation, in-core facility design, and determination of safety attributes. Benchmarking studies on the initial core have shown favorable agreement between the calculated and measured reactivity worths of the six control blades. In addition, optimization studies on LEU U7Mo MITR-II fuel have shown that an arrangement of ten to twelve plates per fuel element would have initial reactivity values and thermal neutron fluxes comparable to the current HEU core. Burnup studies which have been made using the MCODE depletion program will be presented. Safety attributes such as temperature coefficients, shutdown margins, and coolant subcooled margin are under evaluation. (author)

  4. Detritus fuels ecosystem metabolism but not metazoan food webs in San Francisco estuary's freshwater delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, W.V.; Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Cole, B.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Arnsberg, A.

    2005-01-01

    Detritus from terrestrial ecosystems is the major source of organic matter in many streams, rivers, and estuaries, yet the role of detritus in supporting pelagic food webs is debated. We examined the importance of detritus to secondary productivity in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta (California, United States), a large complex of tidal freshwater habitats. The Delta ecosystem has low primary productivity but large detrital inputs, so we hypothesized that detritus is the primary energy source fueling production in pelagic food webs. We assessed the sources, quantity, composition, and bioavailability of organic matter among a diversity of habitats (e.g., marsh sloughs, floodplains, tidal lakes, and deep river channels) over two years to test this hypothesis. Our results support the emerging principle that detritus dominates riverine and estuarine organic matter supply and supports the majority of ecosystem metabolism. Yet in contrast to prevailing ideas, we found that detritus was weakly coupled to the Delta's pelagic food web. Results from independent approaches showed that phytoplankton production was the dominant source of organic matter for the Delta's pelagic food web, even though primary production accounts for a small fraction of the Delta's organic matter supply. If these results are general, they suggest that the value of organic matter to higher trophic levels, including species targeted by programs of ecosystem restoration, is a function of phytoplankton production. ?? 2005 Estuarine Research Federation.

  5. Preliminary Report: Bases for Containment Analysis for Transportation of Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors (FRR/DRR) is being shipped to SRS under the site FRR/DRR Receipts Program. Shipment of the FRR/DRR assemblies required that the cask with loaded fuel be certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for US-owned casks) or the US Department of Transportation (for foreign-owned casks) to comply with the requirements in 10CFR71

  6. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  7. RETAILERS OFF OUT OF DATE FOOD: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Biglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Is reasonable not to eat any out of date foods. If you eat foods with a use by date which has expired, then you are actually running the risk of food poisoning. Some people may assert eating out of date food the risk is actually very low. Sometimes food may actually be a risk when it looks, smells and even tastes ok, but there could be harmful bacteria lurking unseen and undetectable to the taste buds and nose. So it is always best to err on the side of caution.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  9. Nondestructive determination of plutonium mass in spent fuel: preliminary modeling results using the passive neutron Albedo reactivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Schear, Melissa A.; Menlove, Howard O.; Lee, Sang Y.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capability of the International Atomic Energy Agency (LAEA) to safeguard nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at pyrochemical processing facilities, providing quantitative input to burnup credit and final safeguards measurements at a long-term repository. In order to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, thirteen NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key motivation of the present research is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of rods. It is therefore anticipated that a combination of techniques will be required. A 5 year effort funded by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE was recently started in pursuit of these goals. The first two years involves researching all thirteen techniques using Monte Carlo modeling while the final three years involves fabricating hardware and measuring spent fuel. Here, we present the work in two main parts: (1) an overview of this NGSI effort describing the motivations and approach being taken; (2) The preliminary results for one of the NDA techniques - Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR). The PNAR technique functions by using the intrinsic neutron emission of the fuel (primarily from the spontaneous fission of curium) to self-interrogate any fissile material present. Two separate measurements of the spent fuel are made, both with and without cadmium (Cd) present. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are analyzed; known as the Cd ratio. The primary differences between the two measurements are the neutron energy spectrum

  10. Bioelectricity generation using two chamber microbial fuel cell treating wastewater from food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoorian, Hossein Jafari; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Rajabizadeh, Ahmad; Khanjani, Narges

    2013-05-10

    Electricity generation from microbial fuel cells which treat food processing wastewater was investigated in this study. Anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode chambers were separated by a proton exchange membrane in a two-compartment MFC reactor. Buffer solutions and food industry wastewater were used as electrolytes in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. The produced voltage and current intensity were measured using a digital multimeter. Effluents from the anode compartment were tested for COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity. The maximum current density and power production were measured 527mA/m(2) and 230mW/m(2) in the anode area, respectively, at operation organic loading (OLR) of 0.364g COD/l.d. At OLR of 0.182g COD/l.d, maximum voltage and columbic efficiency production were recorded 0.475V and 21%, respectively. Maximum removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity were 86, 79, 73, 18, 68, 62, 30 and 58%, respectively. The results indicated that catalysts and mediator-less microbial fuel cells (CAML-MFC) can be considered as a better choice for simple and complete energy conversion from the wastewater of such industries and also this could be considered as a new method to offset wastewater treatment plant operating costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biogasoline: An out-of-the-box solution to the food-for-fuel and land-use competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.N.; Sani, Y.M.; Abdul Aziz, A.R.; Sulaiman, N.M.N.; Daud, W.M.A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reviewed prospects of biogasoline production as alternative to ethanol and biodiesel. • Biogasoline promises to be cheaper and more environmental friendly. • Inedible feedstocks would ensure higher net energy gain. • Inedible feedstocks will resolve food-for-fuel conflicts and land-use competitions. • Advances required for producing bioenergy crop and renewable energy sources. - Abstract: Societal developments are hinged on the energy supplied by fossil fuels. However, the supply of these fuels is finite in the foreseeable future. This is aside the associated environmental degradation and economic sustainability of these fuels. These negative consequences and challenges spurred the search for sustainable energy sources such as biofuels. However, affordable feedstocks and efficient synthesis for renewable fuels remain indispensable and yet challenging line of research. Therefore, breakthroughs in plant biotechnology and mass production are essential prerequisites for ensuring the sustainability of biofuels as alternatives to petroleum-based energy. Conversely, public outcry concerning the food-for-fuel conflicts and land-use change hinder the popularity of such biofuel energy sources. Therefore, this paper reviewed the prospects of biogasoline production as sustainable alternative to ethanol and a compliment to biodiesel. Apart from reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, biogasoline promises to be cheaper and more environmental friendly. Further, inedible feedstocks such as microalgae and rubber seed oil would ensure higher net energy gain. Consequently, these will help resolve the food-for-fuel conflicts and land-use competitions. However, achieving the biofuel central policy depends on advances in processing the renewable energy sources

  12. Preliminary study of cost benefits associated with duplex fuel pellets of the LOWI type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainscough, J.B.; Coucill, D.N.; Howl, D.A.; Jensen, A.; Misfeldt, I.

    1983-01-01

    Duplex UO 2 pellets, which consist of an outer enriched annulus and a depleted or natural core, can provide a solution to the problem of stress corrosion cracking failures, which have led to constraints being placed on ramp rates in power reactors. An analysis of the reactor physics and the performance of duplex pellets is presented in the context of a 17 X 17 pressurized water reactor fuel rod design. The study has been based on the particular type of duplex pellet in which the core and the annulus are physically separate; this is called ''LOWI'' after the Danish design. At low burnup, this fuel shows a significant improvement in power ramp performance compared with standard fuel. At higher burnup, the benefits are less certain but as the severity of the ramp will usually be less in high burnup fuel simply because of the reduced rating, the reduction in benefit may not be significant. If the gap between the core and annulus persists to high burnup, there will be no loss of benefit. Economic calculations and a cost-benefit analysis are presented to show the number of extra full-power hours of reactor operation that must be obtained in order to outweigh the additional fabrication costs associated with this fuel

  13. Preliminary evaluation of pin power distribution for fuel assemblies of SMART by MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo Youn

    1998-08-01

    Monte Carlo transport code MCNP can describe an object sophisticately by use of three-dimensional modelling and can adopt a continuous energy cross-section library. Therefore MCNP has been widely utilized in the field of radiation physics to estimate fluxes and dose rates for nuclear facilities and to review results from conventional methods such a as discrete ordinates method and point kernel method. The Monte Carlo method has recently been introduced to estimated the neutron multiplication factor and pin power distribution in the fuel assembly of a reactor core. The operating thermal power of SMART core is 330 MWt and there are 57 fuel assemblies in the core. In this study it was assumed that the core has 4 types of fuel assemblies. In this study, MCNP4a was used to perform to estimate criticality and normalized pin power distribution in a fuel assembly of SMART core. The results from MCNP4a calculations are able to be used review those from nuclear design/analysis code. It is very complicated to pick up interested data from MCNP output list and to normalize pin power distribution in a fuel assembly because MCNP is not only a nuclear design/analysis code. In this study a program FAPIN was developed to generated a generate a normalized pin power distribution from the MCNP output list. (author). 11 refs

  14. Preliminary safety analysis of the PWR with accident-tolerant fuels during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yapei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Liu, Tong; Deng, Yongjun; Huang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of severe accident scenarios for a PWR fueled with ATF system is performed. • A large-break LOCA without ECCS is analyzed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • Extended SBO cases are discussed for the PWR fueled with ATF system. • The accident-tolerance of ATF system for application in PWR is illustrated. - Abstract: Experience gained in decades of nuclear safety research and previous nuclear accidents direct to the investigation of passive safety system design and accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) system which is now becoming a hot research point in the nuclear energy field. The ATF system is aimed at upgrading safety characteristics of the nuclear fuel and cladding in a reactor core where active cooling has been lost, and is preferable or comparable to the current UO 2 –Zr system when the reactor is in normal operation. By virtue of advanced materials with improved properties, the ATF system will obviously slow down the progression of accidents, allowing wider margin of time for the mitigation measures to work. Specifically, the simulation and analysis of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) without ECCS and extended station blackout (SBO) severe accident are performed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) loaded with ATF candidates, to reflect the accident-tolerance of ATF

  15. Preliminary assessment of Malaysian micro-algae strains for the production of bio jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. T.; Mustafa, E. M.; Vello, V.; Lim, P.; Nik Sulaiman, N. M.; Majid, N. Abdul; Phang, S.; Tahir, P. Md.; Liew, K.

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is the main hub in South-East Asia and has one of the highest air traffic movements in the region. Being rich in biodiversity, Malaysia has long been touted as country rich in biodiversity and therefore, attracts great interests as a place to setup bio-refineries and produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel, bio-petrol, green diesel, and bio-jet fuel Kerosene Jet A-1. Micro-algae is poised to alleviate certain disadvantages seen in first generation and second generation feedstock. In this study, the objective is to seek out potential micro-algae species in Malaysia to determine which are suitable to be used as the feedstock to enable bio-jet fuel production in Malaysia. From 79 samples collected over 30 sites throughout Malaysia, six species were isolated and compared for their biomass productivity and lipid content. Their lipid contents were then used to derived the require amount of micro-algae biomass to yield 1 kg of certifiable jet fuel via the HEFA process, and to meet a scenario where Malaysia implements a 2% alternative (bio-) jet fuel requirement.

  16. Nutritional implications of organic conversion in large scale food service preliminary results from Core Organic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; He, Chen

    food coordinators in public schools in Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Italy. A questionnaire was adapted to fit the different languages and food cultures in the countries.. The data suggest that schools with organic supply tend to develop organisational environments that a more supportive for healthy......The discussion about nutritional advantages of organic consumption has traditionally focused on the properties of the food it self. Studies have shown however that change of consumption patterns towards organic food seems to induce changed dietary patterns. The current research was a part of the i......POPY study and was conducted to investigate if such changes can be found in school food settings. In other words does organic food schemes at school and related curricular activities help to create environments that are supportive for healthier eating among children? The research was carried out among school...

  17. Preliminary analysis on in-core fuel management optimization of molten salt pebble-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Bing; Jing Xingqing; Xu Xiaolin; Lv Yingzhong

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Hot Spring (NHS) is a molten salt pebble-bed reactor featured by full power natural circulation. The unique horizontal coolant flow of the NHS demands the fuel recycling schemes based on radial zoning refueling and the corresponding method of fuel management optimization. The local searching algorithm (LSA) and the simulated annealing algorithm (SAA), the stochastic optimization methods widely used in the refueling optimization problems in LWRs, were applied to the analysis of refueling optimization of the NHS. The analysis results indicate that, compared with the LSA, the SAA can survive the traps of local optimized solutions and reach the global optimized solution, and the quality of optimization of the SAA is independent of the choice of the initial solution. The optimization result gives excellent effects on the in-core power flattening and the suppression of fuel center temperature. For the one-dimensional zoning refueling schemes of the NHS, the SAA is an appropriate optimization method. (authors)

  18. Preliminary study of used cooking oil methyl ester as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseli, A.; El-Awad, M.M.; Yusoff, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental work has been carried out to compare the power performance and exhaust emissions of UCOME with OD on unmodified direct injection, four stroke single cylinder and stationary Robin diesel engine. Used cooking oil was transesterified by using methanol that yields immiscible fraction of glycerol and methyl ester (biodiesel). UCOME was separated by gravity before conducting further testing on its physical, chemical and thermal properties in the laboratory. For fuel power performance analysis, fuel consumption, gross energy input, torque, brake power, BMEP and SFC of the engine were measured and calculated. The analysis showed that at high engine speeds, the engine performances with UCOME are comparable to that of OD. However, UCOME increases specific fuel consumption due to its high specific density. In term of exhaust emissions UCOME showed a net reduction in exhaust emissions of NO x as compared with those of OD. This study has given optimistic information to pave the direction for further research on diesel engine

  19. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolnay, P.; Szabo, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  20. Preliminary study on characteristics of equilibrium thorium fuel cycle of BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, A.; Kurniadi, R.; Su'ud, Z.; Permana, S.

    2007-01-01

    One of the main objectives behind the transuranium recycling ideas is not merely to utilize natural resource that is uranium much more efficiently, but to reduce the environmental impact of the radio-toxicity of the nuclear spent fuel. Beside uranium resource, there is thorium which has three times abundance compared to that of uranium which can be utilized as nuclear fuel. On top of that thorium is believed to have less radio-toxicity of spent fuel since its produce smaller amount of higher actinides compared to that of uranium. However, the studies on the thorium utilization in nuclear reactor in particular in light water reactors (LWR) are not performed intensively yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the characteristics of thorium fuel cycle in LWR, especially boiling water reactor (BWR). To conduct the comprehensive investigations we have employed the equilibrium burnup model (1-3). The equilibrium burnup model is an alternative powerful method since its can handle all possible generated nuclides in any nuclear system. Moreover, this method is a simple time independent method. Hence the equilibrium burnup method could be very useful for evaluating and forecasting the characteristics of any nuclear fuel cycle, even the strange one, e.g. all nuclides are confined in the reactor1). We have employed 1368 nuclides in the equilibrium burnup calculation where 129 of them are heavy metals (HMs). This burnup code then is coupled with SRAC cell calculation code by using PIJ module to compose an equilibrium-cell burnup code. For cell calculation, 26 HMs, 66 fission products (FPs) and one pseudo FP have been utilized. The JENDL 3.2 library has been used in this study. References: 1. A. Waris and H. Sekimoto, 'Characteristics of several equilibrium fuel cycles of PWR', J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 38, p.517-526, 2001 2. A. Waris, H. Sekimoto, and G. Kastchiev, Influence of Moderator-to-Fuel Volume Ratio on Pu and MA Recycling in Equilibrium Fuel Cycles of

  1. Electricity generation from food wastes and characteristics of organic matters in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xiaoyue; Li, Lipin; Su, Xinying

    2016-04-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated as an alternative way to recover electricity from canteen based food waste. Characteristics of the organics in food waste before and after the MFC treatment were analyzed to investigate how the organic matters were biodegraded and transformed during the MFC treatment. A maximum power density of 5.6W/m(3) and an average output voltage of 0.51V were obtained. During the MFC operation, the hydrophilic and acidic fractions were more readily degraded, compared to the neutral fractions. Additionally, aromatic compounds in the hydrophilic fraction were more preferentially removed than non-aromatic compounds. The MFC could easily remove the tryptophan protein-like substances in all fractions and aromatic proteins in hydrophilic and hydrophobic neutral fractions. Additionally, the hydrophobic amide-1 proteins and aliphatic components were readily hydrolyzed and biodegraded in the MFC. These findings may facilitate the pretreatment and posttreatment choices for MFC system fed with food waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary insights of the impact of steady state uncertainties on fuel rod response to an RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, Luis E.; Huguet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles are driven to higher burn-ups under the nowadays more demanding operational conditions. The operational safety limits that ensure the long-term core coolability are set through the analysis of the design basis accidents, RIA scenarios. These analyses are mainly performed through computer codes that encapsulate the present understanding of fuel behavior under such events. They assess safety margins and therefore their accuracy is of utmost interest. Their predictability is extended and validated through separate effect and integral experiments data. Given the complexity of working phenomena under RIA conditions, neither existing thermo-mechanical models nor rod state characterization at the moment of power pulse reflect exactly reality. So, it is essential to know how these deviations influence code predictions. This study illustrates how uncertainties related to pre-transient rod characterization affect the estimates of nuclear fuel behavior during the transient. In order to do so, the RIA scenario of the CIP0-1 test (CABRI program) has been analyzed with FRAPCON-3 (steady state irradiation) and FRAPTRAN 1.4 (transient) codes. The input uncertainties have been propagated through the codes by following a deterministic approach. This work is framed within the CSN-CIEMAT agreement on 'Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of the Nuclear Fuel at High Burnup'. (authors)

  3. Preliminary assessment of alternative dry storage methods for the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the (1) state of technology, (2) licensability, (3) implementation schedule, and (4) costs of alternative dry methods for storage of spent fuel at a reactor location when used to supplement reactor pool storage facilities. The methods of storage that were considered included storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were made based on the current projected storage requirements of Virginia Electric and Power Company's Surry Station for the period 1985 to 2009, which has two operating pressurized water reactors (824 MWe each). It was estimated that the unit cost for storage of spent fuel in casks would amount to $117/kgU and that such costs for storage in drywells would amount to $137/kgU. However, based on the overall assessment it was concluded both storage methods were equal in merit. Modular methods of storage were generally found to be more economic than those requiring all or most of the facilities to be constructed prior to commencement of storage operations

  4. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms

  5. Spent fuel acceptance scenarios devoted to shutdown reactors: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Plummer, A.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Short, S.M.

    1989-10-01

    Spent fuel acceptance schedules and the allocation of federal acceptance capacity among commercial nuclear power reactors have important operational and cost consequences for reactor operators. Alternative allocation schemes were investigated to some extent in DOE's MRS Systems Study. The current study supplements these analyses for a class of acceptance schemes in which the acceptance capacity of the federal radioactive waste management system is allocated principally to shutdown commercial power reactors, and extends the scope of analysis to include considerations of at-reactor cask loading rates. The operational consequences of these schemes for power reactors, as measured in terms of quantity of spent fuel storage requirement above storage pool capacities and number of years of pool operations after last discharge, are estimated, as are the associated utility costs. This study does not attempt to examine the inter-utility equity considerations involved in departures from the current oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation rule as specified in the ''Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste.'' In the sense that the alternative allocations are more economically efficient than OFF, however, they approximate the allocations that could result from free exchange of acceptance rights among utilities. Such a process would result in the preservation of inter-utility equity. 13 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Food taxes and calories purchased in the virtual supermarket : a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; Kroeze, willemieke; Waterlander, Wilma; de Boer, Michiel; Steenhuis, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of three food taxation schemes on energy (kcal), saturated fat (gram) and sugar (gram) purchased in the virtual supermarket. Design/methodology/approach Based on the literature, three food taxation schemes were developed (sugar tax,

  7. Preliminary drivers associated with household food waste generation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, Fhumulani R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available in Microsoft Excel, and analysed using the chi-square statistical test and SAS statistical software. The main reasons for household food wastage were identified as buying in excess, preparation of more food than would be consumed, poor storage, poor purchase...

  8. Preliminary study of mechanical behavior for Cr coated Zr-4 Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Hak-Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Chan; Yang, Yong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To decrease the oxidation rate of Zr-based alloy components, many concepts of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) such as Mo-Zr cladding, SiC/SiCf cladding and iron-based alloy cladding are under development. One of the promised concept is the coated cladding which can remarkably increase the corrosion and wear resistance. Recently, KAERI is developing the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding as accident tolerance cladding. To coat the Cr powder on the Zircaloy, 3D laser coating technology has been employed because it is possible to make a coated layer on the tubular cladding surface by controlling the 3-diminational axis. Therefore, for this work, the mechanical integrity of Cr coated Zircaloy should be evaluated to predict the safety of fuel cladding during the operating or accident of nuclear reactor. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr, which were referred from the literatures and experimental reports. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr. The pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) properties of Cr coated Zr-4 cladding were investigated by thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. The mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr was validated by simulation of ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding.

  9. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of the use of olive–pomace oil biodiesel/diesel fuel blends in a compression ignition engine: Preliminary exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, I.; Quintana, C.E.; Ruiz, J.J.; Cruz-Peragón, F.; Dorado, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Olive–pomace oil (OPO) biodiesel constitute a new second-generation biofuel. • Exergy efficiency and performance of OPO biodiesel, straight and blended with diesel fuel was evaluated. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided similar performance parameters. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided similar exergy efficiency compared to diesel fuel. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided no exergy cost increment compared to diesel fuel. - Abstract: Although biodiesel is among the most studied biofuels for diesel engines, it is usually produced from edible oils, which gives way to controversy between the use of land for fuel and food. For this reason, residues like olive–pomace oil are considered alternative raw materials to produce biodiesel that do not compete with the food industry. To gain knowledge about the implications of its use, olive–pomace oil methyl ester, straight and blended with diesel fuel, was evaluated as fuel in a direct injection diesel engine Perkins AD 3-152 and compared to the use of fossil diesel fuel. Performance curves were analyzed at full load and different speed settings. To perform the exergy balance of the tested fuels, the operating conditions corresponding to maximum engine power values were considered. It was found that the tested fuels offer similar performance parameters. When straight biodiesel was used instead of diesel fuel, maximum engine power decreased to 5.6%, while fuel consumption increased up to 7%. However, taking into consideration the Second Law of the Thermodynamics, the exergy efficiency and unitary exergetic cost reached during the operation of the engine under maximum power condition for the assessed fuels do not display significant differences. Based on the exergy results, it may be concluded that olive–pomace oil biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel may substitute the use of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines without any exergy cost increment

  11. Preliminary Study of the Use of Sulphonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK as Proton Exchange Membrane for Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Permana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK was utilized as a proton exchange membrane (PEM in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC. The SPEEK performance in producing electricity had been observed in MFC using wastewater and glucose as substrates. The MFC with catering and tofu wastewater produced maximum power density about 0.31 mW/m2 and 0.03 mW/m2, respectively, lower that of MFC with tapioca average power density of 39.4 W/m2 over 48 h. The power density boosted because of the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as inoculum. The study using of S. cerevisiae and Acetobacter acetii, separately, were also conducted in with glucose as substrate. The MFC produced an average power densities were 7.3 and 6.4 mW/m2 for S. cerevisiae and A. acetii, respectively. The results of this study indicated that SPEEK membrane has the potential usage in MFCs and can substitute the commercial membrane, Nafion. Article History: Received: Juni 14th 2017; Received: Sept 25th 2017; Accepted: December 16th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Putra, H.E., Permana, D and Djaenudin, D. (2018 Preliminary Study of the Use of Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK as Proton Exchange Membrane for Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 7-12. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.7-12

  12. Are food patterns associated with prostate cancer in Jamaican men: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Maria; Walker, Susan; Simpson, Candace; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Bennett, Franklyn

    2009-02-10

    Morbidity and mortality data highlight prostate cancer as the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in Jamaican males. This report examines the association between dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in Jamaican men. Case-control study of 204 histologically confirmed newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases and 204 individually matched urology clinic controls in Jamaica, 2004 - 2007. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis yielded four dietary patterns: (i) a "healthy" pattern of vegetables, fruits and peas and beans, (ii) a "carbohydrate" pattern with high loadings for white bread and refined cereals, (iii) "sugary foods and sweet baked products" pattern and (iv) a "organ meat and fast food pattern" with high loadings for high fat dessert, organ meat, fast food and salty snacks.Logistic regressions with the individual dietary patterns controlling for potential confounders showed no association between any of the food patterns and risk of prostate cancer. The healthy pattern showed an inverse non-significant association, whereas the carbohydrate pattern was positively and insignificantly related to prostate cancer. Analysis of all food patterns adjusting for each other revealed no association between food patterns and the risk of prostate cancer. Dietary patterns identified in our sample were not associated with risk of prostate cancer. Further investigations that better define cancer-free subjects and dietary measurements are needed to examine diet and prostate cancer outcomes.

  13. A proposed framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Kok Sin; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong is experiencing a pressing need for food waste management. Currently, approximately 3600 tonnes of food waste are disposed of at landfills in Hong Kong daily. The landfills in Hong Kong are expected to be exhausted by 2020. In the long run, unavoidable food waste should be sorted out from the other municipal solid waste (MSW) and then valorized into valuable resources. A simple sorting process involving less behavioural change of residents is, therefore, of paramount importance in order to encourage residents to sort the food waste from other MSW. In this paper, a sustainable framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production is proposed. For an efficient separation and collection system, an optic bag (i.e. green bag) can be used to pack the food waste, while the residual MSW can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations in the conventional way (i.e. refuse collection vehicles). At the refuse transfer stations, the food waste is separated from the residual MSW using optic sensors which recognize the colours of the bags. The food waste in the optic bags is then delivered to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities, in which biogas is generated following the anaerobic digestion technology. The biogas can be further upgraded via gas upgrading units to a quality suitable for use as a vehicle biogas fuel. The use of biogas fuel from food waste has been widely practiced by some countries such as Sweden, France, and Norway. Hopefully, the proposed framework can provide the epitome of the waste-to-wealth concept for the sustainable collection and recycling of food waste in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  15. Risk assessment in the recovery of food for social solidarity purposes: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Milicevic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The most recent study, conducted by Politecnico of Milan, on food surplus management in Italy shows that in the Italian food supply chain the food surplus is around 5.5 million tons/year, and the amount of food wasted is around 5.1 million tons/year. During 2015, the charitable organizations (COs belonging to the Italian Food Bank Network, active in recovering and distributing food for social solidarity’s purposes, reused 381,345 tons of food from 2292 donors. The main supplying sources of the Banco Alimentare Network are: food industries, organized large-scale retail trade and collective catering service. The aim of this study was to analyze several aspects of the food surplus recovery thanks to the collaboration with the Banco Alimentare Foundation Onlus and Caritas Italiana. In particular, two main features were analyzed in the food recovery chain: the microbiological profiles of specific food categories recovered from catering service with the aim to evaluate their conformity in relation to food safety and process criteria. For this purpose 11 samples were analyzed in four different moments: T0, same day of the collection; T1, after four hours of storage at 4°C; T2, 24 hours from the collection (storage at 4°C; T3, after four days at frozen storage (-18°C. For all samples several microbiological parameters were investigated: enumeration of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (AFNOR 3M 01/1-09/89, enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae (AFNOR 3M 01/06-09/97, enumeration of E. coli (AFNOR 3M 01/08-06/01, enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococci AFNOR 3M 01/9-04/03 A, enumeration of Bacillus cereus (UNI EN ISO 7932:2005, research of Salmonella spp. [UNI EN ISO 6579 (2008b], and research of Listeria monocytogenes [AFNOR BRD 07/4-09/98 (AFNOR, 2010a]. Furthermore, the volunteer’s knowledge on the correct hygienic procedures during the recovery was evaluated by the 71 questionnaires with the aim to prevent foodborne diseases. The results show

  16. Risk Assessment in the Recovery of Food for Social Solidarity Purposes: Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Vesna; Colavita, Giampaolo; Castrica, Marta; Ratti, Sabrina; Baldi, Antonella; Balzaretti, Claudia M

    2016-09-20

    The most recent study, conducted by Politecnico of Milan, on food surplus management in Italy shows that in the Italian food supply chain the food surplus is around 5.5 million tons/year, and the amount of food wasted is around 5.1 million tons/year. During 2015, the charitable organizations (COs) belonging to the Italian Food Bank Network, active in recovering and distributing food for social solidarity's purposes, reused 381,345 tons of food from 2292 donors. The main supplying sources of the Banco Alimentare Network are: food industries, organized large-scale retail trade and collective catering service. The aim of this study was to analyze several aspects of the food surplus recovery thanks to the collaboration with the Banco Alimentare Foundation Onlus and Caritas Italiana. In particular, two main features were analyzed in the food recovery chain: the microbiological profiles of specific food categories recovered from catering service with the aim to evaluate their conformity in relation to food safety and process criteria. For this purpose 11 samples were analyzed in four different moments: T0, same day of the collection; T1, after four hours of storage at 4°C; T2, 24 hours from the collection (storage at 4°C); T3, after four days at frozen storage (-18°C). For all samples several microbiological parameters were investigated: enumeration of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (AFNOR 3M 01/1-09/89), enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae (AFNOR 3M 01/06-09/97), enumeration of E. coli (AFNOR 3M 01/08-06/01), enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococci AFNOR 3M 01/9-04/03 A), enumeration of Bacillus cereus (UNI EN ISO 7932:2005), research of Salmonella spp. [UNI EN ISO 6579 (2008b)], and research of Listeria monocytogenes [AFNOR BRD 07/4-09/98 (AFNOR, 2010a)]. Furthermore, the volunteer's knowledge on the correct hygienic procedures during the recovery was evaluated by the 71 questionnaires with the aim to prevent foodborne diseases. The results show that the recovery

  17. Preliminary assessment of the environmental and health impacts of nuclear and coal fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Chen Zhuzhou; Pan Ziqiang

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports on the environmental impacts and health effects of coal and nuclear fuel cycles in China. Data of interest for China are presented in a comparative manner; epidemiological investigations in Shanxi province indicate that the incidences of chronic pulmonary diseases and infant cogenital malformation were apparently increased over the fall-out areas of coal-fired power stations and coal mines. The authors outline the framework of a research project on environmental assessment of nuclear energy and other energy systems. The main features of the project are: environmental and health impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles, environmental impact assessment of coal transportation, cost accounting of nuclear and other energy sources, health risk assessment. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  18. Preliminary correlation of organic molecular tracers in residential wood smoke with the source of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Polar cyclic di- and triterpenoids were analyzed in the extracts of residential wood combustion aerosols collected in suburban sections of Eugene, Oakridge and Corvallis, Oregon. Additional samples collected included alder wood, smoke from two wood stoves burning only alder or pine as fuel, soot from a stove burning alder and a fireplace where oak was the predominant fuel. Due to the relatively cooler temperatures present under the smoldering conditions of residential wood combustion, as compared to the active burning of forest fires and slash burns, incomplete combustion resulted in the preservation of high levels of the natural products. There were three distinct signatures which could be used to trace relative input from coniferous, alder and oak combustion products, i.e. diterpenoids, lupane-derived triterpenoids and friedelin, respectively. Conifer combustion products dominated the suburban smoke aerosols.

  19. Preliminary estimates of the charge for spent-fuel storage and disposal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to stimulate discussion among a wide range of interested parties concerning a one-time charge by the U.S. Government for disposal, or interim storage and disposal, of spent unreprocessed nuclear fuel. The report contains a set of estimates of the charge based on current cost figures and a variety of demand, logistical, institutional, and cost overrun assumptions. The services are to be offered to domestic utilities by the U.S. Government in connection with the spent fuel policy approved by the President and announced by the Department of Energy (DOE) on October 18, 1977. This policy is a direct result of the indefinite deferral of all commercial reprocessing of spent fuel announced by President Carter on April 7, 1977. The services will also be offered to foreign governments on a limited basis in cases where this action would contribute to U.S. goals for nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. The report does not establish new policy and it does not commit DOE to any specific program, schedule or charge. No scenario or case is to be considered most important, no methodology is to be considered definitive, and no charge is to be considered most likely or to represent a proposed charge. The report describes basic principles and methodologies for calculating the charge and highlights primary cost centers. Current estimates of program and facility costs are used. Various aspects of the DOE Spent Fuel Storage Program are brought into focus through this analysis. Interested parties should find these assessment criteria helpful for their planning and useful in discussions concerning the program

  20. Optimization of binary breeder reactor. 2. Preliminary base for control analysis and fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Neutronic calculations to verify the reactivity effects, of sodium voids and Doppler, with the variation of the composition of parasitic absorbers were done. A LMFBR type reactor loaded with mixed fuel, (U 233 -Th 232 )O 2 in the internal core and (U 238 -Pu 239 )O 2 in external core, was considered. In reactivity calculations the EXPANDA and CITATION computer codes were utilized. Buckling effects and importance of determination of the spatial selfshielding factors were analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Determination of hazardous substances in food basket eggs in Tehran, Iran: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Salar-Amoli, Jamileh; Ali-Esfahani, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Extensive distribution of hazardous substances in food chain and the deleterious effect of their residues on public health are a great concern of the society. Chicken eggs, as one of the most popular food commodities, in different parts of Tehran (Iran) were analyzed for two groups of hazardous substances including some organochlorine pesticides (OC) such as aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlor and endusulfan) and heavy metals namely mercury (Hg), arsenic (As...

  2. Perinatal stress and food allergy: a preliminary study on maternal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, L; Ferruzza, E; Ronconi, L; Lazzarotto, F; Toniolo, A; Bonaguro, R; Muraro, A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress in fetal and early life has been associated with the development of respiratory allergies, but no studies exist about food allergy. Stressful events and the quality of caregiving provided, as they affect the emotional and physiologic regulation of the infant, could alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and immune system, facilitating an increased allergic response. This study aimed to investigate the influence of perinatal stress, as perceived by mothers, on developing food allergy in childhood. A survey on pregnancy and the first three months after giving birth was submitted to 59 Italian mothers of at least one child suffering from severe food allergy and one completely healthy child, for a total of 118 children examined. The presence of stressful events and the quality of perinatal period for each child were assessed retrospectively. The food allergic children's data were compared to siblings' data through inferential statistics. The results showed a significantly higher number of stressful events occurred during patients' perinatal period, compared to siblings, in particular bereavements in pregnancy and parenting difficulties in postpartum. Mothers reported harder pregnancies and more stressful, harder, and, in general, worse postpartum when referring to their food-allergic children, in comparison with their siblings (p stress and perinatal psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of food allergy; further studies are necessary to understand individual psychological impact and its relations with genetic and biological factors.

  3. Preliminary design for spent fuel canister handling systems in a canister transfer and installation vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendelin, T.; Suikki, M.

    2008-12-01

    The report presents a spent fuel canister transfer and installation vehicle. The vehicle is used for carrying the fuel canister into a disposal tunnel and installing it into a deposition hole. The report outlines basic requirements and a design for canister handling equipment used in a canister transfer and installation vehicle, a description regarding the operation and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Specific vehicles will be manufactured for all canister types in order to minimize the height of the disposal tunnels. This report is only focused on a transfer and installation vehicle for OL1-2 fuel canisters. Detailed designing and selection of final components have not yet been carried out. The report also describes the vehicle's requirements for the structures of a repository system, as well as actions in possible malfunction or fault situations. The spent fuel canister is brought from an encapsulation plant by a canister lift down to the repository level. The fuel canister is driven from the canister lift by an automated guided vehicle onto a canister hoist at a canister loading station. The canister transfer and installation vehicle is waiting for the canister with its radiation shield in an upright position above the canister hoist. The hoist carries the canister upward until the vehicle's own lifting means grab hold of the canister and raise it up into the vehicle's radiation shield. This is followed by turning the radiation shield to a transport position and by closing it in a radiation-proof manner against a rear radiation shield. The vehicle is driven along the central tunnel into the disposal tunnel and parked on top of the deposition hole. The vehicle's radiation shield is turned to the upright position and the canister is lowered with the vehicle's hydraulic winches into a bentonite-lined deposition hole. The radiation shield is turned back to the transport position and the vehicle can be driven out of the disposal tunnel

  4. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  5. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-06

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  6. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG. PMID:25295023

  7. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess

  8. Preliminary design of fusion reactor fuel cleanup system by palladium alloy membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-10-01

    A design of palladium diffuser and Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for D-T fusion reactor is proposed. Feasibility of palladium alloy membrane method is discussed based on the early studies by the authors. Operating conditions of the palladium diffuser are determined experimentally. Dimensions of the diffuser are estimated from computer simulation. FCU system is designed under the feed conditions of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The system is composed of Pd-diffusers, catalytic oxidizer, freezer and zink beds, and has some advantages in system layout and operation. This design can readily be extended to other conditions of plasma exhaust gases. (author)

  9. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Simpevarp area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: c1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapter 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization

  10. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Laxemar area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: Chapter 1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapters 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization

  11. Mutual facilitations of food waste treatment, microbial fuel cell bioelectricity generation and Chlorella vulgaris lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingjie; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Jiang, Liqun; Yu, Ze

    2016-03-01

    Food waste contains large amount of organic matter that may be troublesome for handing, storage and transportation. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was successfully constructed with different inoculum densities of Chlorella vulgaris for promoting food waste treatment. Maximum COD removal efficiency was registered with 44% and 25 g CODL(-1)d(-1) of substrate degradation rate when inoculated with the optimal initial density (150 mg L(-1)) of C. vulgaris, which were 2.9 times and 3.1 times higher than that of the abiotic cathode. With the optimum inoculum density of C. vulgaris, the highest open circuit voltage, working voltage and power density of MFC were 260 mV, 170 mV and 19151 mW m(-3), respectively. Besides the high biodiesel quality, promoted by MFC stimulation the biomass productivity and highest total lipid content of C. vulgaris were 207 mg L(-1)d(-1) and 31%, which were roughly 2.7 times and 1.2 times higher than the control group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food-chain and dose model, CALDOS, for assessing Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The food-chain and dose model, CALculation of DOSe (CALDOS), was developed for assessing Canada's concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault deep in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The model is very general and based on the Shield as a whole. The critical group is totally self-sufficient and represented by ICRP (1975) Reference Man for dose prediction. CALDOS assumes steady-state conditions and deals with variation and uncertainty through Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Ingrowth of some radioactive daughters is considered during food-chain transfer. A limit is set on root uptake to avoid unrealistic plant concentrations. Integrated ingestion and inhalation rates of man are calculated in a unique way, based on energy needs. Soil ingestion by man and external exposure from building material are unique pathways considered. Tritium, 129 I, and 222 Rn are treated through special models, and 14 C and 129 I involve unique geosphere dose limits. All transfer coefficients are lognormally distributed, and the plant/soil concentration ratio is correlated with the soil partition coefficient. Animals' ingestion rates are normally distributed and correlated with each other. Comprehensive sets of internal and external dose conversion factors were calculated for CALDOS. Sample calculations show that dose distributions tend to be strongly right-skewed. Many features of CALDOS are relevant for environmental assessment in general

  13. National spent fuel program preliminary report RCRA characteristics of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel DOE-SNF-REP-002. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report presents information on the preliminary process knowledge to be used in characterizing all Department of Energy (DOE)-owned Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) types that potentially exhibit a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic. This report also includes the process knowledge, analyses, and rationale used to preliminarily exclude certain SNF types from RCRA regulation under 40 CFR section 261.4(a)(4), ''Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste,'' as special nuclear and byproduct material. The evaluations and analyses detailed herein have been undertaken as a proactive approach. In the event that DOE-owned SNF is determined to be a RCRA solid waste, this report provides general direction for each site regarding further characterization efforts. The intent of this report is also to define the path forward to be taken for further evaluation of specific SNF types and a recommended position to be negotiated and established with regional and state regulators throughout the DOE Complex regarding the RCRA-related policy issues

  14. National spent fuel program preliminary report RCRA characteristics of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel DOE-SNF-REP-002. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report presents information on the preliminary process knowledge to be used in characterizing all Department of Energy (DOE)-owned Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) types that potentially exhibit a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic. This report also includes the process knowledge, analyses, and rationale used to preliminarily exclude certain SNF types from RCRA regulation under 40 CFR {section}261.4(a)(4), ``Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste,`` as special nuclear and byproduct material. The evaluations and analyses detailed herein have been undertaken as a proactive approach. In the event that DOE-owned SNF is determined to be a RCRA solid waste, this report provides general direction for each site regarding further characterization efforts. The intent of this report is also to define the path forward to be taken for further evaluation of specific SNF types and a recommended position to be negotiated and established with regional and state regulators throughout the DOE Complex regarding the RCRA-related policy issues.

  15. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  16. Preliminary study on the detection of irradiated food containing bone by ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Ha Yiming; Liu Ting; Wang Rongfu; Wang Changbao

    2007-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is one of the most effective technique for detection of irradiated food containing bone. It was found that the radiation -induced ESR signal (Spectrum, g factor and peak-to-peak line width AH) in bone before and after irradiation was significantly different and could be easily distinguished from the endogenous ESR signal. Sample preparation studies showed vacuum drying and grinding at frozen temperature was an ideal method. A linear relationship was observed between ESR signal intensity and the absorbed dose (0.3-10.1kGy). It can be proposed that 0.5kGy absorbed doses can be detected by ESR for irradiated food containing bone though detecting sensitivity is very different at the same irradiated dosage with different food such as pork, beef, duck, chicken and fish. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish a national criterion for detection of irradiated foodstuffs by use of ESR. (authors)

  17. A preliminary comprehensive dynamic analysis of the typical FaCT scenarios with JSFR and related fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Takashi; Koma, Yoshikazu; Kawaguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    A preliminary comprehensive dynamic analysis of the typical Fast Reactor (FR) deployment scenarios with JSFR and related fuel cycle facilities developed in 'FaCT: Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project' was conducted. The scenarios were evaluated from some of the development targets and design goals in the FaCT project. The isotopic compositions of the nuclear fuels and wastes and the quantities of radioactive wastes (HLWs, LLWs) from Japanese nuclear fuel cycle facilities were calculated to grasp the sustainability characteristics. Regarding the long-term economics, the total cash out-flows and the average electricity generation costs to 22nd century were calculated. Cash out-flow peaks and waste generation peaks were found from 2030s to 2050s, 2090s to 2110s, and 2150s to 2170s because of the cost and wastes from decommissioning of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants for LWR spent fuel and the construction costs of them. Firstly, the major results of the reference case are explained combined with introduction of the function of the dynamic analysis tool (Supply Chain Management Code). The analysis is related to sustainability and economics in FaCT project development targets since they are important in the sustainability and economics evaluation. Secondly, the comparisons between the reference case and the three other option cases with their own issues of choice are explained. Those options are different breeding ratios, dual-purpose reprocessing plant, and Am-Cm recycling. As the tentative conclusions of the analyses are: the exploration of the optimal breeding ratio between B.R. =1.1 and 1.2 at the start up stage of FR is regarded as reasonable; the cost reduction of the dual purpose reprocessing plant resulted from the facility integration was confirmed though the cost estimation of the facility should be modified, it is a little bit too hasty to decide the manner of MA recycling because many issues to be considered are left at present

  18. Preliminary model and validation of molten carbonate fuel cell kinetics under sulphur poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audasso, E.; Nam, S.; Arato, E.; Bosio, B.

    2017-06-01

    MCFC represents an effective technology to deal with CO2 capture and relative applications. If used for these purposes, due to the working conditions and the possible feeding, MCFC must cope with a different number of poisoning gases such as sulphur compounds. In literature, different works deal with the development of kinetic models to describe MCFC performance to help both industrial applications and laboratory simulations. However, in literature attempts to realize a proper model able to consider the effects of poisoning compounds are scarce. The first aim of the present work is to provide a semi-empirical kinetic formulation capable to take into account the effects that sulphur compounds (in particular SO2) have on the MCFC performance. The second aim is to provide a practical example of how to effectively include the poisoning effects in kinetic models to simulate fuel cells performances. To test the reliability of the proposed approach, the obtained formulation is implemented in the kinetic core of the SIMFC (SIMulation of Fuel Cells) code, an MCFC 3D model realized by the Process Engineering Research Team (PERT) of the University of Genova. Validation is performed through data collected at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology in Seoul.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  20. Post-test thermomechanical calulations and preliminary data analysis for the Spent Fuel Test: Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Patrick, W.C.

    1985-09-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies. Thermomechanical response of the SFT-C was calculated before the test began using the finite-element structural analysis code ADINA and its companion heat transfer code ADINAT. While we found that the level of agreement between measured and calculated rock displacements was quite good, we needed to revise certain aspects of the heat transfer calculation, material properties, and in situ stresses to incorporate information obtained during and after the heated phase of the test. The post-test calculations reported here were performed using the best available input parameters, thermal and mechanical properties, and power levels that were directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test. This report documents the results of these calculations and compares those results with selected measurements made during the 3-year heating phase and 6-month cooling phase of the SFT-C

  1. Detail design of test loop for FIV in fuel bundle and preliminary test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gunl; Lee, Wan Young; Kim, Sung Won [Hannam University, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    It is urgent to develop the analytical model for the structural/mechanical integrity of fuel rod. In general, it is not easy to develop a pure analytical model. Occasionally, experimental results have been utilized for the model.Because of this reason, it is required to design proper test loop. Using the optimized test loop, With the optimized test loop, the dynamic behaviour of the rod will be evaluated and the critical flow velocity, which the rod loses the stability in, will be measured for the design of the rod. To verify the integrity of the fuel rod, it is required to evaluate the dynamic behaviour and the critical flow velocity with the test loop. The test results will be utilized to the design of the rod. Generally, the rod has a ground vibration due to turbulence in wide range of flow velocity and the amplitude of vibration becomes larger by the resonance, in a range of the velocity where occurs vortex. The rod loses stability in critical flow velocity caused by fluid-elastic instability. For the purpose of the present work to perform the conceptional design of the test loop, it is necessary (1) to understand the mechanism of the flow-induced vibration and the related experimental coefficients, (2) to evaluate the existing test loops for improving the loop with design parameters and (3) to decide the design specifications of the major equipments of the loop. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  2. Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Vivienne X; Kent, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. Methods and analysis The review will be undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions using the Review Manager software. Phytochemical subclasses (phenolic acids, flavanols, etc) will be used to search for relevant studies using the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases. The retrieved studies will be screened based on inclusion of natural whole food items and health outcomes. Phytochemical studies related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, overweight, glucose tolerance, digestive, reproductive, macular and bone health and mental disorders, fatigue and immunity will be examined based on prior scoping. The evidence will be aggregated by the food types and health outcomes. Comparison of differences in the outcomes for randomised controlled trials and observational studies will be undertaken. The strength of the review lies in its focus on whole food items and health conditions rather than one type of phytochemical related to one single health condition. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted where an adequate number of publications are found per phytochemical subclass. Dissemination By comparing the outcomes from experimental and observational studies, the review will determine whether the overall conclusions related to the phytochemical subclasses are the same between study types for the identified health

  3. Identification of irradiated foods using the thermoluminescence apparatus TOLEDO - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thuan; Pham Quang Vinh; Dang Thanh Luong; Pham Quang Dien

    1990-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) method based on TOLEDO apparatus has been carried out, firstly in Vietnam, for identification of some irradiated dry food: paprika, pepper, curry and green beans. The TL effect of irradiation with dose 0.8 Mrad is greater than the effect of unirradiated samples at least by one order. The TOLEDO was proved to be able to determine TL intensity as function of absorbed dose and post-irradiation storage time. The measurement procedure is rapid and simple, that expect to be used as a standard control method of irradiated food. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Preliminary fMRI findings concerning the influence of 5-HTP on food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Williams, Adrian L

    2017-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study was designed to observe how physiological brain states can alter food preferences. A primary goal was to observe food-sensitive regions and moreover examine whether 5-HTP intake would activate areas which have been associated with appetite suppression, anorexia, satiety, and weight loss. Fourteen healthy male and female participants took part in the study, of which half of them received the supplement 5-HTP and the rest vitamin C (control) on an empty stomach. During the scanning session, they passively observed food (high calories, proteins, carbohydrates) and nonfood movie stimuli. Within the 5-HTP group, a comparison of food and nonfood stimuli showed significant responses that included the limbic system, the basal ganglia, and the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. For the vitamin C group, activity was mainly located in temporal and occipital regions. Compared to the vitamin C group, the 5-HTP group in response to food showed increased activation on the VMPFC, the DLPFC, limbic, and temporal regions. For the 5-HTP group, activity in response to food high in protein content compared to food high in calories and carbohydrates was located in the limbic system and the right caudomedial OFC, whereas for the vitamin C group, activity was mainly located at the inferior parietal lobes, the anterior cingulate gyri, and the left ventrolateral OFC. Greater responses to carbohydrates and high calorie stimuli in the vitamin C group were located at the right temporal gyrus, the occipital gyrus, the right VLPFC, whereas for the 5-HTP group, activity was observed at the left VMPFC, the parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally, the occipital lobe, and middle temporal gyri. In line with the hypotheses, 5-HTP triggered cortical responses associated with healthy body weight as well as cerebral preferences for protein-rich stimuli. The brain's activity is altered by macronutrients rich or deprived in the body. By reading the

  5. Preliminary modelling study of geochemical interactions between a used-fuel disposal vault and the surrounding geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, J.

    1995-10-01

    In the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the related documents that describe the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept (AECL 1994), it has been assumed that a disposal vault would have no significant geochemical impact on the geosphere, and so no such effects were included explicitly in the postclosure assessment model. The purpose of this study was to estimate the general magnitude and significance of vault-induced geochemical changes over an expected range of temperatures. The results of the preliminary modelling are used broadly to evaluate the implications of these changes for the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. The geochemical modelling program PHREEQE was used to calculate the changes in mineral solubilities that would result from the transfer of aqueous species from the vault to the geosphere or that would result from groundwater-granite interactions enhanced by vault-derived elevated temperatures. Twelve representative vault water compositions, derived from predicted interactions with buffer material and backfill over a range of temperatures up to 95 deg C, were used in the modelling. For the conditions modelled it was determined that the interactions of the geosphere with dissolved vault constituents, and the relatively modest maximum increase in groundwater temperature produced by a vault, would have a limited impact on the geosphere. The conclusions of this preliminary study are qualified by some of the simplifying assumptions used in the modelling. More realistic modelling of natural systems requires a more detailed representation of water-solid interactions with a variety of vault materials at elevated temperatures. (author) 48 refs., 13 tabs, 4 figs

  6. Preliminary Concept of Operations for the Spent Fuel Management System--WM2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumberland, Riley M [ORNL; Adeniyi, Abiodun Idowu [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; Jarrell, Joshua J [ORNL; Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST) within the U.S. Department of Energy s Office of Nuclear Energy is tasked with identifying, planning, and conducting activities to lay the groundwork for developing interim storage and transportation capabilities in support of an integrated waste management system. The system will provide interim storage for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from reactor sites and deliver it to a repository. The system will also include multiple subsystems, potentially including; one or more interim storage facilities (ISF); one or more repositories; facilities to package and/or repackage SNF; and transportation systems. The project team is analyzing options for an integrated waste management system. To support analysis, the project team has developed a Concept of Operations document that describes both the potential integrated system and inter-dependencies between system components. The goal of this work is to aid systems analysts in the development of consistent models across the project, which involves multiple investigators. The Concept of Operations document will be updated periodically as new developments emerge. At a high level, SNF is expected to travel from reactors to a repository. SNF is first unloaded from reactors and placed in spent fuel pools for wet storage at utility sites. After the SNF has cooled enough to satisfy loading limits, it is placed in a container at reactor sites for storage and/or transportation. After transportation requirements are met, the SNF is transported to an ISF to store the SNF until a repository is developed or directly to a repository if available. While the high level operation of the system is straightforward, analysts must evaluate numerous alternative options. Alternative options include the number of ISFs (if any), ISF design, the stage at which SNF repackaging occurs (if any), repackaging technology, the types of containers used, repository design, component

  7. Neural activity induced by visual food stimuli presented out of awareness: a preliminary magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Katsuko; Ishii, Akira; Matsuo, Takashi; Nakamura, Chika; Uji, Masato; Yoshikawa, Takahiro

    2018-02-15

    Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake. In addition, increased LF/HF was negatively associated with increased alpha band power in Brodmann area (BA) 47 caused by food pictures presented below the threshold of awareness, and level of cognitive restraint was positively associated with increased alpha band power in BA13. Our findings may provide valuable clues to the development of methods assessing unconscious regulation of appetite and offer avenues for further study of the neural mechanisms related to eating behavior.

  8. CORE Organic country report. Preliminary report on Danish research in organic food and farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Information manager Claus Bo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the country report is to present an overview of Danish research in organic food and farming. The overview includes descriptions of History, Organisation , Research programmes, Financing, Research facilities, Initiation of research and stakeholder engagement, Selection criteria and evaluation procedures, Utilisation of research, Scientific education & research schools

  9. Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

  10. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW th power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H 2 corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the preliminary design

  11. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW{sub th} power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H{sub 2} corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the

  12. Preliminary Identification of the Microbial Fuel Cell Bacteria Communities in Sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, S.M; Hashim, R.; Roslani, N.S.; Suja, F.; Basri, N.E.A.; Anuar, N.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the types of bacteria exist in wastewater that contribute to generate electricity and simultaneously remove carbon and nitrogen. The method used was Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) to detect the bacteria group while Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the observation made using FISH. A biochemical identification using BIOLOG GEN III MICROPLATE TM also was used . The samples were cultured on nutrient agar plate to identify the morphology of the bacteria. The result showed that 21 isolates from three different locations at the activated sludge treatment plant with six, eleven and four strains for raw sewage, aeration tank and returned activated sludge samples, respectively. Preliminary identification does not give a good match but only showed the existence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (FISH) and Kurtia Gibsoni (BIOLOG) from aeration tank : Bacillus sp (PCR) and Bacillus Pseudomycoides (BIOLOG) from returned activated sludge. The maximum power density generated using returned activated sludge was 9.053 mW/ cm 2 , with 26.8 % COD removal and 40 % TKN removal (author)

  13. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, S.J.; Fensin, M.L.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Quiter, B.J.; Sandoval, N.P.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Thompson, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of 'Pu isotopic correlation' is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  14. [Evolution of salaries and the price of food and domestic fuels in the city of La Paz (1975-1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, J

    1987-03-01

    An analysis was performed on the variations of the food purchasing power of the average industry wage during the period comprised between 1975 and 1984 (increase of 7%), and of the minimum wage between November 1982 and August 1985 (decline of 73%). Development of retail prices in La Paz, for the main food groups, beverages and fuels, was analyzed over the same periods. Variations in work time, paid at average industry wage or at minimum wage, needed to acquire such foodstuffs, beverages or fuels, were also carefully studied. Similarly, development of the cost of calories and proteins was examined. Trends in accessibility of calories and proteins are described. Between 1975 and 1984 these included: a progressive decline in the number of foods that are sources of "cheap" or "very cheap" calories; the same trend was observed with regard to foods which are sources of "cheap" or "very cheap" proteins: A decline in their number and even the disappearance of any source of "very cheap" proteins, and an ever-increasing dependence on agro-industry and foreign imports (notably wheat). Finally, some proposals are made for the purpose of contributing to the establishment of food and nutrition planning. In particular, suggestion is made to automatically reevaluate the minimum wage on the basis of monetary inflation, in order to maintain at least the food purchasing power of the minimum wage. Maintaining this purchasing power greatly determines the nutritional status of the wage-earning population which purchases the most essential foodstuffs.

  15. Development of fuel cycles with new fuel with 8.9 mm external diameter for VVER-440. Preliminary assessment of operating efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagarinskiy, Alexey [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-15

    Since the introduction of VVERs-440, their fuel assemblies are subject to ongoing improvements. Until now, the basic structural parameters of fuel, such as rod diameter of 9.1 mm, have never changed. This paper focuses on computational estimates of basic neutronic parameters of the fuel cycle that involves assemblies consisting of fuel rods with diameter reduced to 8.9 mm.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the risk linked to furan ingestion by babies consuming only ready-to-eat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The risk linked to furan ingestion has been assessed in previous papers for Belgian adults and children. The present paper focuses on infants consuming only ready-to-eat baby food. As there is no Belgian baby dietary database, the furan exposure assessment was carried out by using an Italian infant consumption database and Belgian contamination data. The estimated daily intake (EDI) was calculated according to a deterministic methodology. It involved 42 commercially available ready-to-eat baby food and 36 baby consumption records. The mean EDI was 1460 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ which is 3.8 times higher than the 381 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ reported for Belgian adults, and 3.5 times higher than the 419 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ measured for Belgian children. To assess and characterise the risk for babies' exposure, the margin of exposure (MoE) was calculated. It highlighted that 74% of infants have a MoE < 1000, with a minimum of 140. However, these are only preliminary results as they were calculated from a very small dataset and the infant cytochrome P450 activity is significantly different compared with the adult's. Therefore, the risk linked to furan ingestion by babies should be assessed in a different manner. To this end, additional data regarding a baby diet as well as a better understanding of furan toxicity for babies are needed to characterise more accurately the risk for infants.

  17. Chronic sleep restriction differentially affects implicit biases toward food among men and women: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Killgore, William D S; Smith, Ryan; Dailey, Natalie S; Bajaj, Sahil; Raikes, Adam C; Haack, Monika

    2017-11-02

    Chronic sleep restriction and obesity are two major public health concerns. This study investigated how chronic sleep restriction changes implicit attitudes towards low- and high-calorie foods. In a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design, 17 participants (eight females, nine males) underwent two laboratory testing sessions where they were either sleep-restricted for 3 weeks (i.e. underwent three weekly cycles of 5 nights of 4 h of sleep followed by 2 nights of 8 h of sleep opportunity) or received 3 weeks of control sleep (i.e. 8 h of sleep opportunity per night for 3 weeks). There was evidence for a significant sleep condition x sex interaction (F (1, 20)  = 4.60, P = 0.04). After chronic sleep restriction, men showed a trend towards a significant decrease in their implicit attitudes favouring low-calorie foods (P = 0.08), whereas women did not show a significant change (P = 0.16). Men may be at increased risk of weight gain when sleep-deprived due to a reduced bias towards low-calorie foods. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Preliminary study on the control of direct injection diesel engine for better fuel flexibility and emissions control. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.; Kassem, N.; Bohlin, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on turbocharged direct injection diesel engines. The objectives and scope of this study are: 1. To explore the potential of using electronic control systems based on dynamic models of the engine in order to reduce fuel consumption, while maintaining good driveability. 2. To analyze the transient response of a turbocharged diesel engine based on experimental data collected from one of SAAB-SCANIA's test cells. 3. To survey the hardware components that would satisfy the requirements of the electronic control systems mentioned above. Part III discusses the transient response measurements obtained from two sets of experiments conducted on a six-cylinder motor working under varying conditions of load and speed. The objective of the first set of experiments was to quantify the difference in ignition delay between the transient and steady state operating conditions. The second set of experiments were aimed to provide a basis on which the engine efficiency obtained under transient conditions can be compared to that obtained from a single-cylinder motor working under steady state conditions.

  19. Preliminary studies of lignocellulosics and waste fuels for fixed bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, H [Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Energy Systems and Environmental Research Institute; Dogru, M; Howarth, C R [University of Newcastle (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering; Malik, A A [University of Northumbria, Newcastle (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Life Science

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to understand the decomposition behaviour of a range of biofuel and waste feedstock during gasification in a downdraft gasifier. A laboratory scale large sample thermogravimetric analyser (LSTA) is used which allows the data on burn-out characteristics of different fuel particles to be measured under agitated conditions. The conditions chosen simulate the combustion behaviour in a gasifier for a range of biofuels and wastes, namely hazelnut, pistachio, and peanut shells, wood chips and sewage sludge pellets. From this data the activation energy is calculated for a heating rate of 20{sup o}C/min. It was found that, as the weight loss increases, the activation energy decreases. In addition the influence of a range of gasification air/N{sub 2} levels on constituents of the gas released during hazelnut shell decomposition was observed. It was found that the composition of the product gases consisted of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. This was analysed as function of time for hazelnut shells showing that the primary products are H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. (author)

  20. Preliminary reactor physics calculations for Exxon LWR fuel testing in the power burst facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, W.O.; Nigg, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    The PFB reactor is being considered as an irradiation facility to test LWR fuel rods for Exxon Nuclear Company. Requested test conditions are 18 kW/ft axial peak steady state power in 2.5% initial enrichment, 20,000 MWd/Tu exposed rods. Multigroup transport theory calculations (S/sub n/ and Monte Carlo) showed that this was unattainable in the standard PBF test loop. Thus, a flux multiplier was developed in the form of a Zr-2-clad 0.15-inch thick cylindrical shell of 35% enriched, 88% T.D. UO 2 replacing the flow divider, surrounding the rod within the in-pile tube in PFB. With this flux multiplier installed and assuming an average water density of 0.86 g/cm 3 within the test loop, a Figure of Merit (FOM) for a single-rod test assembly of 0.86 kW/ft-MW +- 5% (at 95% confidence level) was calculated. This FOM is the axial peak linear test rod power per megawatt of reactor power. A reactor power of about 21 megawatts will therefore be required to supply the requested linear test rod axial peak heating rate of 18 kW/ft

  1. Feasibility study for fast reactor and related fuel cycle. Preliminary studies in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayafune, Hiroki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kenichi; Yoshida, Masashi; Uno, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Jun; Umetsu, Youichiro; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    1999-10-01

    Prior to the feasibility study for fast reactors (FRs) starting from the 1999 fiscal year, planned in the medium and long-term program of JNC, preliminarily studies were performed on 'FR systems except sodium cooled MOX fueled reactors'. Small scale or module type reactors, heavy metal (Pb or Pb-Bi) cooled reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water cooled reactors, and molten salt reactors were studied on the basis of literature. They were evaluated from the viewpoint of the technical possibility (the structure integrity, earthquake resistance, safety, productivity, operability, maintenance repair, difficulty of the development), the long-term targets (market competitiveness as an energy system, utilization of uranium resources, reduction of radioactive waste, security of the non-proliferation), and developmental risk. As the result, the following concepts should be studied for future commercialized FRs. Small scale and module type reactor: Middle-sized reactor with an excellent economical efficiency. Small power reactor with a multipurpose design concept. Gas cooled reactor: CO2 gas cooled reactor, He gas cooled reactor. Heavy metal cooled reactor: Russian type lead cooled reactor. Light water cooled reactor: Light water cooled high converter reactor and super critical pressure light water cooled reactor. Molten salt reactor: Trichloride molten salt reactor which matches the U-Pu cycle. (author)

  2. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Brazilian commercial dog food: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, the exposure of non-human species to ionizing radiation, as well as its effects, has been given a different focus; on the one hand due to the increasing knowledge on different exposure situations that these species are subjected to and on the other hand, due to the concern regarding biodiversity and its protection. To estimate the effects of ionizing radiation over non-human biota, several key points must be considered, such as radionuclide concentration, dosimetry models, reference biota and others. A vast number of non-human individuals can be represented by reference organisms defined by different international organisms (UNSCEAR, ICRP and the FASSET project), to facilitate the assessment of exposure, absorbed dose and radiation effect for individuals from alike environments. There is, however, no specific representative for domestic animals, like dogs and cats. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world, consuming over 2 million tons of feed every year. The Brazilian Association of the Industry of Products for Pets (ABINPET) foresees, for the year of 2013, an economic growth of 8.1% that may represent 0.34% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Animal food content and quality evaluations have been presented elsewhere, while no radiological study and the consequences from its ingestion have ever been conducted in the country. Hence, the present study will evaluate absorbed doses for domestic animals (i.e. dogs and cats) due to ingestion of food designed for them, by determining the radioactivity content of natural and anthropogenic cause. Initially, the activity concentrations in different brands of dry dog and cat food will be assessed by high resolution gamma spectrometry. Several brands usually consumed in Brazil were selected for the study. Eighteen dog food samples were prepared (crushed into powder and kiln dried) and tightly sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks, with a plan screw cap and bubble

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a microbial fuel cell treating artificial dialysis wastewater using graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko

    2016-02-01

    Artificial dialysis wastewater (ADWW) generally contains 800-2,200 mg L-1 of organic matter. Prior to its discharge to the sewage system, ADWW must be treated in order to reduce organic matter to less than 600 mg L-1. This study assesses the applicability of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to the reduction of organic matter in ADWW as an alternative pre-treatment system to aeration. In the MFC, conductive floccular aggregates microbially produced from graphene oxide (GO-flocs) were applied as an anode material in the MFC. The GO-flocs were obtained by anaerobic incubation of graphene oxide (GO) with microorganisms in ADWW at 28 °C for a minimum of 10 days. During incubation, GO in the mixture was transformed into black conductive floccular aggregates having 0.12 mS cm-1, suggesting the microbial reduction of GO to the reduced form. The produced GO-flocs were then used as the anode material in a cylindrical MFC, which was filled with ADWW and covered with a floating, platinum (Pt)-coated carbon cathode. The MFC was polarized via an external resistance of 10 Ω and applied for 120 days by replacing half of the supernatant of the MFC with fresh ADWW, every 6-9 days. As a result, the MFC achieved a 128 mg L-1 d-1 chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) removal rate. For example, the MFC contained 1,500 mg-CODCr L-1 just after replacement, with this concentration being reduced to 1,000 mg-CODCr L-1 after 6-9 days of incubation. At the same time, the MFC showed an average power density of 28 mW m-2 and a maximum power density of 291 mW m-2. These results suggest that a MFC packed with GO-flocs can be used as an alternative biotreatment system, replacing the energy-intensive aeration process.

  5. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

    2010-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los

  6. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  7. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  8. Report on the preliminary fact finding mission following the accident at the nuclear fuel processing facility in Tokaimura, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Following the accident on 30 September 1999 at the nuclear fuel processing facility at Tokaimura, Japan, the IAEA Emergency Response Centre received numerous requests for information about the event's causes and consequences from Contact Points under the Conventions on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Although the lack of transboundary consequences of the accident meant that action under the Early Notification Convention was not triggered, the Emergency Response Centre issued several advisories to Member States which drew on official reports received from Japan. After discussions with the Government of Japan, the IAEA dispatched a team of three experts from the Secretariat on a fact finding mission to Tokaimura from 13 to 17 October 1999. The present preliminary report by that team documents key technical information obtained during the mission. At this stage, the report can in no way provide conclusive judgements on the causes and consequences of the accident. Investigations are proceeding in Japan and more information is expected to be made available after access has been gained to the building where the accident occurred. Moreover, much of the information already made available will be revised as more accurate assessments are made, for example of the radiation doses to the three individuals who received the highest exposures. Notwithstanding the preliminary nature of this report, it is clear that the accident was not one involving widespread contamination of the environment as in the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Although there was little risk off the site once the accident had been brought under control, the authorities evacuated the population living within a few hundred metres and advised people within about 10 km of the facility to take shelter for a period of about one day. The event at Tokaimura was nevertheless a serious industrial accident. The results of the detailed

  9. Status and quality of radiation measurements. food and human urine. Preliminary report 1972-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, D.G.; Kinnison, R.R.; Jarvis, A.N.; Smiecinski, R.F.

    1977-10-01

    As part of the radiation quality assurance program conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, calibrated radionuclide solutions are distributed to participating laboratories for instrument calibration and yield determinations. Laboratory performance studies involving the analysis of radionuclides in environmental media are also conducted. A summary is given of the results for the food and human urine cross-check programs for 1972-1975. For tritium, which was the least difficult to analyze, eighty-two percent of the laboratories were within the control limits for accuracy and ninety-nine percent within the control limits for precision over the 3-year period. For strontium-89, and most difficult to analyze, thirty-three percent were within the accuracy control limits and seventy-seven percent within the precision control limits

  10. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H 2 production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H 2 production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H 2 production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H 2 production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H 2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H 2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H 2 -production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS 0 -1 , respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H 2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process

  11. Preliminary Content Evaluation of the North Anna High Burn-Up Sister Fuel Rod Segments for Transportation in the 10-160B and NAC-LWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) Program has transported high-burnup nuclear sister fuel rods from a commercial nuclear power plant for purposes of evaluation and testing. The evaluation and testing of high-burnup used nuclear fuel is integral to DOE initiatives to collect information useful in determining the integrity of fuel cladding for future safe transportation of the fuel, and for determining the effects of aging, on the integrity of UNF subjected to extended storage and subsequent transportation. The UFDC Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the commercial nuclear industry, has obtained individual used nuclear fuel rods for testing. The rods have been received at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for both separate effects testing (SET) and small-scale testing (SST). To meet the research objectives, testing on multiple 6 inch fuel rod pins cut from the rods at ORNL will be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Up to 10 rod equivalents will be shipped. Options were evaluated for multiple shipments using the 10-160B (based on 4.5 rod equivalents) and a single shipment using the NAC-LWT. Based on the original INL/Virginia Power transfer agreement, the rods are assumed to 152 inches in length with a 0.374-inch diameter. This report provides a preliminary content evaluation for use of the 10-160B and NAC-LWT for transporting those fuel rod pins from ORNL to PNNL. This report documents the acceptability of using these packagings to transport the fuel segments from ORNL to PNNL based on the following evaluations: enrichment, A2 evaluation, Pu-239 FGE evaluation, heat load, shielding (both gamma and neutron), and content weight/structural evaluation.

  12. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Marianne [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomich, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This case study explores the production and use of renewable compressed natural gas (R-CNG)—derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste—to fuel heavy-duty refuse trucks and other natural gas vehicles in Sacramento, California.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Fratini, Filippo; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Cerri, Domenico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some probiotic properties of 42 wild Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different Italian foods of animal origin. The strains were first screened for their antibiotic resistance profile (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline), subsequently they were tested for their in vitro resistance to lysozyme (100 mg L⁻¹), low pH (3.0, 2.5 and 2.0) and bile salts (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %). Moreover, agglutination property was studied (adhesion to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells), as well as the presence of bsh and msa genes. The strains with the best characteristics were subjected to a further trial in order to evaluate their ability to survive to multiple stresses over time (lysozyme, low pH and bile salts) and the effect of these treatments on adhesion to yeast cells. All the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, while 6 strains were excluded from further evaluation because of their resistant phenotype against tetracycline. All the strains were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, as well as in MRS broth at pH 3.0. Only 4 strains showed a growth rate lower than 80 % when grown in MRS broth at pH 2.5, while a relevant growth rate decrease was observed after exposure to pH 2.0. Bile salts didn't affect the viability of the L. plantarum cells. Twenty-one strains out of 33 tested strains were able to adhere to S. cerevisiae cells. Presence of both bsh and msa genes was detected in 6 strains. The strains resistant to all the stresses, positive to agglutination with S. cerevisiae and showing bsh and msa genes were selected for further evaluation and subjected to different stress treatments over time. The assessment of growth rates showed that exposure to lysozyme significantly increased low pH resistance in L. plantarum. This increase ranged from 2.35 to 15.57 %. The consequential lysozyme and low pH exposures didn't affect the growth rate values after bile salts treatment

  14. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H2-production yields of 145 and 109 ml g VS 0(-1), respectively, which are 1.5-2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling and preliminary analysis on the temperature profile of the (TRU-Zr)-Zr dispersion fuel rod for HYPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. W.; Hwang, W.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-01-01

    Either TRU-Zr metal alloy or (TRU-Zr)-Zr dispersion fuel is considered as a blanket fuel for HYPER(Hybrid Power Extraction Reactor). In order to develop the code for dispersion fuel rod performance analysis under steady state condition, the fuel temperature distribution model which is the one of the most important factors in a fuel performance code has been developed in this paper,. This developed model computes the one dimensional radial temperature distribution of a cylindrical fuel rod. The temperature profile results by this model are compared with the temperature distributions of U 3 Si-A1 dispersion fuel and TRU-Zr metal alloy fuel. This model will be installed in performance analysis code for dispersion fuel

  16. Oleaginous crops as integrated production platforms for food, feed, fuel and renewable industrial feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaudoin Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The world faces considerable challenges including how to produce more biomass for food, feed, fuel and industrial feedstock without significantly impacting on our environment or increasing our consumption of limited resources such as water or petroleum-derived carbon. This has been described as sustainable intensification. Oleaginous crops have the potential to provide renewable resources for all these commodities, provided they can be engineered to meet end-use requirements, and that they can be produced on sufficient scale to meet current growing world population and industrial demand. Although traditional breeding methods have been used successfully to modify the fatty acid composition of oils, metabolic engineering provides a more rapid and direct method for manipulating plant lipid composition. Recent advances in our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of seed oil biogenesis and the cloning of genes involved in fatty acid and oil metabolic pathways, have allowed the generation of oilseed crops that produce ‘designer oils’ tailored for specific applications and the conversion of high biomass crops into novel oleaginous crops. However, improvement of complex quantitative traits in oilseed crops remains more challenging as the underlying genetic determinants are still poorly understood. Technological advances in sequencing and computing have allowed the development of an association genetics method applicable to crops with complex genomes. Associative transcriptomics approaches and high throughput lipidomic profiling can be used to identify the genetic components controlling quantitative variation for lipid related traits in polyploid crops like oilseed rape and provide molecular tools for marker assisted breeding. In this review we are citing examples of traits with potential for bio-refining that can be harvested as co-products in seeds, but also in non-harvested biomass.

  17. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume II: Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veyo, S

    1997-01-01

    .... Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate...

  18. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokola, E.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  19. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  20. Calculation of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents using the integral diffusion method -- Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary designs are described for models of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents. Calculation of the uptake involves the modeling of seven processes: (1) diffusion of oxygen from the bulk gas into the boundary layer at the external cladding surface, (2) diffusion from the boundary layer into the oxide layer, (3) diffusion from the inner surface of the oxide layer into the metallic part of the cladding, (4) uptake of hydrogen in the event that the cladding oxide layer is dissolved in a steam-starved region, (5) embrittlement of cladding due to hydrogen uptake, (6) cracking of cladding during quenching due to its embrittlement and (7) release of hydrogen from the cladding after cracking of the cladding. An integral diffusion method is described for calculating the diffusion processes in the cladding. Experimental results are presented that show a rapid uptake of hydrogen in the event of dissolution of the oxide layer and a rapid release of hydrogen in the event of cracking of the oxide layer. These experimental results are used as a basis for calculating the rate of hydrogen uptake and the rate of hydrogen release. The uptake of hydrogen is limited to the equilibrium solubility calculated by applying Sievert's law. The uptake of hydrogen is an exothermic reaction that accelerates the heatup of a fuel rod. An embrittlement criteria is described that accounts for hydrogen and oxygen concentration and the extent of oxidation. A design is described for implementing the models for hydrogen and oxygen uptake and cladding embrittlement into the programming framework of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code. A test matrix is described for assessing the impact of the proposed models on the calculated behavior of fuel rods in severe accident conditions. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled; ''Preliminary Design Report for Modeling of Hydrogen Uptake in Fuel Rod Cladding During Severe Accidents.''

  1. Bio-fuels and Food Security: A Case Study of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of an expanding bio-fuels sector in South Africa is expected to be widespread and substantial and could affect the agricultural sector. For example, an expanded bio-fuels industry in the country is predicted to lead to marginal price increases of 7.5% for milk, 2% for chicken, 9.6% for beef and 2.5% for eggs per ...

  2. A laboratory-scale comparison of rate of spread model predictions using chaparral fuel beds – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Weise; E. Koo; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam

    2011-01-01

    Observed fire spread rates from 240 laboratory fires in horizontally-oriented single-species live fuel beds were compared to predictions from various implementations and modifications of the Rothermel rate of spread model and a physical fire spread model developed by Pagni and Koo. Packing ratio of the laboratory fuel beds was generally greater than that observed in...

  3. Preliminary Effects of Prescribed Burning and Thinning as Fuel Reduction Treatments on the Piedmont Soils of the Clemson Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor B. Shelburne; M. Forbes Boyle; Darren J. Lione; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    This study is a component of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate (NFFS) Study which is an integrated national network of long-term interdisciplinary research to facilitate broad applicability of fuel impacts. This part of the NFFS study in the Piedmont of South Carolina studied three ways of reducing fuel loads (prescribed burning, thinning, and the two in combination...

  4. Welding of metallic fuel elements for the irradiation test in JOYO. Preliminary tests and welding execution tests (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Kinya; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation tests of metallic fuels elements in fast test reactor JOYO are planned under the joint research of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Six U-Pu-Zr fuel elements clad with ferritic martensitic steel are fabricated in Plutonium Fuel Research Facility (PFRF) of JAEA-Oarai for the first time in Japan. In PFRF, the procedures of fabrication of the fuel elements were determined and the test runs of the equipments were carried out before the welding execution tests for the fuel elements. Test samples for confirming the welding condition between the cladding tube and top and bottom endplugs were prepared, and various test runs were carried out before the welding execution tests. As a result, the welding conditions were finalized by passing the welding execution tests. (author)

  5. Preliminary assessment of a symbiotic fusion--fission power system using the TH/U refresh fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Moir, R.W.

    1977-10-01

    Studies of the mirror hybrid reactor by LLL/GA have concluded that the most promising role for this reactor concept is that of a producer of fissile fuel for fission reactors. Studies to date have examined primarily the U/Pu fuel cycle with light-water reactors serving as the consumers of the hybrid-bred fissile fuel; the specific scenarios examined required reprocessing and refabrication of the bred fuel before introduction into the fission reactor. This combination of technologies was chosen to illustrate the manner in which the hybrid reactor concept could serve the needs of, and use the technology of, the fission reactor industry as it now exists (and as it was thought it would evolve). However, the current U.S. Administration has expressed strong concerns about proliferation of nuclear weapons capability and terrorist diversion of weapons-grade nuclear materials. These concerns are based on the projected technology for the light-water reactor/fast breeder reactor using the U/Pu fuel cycle and extensive reprocessing/refabrication. A symbiotic nuclear power generation concept (hybrid fissile producer plus fission burner reactors) is described which eliminates those aspects of the present nuclear fuel cycle that (may) represent significant proliferation/diversion risks. Specifically, the proposed concept incorporates the following features: (1)Th/U 233 fuel cycle, (2) no reprocessing or fabrication of fissile material, and (3) no fissile material in a weapons-grade state

  6. Preliminary validation and principal components analysis of the Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ) for the experience of food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M; Finlayson, G; Hill, A; Blundell, J

    2015-12-01

    The Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ) comprises 21-items that are designed to assess the severity and type of food cravings an individual experiences over the previous 7 days. The CoEQ has been used in clinical trials as a multi-dimensional measure of appetite, craving and mood regulation however its underlying component structure has yet to be determined. The current paper has two aims; (1) to examine the psychometric properties, and internal consistency of the CoEQ; and (2) to provide a preliminary examination of the underlying components by exploring their construct and predictive validity. Data were pooled from four studies in which a total 215 adults (80% women; Age=29.7 ± 10.3; BMI=26.5 ± 5.2) had completed the CoEQ alongside measures of psychometric eating behaviour traits, ad libitum food intake, and body composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) and parallel analysis was conducted to examine the underlying structure of the questionnaire. The resulting subscales were tested for internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.66-0.88). PCA revealed four components that explained 54.5% of the variance. The components were identified as: Craving Control, Positive Mood, Craving for Sweet, and Craving for Savoury. Associations between the underlying CoEQ subscales and measures of body composition and eating behaviour traits confirmed construct validity of the subscales. The associations between the subscales and snack food selection and intake of palatable snack foods supported the CoEQ's predictive validity. The CoEQ has good psychometric properties with a clear component structure and acceptable internal consistency. This preliminary validation supports the CoEQ as a measure of the experience of food cravings.

  7. Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwood, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90 0 included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly

  8. Preliminary Analysis of High-Flux RSG-GAS to Transmute Am-241 of PWR’s Spent Fuel in Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Setiawan, M.; Kuntjoro, S.

    2018-02-01

    A preliminary study of minor actinides (MA) transmutation in the high flux profile RSG-GAS research reactor was performed, aiming at an optimal transmutation loading for present nuclear energy development. The MA selected in the analysis includes Am-241 discharged from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in Asian region. Until recently, studies have been undertaken in various methods to reduce radiotoxicity from actinides in high-level waste. From the cell calculation using computer code SRAC2006, it is obtained that the target Am-241 which has a cross section of the thermal energy absorption in the region (group 8) is relatively large; it will be easily burned in the RSG-GAS reactor. Minor actinides of Am-241 which can be inserted in the fuel (B/T fuel) is 2.5 kg which is equivalent to Am-241 resulted from the partition of spent fuel from 2 units power reactors PWR with power 1000MW(th) operated for one year.

  9. Preliminary conceptual design of a geological disposal system for high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A geological disposal system consists of disposal overpacks, a buffer, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel for high-level wastes from a pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is proposed. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. > Four kinds of deposition methods, two horizontal and two vertical, are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program. The spacing between the disposal modules is determined for the peak temperature in buffer not to exceed 100 deg. C. > The effect of the double-layered buffer is compared with the traditional single-layered buffer in terms of disposal density. Also, the effect of cooling time (aging) is illustrated. > All the thermal calculations are represented by comparing the disposal area of PWR spent fuels with the same cooling time. - Abstract: The inventories of spent fuels are linearly dependent on the production of electricity generated by nuclear energy. Pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is one of promising technologies which can reduce the volume of spent fuels remarkably. The properties of high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing are totally different from those of spent fuels. A geological disposal system is proposed for the high-level wastes from pyroprocessing of spent fuels. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. Around 665 kg of monazite ceramic wastes are expected from the pyroprocessing of 10 MtU of PWR spent fuels. Decay heat from monazite ceramic wastes is calculated using the ORIGEN-ARP program. Disposal modules consisting of storage cans, overpacks, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel are proposed. Four kinds of deposition methods are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program and geological data obtained from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel. Through the thermal analysis, the spacing between the disposal modules

  10. Development and Preliminary Testing of the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS): Assessing the Importance of Multiple Factors on College Students' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaro, Melissa J; Zhou, Wenjun; Colby, Sarah E; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Riggsbee, Kristin; Olfert, Melissa D; Barnett, Tracey E; Mathews, Anne E

    2017-12-01

    Understanding factors that influence food choice may help improve diet quality. Factors that commonly affect adults' food choices have been described, but measures that identify and assess food choice factors specific to college students are lacking. This study developed and tested the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS) among college students. Thirty-seven undergraduates participated in two focus groups ( n = 19; 11 in the male-only group, 8 in the female-only group) and interviews ( n = 18) regarding typical influences on food choice. Qualitative data informed the development of survey items with a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). An expert panel rated FCPS items for clarity, relevance, representativeness, and coverage using a content validity form. To establish test-retest reliability, 109 first-year college students completed the 14-item FCPS at two time points, 0-48 days apart ( M = 13.99, SD = 7.44). Using Cohen's weighted κ for responses within 20 days, 11 items demonstrated moderate agreement and 3 items had substantial agreement. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure (9 items). The FCPS is designed for college students and provides a way to determine the factors of greatest importance regarding food choices among this population. From a public health perspective, practical applications include using the FCPS to tailor health communications and behavior change interventions to factors most salient for food choices of college students.

  11. Preliminary investigation of fuel cycle in fast reactors by the correlations method and sensitivity analyses of nuclear characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; Castro Lobo, P.D. de.

    1980-11-01

    A reduction of computing effort was achieved as a result of the application of space - independent continuous slowing down theory in the spectrum averaged cross sections and further expressing then in a quadratic corelation whith the temperature and the composition. The decoupling between variables that express some of the important nuclear characteristics allowed to introduce a sensitivity analyses treatment for the full prediction of the behavior, over the fuel cycle, of the LMFBR considered. As a potential application of the method here in developed is to predict the nuclear characteristics of another reactor, face some reference reactor of the family considered. Excellent agreement with exact calculation is observed only when perturbations occur in nuclear data and/or fuel isotopic characteristics, but fair results are obtained whith variations in system components other than the fuel. (Author) [pt

  12. Preliminary Study on Effect of Aviation Fuel in the Safety Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Crashed by Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Byeong Moo; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Yun Seok; Kim, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    As the safety assessments of nuclear power plants for the hypothetical large civil aircraft crash should be made mandatory, studies on large aircraft-nuclear power plant impact analyses and assessments are actively in progress. The large civil aircraft are being operated with a large amount of fuel and the fuel can be assumed to contribute to the impact loads at the impact. The fuel, i.e., the internal liquid can be considered as added masses classically in the evaluation of the impact load. According to the recent experimental research, it has been shown that the impact load of high speed impacting body with internal liquid is much higher than that of the mass-equivalent impacting body. In this study, the impact loads according to the existence of the internal liquid are computed by numerical methods and the safety assessment of nuclear power plant crashed by large civil aircraft are performed as an application

  13. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  14. Liquid fuels from food waste: An alternative process to co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yoke-Leng; Ch'ng, Boon-Juok; Mok, Yau-Cheng; Goh, Sok-Yee; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Pinnock, Travis; Adams, Shemlyn; Cassis, Islande; Ibrahim, Zainab; Johnson, Camille; Johnson, Chantel; Khatim, Fatima; McCormack, Andrece; Okotiuero, Mary; Owens, Charity; Place, Meoak; Remy, Cristine; Strothers, Joel; Waithe, Shannon; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher; Pratt, Lawrence M.

    2017-04-01

    Waste from uneaten, spoiled, or otherwise unusable food is an untapped source of material for biofuels. A process is described to recover the oil from mixed food waste, together with a solid residue. This process includes grinding the food waste to an aqueous slurry, skimming off the oil, a combined steam treatment of the remaining solids concurrent with extrusion through a porous cylinder to release the remaining oil, a second oil skimming step, and centrifuging the solids to obtain a moist solid cake for fermentation. The water, together with any resulting oil from the centrifuging step, is recycled back to the grinding step, and the cycle is repeated. The efficiency of oil extraction increases with the oil content of the waste, and greater than 90% of the oil was collected from waste containing at least 3% oil based on the wet mass. Fermentation was performed on the solid cake to obtain ethanol, and the dried solid fermentation residue was a nearly odorless material with potential uses of biochar, gasification, or compost production. This technology has the potential to enable large producers of food waste to comply with new laws which require this material to be diverted from landfills.

  15. Targeting premeal anxiety in eating disordered clients and normal controls: a preliminary investigation into the use of mindful eating vs. distraction during food exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Denise D; Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Warren, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated that negative affect increases prior to food intake in individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder. Mindfulness has been supported empirically to treat experiential avoidance stemming from anxiety. Thus, the current objective in this study is to empirically compare mindfulness vs. thought suppression invention during a food exposure in both clinical and nonclinical samples. In a 2 (Group: clinical vs. nonclinical) × 2 (INTERVENTION: mindfulness vs. distraction) counterbalanced within treatment design, the current investigation sought to determine the differential effectiveness of a brief mindfulness intervention vs. a brief distraction intervention in women diagnosed with AN and BN in a clinical and nonclinical sample during a food exposure. Results indicated that the eating disorder group reported a significant increase in negative affect after the mindfulness intervention as compared to the distraction intervention, whereas the nonclinical group reported a significant decrease in negative affect after the mindfulness intervention as compared to the distraction intervention. Preliminary findings suggest that clinicians may want to proceed cautiously when using mindful eating in those with severe eating disorders during the early stages of food exposure. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Energy efficiency of conventional, organic, and alternative cropping systems for food and fuel at a site in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2010-05-15

    The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.

  17. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Preliminary testing of a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen

    1999-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare result...

  18. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruokola, E. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  19. Fossil fuel produced radioactivities and their effect on the food chain (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of radioactivities released from fossil fuel burning are examined. Main radioactivities are 210 Pb and 210 Po. Revised values of the dose due to the intake of leafy vegetables and seafoods are presented. The dose from natural gas from the Northern Sea is shown to be much lower than the dose from coal. This conclusion can probably apply to other natural gas except for that from the North American continent. The dose due to coal burning is found to be much higher than that due to marine disposal of nuclear waste

  20. Fossil fuel produced radioactivities and their effect on the food chain (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    1982-03-01

    The effects of radioactivities released from fossil fuel burning are examined. Main radioactivities are /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po. Revised values of the dose due to the intake of leafy vegetables and seafoods are presented. The dose from natural gas from the Northern Sea is shown to be much lower than the dose from coal. This conclusion can probably apply to other natural gas except for that from the North American continent. The dose due to coal burning is found to be much higher than that due to marine disposal of nuclear waste.

  1. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  2. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the future of C4 crops for food and fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Leakey, Andrew D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Crops with the C4 photosynthetic pathway are vital to global food supply, particularly in the tropical regions where human well-being and agricultural productivity are most closely linked. While rising atmospheric [CO2] is the driving force behind the greater temperatures and water stress, which threaten to reduce future crop yields, it also has the potential to directly benefit crop physiology. The nature of C4 plant responses to elevated [CO2] has been controversial. Recent evidence from fr...

  3. High-quality fuel from food waste - investigation of a stepwise process from the perspective of technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Li, Ling; Giannis, Apostolos; Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Ng, Bernard J H; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    A stepwise process (SP) was developed for sustainable energy production from food waste (FW). The process comprised of hydrothermal treatment followed by oil upgrading. Synthetic food waste was primarily used as feedstock in the hydrothermal reactor under subcritical water conditions. The produced hydrochars were analyzed for calorific value (17.0-33.7 MJ/kg) and elemental composition indicating high-quality fuel comparable to coal. Hydrothermal carbonization (e.g. 180°C) would be efficient for oil recovery (>90%) from FW, as compared to hydrothermal liquefaction (320°C) whereby lipid degradation may take place. The recovered oil was upgraded to biodiesel in a catalytic refinery process. Selected biodiesels, that is, B3 and B4 were characterized for density (872.7 and 895.5 kg/m 3 ), kinematic viscosity (3.115 and 8.243 cSt), flash and pour point (30°C and >126°C), micro carbon (0.03% and 0.04%), sulfur (both biofuel and hydrochar production.

  4. The food, fuel, and financial crises affect the urban and rural poor disproportionately: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T; Garrett, James L; Hawkes, Corinna; Cohen, Marc J

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerability of the urban poor to the recent food and fuel price crisis has been widely acknowledged. The unfolding global financial crisis, which brings higher unemployment and underemployment, is likely to further intensify this vulnerability. This paper reviews the evidence concerning the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban compared with the rural poor to these types of shocks. It reviews some of the unique characteristics of urban life that could make the urban poor particularly susceptible to price and financial shocks and summarizes the evidence regarding the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban poor. The focus is on impacts on poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition. The review shows that although the urban poor are clearly one of the population groups most affected by the current (and previous) crises, the rural poor, landless, and net buyers are in no better position to confront the crisis without significant suffering. The poorest of the poor are the ones who will be most affected, irrespective of the continent, country, or urban or rural area where they live. The magnitude and severity of their suffering depends on their ability to adapt and on the specific nature, extent, and duration of the coping strategies they adopt. A better understanding of how these coping strategies are used and staggered is critical to help design triggers for action that can prevent households from moving to more desperate measures. Using these early coping strategies as early warning indicators could help prevent dramatic losses in welfare.

  5. Vapour explosions (fuel-coolant interactions) resulting from the sub-surface injection of water into molten metals: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bullen, D.; Davies, D.

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the relationship between the injection mode of contact and the occurrence and magnitude of vapour explosions. Water was injected beneath the surface of molten metals, chiefly tin at 250 to 900 0 C. Vapour explosions occurred in many, but not all, cases. The results are compared with Dullforce's observations (Culham Report (CLM-P424) on the dropping mode of contact and it appears that rather different behaviour is found; in particular, the present results suggest that the Temperature Interaction Zone is different for the two modes of contact. (author)

  6. Suitability of Haestholmen Loviisa for final disposal of spent fuel. Preliminary study; Loviisan Haestholmenin soveltuvuus kaeytetyn polttoaineen loppusijoitukseen. Esiselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Based on the amendment of the Nuclear Energy Act the spent nuclear fuel of Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) will be disposed of in Finland instead of returning it to Russia. After Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and IVO had founded a joint company Posiva Oy the work IVO started in 1995 was brought together with the ongoing research programme for final disposal of spent fuel and extended to a feasibility study. The feasibility study was launched in the beginning of 1996. The geological evaluation was mainly based on the previous investigations at the island. For this study the complementary geological mapping has been carried out at the Haestholmen and on the surrounding area with a radius of 20 km. (49 refs.).

  7. The Association between Food Addiction and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Imperatori

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e., food addiction and binge eating and EMSs, and (ii the association between food addiction and EMSs after controlling for potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology. Participants were 70 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy. The patients were administered self-report measures investigating food addiction, binge eating, EMSs, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Food addiction severity was strongly associated with all main schema domains. Binge eating severity was positively related to disconnection/rejection (r = 0.41; p < 0.01, impaired limits (r = 0.26; p < 0.05, and other-directedness domains (r = 0.27; p < 0.05. The disconnection/rejection schema was independently associated with food addiction severity, after controlling for the presence of other potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology suggesting that this domain may be a crucial factor for the development of food addiction.

  8. Preliminary analysis of compound systems based on high temperature fuel cell, gas turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz de Escalona, J. M.; Monje, B.; Chacartegui, R.; Sánchez, T.

    This article presents a novel proposal for complex hybrid systems comprising high temperature fuel cells and thermal engines. In this case, the system is composed by a molten carbonate fuel cell with cascaded hot air turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), a layout that is based on subsequent waste heat recovery for additional power production. The work will credit that it is possible to achieve 60% efficiency even if the fuel cell operates at atmospheric pressure. The first part of the analysis focuses on selecting the working fluid of the Organic Rankine Cycle. After a thermodynamic optimisation, toluene turns out to be the most efficient fluid in terms of cycle performance. However, it is also detected that the performance of the heat recovery vapour generator is equally important, what makes R245fa be the most interesting fluid due to its balanced thermal and HRVG efficiencies that yield the highest global bottoming cycle efficiency. When this fluid is employed in the compound system, conservative operating conditions permit achieving 60% global system efficiency, therefore accomplishing the initial objective set up in the work. A simultaneous optimisation of gas turbine (pressure ratio) and ORC (live vapour pressure) is then presented, to check if the previous results are improved or if the fluid of choice must be replaced. Eventually, even if system performance improves for some fluids, it is concluded that (i) R245fa is the most efficient fluid and (ii) the operating conditions considered in the previous analysis are still valid. The work concludes with an assessment about safety-related aspects of using hydrocarbons in the system. Flammability is studied, showing that R245fa is the most interesting fluid also in this regard due to its inert behaviour, as opposed to the other fluids under consideration all of which are highly flammable.

  9. Preliminary study for the transport of the fuel rods of U235 enriched to 1.8 per cent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, H.; Perez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Transport of 1,8% U235 enriched fuel rods needs both the evaluation of the radiological risk and considerations about criticality aspects. Issues as diverse production characteristics, storage facilities in the source of origin an economical aspects have to be added to the radiological and nuclear considerations. Transport of those rods through national territory must comply with the Argentine Regulatory authority's regulations, based on the Safety Series No. 6, (ed. 1985) -as amended 1990- IAEA. Safety criteria are exposed, taking into account the amount of material to be transported, container characteristics, packaging type and expedition conditions. (author)

  10. Water Footprint and Impact of Water Consumption for Food, Feed, Fuel Crops Production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of food, feed and biofuels demands promises to increase pressure on water competition and stress, particularly for Thailand, which has a large agricultural base. This study assesses the water footprint of ten staple crops grown in different regions across the country and evaluates the impact of crop water use in different regions/watersheds by the water stress index and the indication of water deprivation potential. The ten crops include major rice, second rice, maize, soybean, mungbean, peanut, cassava, sugarcane, pineapple and oil palm. The water stress index of the 25 major watersheds in Thailand has been evaluated. The results show that there are high variations of crop water requirements grown in different regions due to many factors. However, based on the current cropping systems, the Northeastern region has the highest water requirement for both green water (or rain water and blue water (or irrigation water. Rice (paddy farming requires the highest amount of irrigation water, i.e., around 10,489 million m3/year followed by the maize, sugarcane, oil palm and cassava. Major rice cultivation induces the highest water deprivation, i.e., 1862 million m3H2Oeq/year; followed by sugarcane, second rice and cassava. The watersheds that have high risk on water competition due to increase in production of the ten crops considered are the Mun, Chi and Chao Phraya watersheds. The main contribution is from the second rice cultivation. Recommendations have been proposed for sustainable crops production in the future.

  11. The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for the assessment of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel management (NFWM) concept of disposal in a vault deep in the Canadian Shield is presented. Together with the surface water, soil and atmosphere submodels, CALDOS is integrated into a comprehensive, probabilistic biosphere model for post-closure assessment. This model is representative of the Canadian Shield in Ontario and CALDOS is fully generic. CALDOS calculates radionuclide transfer through the environment to make dose predictions for man. It considers 68 radionuclides explicitly and takes into account another 28 short-lived daughters in the dose calculations. Nine potentially toxic elements are also considered. CALDOS is of the multiplicative chain type for most of the radionuclides, but some, such as 3H , 129I and 222R n, are treated specially. The model accounts for all the major internal exposure pathways, including root uptake, leaf deposition, terrestrial animal's drinking water, terrestrial animal soil ingestion, freshwater fish ingestion, human drinking water, human soil ingestion and human inhalation. External exposure from air immersion, water immersion, ground and building materials are also considered. Dose predictions are based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP 26) methodologies, ICRP reference man (ICRP 23) and the critical group concept. CALDOS considers ingrowth of some radioactive daughters, radionuclide availability in soil, recycling and depletion. The model has numerous parameters, some element, radionuclide or food type specific. Sensitivity analysis is used to assess parameter importance in dose prediction. Quality assurance is addressed through general literature, model and parameter evaluations, specifically designed for environmental assessment models. This also involves validation and code comparison studies. (author). 43 refs., 36 tabs., 24 figs

  12. The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for the assessment of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste management concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zach, R; Sheppard, S C

    1992-12-01

    The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for assessing Canada`s nuclear fuel management (NFWM) concept of disposal in a vault deep in the Canadian Shield is presented. Together with the surface water, soil and atmosphere submodels, CALDOS is integrated into a comprehensive, probabilistic biosphere model for post-closure assessment. This model is representative of the Canadian Shield in Ontario and CALDOS is fully generic. CALDOS calculates radionuclide transfer through the environment to make dose predictions for man. It considers 68 radionuclides explicitly and takes into account another 28 short-lived daughters in the dose calculations. Nine potentially toxic elements are also considered. CALDOS is of the multiplicative chain type for most of the radionuclides, but some, such as {sup 3H}, {sup 129I} and {sup 222R}n, are treated specially. The model accounts for all the major internal exposure pathways, including root uptake, leaf deposition, terrestrial animal`s drinking water, terrestrial animal soil ingestion, freshwater fish ingestion, human drinking water, human soil ingestion and human inhalation. External exposure from air immersion, water immersion, ground and building materials are also considered. Dose predictions are based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP 26) methodologies, ICRP reference man (ICRP 23) and the critical group concept. CALDOS considers ingrowth of some radioactive daughters, radionuclide availability in soil, recycling and depletion. The model has numerous parameters, some element, radionuclide or food type specific. Sensitivity analysis is used to assess parameter importance in dose prediction. Quality assurance is addressed through general literature, model and parameter evaluations, specifically designed for environmental assessment models. This also involves validation and code comparison studies. (author). 43 refs., 36 tabs., 24 figs.

  13. Development, design, and preliminary operation of a resin-feed processing facility for resin-based HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Drago, J.P.; Million, D.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel kernels for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. Resin-feed processing was developed and a facility was designed, installed, and operated to control the kernel size, shape, and composition by processing the resin before adding uranium. The starting materials are commercial cation exchange resins in the sodium form. The size separations are made by vibratory screening of resin slurries in water. After drying in a fluidized bed, the nonspherical particles are separated from spherical particles on vibratory plates of special design. The sized, shape-separated spheres are then rewetted and converted to the hydrogen form. The processing capacity of the equipment tested is equivalent to about 1 kg of uranium per hour and could meet commercial recycle plant requirements without scale-up of the principal process components

  14. Preliminary study on the control of direct injection diesel engine for better fuel flexibility and emissions control. Pt. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.; Kassem, N.; Bohlin, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on turbocharged direct injection diesel engines. Part I reviews the qualitative dynamic aspects of turbocharged diesel engine and the factors that affect its transient behaviour. It gives a brief account of the model structure and the interrelationships between the different components of the model as well as the different types of engine models and the methods of simulation. The transient response of a turbocharged engine under changing load, speed, and ambient conditions are discussed. Methods to improve the transient response, thus reducing fuel consumption and smoke emissions are briefly reviewed. Finally, both conventional and advanced control strategies are discussed with emphasis on the control of fuel injection (Delta-control), injection time (Alfa-control), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR-control). Part II (in Swedish) consists of a literature survey on hardware components such as sensors, actuators, and injection systems that are, or expect to be, available with reasonable commercial costs. The objective of this survey is to provide the grounds on which to decide if these components satisfy the requirements of electronic control systems. Part III (in Swedish) discusses the transient response measurements obtained from two sets of experiments conducted on a six-cylinder motor working under varying conditions of load and speed. The objective of the first set of experiments was to quantify the difference in ignition delay between the transient and steady state operating conditions. The second set of experiments were aimed to provide a basis on which the engine efficiency obtained under transient conditions can be compared to that obtained from a single-cylinder motor working under steady state conditions.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Growth Rates on Different Concentration of Microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiffi Nur Atikah Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate and access the growth rates and biomass productivity in different concentrations of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. using Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater as a media. The focus of this study is to determine the best concentrations of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in raw wastewater in terms of kinetics of cells growth rates. The study verified that concentration of 1×106 cells/ml of microalgae gives the highest specific growth rates of biomass at 0.4488 day-1 and 1720 cells/ml/day compare to the other concentrations, while the lowest occurred at concentration of 1×103 cells/ml at 0.4108 day-1 and 14.9 cells/ml/day. The result shows the different concentration of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. culturing in Industrial Food Processing Wastewater influence the cells growth of biomass and the optimum were obtained at concentration of 1×106 cells/ml which suggested use for Industrial Meat Food Processing Wastewater Treatment purposed. With this finding, it should be seemly to adopt and applied efficiently in treating the wastewater especially for Scenedesmus sp. type of microalgae.

  16. Dissolution of xylitol from a food supplement administered with a novel slow-release pacifier: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, T; Pienihakkinen, K; Alanen, P; Jokela, J; Söderling, E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the pattern of release and salivary xylitol concentrations during sucking of a slow-release pacifier used to deliver a novel food supplement. The food supplement tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and 0.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). The reference tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and was used by 10 adults (mean age 32 years) in the study. Whole saliva samples were collected with 2.5 min intervals during pacifier sucking. The salivary xylitol concentrations were determined using an enzyme assay kit. All subjects showed salivary xylitol concentrations exceeding 1% at least at one collection point. The xylitol and xylitol-Bb-12 tablets showed similar dissolving with no clear concentration peaks (comparison of saliva collection times; p = 0.139). Xylitol released from the food supplement, delivered with the novel pacifier, may result in salivary xylitol concentrations high enough to inhibit mutans streptococci in vivo.

  17. Encyclopaedia of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) for the Swedish SFR and Spent Fuel Repositories. Preliminary Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Bill; Savage, Dave; McEwen, Tim; White, Matt

    2002-08-01

    This is an 'Encyclopaedia' providing descriptions of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) that are relevant to the Swedish repository for low and intermediate-level wastes (the SFR) and the proposed Swedish repository for spent fuel. Although the FEPs and their descriptions found in this encyclopaedia are specific to these two repository concepts, many of the descriptions will also be relevant to other repository designs and concepts, although they have not been written to be inclusive of the features of other repositories. As such, this encyclopaedia may be of interest to a wide range of individuals and organisations involved in repository safety assessment around the world. The purpose of this encyclopaedia is to describe, in qualitative terms, the various FEPs which have been identified as being relevant to the two Swedish repository designs. These descriptions may be used in a variety of ways. One important role will be to support quantitative performance assessments (PAs) by describing the conceptual understanding of the various components of the repository (e.g. the barriers, the rock and the groundwater) and their evolution: this conceptual understanding is crucial because it is the foundation upon which the mathematical analysis is based. The descriptions have been written at a level of detail appropriate for a scientifically literate reader without specialist knowledge of radioactive waste disposal technology or assessment procedures. As such, the descriptions avoid the use of specialist terms, acronyms and equations. Many of the FEP descriptions relate to issues which are the focus of ongoing research and, thus, they reflect the current state of knowledge and may require updating at regular intervals, either to include more recent technical information or procedures for treating the FEP in mathematical safety assessment. When attempting to predict the future behaviour of a repository for radioactive wastes, it is sensible to use a systematic approach to

  18. Encyclopaedia of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) for the Swedish SFR and Spent Fuel Repositories. Preliminary Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bill; Savage, Dave; McEwen, Tim; White, Matt [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    This is an 'Encyclopaedia' providing descriptions of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) that are relevant to the Swedish repository for low and intermediate-level wastes (the SFR) and the proposed Swedish repository for spent fuel. Although the FEPs and their descriptions found in this encyclopaedia are specific to these two repository concepts, many of the descriptions will also be relevant to other repository designs and concepts, although they have not been written to be inclusive of the features of other repositories. As such, this encyclopaedia may be of interest to a wide range of individuals and organisations involved in repository safety assessment around the world. The purpose of this encyclopaedia is to describe, in qualitative terms, the various FEPs which have been identified as being relevant to the two Swedish repository designs. These descriptions may be used in a variety of ways. One important role will be to support quantitative performance assessments (PAs) by describing the conceptual understanding of the various components of the repository (e.g. the barriers, the rock and the groundwater) and their evolution: this conceptual understanding is crucial because it is the foundation upon which the mathematical analysis is based. The descriptions have been written at a level of detail appropriate for a scientifically literate reader without specialist knowledge of radioactive waste disposal technology or assessment procedures. As such, the descriptions avoid the use of specialist terms, acronyms and equations. Many of the FEP descriptions relate to issues which are the focus of ongoing research and, thus, they reflect the current state of knowledge and may require updating at regular intervals, either to include more recent technical information or procedures for treating the FEP in mathematical safety assessment. When attempting to predict the future behaviour of a repository for radioactive wastes, it is sensible to use a systematic

  19. Preliminary results for the Co-Rolling process fabrication of plate-type nuclear fuel based in U-10Mo monolithic meat and zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Ferraz, Wilmar B.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication process of plate-type nuclear fuel with monolithic meat is under development at CDTN. The U-10Mo alloy was chosen as the meat material due to its high density, corrosion resistance and the higher dimensional stability proportioned by the metastable gamma phase, which presents a lesser extension of the breakaway swelling phenomena occurrence during irradiation tests. The monolithic meat was cut from an U-10Mo ingot, that was induction melted at CDTN. The co-rolling process was adopted due to the higher mechanical properties and melting point of the Zircalloy-4 cladding material, which presents a lesser discrepancy in relation to the meat material properties, when compared to the aluminum 6061 alloy. Preliminary plates were obtained by means of the co-rolling process, performed at 650, 800, 950 deg C with total thickness reduction of 80%, followed by a pickling step and cold co-rolling passes. The plates were characterized through bending tests, optical microscopy and radiography. The co-rolling temperature of 800 deg C presented the best results, with a homogeneous distribution of the total thickness reduction between the cover plates and the meat, and the absence of delamination in the bending test samples. It was observed the occurrence of meat thickening in its ends, according to its longitudinal axle, parallel to the rolling direction, that is known as the d og bone , for the three co-rolling temperatures. (author)

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the impact and inter-generation risk transfers related to the release and disposal of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tort, V.; Lochard, J.; Schneider, T.; Sugier, A.

    1997-12-01

    This report is an attempt to contribute to the complex issue of the decision-making in the field of radioactive waste management. Because of the complex and multidimensional nature of the distant future consequences of waste management options, their analysis implies the taking into considerations of various aggregated indicators which depend on the elapse of time during which the radionuclides remain in the environment and their local, regional or world-wide dispersion. This report is a preliminary work sponsored by IPSN mainly focused on the risk transfer dimension, inherent to waste disposal management. Its objective is to illustrate, using the French nuclear fuel cycle context, the relative impact of some simple waste management options, outlining particularly the issue of inter-generation risk transfer. Even though the selected six radionuclides are the most important, a complete assessment should include all the radionuclides contained in the waste, what is particularly important in case of underground waste disposal were both normal evolution scenarios and intrusion must be considered. The extreme alternatives, i.e. the total disposal or total release of the radionuclides are analyzed but realistic are the intermediate options, which should be thoroughly examined from the technical point of view. The analysis of intermediate management options could give an estimation of the most appropriate solution in an ALARA perspective

  1. Preliminary Development of the MARS/FREK Spatial Kinetics Coupled System Code for Square Fueled Fast Reactor Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Moo Hoon; Joo, Han Gyu

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of a three-dimensional (3-D) reactor kinetics model into a system thermal-hydraulic (T/H) code enhances the capability to perform realistic analyses of the core neutronic behavior and the plant system dynamics which are coupled each other. For this advantage, several coupled system T/H and spatial kinetics codes, such as RELAP/PARCS, RELAP5/ PANBOX, and MARS/MASTER have been developed. These codes, however, so far limited to LWR applications. The objective of this work is to develop such a coupled code for fast reactor applications. Particularly, applications to lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactor are of interest which employ open square lattices. A fast reactor kinetics code applicable to square fueled cores called FREK is coupled the LBE version of the MARS code. The MARS/MASTER coupled code is used as the reference for the integration. The coupled code MARS/FREK is examined for a conceptual reactor called P-DEMO which is being developed by NUTRECK. In order to check the validity of the coupled code, however, the OECD MSLB benchmark exercise III calculation is solved first

  2. Partial sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP: A preliminary study and characterization for application in direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Suparna; Kumar, Piyush; Dutta, Kingshuk; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of sulfonated PVdF-co-HFP by reacting with chlorosulfonic acid. • Maximum degree of sulfonation and best properties were obtained for 7 h reaction. • A maximum water uptake value of 20% was obtained. • A maximum IEC value of 0.42 meq g −1 was obtained. • A methanol permeability of 2.44 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 was obtained. - Abstract: Sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP was conducted by treating the copolymer with chlorosulfonic acid. The efficiency of this sulfonated copolymer towards application as a polymer electrolyte membrane in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was evaluated. For this purpose, we determined the thermal stability, water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), methanol crossover, and proton conductivity of the prepared membranes as functions of duration and degree of sulfonation. The characteristic aromatic peaks obtained in the FT-IR spectra confirmed the successful sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP. The effect of sulfonation on the semi-crystalline nature of pure PVdF-co-HFP was determined from XRD analysis. Water uptake results indicated that a sulfonation time of 7 h produced maximum water uptake value of about 20%, with a corresponding IEC and proton conductivity values of about 0.42 meq g −1 and 0.00375 S cm −1 respectively. The maximum current density was recorded to be 30 mA cm −2 at 0.2 V potential

  3. Seismic VSP and HSP surveys on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, J.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.

    1992-10-01

    Seismic reflection surveys in boreholes were carried out for Teollisuuden Voima Oy at five sites in Finland (Eurajoki Olkiluoto, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Kuhmo Romuvaara and Sievi Syyry). The vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) surveys were a part of the investigation programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose was to detect fractured zones, lithological contacts and other anomalies in the structure of the rockmass and to determine their position and orientation. Horizontal Seismic Profiling (HSP) was used at the Olkiluoto site, additionally to VSP. The data has been organized in profiles containing seismograms recorded from the same shotpoint (shot gathers). One of the most powerful processing methods used with this project has been the Image Space Filtering, a new technique, which has been developed (in the project) for seismic reflection studies in crystalline rock. The method can be applied with other rock types where steeply inclined or vertical anomalies are of interest. It acts like a multichannel filter, enhancing the reflected events and also as an interpretation tool, to estimate the strength and position of the reflectors. This approach has been of great help in emphasizing the weak reflections from uneven and sometimes vanishing interfaces encountered in crystalline

  4. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomy, Catherine; Thonier, Gregoire; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mhiri, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  5. Analytical Evaluation of Preliminary Drop Tests Performed to Develop a Robust Design for the Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Morton, D.K.; Smith, N.L.; Snow, S.D.; Rahl, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a design concept for a set of standard canisters for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository, of DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The standardized DOE SNF canister has to be capable of handling virtually all of the DOE SNF in a variety of potential storage and transportation systems. It must also be acceptable to the repository, based on current and anticipated future requirements. This expected usage mandates a robust design. The canister design has four unique geometries, with lengths of approximately 10 feet or 15 feet, and an outside nominal diameter of 18 inches or 24 inches. The canister has been developed to withstand a drop from 30 feet onto a rigid (flat) surface, sustaining only minor damage - but no rupture - to the pressure (containment) boundary. The majority of the end drop-induced damage is confined to the skirt and lifting/stiffening ring components, which can be removed if de sired after an accidental drop. A canister, with its skirt and stiffening ring removed after an accidental drop, can continue to be used in service with appropriate operational steps being taken. Features of the design concept have been proven through drop testing and finite element analyses of smaller test specimens. Finite element analyses also validated the canister design for drops onto a rigid (flat) surface for a variety of canister orientations at impact, from vertical to 45 degrees off vertical. Actual 30-foot drop testing has also been performed to verify the final design, though limited to just two full-scale test canister drops. In each case, the analytical models accurately predicted the canister response

  6. Effects of earthquakes on the deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden based on case studies and preliminary model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran; Munier, Raymond

    2002-06-01

    The Baltic Shield is one of the most stable areas in the world. Earthquakes have only on a few occasions exceeded magnitude 4 in Sweden in modern times. The safety case for a deep repository for spent fuel however includes an earthquake scenario due to the following reason: Earthquakes with much greater magnitudes occurred in northern Sweden during the most recent deglaciation period some 9,000 - 10,000 years ago when re-activated faults ruptured the surface. One of the most prominent evidences is the Paervie fault in Lapland, Sweden. The displacements exceeded 10 m in places and occurred over distances of around 150 km. The deep repository is designed to keep radiation well below the natural, ambient radiation for any time in the future. The safety function is achieved by a combination of engineered and natural barriers. One important safety issue is that future displacements in the rock should be less than 0.1 m at the precise location where the engineered canisters containing the waste are emplaced in the rock. Larger displacements could damage the canister that is designed to be tight for several 100,000 of years. SKB now re-visits the issues of seismic effects on underground facilities to supplement and update previous work. The project Effects of Earthquakes on Underground Facilities aims to re-compile field evidences of seismic damage on underground facilities, to shed additional light on the matter of friction loss in bedrock due to water-level changes and finally to find suitable ways to inform concerned citizens on the matter. The fact-finding was carried out in the form of interviews, literature surveys, Internet searches and by sending letters to some 60 organisations and researchers asking for co-operation. The most important conclusions are: Earthquake impact during the pre-closure phase: Damage due to shaking in an underground facility may occur if the peak ground acceleration exceeds 2 m/s 2 . Sweden is located in the Baltic Shield that is

  7. Effects of earthquakes on the deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden based on case studies and preliminary model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran [Conrox, Djursholm (Sweden); Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    The Baltic Shield is one of the most stable areas in the world. Earthquakes have only on a few occasions exceeded magnitude 4 in Sweden in modern times. The safety case for a deep repository for spent fuel however includes an earthquake scenario due to the following reason: Earthquakes with much greater magnitudes occurred in northern Sweden during the most recent deglaciation period some 9,000 - 10,000 years ago when re-activated faults ruptured the surface. One of the most prominent evidences is the Paervie fault in Lapland, Sweden. The displacements exceeded 10 m in places and occurred over distances of around 150 km. The deep repository is designed to keep radiation well below the natural, ambient radiation for any time in the future. The safety function is achieved by a combination of engineered and natural barriers. One important safety issue is that future displacements in the rock should be less than 0.1 m at the precise location where the engineered canisters containing the waste are emplaced in the rock. Larger displacements could damage the canister that is designed to be tight for several 100,000 of years. SKB now re-visits the issues of seismic effects on underground facilities to supplement and update previous work. The project Effects of Earthquakes on Underground Facilities aims to re-compile field evidences of seismic damage on underground facilities, to shed additional light on the matter of friction loss in bedrock due to water-level changes and finally to find suitable ways to inform concerned citizens on the matter. The fact-finding was carried out in the form of interviews, literature surveys, Internet searches and by sending letters to some 60 organisations and researchers asking for co-operation. The most important conclusions are: Earthquake impact during the pre-closure phase: Damage due to shaking in an underground facility may occur if the peak ground acceleration exceeds 2 m/s{sup 2}. Sweden is located in the Baltic Shield that is

  8. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H{sub 2} production from food waste: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia, E-mail: letizia.tuccinardi@uniroma1.it

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H{sub 2} production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H{sub 2} production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H{sub 2} production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H{sub 2} production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H{sub 2} production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H{sub 2} production compared to that in FW only, reaching H{sub 2}-production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS{sub 0}{sup -1}, respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H{sub 2} production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process.

  9. Comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. General framework and preliminary results for the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostron, W; Schneider, T; Thieme, M; Dreicer, M

    1992-06-01

    The comparison of the effects of electricity producing systems is of growing importance in decision-making processes for energy planning. This report documents the preliminary results of a project for the CEC-DG XII Radiation Protection Programme on the comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. The work reported in this document has also been supported by EDF - Mission Environnement. In order to profit from the comparative studies already existing, some of the most important ones were surveyed. The aim of these past energy comparison studies was mainly to obtain a global measure of the risks associated with an energy cycle, with a view to ranking the various electricity production systems; but this is now recognised as merely an academic exercise, with a limited impact in decision-making. For energy planning the development of a multi-dimensional approach seems more suitable, as this allows the different types of indicators and measures needed to assess the risks of different energy cycles to be compared. From the past studies it has been seen that health indicators are generally well established, but a weakness is noted with respect to indicators of environmental impacts. This remains a difficult subject, and until such indicators are established, surrogates like concentrations in the environment will have to be used, or qualitative comparisons must suffice. This report presents a general framework allowing for consistent comparisons between different energy systems. The key issues discussed are: assessment by fuel cycle, consideration of the dimensions of time and space, the impact pathway approach for assessing risk, and coherent indicators that can be used to measure the impacts. First results are presented for four activities of the nuclear fuel cycle according to the approach developed: (1) the construction and dismantling of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor, (2) the transportation of materials between

  10. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  11. Case study: Preliminary assessment of integrated palm biomass biorefinery for bioethanol production utilizing non-food sugars from oil palm frond petiole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Sharifah Soplah Syed; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin Mohd; Mustapha, Mahfuzah; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fermentable sugars production from oil palm frond by integrated technology concept. • Bioethanol production from oil palm frond sugars in a biorefinery. • Palm oil mills have sufficient excess energy and steam to support biorefinery. • The net energy ratio of bioethanol from oil palm frond petiole is 7.48. - Abstract: In this case study, a preliminary assessment on the bioethanol production from oil palm frond (OPF) petiole sugars within an integrated palm biomass biorefinery was carried out. Based on the case study of 4 neighbouring palm oil mills, approximately 55,600 t/y of fermentable sugars could be obtained from OPF petiole. The integrated biorefinery will be located at one of the 4 mills. The mill has potential excess energy comprising 3.64 GW h/y of electricity and 177,000 t/y of steam which are sufficient to run the biorefinery. With 33.9 million litres/y of bioethanol production, the specific production cost of bioethanol is estimated at $ 0.52/l bioethanol, compared to $ 0.31–0.34/l bioethanol produced from sugarcane and $ 0.49–0.60/l bioethanol from other lignocellulosics. The net energy ratio of 7.48 for bioethanol production from OPF provides a promising alternative for OPF utilization as a non-food sugar feedstock.

  12. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  13. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  14. Food, the Nutritional Product that Fuels the Passing of Time: How Time and Nutrition Transformed Eating into Refuelling

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, Diarmuid

    2014-01-01

    Food is in front of us everywhere we go; marketed and ready to eat. The easier it is to consume food ‘on the go’ the more socially accepted it becomes. The private elements of food consumption have unwittingly become the public elements of food consumption, sometimes excruciatingly public, with food reconnaissance for most of us now a redundant act. The exogenic nature of passing time and our ever increasing need to partake in complex travel systems to and from our daily destinations has enga...

  15. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1998-01-01

    The target of the project was to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non-economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In fluid bed combustion 10-30 % addition of rape seed straw and reed canary grass, which have high ash melting point, seems to be less problematic compared to other straw species, which are used for example in Denmark. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agro fibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. The laboratory results show that a good quality pulp can be produced to be mixed with conventional wood fibres, the quality of flax pulp is even better compared to conventional pulp. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion. (orig.)

  16. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  17. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulker, M.J.; McKay, K.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  18. Crop production and resource use to meet the growing demand for food, feed and fuel: opportunities and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Ewert, F.

    2009-01-01

    Global food and feed demands have been projected to double in the 21st century, which will further increase the pressure on the use of land, water and nutrients. At the same time, the political decisions to support renewable energy sources are accelerating the use of biomass, including grain, sugar,

  19. Need for agro-ecological intelligence to limit trade-offs between global food, feed and fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindraban, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Hopefully the quality of life for billions of people will improve considerably during the coming decades. This implies that the production of virtually every commodity will have to increase dramatically. Agriculture related activities ought to provide food, feed and non-edible plant-based products.

  20. Food or fuel? What European farmers can contribute to Europe's transport energy requirements and the Doha Round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baka, Jennifer; Roland-Holst, David

    2009-01-01

    Farm support in higher income countries is a testament to the fundamental social and economic importance of agriculture, yet domestic efforts to support this sector can arouse multilateral discord in a world of global food markets. In this paper, we argue that the advent of biofuels offers a new opportunity for agriculture to contribute to society, and to do so in a way that reduces trade rivalry and improves energy security. Holding current agricultural production constant, we find that the EU has the potential to reduce oil imports between 6% and 28% by converting eligible agricultural crops into biofuels under two differing conversion scenarios. Further, 33% of food support could be removed with no net farm revenue loss, using the biofuel premia (compared with food value) of corn and rapeseed to compensate for subsidy reductions. These results can help overcome the current impasse in global trade negotiations by reconciling the needs of EU farmers with those who would gain from more liberal international trade.

  1. Food or fuel? What European farmers can contribute to Europe's transport energy requirements and the Doha Round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baka, Jennifer [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Roland-Holst, David [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Farm support in higher income countries is a testament to the fundamental social and economic importance of agriculture, yet domestic efforts to support this sector can arouse multilateral discord in a world of global food markets. In this paper, we argue that the advent of biofuels offers a new opportunity for agriculture to contribute to society, and to do so in a way that reduces trade rivalry and improves energy security. Holding current agricultural production constant, we find that the EU has the potential to reduce oil imports between 6% and 28% by converting eligible agricultural crops into biofuels under two differing conversion scenarios. Further, 33% of food support could be removed with no net farm revenue loss, using the biofuel premia (compared with food value) of corn and rapeseed to compensate for subsidy reductions. These results can help overcome the current impasse in global trade negotiations by reconciling the needs of EU farmers with those who would gain from more liberal international trade. (author)

  2. Bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark - competition between food, bioenergy and fossil fuels under physical and environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callesen, I.; OEstergaard, H. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Biosystems Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Grohnheit, P.E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    Globally, bioenergy is emphasized as an important contributor to reach strategic goals of energy security. The commodity markets for energy, bioenergy and food are interdependent and interacting through the energy dependency of agriculture, an increasing demand for both food and energy, and the option to replace fossil energy resources with bioenergy resources. A model for supply of biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry, and minimizes production costs of an energy mix consisting of bioenergy and fossil diesel oil. Here, we analyze the possibilities of substituting domestic bioenergy for fossil energy under the constraint of a given food supply and environmental constraints on land use. Crop area distributions of a total area of 3200 kha were simulated in two sets of scenarios, each examining a range of fossil oil prices. Both scenarios were based on cost and production data of the year 2005. Scenario (a) required a total food and feed energy yield similar to that produced in the year 2005; scenario (b) addressed high prioritization of dedicated bioenergy crops. This was secured by relaxing the food and feed supply to 50% of the 2005 production level. Further, a maximum limit of 25% cultivation area with willow in short rotation was set, and the area reserved for permanent grassland was set to 275 kha (+100 kha compared to 2005). The trade-based animal husbandry sector was excluded from the analysis and the forest area was fixed to 600 kha. The crop area distributions were affected by fossil oil prices varying from oil index 25 to 200. Oil index 100approx9.4 Euro GJ-1 corresponded with a crude oil price of 55$ per barrel in 2005. The woody biofuels, especially high-yielding willow in short rotation, were competitive with fossil oil from around oil index 40 and occupied the maximum allowed area in all crop

  3. Solid phase microbial fuel cell (SMFC) for harnessing bioelectricity from composite food waste fermentation: influence of electrode assembly and buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-07-01

    Solid phase microbial fuel cells (SMFC; graphite electrodes; open-air cathode) were designed to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity production by stabilizing composite canteen based food waste. The performance was evaluated with three variable electrode-membrane assemblies. Experimental data depicted feasibility of bioelectricity generation from solid state fermentation of food waste. Distance between the electrodes and presence of proton exchange membrane (PEM) showed significant influence on the power yields. SMFC-B (anode placed 5 cm from cathode-PEM) depicted good power output (463 mV; 170.81 mW/m(2)) followed by SMFC-C (anode placed 5 cm from cathode; without PEM; 398 mV; 53.41 mW/m(2)). SMFC-A (PEM sandwiched between electrodes) recorded lowest performance (258 mV; 41.8 mW/m(2)). Sodium carbonate amendment documented marked improvement in power yields due to improvement in the system buffering capacity. SMFCs operation also documented good substrate degradation (COD, 76%) along with bio-ethanol production. The operation of SMFC mimicked solid-sate fermentation which might lead to sustainable solid waste management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutron interrogator assay system for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste canisters and spent fuel: preliminary description and operating procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.; Close, D.A.; Speir, L.G.

    1978-05-01

    A neutron interrogation assay system is being designed for the measurement of waste canisters and spent fuel packages at the new Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to be operated by Allied Chemical Corp. The assay samples consist of both waste canisters from the fluorinel dissolution process and spent fuel assemblies. The assay system is a 252 Cf ''Shuffler'' that employs a cyclic sequence of fast-neutron interrogation with a 252 Cf source followed by delayed-neutron counting to determine the 235 U content

  5. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  6. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  7. Field test of short-notice random inspections for inventory-change verification at a low-enriched-uranium fuel-fabrication plant: Preliminary summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Moussalli, G.; Naegele, G.; Ikonomou, P.; Hosoya, M.; Scott, P.; Fager, J.; Sanders, C.; Colwell, D.; Joyner, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    An approach of short-notice random inspections (SNRIs) for inventory-change verification can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards at natural or low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication plants. According to this approach, the plant operator declares the contents of nuclear material items before knowing if an inspection will occur to verify them. Additionally, items about which declarations are newly made should remain available for verification for an agreed time. This report details a six-month field test of the feasibility of such SNRIs which took place at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division. Westinghouse personnel made daily declarations about both feed and product items, uranium hexafluoride cylinders and finished fuel assemblies, using a custom-designed computer ''mailbox''. Safeguards inspectors from the IAEA conducted eight SNRIs to verify these declarations. Items from both strata were verified during the SNRIs by means of nondestructive assay equipment. The field test demonstrated the feasibility and practicality of key elements of the SNRI approach for a large LEU fuel fabrication plant

  8. Preliminary study for the reliability Assurance on results and procedure of the out-pile mechanical characterization test for a fuel assembly; Lateral Vibration Test (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Yoon, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2007-01-01

    The reliability assurance with respect to the test procedure and results of the out-pile mechanical performance test for the nuclear fuel assembly is an essential task to assure the test quality and to get a permission for fuel loading into the commercial reactor core. For the case of vibration test, proper management and appropriate calibration of instruments and devices used in the test, various efforts to minimize the possible error during the test and signal acquisition process are needed. Additionally, the deep understanding both of the theoretical assumption and simplification for the signal processing/modal analysis and of the functions of the devices used in the test were highly required. In this study, the overall procedure and result of lateral vibration test were assembly's mechanical characterization were briefly introduced. A series of measures to assure and improve the reliability of the vibration test were discussed

  9. Preliminary study for the reliability Assurance on results and procedure of the out-pile mechanical characterization test for a fuel assembly; Lateral Vibration Test (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Yoon, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The reliability assurance with respect to the test procedure and results of the out-pile mechanical performance test for the nuclear fuel assembly is an essential task to assure the test quality and to get a permission for fuel loading into the commercial reactor core. For the case of vibration test, proper management and appropriate calibration of instruments and devices used in the test, various efforts to minimize the possible error during the test and signal acquisition process are needed. Additionally, the deep understanding both of the theoretical assumption and simplification for the signal processing/modal analysis and of the functions of the devices used in the test were highly required. In this study, the overall procedure and result of lateral vibration test were assembly's mechanical characterization were briefly introduced. A series of measures to assure and improve the reliability of the vibration test were discussed.

  10. Preliminary Screening -- Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Dayton, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    In principle, syngas (primarily consisting of CO and H2) can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock, including: natural gas, naphtha, residual oil, petroleum coke, coal, and biomass. The lowest cost routes for syngas production, however, are based on natural gas, the cheapest option being remote or stranded reserves. Economic considerations dictate that the current production of liquid fuels from syngas translates into the use of natural gas as the hydrocarbon source. Nevertheless, the syngas production operation in a gas-to-liquids plant amounts to greater than half of the capital cost of the plant. The choice of technology for syngas production also depends on the scale of the synthesis operation. Syngas production from solid fuels can require an even greater capital investment with the addition of feedstock handling and more complex syngas purification operations. The greatest impact on improving the economics of gas-to liquids plants is through (1) decreasing capital costs associated with syngas production and (2) improving the thermal efficiency with better heat integration and utilization. Improved thermal efficiency can be obtained by combining the gas-to-liquids plant with a power generation plant to take advantage of the availability of low-pressure steam. The extensive research and development efforts devoted to syngas conversion to fuels and chemicals are documented in a vast amount of literature that tracks the scientific and technological advancements in syngas chemistry. The purpose of this report is to review the many syngas to products processes and summarize the salient points regarding the technology status and description, chemistry, catalysts, reactors, gas cleanliness requirements, process and environmental performances, and economics. Table 1 lists the products examined in this study and gives some facts about the technology as well as advantages and disadvantages. Table 2 summarizes the catalysts, process conditions, conversions, and

  11. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Simpevarp area; Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Preliminaer anlaeggningsbeskrivning - layout D. Oskarshamn, delomraade Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Simpevarp area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: c1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapter 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization.

  12. A preliminary assessment of selected atmospheric dispersion, food-chain transport, and dose-to-man computer codes for use by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggle, K.J.; Roddy, J.W.

    1989-02-01

    This work is part of the ongoing Systems Modeling Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is assisting the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in selecting appropriate computer codes for the process of licensing a high-level radioactive waste repository or a monitored retrievable storage facility. A preliminary study of codes for predicting dose to man following airborne releases of radionuclides is described. These codes use models for estimating atmospheric dispersion of activity and deposition onto the ground surface, exposures via external irradiation, inhalation of airborne activity, and ingestion following transport through terrestrial food chains, and the dose per unit exposure for each exposure mode. A set of criteria is given for use in choosing codes for further examination. From a list of over 150 computer codes, five were selected for review

  13. Packet D: Fuel containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevskij, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The tasks of the project 'D' are: increase of nuclear safety by fuel containing mass (FCM) characterisation, and development of a preliminary plan for FCM management which should be accomplished by FCM extraction

  14. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  15. Preliminary HECTOR analysis by Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, W; Woloch, F

    1972-06-02

    From the different cores measured in HECTOR, only ACH 4/B-B was selected for the Dragon analysis, since it presented the largest amount of uniform fuel loading in the central test region and is therefore nearest to an infinite lattice. Preliminary results are discussed.

  16. Preliminary Hanford technical input for the Department of Energy programmatic spent nuclear fuel management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory environmental restoration and waste management programs environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating its programmatic options for the safe management of its diverse spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory in the Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (SNF and INEL EIS). In the SNF and INEL EIS, the DOE is assessing five alternatives for SNF management, which consider at which of the DOE sites each of the various SNF types should be managed until ultimate disposition. The range of SNF inventories considered for management at the Hanford Site in the SNF and INEL EIS include the current Hanford Site inventory, only the current Hanford Site defense production SNF inventory, the DOE complex-wide SNF inventory, or none at all. Site-specific SNF management decisions will be evaluated in separate National Environmental Policy Act evaluations. Appendixes A and B include information on (1) additional facilities required to accommodate inventories of SNF within each management alternative, (2) existing and new SNF management facility descriptions, (3) facility costs for construction and operation, (4) facility workforce requirements for construction and operation, and (5) facility discharges. The information was extrapolated from existing analyses to the extent possible. New facility costs, manpower requirements, and similar information are based on rough-order-of-magnitude estimates

  17. Catalytic transformations of fatty acids derivatives for food, oleochemicals and fuels over carbon supported platinum group metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakova, I.

    2010-07-01

    prominent in linoleic acid deoxygenation giving only 3 % conversion of fatty acids in 330 min. The deactivation originated from the formation of C17 aromatic compounds and fatty acid dimers via Diels-Alder reaction. Thus hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids can be considered as preliminary chemical modification step in the green diesel production. In this work particular care was taken to strengthen the nano level understanding of the Pd role, in particular metal size effect, in the catalytic hydrogenation and deoxygenation. Pd/C catalysts were synthesized with the same Pd loading and systematically varied metal dispersion via the controllable formation of Pd particles over carbon support surface. The effect of metal dispersion on hydrogenation rate and trans/cis ratio was revealed. An optimum metal dispersion giving the highest decarboxylation reaction rate was observed. In addition to the particle size effect, the impact of mass transfer was elucidated and detail discussions on temperature programmed desorption of CO from the fresh and spent samples was provided. Hydrogenation of vegetable feedstocks was performed in batch and continuous modes, using powdered and granulated Pd/C catalysts correspondingly. One of the main focuses of the work was put on the scale-up of the hydrogenation process. There are several challenges attributed to the scale-up of a chemical process which have to be recognized before progressing to an industrial application. In terms of the high production volumes the logical step is to investigate the performance of hydrogenation as a continuous process. A laboratory study in a continuous fixed bed reactor was performed, giving crucial information about the catalyst long-term stability and catalyst deactivation. Furthermore, the impact of using free fatty acids or triglycerides feedstocks as well as the effect of catalyst particle size and Pd loading were investigated in continuous mode. Finally, the production capacities for different operation

  18. Potential Effects of Nichi Glucan as a Food Supplement for Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperlipidemia: Preliminary Findings from the Study on Three Patients from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta Glucan food supplements have been reported to be of benefit in diabetes and hyperlipidemia. We report a pilot study of the effects of Nichi Glucan, 1, 3-1, 6 Beta Glucan food supplement, in lowering the blood glucose and lipid levels in three patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM from India. These patients had increased blood glucose and lipid levels inspite of routine antidiabetic and lipid level lowering medications. Each of the participants took 1.5 g of Nichi Glucan per day with food for two months along with their routine medications. The relevant parameters to assess glycemic status and lipid levels were calculated at the baseline and at the end of two months. After two months of continuous consumption, in one patient, the HbA1c decreased from 9.1% to 7.8%, and the glycemic target of HbA1c <6.5% laid down by the International Diabetes Federation was reached in two patients. Lipid levels also decreased significantly. Based on our findings, Nichi Glucan food supplement can be considered along with routine medications in patients with Type II diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Further studies are needed to validate the results.

  19. Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.

  20. Quantitative mineralogy and preliminary pore-water chemistry of candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The quantitative mineralogy of seven candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is presented. Two of the materials were coarse grained: one a blended very pure silica sand, and the other a crushed plagioclase-rich granite or granodiorite. Five materials were fine-grained soils containing abundant clay minerals. Of these, three were fairly pure, Cretaceous, ash-derived bentonites that contained up to 3 percent of soluble sulphates; one was a freshwater glacial clay containing 59 percent interlayered smectite-illite; and one was a crushed Paleozoic shale containing abundant illite and chlorite. The adsorbed cation regimes and the pore-water chemistry of the clays are discussed

  1. A preliminary assessment of system cost impacts of using transportable storage casks and other shippable metal casks in the utility/DOE spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    In view of the foregoing, a study was conducted by E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. and H and R Technical Associates, Inc. to determine the prospective viability of the use of TSCs and shippable SOCs in the combined utility/DOE system. This study considered costs, ALARA considerations and the logistics of the use and delivery of casks to the DOE system by utilities. It was intended that this study would result in a technical and cost resource base that could be used for evaluating various strategies and scenarios for deploying TSCs or SOCs in the combined utility/DOE spent fuel management system with respect to the prospective economic advantage that could be realized

  2. Preliminary calculations of stress change of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites for GFR with changing of thermal conductivity degradation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Naganuma, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is being researched as a candidate concept of Generation IV international Forum. As a main feature of GFR, it should be maintained high temperature and pressure of coolant gas for heat transfer efficiency. Such a demanding environment requires high-temperature-resistant structural materials distinguished from traditional steel material. Consequently, ceramics are promising candidate material of core components. Especially, Silicon Carbide fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide composites (SiC/SiC) have encouraging characteristics such as refractoriness, low activation and toughness. Application of new material to core components must be explained by the viewpoint of engineering validity. Therefore, present study surveyed that current report for mechanical strength and thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites. According to the reports, neutron irradiation environment degraded mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites. To confirm applicability to core components, model of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites was assumed with feasible mechanical properties. Furthermore, it was calculated and estimated that the stress caused by temperature variation of inner and outer side of assumed model of cladding tube. Stress was calculated by changing of input date such as thickness of cladding tube, temperature variation, thermal conductivity and linear power. In the range of this study, the most important factor was identified as degradation of thermal conductivity by irradiation. It caused a significant stress and limited a geometrical design of fuel pin. It was discussed that the differences of heat transfer between isotropic and anisotropic materials like a metal and composites. These results should be helpful not only to determine a design factor of core component but also to indicate an improvement direction of SiC/SiC composites. Through these work, reliability and safety of GFR will be increased

  3. Preliminary measurement of the drag force on a porous cylinder with fluid evolution under conditions relevant to pulverised-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijan Supramono; Graham J. Nathan; Peter J. Ashman; Peter J. Mullinger [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, Schools of Chemical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The trajectories of the particles in pulverised coal combustion systems determine their residence times and reaction environments, and hence coal burnout and flame length. The trajectories, in turn, depend upon the drag coefficient of the particle. The effect of the evolution of fluid from the surface of the particle on this coefficient has never been measured before, particularly at the low particle Reynolds numbers that apply during coal combustion. Therefore mathematical models must rely on assumed sphere drag coefficients, which do not account for the effect of fluid evolving from the surface. A technique of using a porous cylinder mounted on a pendulum, instead of a sphere, through which fluid can be forced to evolve, simulating fluid evolution in coal devolatilisation and char burning, is used. The pendulum is capable of measuring drag forces of the order of 10-5 to 10-6 Newton, at Reynolds numbers similar to that experienced by coal particles. This paper presents preliminary measurements of drag force at relevant conditions. The working fluid is water in the first instance, although it will be extended to diluted glycerine in the future. The cross flow is provided by a water tunnel and the ejected fluid is induced by a separate pump. Both the Reynolds number and the ratio of evolution velocity to free-stream velocity are chosen to span conditions relevant to pulverised coal combustion. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fuel utilization in a progressive conversion reactor (PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyse, C.F.; Judd, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that for once-through fuel cycles, the PCR offers potential improvements over current LWRs in the following major areas: improved uranium utilization (reduced uranium demand), degraded plutonium product in spent fuel, reduced plutonium content of spent fuel, reduced amount of spent fuel, reduced fissile content of spent fuel, and reduced separative work

  5. Preliminary design of a small-scale system for the conversion of biogas to electricity by HT-PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth, Torsten; Heineken, Wolfram; He, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this work a novel concept for the decentralized conversion of biogas to electricity is introduced. It consists of five segments: gas supply, gas treatment, gas reforming, gas usage and post-combustion. The system was designed in a regional project called GREEN-FC. The project is dealing with a design study for the conversion of 1 m 3  h −1 biogas to electricity, based on equilibrium calculations for steam reforming and water–gas shift reaction in combination with CFD simulations. The simulation results revealed that the system converts methane fully and delivers a maximum yield of hydrogen with a low concentration of carbon monoxide, thus making it suitable for a high-temperature polymer–electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell. The calculated electrical efficiency of the novel process is approximately 40%. Another important result of this work is the modular prototype design, because the individual components of the prototype can be replaced. For example alternative reactors that convert biogas into hydrogen and other technologies that use hydrogen can be included. - Highlights: • We designed the GREEN-FC process for decentralized hydrogen production from biogas. • We determined optimal process conditions on chemical equilibrium calculations. • The design was evaluated by CFD simulations with chemical reactions included. • The electrical efficiency of the GREEN-FC process is approximately 40%. • The first industrial prototype should have investment costs of 5000 € kW −1

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  7. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  8. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  9. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok; Oh, Dongseok; Yoon, Kyungho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kim, Jaeyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  10. Solvent extraction studies of RERTR silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, Anthony P.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicide fuels, which are candidate RERTR fuel compositions, may require special considerations in solvent extraction reprocessing. Since Savannah River Plant may be reprocessing RERTR fuels as early as 1985, studies have been conducted at Savannah River Laboratory to demonstrate the solvent extraction behavior of this fuel. Results of solvent extraction studies with both unirradiated and irradiated fuel are presented along with the preliminary RERTR solvent extraction reprocessing flow sheet for Savannah River Plant. (author)

  11. New, innovative and sustainable transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: ulla.lassi@oulu.fi; Keiski, R. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)); Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories (Finland)); Mikkola, J.-P. (Aabo Akademi Univ., Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Turku (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Secondary products from the industry - e.g. by-products of food and paper/pulp industry - can be used to manufacture new liquid biofuels or fuel components. A particularly interesting alternative is provided by butanol, which can be produced from biomass, since it seems to be most suitable for replacing petrol as fuel in gasoline engines. Besides, it is very energy efficient and also suitable to be produced on an industrial scale. Production of biobutanol and other higher alcohols is studied in the research project 'New, innovative sustainable transportation fuels for mobile applications; from biocomponents to flexible liquid fuels (SusFuFlex)'. The project is carried out as a joint project between the University of Oulu and Aabo Akademi University. It is financied by the Academy of Finland in 2008-2011, within the research programme for Sustainable Energy. Research focuses on the production of higher bioalcohols and other compounds suitable as oxygenates (e.g. butanol, pentanol, mixed alcohols; e.g. glycerine ethers, glycerol carbonate). The objectives of the research are (1) to evaluate the old and novel procedures for microbiological production of butanol, higher alcohols and oxygenates as fossil fuel substitutes, (2) to develop and optimize catalytic materials and chemical reaction routes for the production of higher alcohols and other bio-derived compounds applicable as gasoline fuel and its additives, (3) to conduct a sustainability analysis of the processes to be developed, to analyze the atom economy of the new processes and to make a preliminary economical analysis, and (4) to integrate the processes and know-how developed by the research groups

  12. Preliminary Development of the Food Allergy Coping and Emotions Questionnaires for Children, Adolescents, and Young People: Qualitative Analysis of Data on IgE-Mediated Food Allergy from Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey; Polloni, Laura; Le Bovidge, Jennifer; Muraro, Antonella; Greenhawt, Matthew; Taylor, Steve; Baumert, Joseph; Burks, Wesley; Trace, Anna; DunnGalvin, Gillian; Forristal, Lisa; McGrath, Laura; White, Jennifer; Vasquez, Marta; Allen, Katrina; Sheikh, Aziz; Hourihane, Jonathan; Tang, Mimi L K

    We have previously developed a food allergy-specific developmental model, that explained emotions and coping styles, among children aged 6 to 15years in Ireland. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the developmental model in a large multicountry data set, including any mediators of coping style, and to use the findings to generate an item pool that will form the basis for 3 age-appropriate self-report questionnaires to measure coping and emotions. We conducted deductive thematic analysis on secondary data from interviews with 274 participants aged 6 to 23 years, and 119 parents from Australia, Ireland, Italy, the UK, and the USA. Analysis was undertaken across the entire data set. The Food Allergy Coping and Emotions (FACE) model has 5 major themes: (1) experiences and emotions, (2) search for normality, (3) management and coping, (4) "external mediators," and (5) "internal mediators" (between emotions and coping). These themes were present across countries, but differed according to age. Early-life experiences provide the foundation for later cognitions and behaviors. The expanded FACE developmental model is useful in explaining emotions and coping styles across different age groups and countries. These data will also be used to generate an age-specific bank of items for the development of 3 (age-specific self-report, and parent proxy) questionnaires to assess emotions and coping in food allergy. Findings provide insight into how particular styles of coping develop and vary from patient to patient and may also guide clinician-patient communication and the development of individualized management strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son (ed.) [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Lanru Jing (ed.) [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Chijimatzu, Masakazu [Hazama Corporation (Japan); Jussila, Petri [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the

  14. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Son; Lanru Jing; Boergesson, Lennart; Chijimatzu, Masakazu; Jussila, Petri; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2007-02-01

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the container

  15. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food; Coproduits des biocarburants en France: perspectives et consequences en alimentation animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  16. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of fumonisins by the Nordic countries and occurrence of fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) in corn-based foods on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette; Thorup, Inger

    2001-01-01

    Experts from the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland) have carried out an evaluation of fumonisins. The working group members concluded that, at that time point, it was not possible to carry out a complete risk assessment. However, it was recommended that the human daily...... intake of fumonisins should be less than 1 mug/kg bw/day. Subsequently, the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B-1 and B-2 (FB1 and FB2) in corn-based food on the Danish retail market has been determined. A total of 70 samples were analysed and 37% contained FB1 and 21% contained FB2....... No fumonisins were found in sweet corn (canned or frozen), corn-on-the-cob, corn starch or gruel powder for babies. FB1 was found in about half of the corn flakes, corn snack and popcorn (not popped) samples, whereas FB2 was seen to a lesser extent. Both FB1 and FB2 were found in 75% or more of the corn flour...

  18. Food and fuel : a hidden dimension in human nutrition : a study on the relationship between nutrition security and fuelwood availability in Ntcheu District, Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.D.

    1994-01-01

    Fuelwood is the main source of energy for rural households in developing countries and is predominantly used for food preparation and processing. Due to rapid deforestation, the supply of fuelwood is threatened. Many factors influence household food and nutrition security, but so far the

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  20. Overview of the CANDU fuel handling system for advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, D.J.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Because of its neutron economies and on-power re-fuelling capabilities the CANDU system is ideally suited for implementing advanced fuel cycles because it can be adapted to burn these alternative fuels without major changes to the reactor. The fuel handling system is adaptable to implement advanced fuel cycles with some minor changes. Each individual advanced fuel cycle imposes some new set of special requirements on the fuel handling system that is different from the requirements usually encountered in handling the traditional natural uranium fuel. These changes are minor from an overall plant point of view but will require some interesting design and operating changes to the fuel handling system. Some preliminary conceptual design has been done on the fuel handling system in support of these fuel cycles. Some fuel handling details were studies in depth for some of the advanced fuel cycles. This paper provides an overview of the concepts and design challenges. (author)

  1. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO 2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO 2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238 Pu doped UO 2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO 2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with α doped UO 2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO 2 / water interfaces under He 2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO 2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of

  2. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  3. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  4. A preliminary report on the SRP [Savannah River Plant] source term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, R.E.; Baldwin, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    The present report describes the experimental system developed for the measurement of fission product release from Savannah River Plant (SRP) fuels and the preliminary measurements performed on unirradiated SRP fuel specimens and simulated irradiated fuel to check out the system prior to its installation in a hot cell for measurements on irradiated SRP fuel

  5. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  6. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  7. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  8. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Energy...Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel

  9. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  10. Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository

  11. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  12. 77 FR 59458 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories... of Biodiesel 1. Grease and Rendered Fats 2. Corn Oil 3. Soybean Oil 4. Effects on Food Prices 5.... Deliverability and Transport Costs of Materials, Goods, and Products Other Than Renewable Fuel 6. Wetlands...

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  15. Liquid fuel concept benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.

    1996-01-01

    There are principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel listed and analyzed in the first part of the paper. One of the primary results of the analyses performed shows that the solid fuel concept, which was to certain degree advantageous in the first periods of a nuclear reactor development and operation, has guided this branch of a utilization of atomic nucleus energy to a death end. On the background of this, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the first part of the paper, too. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuels, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed and currently having been under development in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, will be studied both theoretically and experimentally. There is a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-O briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project. Finally, there will be another very promising concept of a small low power ADTT system introduced which is characterized by a high level of safety and economical efficiency. In the conclusion, the overall survey of principal benefits which may be expected by introducing liquid nuclear fuel in nuclear power and research reactor systems is given and critically analyzed. 7 refs, 4 figs

  16. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  17. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.

    1964-12-01

    This volume contains the following reports: Experimental facility for testing and development of pulsed columns and auxiliary devices; Chemical-technology study of the modified 'Purex' process; Chemical and radiometric control analyses; Chromatographic separation of rare earth elements on paper treated by di-n butylphosphate; Preliminary study of some organic nitrogen extracts significant in fuel reprocessing

  18. Surveillance instrumentation for spent-fuel safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Holmes, J.P.; Gillman, L.K.; Schmitz, J.A.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The movement, in a facility, of spent reactor fuel may be tracked using simple instrumentation together with a real time unfolding algorithm. Experimental measurements, from multiple radiation monitors and crane weight and position monitors, were obtained during spent fuel movements at the G.E. Morris Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. These data and a preliminary version of an unfolding algorithm were used to estimate the position of the centroid and the magnitude of the spent fuel radiation source. Spatial location was estimated to +-1.5 m and source magnitude to +-10% of their true values. Application of this surveillance instrumentation to spent-fuel safeguards is discussed

  19. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  20. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  1. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    food choice in order to help people make healthful food and beverage choices .... consumption patterns, lifestyles, health status and the different factors .... relative importance in human eating behaviour: review and preliminary suggestions for.

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  3. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  4. AECL's progress in DUPIC fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Ryz, M.A.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Previous papers described progress in choosing a fabrication route for the DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) fuel cycle [1], details of the OREOX (Oxidation Reduction of Oxide fuel) process, and preliminary results of out-cell and small-scale in-cell experiments [2]. AECL's project to develop the DUPIC fuel cycle has now progressed to the stage of fabricating DUPIC fuel elements for irradiation testing in a research reactor. Because of the high radiation fields around the spent PWR fuel, all work is being done in hot cells. The equipment used for fabrication of the DUPIC fuel elements is described in this paper. The commissioning, in-cell installation and current status of the fabrication process are also described and plans for the completion of this phase of the DUPIC project are outlined. The goal of this phase of the project is demonstration of the technical feasibility of the DUPIC fuel cycle. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  6. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  7. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  8. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  9. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  10. Metallic fuel design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual

  11. Metallic fuel design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual design technology on metallic fuel

  12. Direct electrical heating of irradiated metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept proposed by Argonne National Laboratory utilizes a metal fuel core. Reactor safety analysis requires information on the potential for fuel axial expansion during severe thermal transients. In addition to a comparatively large thermal expansion coefficient, metallic fuel has a unique potential for enhanced pre-failure expansion driven by retained fission gas and ingested bond sodium. In this paper, the authors present preliminary results from three direct electrical heating (DEH) experiments performed on irradiated metal fuel to investigate axial expansion behavior. The test samples were from Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel ML-11 irradiated to 8 at.% burnup. Preliminary analysis of the results suggest that enhanced expansion driven by trapped fission gas can occur

  13. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  15. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  16. WWER-440 fuel cycles possibilities using improved fuel assemblies design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolas, P.; Svarny, J.

    2008-01-01

    Practically five years cycle has been achieved in the last years at NPP Dukovany. There are two principal means how it could be achieved. First, it is necessary to use fuel assemblies with higher fuel enrichment and second, to use fuel loading with very low leakage. Both these conditions are fulfilled at NPP Dukovany at this time. It is known, that the fuel cycle economy can be improved by increasing the fuel residence time in the core up to six years. There are at least two ways how this goal could be achieved. The simplest way is to increase enrichment in fuel. There exists a limit, which is 5.0 w % of 235 U. Taking into account some uncertainty, the calculation maximum is 4.95 w % of 235 U. The second way is to change fuel assembly design. There are several possibilities, which seem to be suitable from the neutron - physical point of view. The first one is higher mass content of uranium in a fuel assembly. The next possibility is to enlarge pin pitch. The last possibility is to 'omit' FA shroud. This is practically unrealistic; anyway, some other structural parts must be introduced. The basic neutron physical characteristics of these cycles for up-rated power are presented showing that the possibilities of fuel assemblies with this improved design in enlargement of fuel cycles are very promising. In the end, on the basis of neutron physical characteristics and necessary economical input parameters, a preliminary evaluation of economic contribution of proposals of advanced fuel assemblies on fuel cycle economy is presented (Authors)

  17. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  18. Core fuel management using TVS-2M fuel assembly and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Min; Wang Hongxia; Li Youyi

    2014-01-01

    To improve the economic efficiency, TVS-2M fuel assembly was considered to apply in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant units 3, 4. Using KASKAD program package, a preliminary research and design was carried out for the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant loading TVS-2M fuel assembly from the first cycle to equilibrium cycle. An improved fuel management program was obtained, and the economic analysis of the two fuel management programs with or without TVS-2M assembly was studied. The analysis results show that TVS-2M fuel assembly can improve the economic efficiency of the plant remarkably. (authors)

  19. The TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.

    1995-04-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC

  20. The Biofuel Debate – Status Quo and Research Needs to Meet Multiple Goals of Food, Fuel and Ecosystem Services in the Tropics and Subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The current biofuel debate is characterized by concerns about the environmental effects of large-scale biofuel plantations, controversies about GMO-based feedstocks and the recent global food crisis. Predictions for the development of the biofuel sector are either departing from the supply-side or the demand-side, but are mostly based on modelling efforts with an unclear experimental basis and only broadly defined economic settings. Results vary widely and tend to undervalue technical progress in processing efficiency or management-related increases in biomass yields. Moreover, calculations often neglect the impact of climate change, the need for irrigation and processing water, for soil fertility maintenance and the importance of socio-economic issues. Against these shortcomings and in view of several decades to centuries of Ecosystem Carbon Payback Times of most biofuel plantations, their future as a large-scale replacement for hydrocarbons will strongly depend on improved matter conversion efficiencies and successful prevention mechanisms for conflicts over land use.

  1. Spent-fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Doubling pool storage and tripling truck cask shipping capability appear feasible based on preliminary development work performed at the BNFP. This would be accomplished by disassembly of the fuel assembly and canning of the fuel pins. The dry, remote disassembly and canning in the headend cells offer adequate rates, easily controlled operator exposure, and visual inspection of the fuel pins and operations through shielded windows

  2. Fusion energy applied to synthetic fuel production: a report to the DOE Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy based on a preliminary study by an ad-hoc advisory group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1977-10-01

    The general conclusion is that the potential for utilization of fusion energy for synthetic fuel production is favorable. Three basic methods of hydrogen production are identified: high-temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles, and direct radiolysis. Combinations of these and their use as in combined cycles for electric power generation are considered

  3. Preliminary statement concerning the expert opinion and other documents relating to the Wackersdorf fuel reprocessing plant, laid open between June 18 and July 15, 1985 by the Bavarian Ministry of State for Regional Development and Environmental Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion drawn in the statement is that the expert opinions and documents available do not justify the granting of a first partial licence for the erection of the fuel reprocessing plant. Such a first partial licence would include the site approval, the outline design approval, and part-construction permits, in this case for instance for the fuel element receiving store. The site approval would be a premature decision according to this statement, as some decisive expert opinions (on meteorological, hydrological, and radioecological site conditions) are not yet completed. The documents available for evaluation of the design concept are said to have been insufficient in many regards, so that all the authors can state at the present time is that 'there may be technically feasible solutions by now'. This is judged to be an insufficient basis for an outline design approval in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. The reasons brought forward against licensing the fuel element receiving store are similar. For lack of appropriate documents, the authors of the statement found themselves unable to assess the safety of a major component, the fuel element storage tank. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  6. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  7. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  8. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  9. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  10. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  11. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Noakes, M.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller or master, and the control system. The ASM is a remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of (CFRP). This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, and reliability. It uses an all-gear force transmission system. The master arms were designed as a kinematic replica of ASM and use cable force transmission. Special digital control algorithms were developed to improve the system performance. The system is presently operational and undergoing evaluation. Preliminary testing has been completed and is reported. The system is now undergoing commercialization by transferring the technology to the private sector

  12. Agro-fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Maho, Y.; Pappalardo, M.; Vindimian, E.; Salmon, J.M.

    2008-12-01

    The first contributions of this collective report are presenting the French first generation agro-fuel industry, its production, its usages, and its public incentives. Then, several authors comment the impacts of these first-generation agro-fuels on the environment: debate on the contribution of the nitrogen monoxide to the greenhouse gas emission assessment, question of the compatibility of the foreseen agro-fuel development with the French commitment of stopping the biodiversity erosion by 2010, contributions of engineering and chemical sciences to the assessment of agro-fuel environmental impact, methodology of assessment of energy, greenhouse emissions, and atmospheric pollutants related to first-generation agro-fuels. Land use by agro-fuels in France by 2015 is the next topic (impacts on agricultural land, relationship between breeding and agro-fuels). Some authors describe the global context: possible global interactions between agro-fuels and environment, sustainable certification of agro-fuels, analysis of the reasons for a world food crisis. The last contributions are dealing with second-generation agro-fuels: state of the art and perspectives, role in sustainable energy development

  13. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  14. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  15. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  16. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  18. Fuel Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.

    1982-09-01

    FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  20. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  1. Acceptance of spent fuel of varying characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a preliminary overview of a study with the primary objective of establishing a set of acceptance selection criteria and corresponding spent fuel characteristics to be incorporated as a component of requirements for the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). A number of alternative acceptance allocations and selection rules were analyzed to determine the operational sensitivity of each element of the FWMS to the resultant spent fuel characteristics. Preliminary recommendations of the study include three different sets of selection rules to be included in the FWMS design basis. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Criticality safety evaluation report for FFTF 42% fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    An FFTF tritium/isotope production mission will require a new fuel supply. The reference design core will use a mixed oxide fuel nominally enriched to 40 wt% Pu. This enrichment is significantly higher than that of the standard Driver Fuel Assemblies used in past operations. Consequently, criticality safety for handling and storage of this fuel must be addressed. The purpose of this document is to begin the process by determining the minimum critical number for these new fuel assemblies in water, sodium and air. This analysis is preliminary and further work can be done to refine the results reported here. Analysis was initially done using 45 wt 5 PuO. Additionally, a preliminary assessment is done concerning storage of these fuel assemblies in Interim Decay Storage (IDS), Fuel Storage Facility (FSF), and Core Component Containers/Interim Storage Casks (CCC/ISC)

  3. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  4. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  5. Sub Saharan Africa Food Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry

    2016-01-01

    Study of food value chains in East Africa as a preliminary study. The paper wishes to underline a few under-researched assumptions about esepcially protein deficiencies, allergies etc. to establish what enablers and constraints exist when trying to supply food from e.g. Europe to e.g. East Africa....

  6. 137Cs concentration in some Philippine foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dela Cruz, B.; Marzan, A.M.; Lagmay, N.; Anden, A.

    1977-01-01

    The current investigation being made by the Philippine Atomic Research Center on the 137 Cs content of the different foods commonly used by the Filipinos is described and preliminary results are reported. The 137 Cs content is determined radiochemically only for the edible portion of the food

  7. Genetically modified foods in the opinion of the second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess knowledge of and to identify awareness in second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation, regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO in food. The analysis of obtained results shows that about 98% of respondents know the concept of GMO and highly appreciate their knowledge of this topic. The main source of knowledge about GMO for the students is the Internet and the University. It is worth noting that 59% of respondents are aware of the use of GMO in food, while more than half do not know how the GMO in food should be labeled. In particular, students of biotechnology showed a distinctive knowledge about GMO. Over half of students of the Jan Kochanowski University in the fields of biology, biotechnology, and tourism and recreation (55% recognized that the use of GMO poses a threat to human health.

  8. The TMI Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Ruhl, Robert C.; Petrik, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. Systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate (during sunlight cycles) to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis and (during dark cycles) fuel cells convert hydrogen into electricity. Common configurations use two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Reliability, power to weight and power to volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cells) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based design integrates fuel cell and electrolyzer functions and potentially simplifies system requirements. The integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer design also utilizes innovative gas storage concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H20 electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for regenerative fuel cells. Tests have shown improved cell performance in both fuel and electrolysis modes in reversible fuel cell tests. Regenerative fuel cell efficiencies, ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer mode), improved from 50 percent using conventional electrode materials to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow a single SOFC system to operate as both the electolyzer and fuel cell. Preliminary system designs have also been developed to show the technical feasibility of using the design for space applications requiring high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Small space systems also have potential for dual-use, terrestrial applications.

  9. Biofuels and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. STREBKOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The major source of energy comes from fossil fuels. The current situation in the field of fuel and energy is becoming more problematic as world population continues to grow because of the limitation of fossil fuels reserve and its pressure on environment. This review aims to find economic, reliable, renewable and non-polluting energy sources to reduce high energy tariffs in Russian Federation. Biofuel is fuel derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Other alternative energy sources including solar energy and electric power generation are also discussed. Over 100 Mt of biomass available for energy purposes is produced every year in Russian. One of the downsides of biomass energy is its potential threatens to food security and forage industries. An innovative approach proved that multicomponent fuel (80% diesel oil content for motor and 64% for in stove fuel can remarkably reduce the costs. This paper proposed that the most promising energy model for future is based on direct solar energy conversion and transcontinental terawatt power transmission with the use of resonant wave-guide technology.

  10. Gas-discharge plasma processes for surface modification and conversion of chemical substances. Application for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, K.; Meyer, D.; Rohland, B.; Heintze, M.; Zahn, R.J.; Hannemann, M.; Meusinger, J.; Ohl, A. [Institute of Non-Thermal Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Technik mbH Greifswald (Germany)]|[GAPC, Adam Opel AG, IPC, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The potential of plasma processes towards hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be demonstrated by two examples with preliminary results: 1. plasma modification of polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells, and 2. plasma supported steam reforming.

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  16. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  17. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  18. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  19. Policy Reform Impact on Food Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Celikkol, Pinar; Dunn, James W.; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of agricultural policies and their reform is of major concern when addressing issues of growth, innovation and consolidation in the food manufacturing sector. Growth is one of the forces fueling the globalization of food manufacturing activities. Market- and policy-driven forces present a myriad of opportunities to influence growth and reorientation of patterns at the nexus where food manufacturing links the food system. The productivity and international competitiveness of the foo...

  20. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  3. Technical ability of new MTR high-density fuel alloys regarding the whole fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Maugard, B.; Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of new fuel alloys could provide a good opportunity to improve drastically the fuel cycle on the neutronic performances and the reprocessing point of view. Nevertheless, those parameters can only be considered if the fuel manufacture feasibility has been previously demonstrated. As a matter of fact, a MTR work group involving French partners (CEA, CERCA, COGEMA) has been set up in order to evaluate the technical ability of new fuels considering the whole fuel cycle. In this paper CERCA is presenting the preliminary results of UMo and UNbZr fuel plate manufacture, CEA is comparing to U 3 Si 2 the neutronic performances of fuels such as UMo, UN, UNbZr, while COGEMA is dealing with the reprocessing feasibility. (author)

  4. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  6. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  7. Agro-fuels and climate. Why is it not a good solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication explains why agro-fuels raise various problems: deforestation due to a change of land use, impact on climate due to deforestation and higher CO 2 emission by colza-based fuel than by conventional diesel fuel, food safety due to the evolution of land uses which result in higher food prices and land grabbing. It also outlines that agro-fuels are a burden for public finances. Possibilities offered by agro-fuels of third generation are evoked

  8. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  9. Research reactor de-fueling and fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, R.D.; Jawdeh, E.; Strydom, J.

    1998-01-01

    Planning for the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor operations during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games began in early 1995. Before any details could be outlined, several preliminary administrative decisions had to be agreed upon by state, city, and university officials. The two major administrative decisions involving the reactor were (1) the security level and requirements and (2) the fuel status of the reactor. The Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) was a heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor, fueled with high-enriched uranium. The reactor was first licensed in 1964 with an engineered lifetime of thirty years. The reactor was intended for use in research applications and as a teaching facility for nuclear engineering students and reactor operators. Approximately one year prior to the olympics, the Georgia Tech administration decided that the GTRR fuel would be removed. In addition, a heightened, beyond regulatory requirements, security system was to be implemented. This report describes the scheduling, operations, and procedures

  10. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  11. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  12. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    refueling infrastructure. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  16. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  17. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated

  19. Agro-fuels, a cartography of stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This document proposes a dashboard of the main issues regarding agro-fuels. Nine sheets propose basic information and data on these issues: 1- agro-fuel production and consumption in the world (ethanol, vegetable oils, perspective for demand in the transport sector), 2- energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions (energy assessments and greenhouse effect of agro-fuels, discrepancies of results between first-generation European agro-fuels, case of agro-fuels produced in Southern countries), 3- needed surfaces in Europe (land use and cultivable areas for agro-fuel production in Europe and in France, competition between food and energy crops), 4- deforestation in the South (relationship between agriculture, deforestation and agro-fuels, between deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions), 5- impacts on biodiversity (use of pesticides and fertilizers, large scale cultivations and single-crop farming, cultivation of fallow land and permanent meadows, deforestation in the South, relationship between agro-fuels and GMOs), 6- impacts on water, soil and air (water quality and availability, soil erosion, compaction and fertility loss, air quality), 7- food-related and social stakes (issue of food security, social impacts of agro-fuel production with pressure on family agriculture and issues of land property), 8- public supports and economic efficiency (public promotion of agro-fuels, agro-fuel and oil prices, assessment of the 'avoided' CO 2 ton), and 9- perspectives for second-generation agro-fuels (definitions and processes, benefits with respect to first-generation fuels, possible impacts on the environment, barriers to their development)

  20. Food, energy and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimental, D; Pimental, M

    1979-01-01

    Twelve chapters are presented in this book - the first four of which concern hunter-gatherer society, the development of agricultural systems, and an introduction to the relative energy costs of manpower, animal power and machines in food production. The main section of the book (Chapters 6-9) documents the energy use in the production of livestock, grain and legumes, fruit, vegetable and forage, and fish. Comparisons of energy inputs and outputs are made for different crops and for countries at different levels of development. The final section of the book covers food processing, packaging and transport costs. The message of the book is that a switch from the high overall protein and high animal protein diet in the industrialized countries is overdue. Such a move, the author maintains, will reduce the total fossil fuel requirements for food production and enable more people to be adequately fed. The author also recommends extensive use of bicycles for transportation.

  1. Large-scale fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    material controls on an international scale, and the lack of a technological requirement for co-location (on a national basis) of fuel cycle facilities, has led to the concept of the multinational fuel cycle facility. However, the establishment of such a facility requires resolution of a number of unusual factors, broadly characterized as: (1) Administrative and organizational; (2) Economic and financial; (3) Technical; and (4) Operational. Each of these broad areas has been examined on a preliminary basis for a particular geographic region on behalf of a multinational group of organizations to determine the feasibility of the concept and to identify the problems that need to be overcome to ensure its ultimate success. (author)

  2. A guide to introducing burnup credit, preliminary version (English translation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Ryufuku, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    There is an ongoing discussion on the application of burnup credit to the criticality safety controls of facilities that treat spent fuels. With regard to such application of burnup credit in Japan, this document summarizes the current technical status of the prediction of the isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuels, as well as safety evaluation concerns and the current status of legal affairs. This report is an English translation of A Guide to Introducing Burnup Credit, Preliminary Version, originally published in Japanese as JAERI-Tech 2001-055 by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility Safety Research Committee. (author)

  3. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  4. Electrometallurgical treatment of TMI-2 fuel debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karell, E.J.; Gourishankar, K.V.; Johnson, G.K.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed an electrometallurgical treatment process suitable for conditioning DOE oxide spent fuel for long-term storage or disposal. The process consists of an initial oxide reduction step that converts the actinide oxides to a metallic form, followed by an electrochemical separation of uranium from the other fuel constituents. The final product of the process is a uniform set of stable waste forms suitable for long-term storage or disposal. The suitability of the process for treating core debris from the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) reactor is being evaluated. This paper reviews the results of preliminary experimental work performed using simulated TMI-2 fuel debris

  5. DUPIC fuel performance from reactor physics viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.; Rhee, B.W.; Park, H.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed for the evaluation of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) parameters of nominal DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactor. For the reference 2-bundle shift refueling scheme, the predicted ramped power and power increase of the 43-element DUPIC fuel in the equilibrium core are below the SCC thresholds of CANDU natural uranium fuel. For 4-bundle shift refueling scheme, the envelope of element ramped power and power increase upon refueling are 8% and 44% higher than those of 2-bundle shift refueling scheme on the average, respectively, and both schemes are not expected to cause SCC failures. (author)

  6. Process of producing a fuel, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1924-12-01

    This invention has for its object a process of producing fuels by separating a light oil from primary tar, characterized by a succession of operations comprising preliminary removal of phenols from the oils, removing sulfur completely by the application of suitable catalysts and an agent to fix the free sulfur as hydrogen sulfide; finally, washing to remove ethylenes, pyridines, and impurities from the treatment.

  7. Nondestructive method for assessment of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, E.; Pregl, G.; Krajnik, J.; Glumac, B.; Jencic, I.; Kerzic, J.; Moskon, F.; Zitnik, F.

    1983-01-01

    Description of the development of the gamma spectrometry determination of an amount of a certain radioactive fission product considering local variations of the linear attenuation coefficient of gamma rays and preliminary experiment using fuel element of TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana is given.(author)

  8. Computer analysis of elongation of the WWER fuel rod claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, A.; Proselkov, V.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper description of mechanisms influencing changes of the WWER fuel cladding length and axial forces influencing fuel and cladding are presented. It is shown that shortening of the fuel claddings in case of high burnup can be explained by the change of the fuel and cladding reference state caused by reduction of the fuel rod power level - during reactor outages. It is noted that the presented calculated data are to be reviewed and interpreted as the preliminary results; further work is needed for their confirmation. (authors)

  9. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  10. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  11. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle scenarios at CGNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Zhou; Nie, Li Hong; Mao, Guo Ping; Hao, Si Xiong; Shen, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1994, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. (CGNPC) now owns two power stations GNPS and LNPS Phase I, with approximate 4000 MWe of installed capacity. With plant upgrades, advanced fuel management has been introduced into the two plants to improve the plant economical behavior with the high burnup fuel implemented. For the purpose of sustainable development, some preliminary studies on nuclear fuel cycle, especially on the back-end, have been carried out at CGNPC. According to the nuclear power development plan of China, the timing for operation and the capacity of the reprocessing facility are studied based on the amount of the spent fuel forecast in the future. Furthermore, scenarios of the fuel cycles in the future in China with the next generation of nuclear power were considered. Based on the international experiences on the spent fuel management, several options of spent fuel reprocessing strategies are investigated in detail, for example, MOX fuel recycling in light water reactor, especially in the current reactors of CGNPC, spent fuel intermediated storage, etc. All the investigations help us to draw an overall scheme of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to find a suitable road-map to achieve the sustainable development of nuclear power. (authors)

  13. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  14. Toward a sustainable energy supply with reduced environmental burden. Development of metal fuel fast reactor cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tadafumi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Kensuke

    2009-01-01

    CRIEPI has been studying the metal fuel fast reactor cycle as an outstanding alternative for the future energy sources. In this paper, development of the metal fuel cycle is reviewed in the view point of technological feasibility and material balance. Preliminary estimation of reduction of the waste burden due to introduction of the metal fuel cycle technology is also reported. (author)

  15. Hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, upstream kinase/phosphorylase protein expression, and receptivity to hormone and fuel reporters of short-term food deprivation are regulated by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briski, Karen P; Alenazi, Fahaad S H; Shakya, Manita; Sylvester, Paul W

    2017-07-01

    Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs. oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats, alongside dissimilar adjustments in circulating metabolic fuel (glucose, free fatty acids [FFA]) and energy deficit-sensitive hormone (corticosterone, glucagon, leptin) levels. FD decreased blood glucose in oil (O)- but not E-implanted ovariectomized female rats and elevated and reduced glucagon levels in O and E, respectively. FD decreased circulating leptin in O and E, but increased corticosterone and FFA concentrations in E only. Western blot analysis of laser-microdissected A2 neurons showed that glucocorticoid receptor type II and very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 protein profiles were amplified in FD/E vs. FD/O. A2 total AMPK protein was elevated without change in activity in FD/O, whereas FD/E exhibited increased AMPK activation along with decreased upstream phosphatase expression. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) was increased in FD/O but not FD/E A2 cells. The data show discordance between A2 AMPK activation and glycemic responses to FD; sensor activity was refractory to glucose decrements in FD/O but augmented in FD/E despite stabilized glucose and elevated FFA levels. E-dependent amplification of AMPK activity may reflect adaptive conversion to fatty acid oxidation and/or glucocorticoid stimulation. FD augmentation of A2 DβH protein profiles in FD/O but not FD/E animals suggests that FD may correspondingly regulate NE synthesis vs. metabolism/release in the

  16. Romanian concern for advanced fuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN), a subsidiary of Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities, at Pitesti - Romania, has developed a preliminary design of a fuel bundle with 43 elements named SEU 43 for high burnup in CANDU Reactor. A very high experience in nuclear fuels manufacturing and control has also been accumulated. Additionally, on the nuclear site Pitesti there is the Nuclear Fuel Plant (NFP) qualified to manufacturing CANDU 6 type fuel, the main fuel supplier for NPP Cernavoda. A very good collaboration of ICN with NFP can lead to a low cost upgrading the facilities which ensure at present the CANDU standard fuel fabrication to be able of manufacturing also SEU 43 fuel for extended burnup. The financial founds are allocated by Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities of the Ministry of Industry and Resources to sustain the departmental R and D program 'Nuclear Fuel'. This Program has the main objective to establish a technology for manufacturing a new CANDU fuel type destined for extended burnup. It is studied the possibility to use the Recovered Uranium (RU) resulted from LWR spent fuel reprocessing facility existing in stockpiles. The International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) sustains also this program. By ROM/4/025/ Model Project, IAEA helps ICN to solve the problems regarding materials (RU, Zircaloy 4 tubes) purchasing, devices' upgrading and personnel training. The paper presents the main actions needing to be create the technical base for SEU 43 fuel bundle manufacturing. First step, the technological experiments and experimental fuel element manufacturing, will be accomplished in ICN installations. Second step, the industrial scale, need thorough studies for each installation from NFP to determine tools and technology modification imposed by the new CANDU fuel bundle manufacturing. All modifications must be done such as to the NFP, standard CANDU and SEU fuel bundles to be manufactured alternatively. (author)

  17. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  18. Fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, M.; Matus, L.; Vigassy, J.

    1987-11-01

    A short summary of the main critical points in fuel performance of nuclear power reactors from chemical and mechanical point of view is given. A schedule for a limited research program is included. (author) 17 refs

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  20. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  1. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  2. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  5. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  6. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  7. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  9. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  10. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  11. Preliminary design report for the NAC combined transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) is under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, license, develop and test models, and fabricate a prototype cask transportation system for nuclear spent fuel. The design of this combined transport (rail/barge) transportation system has been divided into two phases, a preliminary design phase and a final design phase. This Preliminary Design Package (PDP) describes the NAC Combined Transport Cask (NAC-CTC), the results of work completed during the preliminary design phase and identifies the additional detailed analyses, which will be performed during final design. Preliminary analytical results are presented in the appropriate sections and supplemented by summaries of procedures and assumptions for performing the additional detailed analyses of the final design. 60 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  14. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  15. Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. Don; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As a part of a high energy density materials (HEDM) development, the hot fire tests for Quadricyclane, 1,7 Octadiyne, AFRL-1, Biclopropylidene, and CINCH (Dimethyl amino ethyl azide) have been conducted at NASA/MSFC. The first 4 materials for this task are provided from Air Force Research Laboratory at Edward Air Force Base and US Army provided CINCH. The performance of these fuels is compared with RP-1. The preliminary results of these tests are presented. The preliminary results of Quadricyclane tests indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency for quadricyclane at the mixture ratio 1.94 are approximately 5 sec and 105 ft/sec better than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 1.9. The 1,7 Octadiyne test indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency at the mixture ratio 2.1 are approximately -1 sec and 89 ft/sec differ than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 2.04. The Quadricyclane soot buildup at the combustor is a little more than RP-1, but detail study of soot formation is not considered at this time. There was no visual soot buildup for the 1,7 Octadiyne and AFRL-1.

  16. LCA of Food and Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Basset-Mens, Claudine; Antón, Assumpció

    2018-01-01

    , preparation and waste of the food. In the waste management stage, food waste can be handled using a number of technologies, such as landfilling, incineration , composting or digestion. A number of case studies are looked at here where the life cycles of typical food products (meat , cheese, bread, tomatoes......This chapter deals with the application of Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate the environmental sustainability of agriculture and food processing. The life cycle of a food product is split into six stages: production and transportation of inputs to the farm, cultivation, processing, distribution...... , consumption and waste management . A large number of LCA studies focus on the two first stages in cradle-to-farm gate studies, as they are the stages where most impacts typically occur, due to animal husbandry and manure handling, production and use of fertilisers and the consumption of fuel to operate farm...

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Tracer techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The appicability of radioactive tracer techniques to process control in food industry are considered. Investigations in the field of food industry carried out using the above method are classified. The 1 class included investigations with preliminary preparation of a radioactive indicator and its following introduction in the system studied. The 2 class includes investigations based on the introduction in the system studied of a non-active indicator which is activated in a neutron flux being in samples selected in or after the process investigated. The 3 class includes studies based on investigations of natural radioactivity of certain nuclides in food stuff. The application of tracer techniques to the above classes of investigations in various fields of food industry and the equipment applied are considered in detail [ru

  20. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,