WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel power systems

  1. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  2. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  3. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  4. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors have significant advantages as energy sources for closed-cycle power systems. The advantages arise from the removal of temperature limits associated with conventional reactor fuel elements, the wide variety of methods of extracting energy from fissioning gases, and inherent low fissile and fission product in-core inventory due to continuous fuel reprocessing. Example power cycles and their general performance characteristics are discussed. Efficiencies of gaseous fuel reactor systems are shown to be high with resulting minimal environmental effects. A technical overview of the NASA-funded research program in gaseous fuel reactors is described and results of recent tests of uranium hexafluoride (UF6)-fueled critical assemblies are presented.

  5. Cermet fuels for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.O.; Coomes, E.P.; Williford, R.E.; Neimark, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A refractory-metal matrix, UN-fueled cermet is a very promising fuel candidate for a wide range of multi-megawatt space reactor systems, e.g., steady-state, flexible duty-cycle, or bimodal, single- or two-phase liquid-metal cooled reactors, or thermionic reactors. Cermet fuel is especially promising for reactor designs that require operational strategies which incorporate rapid power changes because of its anticipated capability to withstand thermal shock

  6. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmick, H.H.; Schwenk, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is participating in a NASA-sponsored program to demonstrate the feasibility of a gaseous uranium fueled reactor. The work is aimed at acquiring experimental and theoretical information for the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test heat removal by optical radiation. The basic goal of this work is for space applications, however, other NASA-sponsored work suggests several attractive applications to help meet earth-bound energy needs. Such potential benefits are small critical mass, on-site fuel processing, high fuel burnup, low fission fragment inventory in reactor core, high temperature for process heat, optical radiation for photochemistry and space power transmission, and high temperature for advanced propulsion systems. Low power reactor experiments using uranium hexafluoride gas as fuel demonstrated performance in accordance with reactor physics predictions. The final phase of experimental activity now in progress is the fabrication and testing of a buffer gas vortex confinement system

  7. Direct Fuel Injector Power Drive System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    solenoid coil to create magnetic field in the stator. Then, the stator pulls the pintle to open the injector nozzle . This pintle movement occurs when the...that typically deal with power strategies to the injector solenoid coil. Numerical simulation codes for diesel injection systems were developed by...Laboratory) for providing the JP-8 test fuel. REFERENCES 1. Digesu, P. and Laforgia D., “ Diesel electro- injector : A numerical simulation code”. Journal of

  8. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet

    2012-07-01

    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  9. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  10. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  11. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  12. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  13. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  14. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  15. A portable power system using PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, E. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Ball has developed a proof-of-concept, small, lightweight, portable power system. The power system uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, stored hydrogen, and atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant to generate electrical power. Electronics monitor the system performance to control cooling air and oxidant flow, and automatically do corrective measures to maintain performance. With the controller monitoring the system health, the system can operate in an ambient environment from 0 C to +50 C. The paper describes system testing, including load testing, thermal and humidity testing, vibration and shock testing, field testing, destructive testing of high-pressure gas tanks, and test results on the fuel cell power system, metal hydride hydrogen storage, high-pressure hydrogen gas storage, and chemical hydride hydrogen storage.

  16. Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Characteristics Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deduce the specific characteristics of the CHP 100kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC Power System from the steady state experimental data. From the experimental data, the authors have been developed and validated the steady state mathematical model. From the control room the steady state experimental data of the SOFC power conditioning are available and using the developed steady state mathematical model, the authors have been obtained the characteristic curves of the system performed by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation. As a methodology the backward and forward power flow analysis has been employed. The backward power flow makes possible to obtain the SOFC power system operating point at different load levels, resulting as the load characteristic. By knowing the fuel cell output characteristic, the forward power flow analysis is used to predict the power system efficiency in different operating points, to choose the adequate control decision in order to obtain the high efficiency operation of the SOFC power system at different load levels. The CHP 100kWe power system is located at Gas Turbine Technologies Company (a Siemens Subsidiary, TurboCare brand in Turin, Italy. The work was carried out through the Energia da Ossidi Solidi (EOS Project. The SOFC stack delivers constant power permanently in order to supply the electric and thermal power both to the TurboCare Company and to the national grid.

  17. Thermoeconomic analysis of a fuel cell hybrid power system from the fuel cell experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Tomas [Endesa Generacion, Ribera del Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: talvarez@endesa.es; Valero, Antonio [Fundacion CIRCE, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Montes, Jose M. [ETSIMM-Universidad Politecnica de.Madrid, Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    An innovative configuration of fuel cell technology is proposed based on a hybrid fuel cell system that integrates a turbogenerator to overcome the intrinsic limitations of fuel cells in conventional operation. An analysis is done of the application of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at the Guadalix Fuel Cell Test Facility, for the assessment of the performance of the fuel cell prototype to be integrated in the Hybrid Fuel Cell System. This is completed with a thermoeconomic analysis of the 100 kW cogeneration fuel cell power plant which was subsequently built. The operational results and design limitations are evaluated, together with the operational limits and thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction and losses) of the 100 kW fuel cell. This leads to the design of a hybrid system in order to demonstrate the possibilities and benefits of the new hybrid configuration. The results are quantified through a thermoeconomic analysis in order to get the most cost-effective plant configuration. One promising configuration is the MCFC topper where the fuel cell in the power plant behaves as a combustor for the turbogenerator. The latter behaves as the balance of plant for the fuel cell. The combined efficiency increased to 57% and NOx emissions are essentially eliminated. The synergy of the fuel cell/turbine hybrids lies mainly in the use of the rejected thermal energy and residual fuel from the fuel cell to drive the turbogenerator in a 500 kW hybrid system.

  18. Fuel management of mixed reactor type power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula

    1988-01-01

    In equilibrium symbiotic power plant system containing both thermal reactors and fast breeders, excess plutonium produced by the fast breeders is used to enrich the fuel of the thermal reactors. In plutonium deficient symbiotic power plant system plutonium is supplied both by thermal plants and fast breeders. Mathematical models were constructed and different equations solved to characterize the fuel utilization of both systems if they contain only a single thermal type and a single fast type reactor. The more plutonium is produced in the system, the higher output ratio of thermal to fast reactors is achieved in equilibrium symbiotic power plant system. Mathematical equations were derived to calculate the doubling time and the breeding gain of the equilibrium symbiotic system. (V.N.) 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  20. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  1. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

  2. A miniature fuel reformer system for portable power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Belavič, Darko; Hrovat, Marko; Hočevar, Stanko; Pohar, Andrej; Petrovčič, Janko; Musizza, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    A miniature methanol reformer system has been designed and built to technology readiness level exceeding a laboratory prototype. It is intended to feed fuel cells with electric power up to 100 W and contains a complete setup of the technological elements: catalytic reforming and PROX reactors, a combustor, evaporators, actuation and sensing elements, and a control unit. The system is engineered not only for performance and quality of the reformate, but also for its lightweight and compact design, seamless integration of elements, low internal electric consumption, and safety. In the paper, the design of the system is presented by focussing on its miniaturisation, integration, and process control.

  3. Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

  4. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  5. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 1; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Logistics Fuel Processor 27 kWe Power System Demonstration for ARPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the successful testing of a 27 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator fueled by natural gas and/or a fuel gas produced by a brassboard logistics fuel preprocessor (LFP). The test period began on May 24, 1995 and ended on February 26, 1996 with the successful completion of all program requirements and objectives. During this time period, this power system produced 118.2 MWh of electric power. No degradation of the generator's performance was measured after 5582 accumulated hours of operation on these fuels: local natural gas - 3261 hours, jet fuel reformate gas - 766 hours, and diesel fuel reformate gas - 1555 hours. This SOFC generator was thermally cycled from full operating temperature to room temperature and back to operating temperature six times, because of failures of support system components and the occasional loss of test site power, without measurable cell degradation. Numerous outages of the LFP did not interrupt the generator's operation because the fuel control system quickly switched to local natural gas when an alarm indicated that the LFP reformate fuel supply had been interrupted. The report presents the measured electrical performance of the generator on all three fuel types and notes the small differences due to fuel type. Operational difficulties due to component failures are well documented even though they did not affect the overall excellent performance of this SOFC power generator. The final two appendices describe in detail the LFP design and the operating history of the tested brassboard LFP.

  6. Fuel handling and storage systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The scope of this Guide includes the design of handling and storage facilities for fuel assemblies from the receipt of fuel into the nuclear power plant until the fuel departs from that plant. The unirradiated fuel considered in this Guide is assumed not to exhibit any significant level of radiation so that it can be handled without shielding or cooling. This Guide also gives limited consideration to the handling and storage of certain core components. While the general design and safety principles are discussed in Section 2 of this Guide, more specific design requirements for the handling and storage of fuel are given in detailed sections which follow the general design and safety principles. Further useful information is to be found in the IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 189 ''Storage, Handling and Movement of Fuel and Related Components at Nuclear Power Plants'' and No. 198 ''Guide to the Safe Handling of Radioactive Wastes at Nuclear Power Plants''. However, the scope of the Guide does not include consideration of the following: (1) The various reactor physics questions associated with fuel and absorber loading and unloading into the core; (2) The design aspects of preparation of the reactor for fuel loading (such as the removal of the pressure vessel head for a light water reactor) and restoration after loading; (3) The design of shipping casks; (4) Fuel storage of a long-term nature exceeding the design lifetime of the nuclear power plant; (5) Unirradiated fuel containing plutonium

  7. Software system for fuel management at Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.; Pomerantz, M.E.; Moreno, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    For accurate tracking of flux and power distribution in a CANDU reactor, the information needed is evaluated from a neutronic code calculation adjusted with experimental values, making use of in-core vanadium detectors at 102 locations together with auxiliary programs.The basic data that feed these programs come from the geometric and neutronic features and the actual instantaneous operating parameters. The system that provides all this information should be designed to meet with software quality assurance requirements. A software system was implemented at Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and it is in operation since 1998 after two year testing. This PC version replaced the former system introducing new concepts in its architecture. The neutronic code runs by procedures implemented in a language of macro instructions, so only new data are loaded for two consecutive instantaneous cases avoiding unnecessary data repetition. After each step, all results of neutronic calculation are stored in master files. Afterwards other auxiliary programs retrieve basic data for further evaluation and files are sorted in different thematic folders using a specific codification, for reevaluating further calculations over any specific case. The whole system can be installed in any PC. The package is provided with its general and particular support documentation and procedures for each program.The main purpose of the system is to track fuel and power distribution calculated after a certain period where fuelling operation were done in between. The main code, PUMA, evaluates in a 3-D, two-group scheme using finite difference diffusion theory. After neutronic calculation is performed, other programs allow to retrieve assorted information valid for fuel strategy and to build the fuelling operation list to be sent to the operation shifts. This program also permits to evaluate the accuracy of PUMA by doing comparisons with experimental values. Along with these features, some other system

  8. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the regenerative fuel cell project element is to develop power and energy storage technologies that enable new capabilities for future human space...

  9. Fuel cell system economics: comparing the costs of generating power with stationary and motor vehicle PEM fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examines the economics of producing electricity from proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems under various conditions, including the possibility of using fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to produce power when they are parked at office buildings and residences. The analysis shows that the economics of both stationary fuel cell and FCV-based power vary significantly with variations in key input variables such as the price of natural gas, electricity prices, fuel cell and reformer system costs, and fuel cell system durability levels. The 'central case' results show that stationary PEM fuel cell systems can supply electricity for offices and homes in California at a net savings when fuel cell system costs reach about $6000 for a 5 kW home system ($1200/kW) and $175,000 for a 250 kW commercial system ($700/kW) and assuming somewhat favorable natural gas costs of $6/GJ at residences and $4/GJ at commercial buildings. Grid-connected FCVs in commercial settings can also potentially supply electricity at competitive rates, in some cases producing significant annual benefits. Particularly attractive is the combination of net metering along with time-of-use electricity rates that allow power to be supplied to the utility grid at the avoided cost of central power plant generation. FCV-based power at individual residences does not appear to be as attractive, at least where FCV power can only be used directly or banked with the utility for net metering and not sold in greater quantity, due to the low load levels at these locations that provide a poor match to automotive fuel cell operation, higher natural gas prices than are available at commercial settings, and other factors

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING THE PLUG POWER SU1 FUEL CELL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Plug Power SU1 Fuel Cell System manufactured by Plug Power. The SU1 is a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that requires hydrogen (H2) as fuel. H2 is generally not available, so the ...

  11. 77 FR 39745 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... fuel oil systems for safety-related emergency diesel generators and oil-fueled gas turbine generators... Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001. Fax comments to: RADB at 301-492-3446. For additional direction on... New Reactors, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, telephone: 301-415-8503...

  12. Recent advances and challenges of fuel cell based power system architectures and control – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Vipin; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan

    2017-01-01

    by bit with expansion in current because of losses associated with fuel cell. It is difficult in handling large rated fuel cell based power system without regulating mechanism. The issue connected with fuel based structural planning and the arrangements are widely investigated for all sorts......Renewable energy generation is rapidly growing in the power sector industry and widely used for two categories: grid connected and standalone system. This paper gives the insights about fuel cell operation and application of various power electronics systems. The fuel cell voltage decreases bit...

  13. Fuzzy Logic Based Control of Power of PEM Fuel Cell System for Residential Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled MAMMAR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model of Fuel cell system for residential power generation. The models proposed include a fuel cell stack model, reformer model and DC/AC inverter model. Furthermore a fuzzy logic (FLC controller is used to control active power of PEM fuel cell system. The controller modifies the hydrogen flow feedback from the terminal load. Simulation results confirmed the high performance capability of the fuzzy logic controller to control power generation.

  14. Micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cells for micro-combined heat and power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarek, Ryan J.; Wang, Kang; Falkenstein-Smith, Ryan L.; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2016-02-01

    Currently the role of fuel cells in future power generation is being examined, tested and discussed. However, implementing systems is more difficult because of sealing challenges, slow start-up and complex thermal management and fuel processing. A novel furnace system with a flame-assisted fuel cell is proposed that combines the thermal management and fuel processing systems by utilizing fuel-rich combustion. In addition, the flame-assisted fuel cell furnace is a micro-combined heat and power system, which can produce electricity for homes or businesses, providing resilience during power disruption while still providing heat. A micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell achieves a significant performance of 430 mW cm-2 operating in a model fuel-rich exhaust stream.

  15. High performance monolithic power management system with dynamic maximum power point tracking for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum

    2014-12-02

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 μW at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level.

  16. Fuel Cell Backup Power System for Grid Service and Micro-Grid in Telecommunication Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-22

    This paper presents the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in telecommunication cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., ancillary services, demand response). The fuel cells are able to provide power for the cell tower during emergency conditions. This study evaluates the strategic integration of clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems with the grid for improved economic benefits. The backup systems have potential as enhanced capability through information exchanges with the power grid to add value as grid services that depend on location and time. The economic analysis has been focused on the potential revenue for distributed telecommunications fuel cell backup units to provide value-added power supply. This paper shows case studies on current fuel cell backup power locations and regional grid service programs. The grid service benefits and system configurations for different operation modes provide opportunities for expanding backup fuel cell applications responsive to grid needs.

  17. Fuel management of mixed reactor type power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula

    1988-01-01

    Breeding gain in symbiotic nuclear power plant system consisting of both thermal and fast breeder reactors depends on the characteristics and the ratio of thermal and fast reactors. The composition of the symbiotic power plant systems was determined for equilibrium and plutonium deficient systems. According to natural uranium utilization, symbiotic power plant systems are not less efficient than the systems containing only fast breeders. Depleted uranium can be applied in both types of systems. Reprocessing demands of the symbiotic power plant sytems were determined. (V.N.) 23 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Evaluation of design and operation of fuel handling systems for 25 MW biomass fueled CFB power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, D.

    1991-01-01

    Two circulating fluidized bed, biomass fueled, 25MW power plants were placed into operation by Thermo Electron Energy Systems in California during late 1989. This paper discusses the initial fuel and system considerations, system design, actual operating fuel characterisitics, system operation during the first year and modifications. Biomass fuels handled by the system include urban/manufacturing wood wastes and agricultural wastes in the form of orchard prunings, vineyard prunings, pits, shells, rice hulls and straws. Equipment utilized in the fuel handling system are described and costs are evaluated. Lessons learned from the design and operational experience are offered for consideration on future biomass fueled installations where definition of fuel quality and type is subject to change

  19. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  20. Fuel-cell based power generating system having power conditioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Pradhan, Sanjaya K.

    2010-10-05

    A power conditioner includes power converters for supplying power to a load, a set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the fuel-cell stack to the power converters, and another set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the battery to the power converters. The power conveners output combined power that substantially optimally meets a present demand of the load.

  1. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Tarek A.; Agll, Abdulhakim A.; Hamad, Yousif M.; Bapat, Sushrut; Thomas, Mathew; Martin, Kevin B.; Sheffield, John W.

    2014-01-01

    To address the problem of fossil fuel usage and high greenhouse gas emissions at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus, using of alternative fuels and renewable energy sources can lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas, produced by anaerobic digestion of wastewater, organic waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and animal by-products is a potential source of renewable energy. In this work, we have discussed the design of CHHP (combined heat, hydrogen and power) system for the campus using local resources. An energy flow and resource availability study is performed to identify the type and source of feedstock required to continuously run the fuel cell system at peak capacity. Following the resource assessment study, the team selects FuelCell Energy DFC (direct fuel cell) 1500™ unit as a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CHHP system provides electricity to power the university campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, back-up power and other needs. In conclusion, the CHHP system will be able to reduce fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. - Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation by using anaerobic digestion system. • Anaerobic digestion system will be able to supply fuel for the DFC1500™ unit. • Use locally available feedstock to production electric power, hydrogen and heat. • Application energy end-uses on the university. • CHHP system will reduce energy consumption, fossil fuel usage, and GHG emissions

  2. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  3. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then...

  4. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myles, K.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented---the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system

  5. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Kevin M.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented—the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system.

  6. System-level Reliability Assessment of Power Stage in Fuel Cell Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    reliability. In a case study of a 5 kW fuel cell power stage, the parameter variations of the lifetime model prove that the exponential factor of the junction temperature fluctuation is the most sensitive parameter. Besides, if a 5-out-of-6 redundancy is used, it is concluded both the B10 and the B1 system......High efficient and less pollutant fuel cell stacks are emerging and strong candidates of the power solution used for mobile base stations. In the application of the backup power, the availability and reliability hold the highest priority. This paper considers the reliability metrics from...... the component-level to the system-level for the power stage used in a fuel cell application. It starts with an estimation of the annual accumulated damage for the key power electronic components according to the real mission profile of the fuel cell system. Then, considering the parameter variations in both...

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  8. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology.

  9. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi; Xiong, Lei; Mo, Bing; Lu, Weihong; Kim, Suki; Wang, Zhenyu

    2015-09-11

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS) is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology.

  10. Fuel-conservative guidance system for powered-lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for automatic terminal area guidance, comprising two modes of operation, was developed and evaluated in flight tests. In the predictive mode, fuel efficient approach trajectories are synthesized in fast time. In the tracking mode, the synthesized trajectories are reconstructed and tracked automatically. An energy rate performance model derived from the lift, drag, and propulsion system characteristics of the aircraft is used in the synthesis algorithm. The method optimizes the trajectory for the initial aircraft position and wind and temperature profiles encountered during each landing approach. The design theory and the results of simulations and flight tests using the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft are described.

  11. Modelling and simulation of a PEM fuel cell power system with a fuzzy logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbagh, A.W.; Lu, L.; Mazza, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cell power systems are emerging as promising means of electrical power generation on account of the associated clean electricity generation process, as well as their suitability for use in a wide range of applications. During the design stage, the development of a computer model for simulating the behaviour of a system under development can facilitate the experimentation and testing of that system's performance. Since the electrical power output of a fuel cell stack is seldom at a suitable fixed voltage, conditioning circuits and their associated controllers must be incorporated in the design of the fuel cell power system. This paper presents a MATLAB/Simulink model that simulates the behaviour of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, conditioning circuits and their controllers. The computer modelling of the PEMFC was based on adopted mathematical models that describe the fuel cell's operational voltage, while accounting for the irreversibilities associated with the fuel cell stack. The conditioning circuits that are included in the Simulink model are a DC-DC converter and DC-AC inverter circuits. These circuits are the commonly utilized power electronics circuits for regulating and conditioning the output voltage from a fuel cell stack. The modelling of the circuits is based on relationships that govern the output voltage behaviour with respect to their input voltages, switching duty cycle and efficiency. In addition, this paper describes a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) design that is aimed at regulating the conditioning circuits to provide and maintain suitable electrical power for a wide range of applications. (author)

  12. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  13. Uranium requirements for advanced fuel cycles in expanding nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Tamm, H.

    1978-01-01

    When considering advanced fuel cycle strategies in rapidly expanding nuclear power systems, equilibrium analyses do not apply. A computer simulation that accounts for system delay times and fissile inventories has been used to study the effects of different fuel cycles and different power growth rates on uranium consumption. The results show that for a given expansion rate of installed capacity, the main factors that affect resource requirements are the fissile inventory needed to introduce the advanced fuel cycle and the conversion (or breeding) ratio. In rapidly expanding systems, the effect of fissile inventory dominates, whereas in slowly expanding systems, conversion or breeding ratio dominates. Heavy-water-moderated and -cooled reactors, with their high conversion ratios, appear to be adaptable vehicles for accommodating fuel cycles covering a wide range of initial fissile inventories. They are therefore particularly suitable for conserving uranium over a wide range of nuclear power system expansion rates

  14. An overview of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems: DC and AC converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Kamarudin, S K; Masdar, M S; Mohamed, A

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics and fuel cell technologies play an important role in the field of renewable energy. The demand for fuel cells will increase as fuel cells become the main power source for portable applications. In this application, a high-efficiency converter is an essential requirement and a key parameter of the overall system. This is because the size, cost, efficiency, and reliability of the overall system for portable applications primarily depend on the converter. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate converter topology is an important and fundamental aspect of designing a fuel cell system for portable applications as the converter alone plays a major role in determining the overall performance of the system. This paper presents a review of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems, which include various topology combinations of DC converters and AC inverters and which are primarily used in fuel cell systems for portable or stand-alone applications. This paper also reviews the switching techniques used in power conditioning for fuel cell systems. Finally, this paper addresses the current problem encountered with DC converters and AC inverter.

  15. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system: Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer A.; Hamad, Yousif M.; Hamad, Tarek A.; Thomas, Mathew; Bapat, Sushrut; Martin, Kevin B.; Sheffield, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Countries around the world are trying to use alternative fuels and renewable energy to reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas contains methane is considered a potential source of clean renewable energy. This paper discusses the design of a combined heat, hydrogen and power system, which generated by methane with use of Fuelcell, for the campus of Missouri University of Science and Technology located in Rolla, Missouri, USA. An energy flow and resource availability study was performed to identify sustainable type and source of feedstock needed to run the Fuelcell at its maximum capacity. FuelCell Energy's DFC1500 unit (a molten carbonate Fuelcell) was selected as the Fuelcell for the tri-generation (heat, hydrogen and electric power) system. This tri-generation system provides electric power to the campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, backup power and other applications on the campus. In conclusion, the combined heat, hydrogen and power system reduces fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. -- Highlights: • Combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) using a molten carbonate fuel cell. • Energy saving and alternative fuel of the products are determined. • Energy saving is increased when CHHP technology is implemented. • CHHP system reduces the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption

  16. A New Control and Design of PEM Fuel Cell System Powered Diffused Air Aeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of aquaculture ponds is to maximize production and profits while holding labor and management efforts to the minimum. Poor water quality in most ponds causes risk of fish kills, disease outbreaks which lead to minimization of pond production. Dissolved Oxygen (DO is considered to be among the most important water quality parameters in fish culture. Fish ponds in aquaculture farms are usually located in remote areas where grid lines are at far distance. Aeration of ponds is required to prevent mortality and to intensify production, especially when feeding is practical, and in warm regions. To increase pond production it is necessary to control dissolved oxygen. Aeration offers the most immediate and practical solution to water quality problems encountered at higher stocking and feeding rates. Many units of aeration system are electrical units so using a continuous, high reliability, affordable, and environmentally friendly power sources is necessary. Fuel cells have become one of the major areas of research in the academia and the industry. Aeration of water by using PEM fuel cell power is not only a new application of the renewable energy, but also, it provides an affordable method to promote biodiversity in stagnant ponds and lakes. This paper presents a new design and control of PEM fuel cell powered a diffused air aeration system for a shrimp farm in Mersa Matruh in Egypt. Also Artificial intelligence (AI control techniques are used to control the fuel cell output power by controlling its input gases flow rate. Moreover the mathematical modeling and simulation of PEM fuel cell is introduced. A comparative study is applied between the performance of fuzzy logic controller (FLC and neural network controller (NNC. The results show the effectiveness of NNC over FLC.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a fuel cell power system for transportation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Li, X.; Dincer, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system for transportation applications. The PEM fuel cell performance model developed previously by two of the authors is incorporated into the present model. The analysis includes the operation of all the components in the system, which consists of two major modules: PEM fuel cell stack module and system module and a cooling pump. System module includes air compressor, heat exchanger, humidifier and a cooling loop. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of varying operating conditions (e.g., temperature pressure and air stoichiometry) on the energy and exergy efficiencies of the system. Further, thermodynamic irreversibilities in each component of the system are determined. It is found that, with the increase of external load (current density), the difference between the gross stack power and net system power increases. The largest irreversibility rate occurs in the fuel cell stack. Thus, minimization of irreversibility rate in the fuel cell stack is essential to enhance the performance of the system, which in turn reduces the cost and helps in commercialization of fuel cell power system in transportation applications. (author)

  18. Fuel-cycle analysis of early market applications of fuel cells: Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Gaines, Linda; Wang, Michael [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation are identified as potential fuel cell applications for near-term markets. This analysis examines fuel cell forklifts and distributed power generators, and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell systems for existing technologies based on fossil fuels and grid electricity. Performance data and the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources. The greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen from steam reforming of natural gas are considerably lower than those using electricity from the average U.S. grid. Fuel cell generators produce lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and alternative distributed combustion technologies. If fuel-cell generation technologies approach or exceed the target efficiency of 40%, they offer significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions compared to alternative combustion technologies. (author)

  19. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chick, Lawrence A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  20. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  1. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  2. A New Hybrid Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells-Battery Power System with Efficiencies Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chung-Hsing; Shieh, Jenn-Jong

    Hybrid systems, based on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), give the possibility of combining the benefit of both technologies. The merits of high energy density and power density for different applications are discussed in this paper in recognition of the practical realization of such hybrid power systems. Furthermore, experimental data for such a hybrid system is described and the results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries and PEMFCs shows advantages in cases of applications with high peak power requirements, such as electric scooters and applications where the fuel cell (FC) is used as an auxiliary power-supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of FCs operating with a partial load results in a good fuel economy for the purpose of recharging batteries within a FC system.

  3. Gas Boiler Powered by the Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Badea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new solution for supply of boilers with electrical energy in the order to achieve autonomy from electrical grid. The paper presents the experimental system implemented in the university lab, the components and implementation in Matlab-Simulink for simulation. As a result of numeric simulation performed, the experimental bench has been achieved. The problem of power quality, especially the THD factor, affects the sensitivity of equipment at perturbations. In achieving of these systems, the authors propose that the electrical part of the supply system for building appliances must satisfy the EN 50160 standard, having the main voltage parameters and their permissile deviation ranges at the customer’s point of common coupling in public low voltage (LV, under normal operating conditions.

  4. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  5. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  6. Fuel cell/photovoltaic integrated power system for a remote telecommunications repeater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P.; Chamberlin, C.; Zoellick, J.; Engel, R.; Rommel, D. [Humbolt State University, Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    2002-07-01

    There is a special energy supply challenge associated with remote telecommunication systems, as they require reliable, unattended power system operation in areas and locations where there is no grid power. To supply back-up power to the Schoolhouse Peak remote photovoltaic-powered radio-telephone repeater located in Redwood National Park in northwestern California, the Schatz Energy Research Center built and operated a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system. In those instances where solar insolation is insufficient to maintain state-of-charge of the system's battery, the fuel cell automatically starts. Remote monitoring and control is made possible with the use of a cellular modem. The original fuel cell stack logged 3239 hours of run time in 229 days of operation. Subsequent to improvements and a rebuilt fuel cell stack, it operated for 3836 hours during 269 days. In this paper, system performance, long-term fuel cell voltage decay, and lessons learned and applied in system refurbishment were discussed. During this trial, the flawless performance of the hydrogen storage and delivery subsystem, the battery voltage-sensing relay, the safety shutdowns, and the remote data acquisition and control equipment was noted. To protect the stack from sudden temperature increases while minimizing unneeded parasitic loads, experience showed that a temperature-controlled fan switch, despite its additional complexity, was justified. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  8. A portable system powered with hydrogen and one single air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Moreno, J.; Guelbenzu, G.; Martín, A.J.; Folgado, M.A.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Chaparro, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A portable system based on hydrogen and single air breathing PEM fuel cell. • Control electronics designed for low single cell voltage (0.5–0.8 V). • Forced air convection and anode purging required to help water management. • Application consisting of a propeller able to display a luminous message. • Up to 20 h autonomy with continuous 1.1 W consumption, using 1 g H 2 . - Abstract: A portable system for power generation based on hydrogen and a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been built and operated. The fuel cell is fed in the anode with hydrogen stored in a metal hydrides cartridge, and in the cathode with oxygen from quiescent ambient air (‘air breathing’). The control electronics of the system performs DC–DC conversion from the low voltage (0.5–0.8 V) and high current output (200–300 mA cm −2 ) of the single fuel cell, up to 3.3 V to power an electronic application. System components assist fuel cell operation, including an electronic valve for anode purging, a fan in front of the open cathode, two supercapacitors for auxiliary power requirements, four LED lights, and a display screen. The influence of the system components on fuel cell behaviour is analyzed. The cathode fan and anodic purging help excess water removal from the electrodes leading to steadier cell response at the expense of extra power consumption. The power system is able to provide above 1 W DC electricity to an external application during 20 h using 1 g of H 2 . An application consisting of a propeller able to display a luminous message is chosen to test system. It is shown that one single air breathing PEM fuel cell powered with hydrogen may provide high energy density and autonomy for portable applications

  9. Configuring a fuel cell based residential combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-01

    The design and performance of a fuel cell based residential combined heat and power (CHP) system operating on natural gas has been analyzed. The natural gas is first converted to a hydrogen-rich reformate in a steam reformer based fuel processor, and the hydrogen is then electrochemically oxidized in a low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell to generate electric power. The heat generated in the fuel cell and the available heat in the exhaust gas is recovered to meet residential needs for hot water and space heating. Two fuel processor configurations have been studied. One of the configurations was explored to quantify the effects of design and operating parameters, which include pressure, temperature, and steam-to-carbon ratio in the fuel processor, and fuel utilization in the fuel cell. The second configuration applied the lessons from the study of the first configuration to increase the CHP efficiency. Results from the two configurations allow a quantitative comparison of the design alternatives. The analyses showed that these systems can operate at electrical efficiencies of ∼46% and combined heat and power efficiencies of ∼90%.

  10. Seismic analysis with FEM for fuel transfer system of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiaofeng; Liu Pengliang; Bi Xiangjun; Ji Shunying

    2012-01-01

    In the PWR nuclear power plant, the function of the fuel transfer system (FTS) is to transfer the fuel assembly between the reactor building and the fuel building. The seismic analysis of the transfer system structure should be carried out to ensure the safety under OBE and SSE. Therefore, the ANASYS 12.0 software is adopted to construct the finite element analysis model for the fuel transfer system in a million kilowatt nuclear power plant. For the various configurations of FTS in the operating process, the stresses of the main structures, such as the transfer tube, fuel assembly container, fuel conveyor car, lifting frame in the reactor building, lifting frame in the fuel building, support and guide structure of conveyor car and the lifting frame in both buildings, are computed. The stresses are combined with the method of square root of square sum (SRSS) and assessed under various seismic conditions based on RCCM code, the results of the assessment satisfy the code. The results show that the stresses of the fuel transfer system structure meet the strength requirement, meanwhile, it can withstand the earthquake well. (authors)

  11. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Boardman, Richard D.; Aumeier, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  12. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  13. A direct methanol fuel cell system to power a humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Han-Ik; Ha, Tae Jung; Hwang, Sang Youp; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chae, Seung-Hoon; Cho, Jae Hyung; Prabhuram, Joghee; Kim, Soo-Kil; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Baek-Kyu; Oh, Jun-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup; Ha, Heung Yong

    In this study, a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) system, which is the first of its kind, has been developed to power a humanoid robot. The DMFC system consists of a stack, a balance of plant (BOP), a power management unit (PMU), and a back-up battery. The stack has 42 unit cells and is able to produce about 400 W at 19.3 V. The robot is 125 cm tall, weighs 56 kg, and consumes 210 W during normal operation. The robot is integrated with the DMFC system that powers the robot in a stable manner for more than 2 h. The power consumption by the robot during various motions is studied, and load sharing between the fuel cell and the back-up battery is also observed. The loss of methanol feed due to crossover and evaporation amounts to 32.0% and the efficiency of the DMFC system in terms of net electric power is 22.0%.

  14. Conceptual design of an interim dry storage system for the Atucha nuclear power plant spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassini, Horacio E.P.; Fuenzalida Troyano, C.S.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Bergallo, Juan E.

    2005-01-01

    The Atucha I nuclear power station, after completing the rearrangement and consolidation of the spent fuels in the two existing interim wet storage pools, will have enough room for the storage of spent fuel from the operation of the reactor till December 2014. If the operation is extended beyond 2014, or if the reactor is decommissioned, it will be necessary to empty both pools and to transfer the spent fuels to a dry storage facility. This paper shows the progress achieved in the conceptual design of a dry storage system for Atucha I spent fuels, which also has to be adequate, without modifications, for the storage of fuels from the second unity of the nuclear power station, Atucha II, that is now under construction. (author) [es

  15. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  16. 78 FR 36278 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Emergency Diesel Generators,'' (reaffirmed in October 2007) with the exceptions and clarification stated in... with NRC regulations for assuring the quality of fuel oil for emergency diesel generators used in..., Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001...

  17. Dynamic modeling and evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell - combined heat and power system operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaeda, Kimihiro; Mueller, Fabian; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott

    Operating strategies of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are developed and evaluated from a utility, and end-user perspective using a fully integrated SOFC-CHP system dynamic model that resolves the physical states, thermal integration and overall efficiency of the system. The model can be modified for any SOFC-CHP system, but the present analysis is applied to a hotel in southern California based on measured electric and heating loads. Analysis indicates that combined heat and power systems can be operated to benefit both the end-users and the utility, providing more efficient electric generation as well as grid ancillary services, namely dispatchable urban power. Design and operating strategies considered in the paper include optimal sizing of the fuel cell, thermal energy storage to dispatch heat, and operating the fuel cell to provide flexible grid power. Analysis results indicate that with a 13.1% average increase in price-of-electricity (POE), the system can provide the grid with a 50% operating range of dispatchable urban power at an overall thermal efficiency of 80%. This grid-support operating mode increases the operational flexibility of the SOFC-CHP system, which may make the technology an important utility asset for accommodating the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power.

  18. Reliability considerations of a fuel cell backup power system for telecom applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serincan, Mustafa Fazil

    2016-03-01

    A commercial fuel cell backup power unit is tested in real life operating conditions at a base station of a Turkish telecom operator. The fuel cell system responds to 256 of 260 electric power outages successfully, providing the required power to the base station. Reliability of the fuel cell backup power unit is found to be 98.5% at the system level. On the other hand, a qualitative reliability analysis at the component level is carried out. Implications of the power management algorithm on reliability is discussed. Moreover, integration of the backup power unit to the base station ecosystem is reviewed in the context of reliability. Impact of inverter design on the stability of the output power is outlined. Significant current harmonics are encountered when a generic inverter is used. However, ripples are attenuated significantly when a custom design inverter is used. Further, fault conditions are considered for real world case studies such as running out of hydrogen, a malfunction in the system, or an unprecedented operating scheme. Some design guidelines are suggested for hybridization of the backup power unit for an uninterrupted operation.

  19. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  20. System for determining the local power in the fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolstad, Erik; Korpas, T.-H.; Leyse, R.H.; Smith, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    System for determining the local power in the fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor which includes a rod conducting the heat and electricity, along which axial areas act as a gamma radiation thermometer. Each area includes a thermal bridge, a cold source and a pair of junctions acting as thermocouples so placed that they measure the temperature difference between the thermal bridge and the cold source. The power created by the fuel assembly near each area acting as gamma thermometer is found from this difference in temperature [fr

  1. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  2. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  3. Feasibility Study of Seawater Electrolysis for Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System for the Coastal Areas in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisiriwat, A.; Pirom, W.

    2017-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic cell and fuel cell are the practicable options to realize as a possible hybrid power system because the power of the sun cannot be utilized at night or cloudy days but hydrogen has been found as an ideal energy carrier for being transportable, storable, and converting energy though fuel cell. Hydrogen storage is chosen for its ability to obtain a clean energy option. Electrolysis, which is the simplest process to produce hydrogen, can be powered by the dc voltage from the photovoltaic cell instead of using the battery as power supply. This paper concentrates on a feasibility study of seawater electrolysis using photovoltaic power integrated fuel cell system for the coastal cities in Thailand. The proposed system composed of photovoltaic arrays, seawater electrolyzer and fuel cell is presented when the 10-kW of fuel cell electrical power is considered. The feasibility study of hydrogen production and energy analysis of this proposed system is also evaluated.

  4. Power Conditioning of Fuel Cell Systems in Portable Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Benitez, E.; Brey, J. J.; Rodriguez-Bordallo, C.; Carrasco, J. M.; Galvan, E.

    2005-07-01

    The achieving of high performance and long useful life are the two fundamental objectives of portable application designers. Cost and size conditions make these objectives more complex and always lead to a compromise solution having to be reached. The most significant parameters as regards portables devices are cost, efficiency (useful life), output crimps and noise, and quiescent current. Most portable products have two fundamental operating modes: active and standby. During the active period, current consumption is generally high and this means that excellent conversion is essential in order to maximize the useful life of the device that supplies current and voltage. However, most portable devices spend most of their time on standby and draw little energy from the source. It is equally important for the source to be very efficient under these conditions. This means that the quiescent current from the source (the current that supplies in low or nil load conditions) must be much lower than the load current in order to maintain high efficiency. Topologies Different power conditioning topologies to be used in portable applications are indicated with their corresponding advantages and inconveniences being specified. Low dropout voltage regulator (LDO) This type of conditioning is one of minimum cost, noise and quiescent current. This makes this device a favorite for many applications. Its external components are minimal: usually a bypass capacity. Its efficiency, although poor when Vin is much greater than Vout, increases greatly when their values are somewhat similar. In this event, the benefits of using LDOs are almost impossible to beat. In fact, these circuits are much used to reach output voltages of up to 3 volts. (Author)

  5. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell/Supercapasitor Hybrid Power Management System for a Golf Cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presented the transformation of a golf cart system powered lead acid battery into an environmental friendly hybrid vehicle. The design developed by using an advantage contributes by the uprising alternative power source candidate which is Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and the maintenance free energy storage device, a supercapacitor (SC). The fuel cell (FC) stack was an in house manufactured with 450 W (36 V, 12.5 A) power, while the SC was from Maxwell Technologies (48 V, 165 F). This two power sources were controlled by the mechanical relay, meanwhile the reactant (hydrogen) are control by mass flow controller (MFC) both signaled by a National Instrument (NI) devices. The power management controller are programmed in the LabVIEW environment and then downloaded to the NI devices. The experimental result of the power trend was compared before and after the transformation with the same route to validate the effectiveness of the proposed power management strategy. The power management successfully controls the power sharing between power sources and satisfies the load transient. While the reactant control managed to vary the hydrogen mass flow rate feed according to the load demand in vehicular applications. (author)

  6. Application of 4-Face Fuel Visual Inspection System during Outage in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. C.; Kim, J. I.; Choi, C. B.; Kim, Y. C.; Kang, C. B.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, as a measure to reduce an outage duration in nuclear power plants (NPPs), a four-face fuel visual inspection system (4-FFVIS) built in 4 cameras was introduced by Ahlberg Electronics, Sweden. The 4- FFVIS is used to inspect the external appearance of irradiated fuel assemblies in order to confirm their integrity against mechanical defects and foreign materials. Until now, however, a typical one-face fuel inspection system(1-FFVIS) has been world-widely utilized in NPPs. The 1-FFVIS requires four turns with 90 degree to inspect every face of the fuel assembly, causing a relatively long inspecting time. But the 4- FFVIS allow us to inspect every face of the fuel assembly at the same time. The inspection time with the 4-FFVIS may be less than two minutes per fuel assembly, whereas that with the 1-FFVIS is about six minutes per fuel assembly. In viewpoint of this merit, the 4-FFVIS is expected to be world-widely used in the near future. In this paper, the technical requirements necessary to develop the 4-FFVIS as well as some improvements to complement the current 4-FFVIS are described

  7. Microchemical Systems for Fuel Processing and Conversion to Electrical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Models As a case study for the optimization of a fixed process structures an ammonia cracking based process, using butane catalytic combustion for...microreactor system. Future studies will involve the optimization of the microreactor design and catalyst loading to obtain a controlled autothermal...Figure 44: XRD patterns for ( a ) Ni-Sn/YSZ cermet prepared by reduction of the oxide composite, and (b) Ni- Sn/YSZ cermet and (c) Ni/YSZ cermet

  8. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  9. A synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, S.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is very flexible in different fields of application of energy conversion. It can be generated by water electrolysis. Stored in tanks it is available for re-electrification by fuel cells. But it is not only the power system, which benefits from use of hydrogen, but also the life support system, which can contain hydrogen consuming technologies for recycling management (e.g. carbon dioxide removal and waste combustion processes). This paper points out various fields of hydrogen use in a human spaceflight system. Depending on mission scenarios, shadow phases, and the need of energy storage, regenerative fuel cell systems can be more efficient than secondary batteries. Here, different power storage concepts are compared by equivalent system mass calculation, thus including impact in the peripheral structure (volume, thermal management, etc.) on the space system. It is also focused on the technical integration aspect, e.g. which peripheral components have to be adapted when hydrogen is also used for life support technologies and what system mass benefit can be expected. Finally, a recommendation is given for the following development steps for a synergetic use of hydrogen and fuel cells in human spaceflight power systems.

  10. Development, analysis and assessment of a fuel cell and solar photovoltaic system powered vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, M.F.; Dincer, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new integrated fuel cell-photovoltaic system for vehicle application is proposed. • Comprehensive energy and exergy analyses are conducted. • Detailed parametric study is performed. • Overall energy and exergy efficiencies are determined. • Photovoltaic utilization can save 561 g of hydrogen during 3 h drive. - Abstract: This paper deals with a new hybridly powered photovoltaic-fuel cell - Li-ion battery integrated system and is compared to a base system, consisting of PEM fuel cell and Li-ion battery. It investigates the effects of adding photovoltaic arrays to the base system and further effects on the overall energy and exergy efficiencies and hence hydrogen consumption. These two systems are analyzed and assessed both energetically and exergetically. The study results show that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies become 39.46% and 56.3%, respectively at a current density of 1150 mA/cm"2 for system 1 (fuel cell-battery). Moreover, energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 39.86% and 56.63% at current density of 1150 mA/cm"2 for system 2 (fuel cell-battery-photovoltaics). Utilizing photovoltaic arrays in system 2 would recover 561 g of hydrogen through 3 h of continuous driving at max power of 98.32 kW, which is approximately 11.2% of the hydrogen storage tank used in the proposed systems. The effects of changing various system parameters on energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are also examined.

  11. Operational experience gained with the failed fuel rod detection system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.H.; Forch, H.

    1985-01-01

    Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH together with Krautkramer Company developed such a FAILED FUEL ROD DETECTION SYSTEM (FFRDS) which allows to located defective fuel rods without dismantling the fuel assembly or pulling of individual rods. Since 1979 the FFRDS is employed successfully in various nuclear power plants in Europe, USA, Japan, and Korea. The short inspection time and the high reliability of the method make the FFRDS a true competitor to the sipping method. In this paper the authors discuss the method and the design of the system, the equipment set-up, its features and the experience gained so far. The system has been performed and automated to such an extent that within a short installation period series of fuel assemblies can be tested with relatively short intervals of time (5 minutes for BWR and 7 minutes for PWR fuel assemblies per side). The ability of the system for deployment under various conditions and the experience gained during the past six years have made this system universally applicable and highly sensitive to the requirements of NDT during outages and for transport of FAs to intermediate storage facilities. Comparison of FFRDS to conventional sipping has indicated in several instances that the FFRDS is superior to the latter technique

  12. Distributed generation system with PEM fuel cell for electrical power quality improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, D.; Beites, L.F.; Blazquez, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSII, Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, J.C. [Endesa Generacion, S.A. c/ Ribera de Loira 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, a physical model for a distributed generation (DG) system with power quality improvement capability is presented. The generating system consists of a 5 kW PEM fuel cell, a natural gas reformer, hydrogen storage bottles and a bank of ultra-capacitors. Additional power quality functions are implemented with a vector-controlled electronic converter for regulating the injected power. The capabilities of the system were experimentally tested on a scaled electrical network. It is composed of different lines, built with linear inductances and resistances, and taking into account both linear and non-linear loads. The ability to improve power quality was tested by means of different voltage and frequency perturbations produced on the physical model electrical network. (author)

  13. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  14. Power assisted fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, L P; Atwater, T B; Plichta, E J; Cygan, P J [US Army CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States). Research Development and Engineering Center

    1998-02-01

    A hybrid fuel cell demonstrated pulse power capability at pulse power load simulations synonymous with electronics and communications equipment. The hybrid consisted of a 25.0 W Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack in parallel with a two-cell lead-acid battery. Performance of the hybrid PEMFC was superior to either the battery or fuel cell stack alone at the 18.0 W load. The hybrid delivered a flat discharge voltage profile of about 4.0 V over a 5 h radio continuous transmit mode of 18.0 W. (orig.)

  15. Modelling fireside corrosion of heat exchangers in co-fired pulverised fuel power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre; Fry, A.T. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    As a result of concerns about the effects of CO{sub 2} emissions on the global environment, there is increasing pressure to reduce such emissions from power generation systems. The use of biomass co-firing with coal in conventional pulverised fuel power stations has provided the most immediate route to introduce a class of fuel that is regarded as both sustainable and carbon neutral. In the future it is anticipated that increased levels of biomass will need to be used in such systems to achieve the desired CO{sub 2} emission targets. However there are concerns over the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the various heat exchangers and boiler walls used in such systems. Future pulverised fuel power systems will need to be designed to cope with the effects of using a wide range of coal-biomass mixes. However, such systems will also need to use much higher heat exchanger operating temperatures to increase their conversion efficiencies and counter the effects of the CO{sub 2} capture technologies that will need to be used in them. Higher operating temperatures will also increase the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the critical heat exchangers. This paper reports work that has been carried out to develop quantitative corrosion models for heat exchangers in pulverised fuel power systems. These developments have been particularly targeted at producing models that enable the evaluation of the effects of using different coal-biomass mixtures and of increasing heat exchanger operating conditions. Models have been produced that have been targeted at operating conditions and materials used in (a) superheaters/reheaters and (b) waterwalls. Data used in the development of these models has been produced from full scale and pilot scale plants in the UK using a wide range of coal and biomass mixtures, as well as from carefully targeted series of laboratory corrosion tests. Mechanistic and neural network based models have been investigated during this development process to

  16. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  17. Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  18. H2-O2 fuel cell and advanced battery power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles: performance envelope comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubak, G.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles have traditionally been powered by low energy density lead-acid batteries. Recently, advanced battery technologies and H 2 -O 2 fuel cells have become available, offering significant improvements in performance. This paper compares the solid polymer fuel cell to the lithium-thionyl chloride primary battery, sodium-sulfur battery, and lead acid battery for a variety of missions. The power system performance is simulated using computer modelling techniques. Performance envelopes are constructed, indicating domains of preference for competing power system technologies. For most mission scenarios, the solid polymer fuel cell using liquid reactant storage is the preferred system. Nevertheless, the advanced battery systems are competitive with the fuel cell systems using gaseous hydrogen storage, and they illustrate preferred performance for missions requiring high power density. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  19. Design optimisation of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.; Siddle, A.; Pointon, K.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the combined ALSTOM Power Technology and Advantica Technologies project are reported as: (a) to design a gas turbine (GT) unit compatible with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in a high efficiency power system and aimed at the Distributed Power application range of 1-20MW, and (b) to identify the main features and components of a 'Proof of Concept' hybrid unit of output around 0.1MW, based on existing or near-market technology. The study showed: (i) while the potential for high efficiency SOFC + GT hybrid cycles is clear, little effort has been put into the design of the gas turbine and some other components and (ii) there is room for commercial exploitation in the areas of both component manufacture and system supply.

  20. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design

  1. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  2. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  3. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  4. Hot-cell shielding system for high power transmission in DUPIC fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Yang, M.; Park, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a newly designed hot-cell shielding system for use in the development of DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactors) fuel at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). This hot-cell shielding system that was designed to transmit high power to sintering furnace in-cell from the out-of-cell through a thick cell wall has three subsystems - a steel shield plug with embedded spiral cooling line, stepped copper bus bars, and a shielding lead block. The dose-equivalent rates of the hot-cell shielding system and of the apertures between this system and the hot-cell wall were calculated. Calculated results were compared with the allowable dose limit of the existing hot-cell. Experiments for examining the temperature changes of the shielding system developed during normal furnace operation were also carried out. Finally, gamma-ray radiation survey experiments were conducted by Co-60 source. It is demonstrated that, from both calculated and experimental results, the newly designed hot-cell shielding system meets all the shielding requirements of the existing hot-cell facility, enabling high power transmission to the in-cell sintering furnace. (author)

  5. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  6. Performance Analysis of a MCFC/MGT Hybrid Power System Bi-Fueled by City Gas and Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell and micro gas turbine (MCFC/MGT hybrid power system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The performance of the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system and MFCF/MGT hybrid power system response have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that the MCFC, steam reformer, and catalytic combustor models are in agreement with the experimental results of the system fueled by city gas only and the system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The MFCF/MGT hybrid power system can have manifest operation with the addition of biogas at a flow rate of up to 150.0 Nm3·h−1, which is about 50% of the overall input heat value. In addition, the MCFC and MGT outputs decrease with the increase in the flow rate of added biogas, with an overall power generation efficiency ranging from 39.0% to 42.0%. Furthermore, the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system can be operated stably both at low amplitude with slow current change and large amplitude with rapid power conditions. Finally, the MCFC/MGT hybrid system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas may be applicable to the energy supply of the micro–grid network.

  7. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  8. The HTR modular power reactor system. Qualification of fuel elements and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, U.; Breitling, H.; Nieder, R.; Ohly, W.; Mittenkuehler, A.; Ragoss, H.; Seehafer, H.J.; Wirtz, K.; Serafin, N.

    1989-01-01

    For further development of the HTR modular power reactor system (HTR-M-KW), the project activities for 'Qualification of fuel elements and materials' reported here cover the work for specifying the qualifications to be met by metallic and ceramic materials, taking into account the design-based requirements and the engineered safety requirements. The fission product retention data determined for the HTR modular reactor fuel elements could be better confirmed by evaluation of the experiments, and have been verified by various calculation methods for different operating conditions. The qualification of components was verified by strength analyses including a benchmark calculation for specified normal operation and emergencies; the results show a convenient behaviour of the components and their materials. In addition, a fuel element burnup measuring system was designed that applies Cs-137 gamma spectroscopy; its feasibility was checked by appropriate analyses, and qualification work is in progress. The installation of a prototype measurement system is the task for project No. 03 IAT 211. (orig.) [de

  9. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  10. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  11. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric

  12. Fuel cycle of nuclear power plants and safeguards system of nuclear weapon nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Z.

    1980-10-01

    The international safeguard system of nuclear weapon nonproliferation and the IAEA safeguard system are briefly described. In Czechoslovakia, a decree was issued in 1977 governing the accounting for and control of nuclear materials. The contents of the decree are presented. Described are computer processing of accounting data, technical criteria for the safeguard system application, containment and inspection in the IAEA safeguard system. The method is shown of the control of and accounting for nuclear materials in nuclear power plants and in fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and enrichment plants. Nondestructive and destructive methods of nuclear materials analysis are discussed. Nondestructive methods used include gamma spectrometry, neutron techniques, X-ray fluores--cence techniques. (J.P.)

  13. Stand alone power system coupling a PV field and a fuel cell: first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, S.; Labbe, J.; Leroux, P.; Metkemeijer, R.; Mayer, D. [ENSMP-CENERG, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the work, through the PVFC-SYS project, is to optimise the operation of a system coupling a photovoltaic field, an electrolyser, a gas storage, a fuel cell and a power management unit. A test bench is at present finalised in the Laboratory. All components have been selected for an optimal, automatic, safe and reliable operation of the complete system. Fully instrumented, this test bench furnishes new data concerning each component and the complete system behaviour for variable real weather conditions and different load demands. The paper describes the test bench, the simulation tool based on empirical model fitted to the component experimental data and the complete system performance for different load profiles along a year of operation. (orig.)

  14. Inverter systems for feeding electrical power of fuel cells in the grid; Stromrichtersysteme zur Netzeinspeisung elektrischer Energie aus Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Malte

    2011-03-04

    Fuel cells represent an important potential alternative to conventional thermal-mechanical- electrical energy transformations due to their highly efficient direct conversion of chemical energy, i.e. hydrogen or natural gas into electrical energy. Inverter systems that feed electrical power from fuel cells into the grid must convert the direct current of the fuel cell into the alternating current of the grid. In addition, these inverters have to adapt the different voltages of the fuel cell system to the grid. Inverter systems for fuel cells can be seen as an own field of research. Only a few results from other fields of research in power electronic circuits in the medium power range - like converters for electrical drives or power supplies - can be applied to inverter systems for fuel cells due to the different technical constraints. In this thesis, different topologies of appropriate inverter systems in the medium power range of 20 kW and higher are analyzed and compared to each other. This study includes transformerless inverters as well as two-stage inverter systems with high frequency transformers (DC/DC converter combined with an inverter). In the beginning, this thesis shows the electrical characteristics of the fuel cell and of the main inverter components like power semiconductors and passive components. In addition, the principles of power semiconductor losses and methods of the semiconductor power loss calculation are shown. This work does not focus on the dimensioning of the passive components like capacitors, chokes and transformers. The main principles of the dimensioning of the passive components are shown but are not analyzed in detail. The summary of the demands of a fuel cell inverter system is followed by the analytical analysis of the different inverter topologies. In addition, the semiconductor loss calculations for the topologies will be derived. To gain practical experience and to verify parts of the theoretical analysis, the converters

  15. Advanced system analysis for indirect methanol fuel cell power plants for transportation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; McFarland, R.D.; Huff, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The indirect methanol cell fuel concept being actively pursued by the United States Department of Energy and General Motors Corporation is based on electrochemical engine (e.c.e.) an electrical generator capable for usually efficient and clean power production from methanol fuel for the transportation sector. This on-board generator works in consort with batteries to provide electric power to drive propulsion motors for a range of electric vehicles. Success in this technology could do much to improve impacted environmental areas and to convert part of the transportation fleet to natural gas- and coal-derived methanol as the fuel source. These developments parallel work in Europe and Japan where various fuel cell powered vehicles, often fueled with tanked or hydride hydrogen are under active development. This paper describes status of each of these components, and describe a model that predicts the steady state performance of the e.c.e

  16. 15 N utilization in nitride nuclear fuels for advanced nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.

    2005-01-01

    15 N utilization for nitride nuclear fuels production for nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems is presented. Nitride nuclear fuel is the obvious choice for advanced nuclear reactors and ADS because of its favorable properties: a high melting point, excellent thermal conductivity, high fissile density, lower fission gas release and good radiation tolerance. The application of nitride fuels in nuclear reactors and ADS requires use of 15 N enriched nitrogen to suppress 14 C production due to (n,p) reaction on 14 N. Accelerator - driven system is a recent development merging of accelerator and fission reactor technologies to generate electricity and transmute long - lived radioactive wastes as minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm. A high-energy proton beam hitting a heavy metal target produces neutrons by spallation. The neutrons cause fission in the fuel, but unlike in conventional reactors, the fuel is sub-critical and fission ceases when the accelerator is turned off. Nitride fuel is a promising candidate for transmutation in ADS of minor actinides, which are converted into nitrides with 15 N for that purpose. Tacking into account that the world wide market is about 20 to 40 Kg 15 N annually, the supply of that isotope for nitride fuel production for nuclear power reactors and ADS would therefore demand an increase in production capacity by a factor of 1000. For an industrial plant producing 100 t/y 15 N, using present technology of isotopic exchange in NITROX system, the first separation stage of the cascade would be fed with 10M HNO 3 solution of 600 mc/h flow - rate. If conversion of HNO 3 into NO, NO 2 , at the enriching end of the columns, would be done with gaseous SO 2 , for a production plant of 100 t/y 15 N a consumption of 4 million t SO 2 /y and a production of 70 % H 2 SO 4 waste solution of 4.5 million mc/y are estimated. The reconversion of H 2 SO 4 into SO 2 in order to recycle of SO 2 is a problem to be solved to compensate the cost of SO 2

  17. Biomass-powered Solid Oxide Fuel Cells : Experimental and Modeling Studies for System Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable energy source which, through thermo-chemical processes of biomass gasification, is able to be converted from a solid biomass fuel into a gas mixture, known as syngas or biosyngas. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical

  18. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  19. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurin, Andrey V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  20. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Andrey V.; Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  1. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs

  2. Canadian power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.D.

    1976-03-01

    The following subjects are covered: the basic CANDU fuel design, the history of the bundle design, the significant differences between CANDU and LWR fuel, bundle manufacture, fissile and structural materials and coolants used in the CANDU fuel program, fuel and material behaviour, and performance under irradiation, fuel physics and management, booster rods and reactivity mechanisms, fuel procurement, organization and industry, and fuel costs. (author)

  3. Optimized design and control of an off grid solar PV/hydrogen fuel cell power system for green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenai, C.; Bettayeb, M.

    2017-11-01

    Modelling, simulation, optimization and control strategies are used in this study to design a stand-alone solar PV/Fuel Cell/Battery/Generator hybrid power system to serve the electrical load of a commercial building. The main objective is to design an off grid energy system to meet the desired electric load of the commercial building with high renewable fraction, low emissions and low cost of energy. The goal is to manage the energy consumption of the building, reduce the associate cost and to switch from grid-tied fossil fuel power system to an off grid renewable and cleaner power system. Energy audit was performed in this study to determine the energy consumption of the building. Hourly simulations, modelling and optimization were performed to determine the performance and cost of the hybrid power configurations using different control strategies. The results show that the hybrid off grid solar PV/Fuel Cell/Generator/Battery/Inverter power system offers the best performance for the tested system architectures. From the total energy generated from the off grid hybrid power system, 73% is produced from the solar PV, 24% from the fuel cell and 3% from the backup Diesel generator. The produced power is used to meet all the AC load of the building without power shortage (system produces 18.2% excess power that can be used to serve the thermal load of the building. The proposed hybrid power system is sustainable, economically viable and environmentally friendly: High renewable fraction (66.1%), low levelized cost of energy (92 /MWh), and low carbon dioxide emissions (24 kg CO2/MWh) are achieved.

  4. Method for controlling a nuclear fueled electric power generating unit and interfacing the same with a load dispatching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.P.; Meyer, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fueled, electric power generating unit is controlled through the use of on-line calculations of the rapid, step and ramp, power change capabilities of the unit made from measured values of power level, axial offset, coolant temperature and rod position taking into account operator generated, safety and control, and balance of plant limits. The power change capabilities so generated may be fed to an automatic dispatch system which provides closed loop control of a power grid system. (author)

  5. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  6. Safety and availability of the fuel handling system at Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaliz, Jorge O.; Paredes, Juan A.

    1998-01-01

    The paper attempts the Fuel Handling (F/H) System maintenance and operating methodology at the Embalse Power Station. It doesn't refer to the F/H process, because it's common and well known by all the CANDU Stations. Instead of that, the presentation will be focused on people qualification, training and selection. Also the key subjects for a smooth and successful operation. Additionally will be remarked the human aspect and the role of the person in the organization. The safe and reliable operation of the CNE Fuel Handling System has been always target, supported by the operational experience. The accountability and fitness for the job were the main qualification for the crew members. They have very clear their role and the importance of equipment which they are operating or manipulating. The person who has greater experience and responsibility must struggle continuously to keep the safe and confident operation. Also we have to increase permanently our knowledge with a greater training and experience exchange with another CANDU 6 Station, like this Conference which let us to grow as persons and technicians. It also allows our utility to have access to other realities and work methods. (authors)

  7. Power ramp rate capabilities of a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with discrete ejector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforow, K.; Pennanen, J.; Ihonen, J.; Uski, S.; Koski, P.

    2018-03-01

    The power ramp rate capabilities of a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system are studied theoretically and experimentally for grid support service applications. The fuel supply is implemented with a fixed-geometry ejector and a discrete control solution without any anode-side pressure fluctuation suppression methods. We show that the stack power can be ramped up from 2.0 kW to 4.0 kW with adequate fuel supply and low anode pressure fluctuations within only 0.1 s. The air supply is implemented with a centrifugal blower. Air supply ramp rates are studied with a power increase executed within 1 and 0.2 s after the request, the time dictated by grid support service requirements in Finland and the UK. We show that a power ramp-up from 2.0 kW to 3.7 kW is achieved within 1 s with an initial air stoichiometry of 2.5 and within 0.2 s with an initial air stoichiometry of 7.0. We also show that the timing of the power ramp-up affects the achieved ancillary power capacity. This work demonstrates that hydrogen fueled and ejector-based PEMFC systems can provide a significant amount of power in less than 1 s and provide valuable ancillary power capacity for grid support services.

  8. Radioisotope fueled pulsed power generation system for propulsion and electrical power for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Troy

    Space exploration missions to the moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies have allowed for great scientific leaps to enhance our knowledge of the universe; yet the astronomical cost of these missions limits their utility to only a few select agencies. Reducing the cost of exploratory space travel will give rise to a new era of exploration, where private investors, universities, and world governments can send satellites to far off planets and gather important data. By using radioisotope power sources and thermal storage devices, a duty cycle can be introduced to extract large amounts of energy in short amounts of time, allowing for efficient space travel. The same device can also provide electrical power for subsystems such as communications, drills, lasers, or other components that can provide valuable scientific information. This project examines the use of multiple radioisotope sources combined with a thermal capacitor using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which can collect energy over a period of time. The result of this design culminates in a variety of possible spacecraft with their own varying costs, transit times, and objectives. Among the most promising are missions to Mars which cost less than 17M, missions that can provide power to satellite constellations for decades, or missions that can deliver large, Opportunity-sized (185kg) payloads to mars for less than 53M. All made available to a much wider range of customer with commercially available satellite launches from earth. The true cost of such progress though lies in the sometimes substantial increase in transit times for these missions.

  9. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  10. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  11. Modern methods of high-pressure fuel pump common rail power system diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyshchun В.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We've considered high pressure fuel pumps design features and equipment for their diagnosis. It was noted that the reliability of the fuel elements Common Rail system primarily provide precision parts of the fuel equipment. As a consequence, the aim of study was comparative analysis and laborious of modern methods of the high pressure fuel pump diagnosing. In particular, the definition of a technical condition of the fuel pump was carried out using a special stand and by measuring the fuel pressure and duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal. As an object of our research we've chosen Bosch № 0445010008 fuel pump (from Mercedes Benz E320cdi in which the plunger pairs were changed alternately with different technical conditions. Preliminary fuel pump parameters were determined by hydraulic testing. Based on conducted experiments we've found out that fuel pressure measurement change method and the duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal at the starting and full load modes less laborious compared to the definition of a technical condition of the pump on the stand. The results of both methods of diagnosing confirmed identity of the fuel pumps.

  12. Investigations on an advanced power system based on a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and an organic Rankine cycle for heating and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Jannelli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Energy systems based on fuel cells technology can have a strategic role in the range of small-size power generation for the sustainable energy development. In order to enhance their performance, it is possible to recover the “waste heat” from the fuel cells, for producing or thermal power (cogeneration systems) or further electric power by means of a bottoming power cycle (combined systems). In this work an advanced system based on the integration between a HT-PEMFC (high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) power unit and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) plant, has been proposed and analysed as suitable energy power plant for supplying electric and thermal energies to a stand-alone residential utility. The system can operate both as cogeneration system, in which the electric and thermal loads are satisfied by the HT-PEMFC power unit and as electric generation system, in which the low temperature heat recovered from the fuel cells is used as energy source in the ORC plant for increasing the electric power production. A numerical model, able to characterize the behavior and to predict the performance of the HT-PEMFC/ORC system under different working conditions, has been developed by using the AspenPlus™ code. - Highlights: • The advanced plant can operate both as CHP system and as electric generation system. • The performance prediction of the integrated system is carried out by numerical modeling. • ORC thermodynamic optimization is carried out by a sensitivity analysis. • Thermal coupling between the HT-PEMC system and the ORC plant is analyzed. • Results are very promising in the field of the distributed generation

  13. AN INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FUEL CELL, POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATION LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan

    2003-11-03

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient

  14. Thermo economic comparison of conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems for small scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batens, Ellen; Cuellar, Rafael; Marissal, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    out a thermo economic comparison of a conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems. A model to estimate the savings and cost targets for solid oxide fuel cell systems is presented. A comparison between fuel cell technologies in the danish market with “state......Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and electricity at the point of use. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently competitive to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. The goal of this paper is to carry...... of the art” traditional heat and power generation technologies currently used in Denmark is considered. The conventional method of covering electrical, heating (e.g. hot water) and cooling (e.g. space cooling) load demands is by purchasing electricity from the electricity network grid and with a fossil fuel...

  15. NaBH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} fuel cells for air independent power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Nie; Miley, G.H.; Kim, Kyu-Jung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Illinois, 104 S. Wright, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Burton, Rodney [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, 104 S. Wright, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Huang, Xinyu [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The performance and characteristics of direct sodium-borohydride/hydrogen-peroxide (NaBH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fuel cells are studied in the context of potential applications for air independent propulsion for outer space and underwater. Due to the existence of ocean (sea) water as a natural heat sink, this new fuel cell technology is best suited for underwater propulsion/power systems for small scale high performance marine vehicles. The characteristics of such a power system are compared to other options, specifically for the underwater scenario. The potential of this fuel cell is demonstrated in laboratory experiments. Power density over 1.5 W cm{sup -2}, at 65 C and ambient pressure, have been achieved with the help of some unique treatments of the fuel cell. One such treatment is an in-situ electroplating technique, which results in electrodes with power density 20-40% higher, than that of the electrodes produced by the ordinary ex-situ electroplating method. This unique process also makes repair or reconditioning of the fuel cell possible and convenient. (author)

  16. Design and experimental investigation of an oxy-fuel combustion system for magnetohydrodynamic power extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Manuel Johannes

    design concepts. Therefore, numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to design and optimize the combustion flow fields of oxy-fuel combustion systems. These models were analyzed to understand the boundary layer and heat transfer profile and qualitative behaviors in the product designs. Advanced materials for high-temperature applications were assessed for their possible implementation in the product design. A trade-off analysis indicated that this scheme may incur elevated product cost and a difficulty in manufacturing. Active cooling strategies were considered for product development. A rocket-based cooling scheme, regenerative cooling, was implemented to provide active cooling. In the hot gas path (HGP) cooling design, CFD models were developed to predict the variation of heat removal along the oxy-combustion wall for various operating conditions. The oxy-combustion technology was manufactured using electrical discharge machining (EDM). The product development lifecycle in this dissertation encompassed preliminary design, detailed design, and demonstration and validation of the product. Towards the final stages of the product development, Fuel-rich oxy combustion experiments were carried out to demonstrate and observe flame characteristics from the designed technology and to predict heat transfer loads. The demonstration findings of oxy-combustion flames are presented in this work to contribute the developing field of MHD direct power extraction, which lacks oxy-combustion design data and qualitative combustion datasets. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy MHD environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The combustor hardware design was developed to contribute to engineered systems rated less than 100 kW for demonstration. The product hardware was

  17. System design methodology of non-fossil fuel fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, J.A.; Guven, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    In most thermal system designs, economic and thermodynamic aspects of the design are not studied simultaneously early on in the design process. As a result, the economic ramification of thermodynamic changes to the system configuration, and vice versa, are not immediately apparent to the designer or the performance, involving both thermal and economic aspects of the plant. In this study, a rational approach is presented to formalize the design process of small power plants, typically, burning non-conventional fuel sources such as wood residues, tires, biofuels, etc. The method presented in this paper allows for handling of process information, both qualitative and quantitative, to enable the designer to change his design in an optimal manner. A two-level design structure (macro-level and micro-level), is introduced to enable the designer to adapt his design in an efficient manner to the available (or required) technology-level, type of application, economic factors, O and M requirements, etc. At the macro-level of design, economic feasibility (business) decisions are made, while at the micro-level of design, technical feasibility (engineering) decisions are made

  18. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  19. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Salgado, Joel [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No 152, 07730 D. F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Aguilar, Marco A. [Laboratorio de Sintesis Quimica y Electroquimica, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No 152, 07730 D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014. (author)

  20. Market survey of fuel cells in Mexico: Niche for low power portable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Salgado, Joel; Domínguez-Aguilar, Marco A.

    This work provides an overview of the potential market in Mexico for portable electronic devices to be potentially powered by direct methanol fuel cells. An extrapolation method based on data published in Mexico and abroad served to complete this market survey. A review of electronics consumption set the basis for the future forecast and technology assimilation. The potential market for fuel cells for mobile phones in Mexico will be around 5.5 billion USD by 2013, considering a cost of 41 USD per cell in a market of 135 million mobile phones. Likewise, the market for notebook computers, PDAs and other electronic devices will likely grow in the future, with a combined consumption of fuel cell technology equivalent to 1.6 billion USD by 2014.

  1. The use of PEM united regenerative fuel cells in solar- hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun K Doddathimmaiah; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Remote area power supply (RAPS) is a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. Solar hydrogen RAPS systems commonly employ photovoltaic panels, a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser, a storage for hydrogen gas, and a PEM fuel cell. Currently such systems are more costly than conventional RAPS systems employing diesel generator back up or battery storage. Unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) have the potential to lower the costs of solar hydrogen RAPS systems since a URFC employs the same hardware for both the electrolyser and fuel cell functions. The need to buy a separate electrolyser and a separate fuel cell, both expensive items, is thus avoided. URFCs are in principle particularly suited for use in RAPS applications since the electrolyser function and fuel cell function are never required simultaneously. The present paper reports experimental findings on the performance of a URFC compared to that of a dedicated PEM electrolyser and a dedicated fuel cell. A design for a single-cell PEM URFC for use in experiments is described. The experimental data give a good quantitative description of the performance characteristics of all the devices. It is found that the performance of the URFC in the electrolyser mode is closely similar to that of the stand-alone electrolyser. In the fuel cell mode the URFC performance is, however, lower than that of the stand-alone fuel cell. The wider implications of these findings for the economics of future solar-hydrogen RAPS systems are discussed, and a design target of URFCs for renewable-energy RAPS applications proposed. (authors)

  2. CAP--a combined codes, alarms and paging system--effective in nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, W.M.; Anderson, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The CAP system now employed in two TVA power generating facilities has proven to be effective in both operational and emergency alerting and voice communications. Alternatives to emergency signalling point to advantages of a distributed amplifier/speaker system providing multi-signal and voice capabilities. Inclusion of a CAP-type system in all nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants is recommended, particularly in view of new NCR emergency alerting guidelines recently published. Outdoor-area warning is also included. Paper No. 80 JPGC 803-7

  3. Optimal design and operating strategies for a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yingying; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Kornbluth, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    An economic linear programming model with a sliding time window was developed to assess designing and scheduling a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system consisting of biomass gasifier, internal combustion engine, heat recovery set, heat-only boiler, producer gas storage and thermal energy......, utility tariff structure and technical and finical performance of the system components. Engine partial load performance was taken into consideration. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate how the optimal BCHP configuration changes with varying demands and utility tariff rates....

  4. Robust low frequency current ripple elimination algorithm for grid-connected fuel cell systems with power balancing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Choe, Gyu-Yeong; Lee, Byoung-Kuk [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Soo [R and D Center, Advanced Drive Technology (ADT) Company, 689-26 Geumjeong-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-862 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems is generated from dc-ac inverter operation, which generates 60 Hz fundamental component, and gives harmful effects on fuel cell stack itself, such as making cathode surface responses slower, causing an increase of more than 10% in the fuel consumption, creating oxygen starvation, causing a reduction in the operating lifetime, and incurring a nuisance tripping such as overload situation. With these reasons, low frequency current ripple makes fuel cell system unstable and lifetime of fuel cell stack itself short. This paper presents a fast and robust control algorithm to eliminate low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems. Compared with the conventional methods, in the proposed control algorithm, dc link voltage controller is shifted from dc-dc converter to dc-ac inverter, resulting that dc-ac inverter handles dc link voltage control and output current control simultaneously with help of power balancing technique. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only completely eliminate current ripple but also significantly reduce the overshoot or undershoot during transient states without any extra hardware. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulations and also by experiments with a 1 kW laboratory prototype. (author)

  5. ComfortPower. Design, construction and evaluation of a combined fuel-cell and heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Catator AB has constructed, commissioned and evaluated a combined fuel-cell and heat-pump system (ComfortPower). The basic idea behind the project was to demonstrate the possibility to achieve ultrahigh thermal efficiencies when combining fuel-cell technologies and heat pumps. Moreover, the system should provide a great flexibility with respect to the fuel mix and should in addition to heat provide surplus electricity and cooling. The system was built on a HT-PEM platform (high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell from Serenergy a/s), which was operated by Catators proprietary Optiformer technology. The power generator was combined with a heat pump module (F1145-5, 230 V), supplied by Nibe. The system was packaged into a cabinet (1.65 x 0.6 x 0.6 m) comprising the power module, the heat pump, all necessary balance-of-plant components and the control system. The power output from the fuel-cell system was around 1.35 kW, which enabled operation of the heat pump compressor. By utilizing surplus heat energy from the fuel cell it was possible to achieve a favourable operation point in the heat pump system, resulting in a high overall COP (coefficient of performance). The heat output from the system was as high as 10 kW whereas 6 kW cooling could be provided. The thermal efficiencies measured in experiments were normally around 200%, calculated on the lower heating value of the fuel. A number of fuels have been investigated in the fuel cell system, including both gaseous (natural gas/LPG) and liquid fuels (alcohols and kerosene). Indeed, the system has a wide fuel flexibility, which opens up for a variety of applications in campus villages and buildings. This study has demonstrated the possibility to reduce the carbon dioxide footprint by a factor of 2 over conventional boilers in heating applications. In addition the unit can be operated on a variety of fuels and can produce cooling and electricity in addition to heat. A fully working system has been designed

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system. Yoyu tansan prime en gata nenryo denchi hatsuden sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, K; Hatori, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-11-01

    In an indirect internal reforming type molten carbonate fuel cell, the reforming temperature is limited less than the operating temperature of the fuel cell, as the heat source for reforming is depended on the reaction heat at about 650 {degree} C of the fuel cell. To improve the reforming rate at the low temperature range, it is considered to increase S/C (ratio of steam to carbon), but this scheme will cause such problems as to increase the voltage drop of the anode, to drop the heat recovery ratio on the cogenerator, to increase the capacity of the heat exchanger, etc. In this invention, in the power generating plant of a molten carbonate fuel cell the inert gas is added to the reforming raw gas, and in addition to the above the gas is mixed with steam and led into the reforming chamber of the plant. When the inert gas which is not directly concerned in the reforming reaction is added to, total mol number increases and the reforming reaction is acceralated. Consequently, the reforming rate can be raised, though the reforming temperature is low. 2 figs.

  7. The Influence of Diesel Fuel Subsidies and Taxes on the Potential for Solar-Powered Hybrid Systems in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bertheau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people in African countries lack access to sufficient electricity supply due to missing infrastructure of the centralized conventional power generation system. In order to provide electricity to a wider part of the population, it is necessary to exploit the vast renewable resources in African countries. Therefore, this paper scrutinizes the economic advantages of photovoltaic-based hybrid systems over fossil fuel-based power generation. A simulation model is applied in order to calculate the cost advantage of hybrid systems compared to diesel-only systems for the entire continent on a long term basis by applying two scenarios: one based on world market diesel prices and the other one based on national diesel prices. The results indicate that average power generation costs per country can be reduced by up to 0.11 €/kWh considering world market diesel prices and by up to 0.48 €/kWh considering national diesel prices. Furthermore, the effect of diesel fuel subsidies and taxes on the renewable energy potential and the respective savings are examined. These findings may ameliorate the policy development according to fossil fuel subsidies and taxes and demonstrate the advantages of decentralized renewable hybrid systems especially in rural areas of Africa.

  8. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  9. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  10. Sensitivities and Tipping Points of Power System Operations to Fluctuations Caused by Water Availability and Fuel Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Macknick, J.; Voisin, N.; Fu, T.

    2017-12-01

    The western US electric grid is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operation. Hydropower and water-cooled thermoelectric technologies represent 67% of generating capacity in the western region of the US. While water resources provide a significant amount of generation and reliability for the grid, these same resources can represent vulnerabilities during times of drought or low flow conditions. A lack of water affects water-dependent technologies and can result in more expensive generators needing to run in order to meet electric grid demand, resulting in higher electricity prices and a higher cost to operate the grid. A companion study assesses the impact of changes in water availability and air temperatures on power operations by directly derating hydro and thermo-electric generators. In this study we assess the sensitivities and tipping points of water availability compared with higher fuel prices in electricity sector operations. We evaluate the impacts of varying electricity prices by modifying fuel prices for coal and natural gas. We then analyze the difference in simulation results between changes in fuel prices in combination with water availability and air temperature variability. We simulate three fuel price scenarios for a 2010 baseline scenario along with 100 historical and future hydro-climate conditions. We use the PLEXOS electricity production cost model to optimize power system dispatch and cost decisions under each combination of fuel price and water constraint. Some of the metrics evaluated are total production cost, generation type mix, emissions, transmission congestion, and reserve procurement. These metrics give insight to how strained the system is, how much flexibility it still has, and to what extent water resource availability or fuel prices drive changes in the electricity sector operations. This work will provide insights into current electricity operations as well as future cases of increased penetration of variable

  11. Multiple Model Predictive Hybrid Feedforward Control of Fuel Cell Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is widely considered as an alternative solution among the family of the sustainable distributed generation. Its load flexibility enables it adjusting the power output to meet the requirements from power grid balance. Although promising, its control is challenging when faced with load changes, during which the output voltage is required to be maintained as constant and fuel utilization rate kept within a safe range. Moreover, it makes the control even more intractable because of the multivariable coupling and strong nonlinearity within the wide-range operating conditions. To this end, this paper developed a multiple model predictive control strategy for reliable SOFC operation. The resistance load is regarded as a measurable disturbance, which is an input to the model predictive control as feedforward compensation. The coupling is accommodated by the receding horizon optimization. The nonlinearity is mitigated by the multiple linear models, the weighted sum of which serves as the final control execution. The merits of the proposed control structure are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  12. Nuclear fuel preheating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor new fuel handling system which conveys new fuel from a fuel preparation room into the reactor containment boundary is described. The handling system is provided with a fuel preheating station which is adaptd to heat the new fuel to reactor refueling temperatures in such a way that the fuel is heated from the top down so that fuel element cladding failure due to thermal expansions is avoided. (U.S.)

  13. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  14. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-08-01

    This research present a methodology to design a generalized overall unit control system for a fossil fuel power unit (FFPU), and develops a minimum prototype to demonstrate its feasibility. Toward the above goal, the associated research project was undertaken as a technology innovation process with its two ends identified as follows. First, it is recognized that the coordinated control strategies constitute the uppermost control level in current FFPUs, and so, are responsible for driving the boiler-turbine-generator set as a single entity. Second, a FFPU is envisioned as a complex process, subject to multiple changing operating conditions, that should perform as an intelligent system, for which an advanced integral control concept is needed. Therefore, as an outcome of the innovation process, a generalized unit control concept that extends the capabilities of current coordinated control schemes is proposed. This concept is presented as the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm, which establishes an open reference framework for the development of overall unit control schemes. The ICCS's system goals are identified using power plant process engineering concepts, and intelligent control systems engineering concepts are used to identify main tasks and to achieve system functional decomposition. A software engineering agency concept is used to identify and group agents according to their knowledge and purpose interactions. The resultant ICCS structure is an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchical system. The upper level, mainly characterized for knowledge-driven processes, performs the supervisory functions needed to provide self governing operation characteristics, while the lower level, mainly characterized for data-driven processes, performs the fast reactive behavior functions necessary for hybrid real-time control and protection. Developed through several stages, the ICCS-MP finally implements a two

  15. Fiscal 1999 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on community-oriented practical photovoltaic power systems (Practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems); 1999 nendo metan hakko gas nenryo denchi hatsuden system no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the research cooperation with developing countries on practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems in 1999-2002. This research aims to construct the methane gas fermentation fuel cell power facility using livestock excreta which can supply power to the facility and peripheral areas. The facility controls various substance concentrations in waste water within environmental standards, and uses waste as compost. This project is very promising in use of environment-friendly energy, effective use of unused energy and power supply to unelectrified areas for China under serious conditions such as rapid increase in energy demand and various environment problems. There are such various issues to achieve this target as securing livestock (pig breeders) and excreta, and fermentation and recovery of suitable methane gas necessary for fuel cell power systems from excreta. This report is composed of 2 parts, (1) Current use of energy resources and use of unused energy in Guangdong province, and (2) Technical requirements for practical methane gas fermentation fuel cell power systems. (NEDO)

  16. A bimodal power and propulsion system based on cermet fuel and heat pipe energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polansky, G.F.; Gunther, N.A.; Rochow, R.F.; Bixler, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Bimodal space reactor systems provide both thermal propulsion for the spacecraft orbital transfer and electrical power to the spacecraft bus once it is on station. These systems have the potential to increase both the available payload in high energy orbits and the available power to that payload. These increased mass and power capabilities can be used to either reduce mission cost by permitting the use of smaller launch vehicles or to provide increased mission performance from the current launch vehicle. A major barrier to the deployment of these bimodal systems has been the cost associated with their development. This paper describes a bimodal reactor system with performance potential to permit more than 70% of the instrumented payload of the Titan IV/Centaur to be launched from the Atlas IIAS. The development cost is minimized by basing the design on existing component technologies

  17. Energy management in fuel cell power trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, P.; Corcione, F.E.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experimental results obtained on a small size fuel cell power train (1.8 kW) based on a 500 W proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack are reported and discussed with specific regard to energy management issues to be faced for attainment of the maximum propulsion system efficiency. The fuel cell system (FCS) was realized and characterized via investigating the effects of the main operative variables on efficiency. This resulted in an efficiency higher than 30% in a wide power range with a maximum of 38% at medium load. The efficiency of the overall fuel cell power train measured during both steady state and dynamic conditions (European R40 driving cycle) was about 30%. A discussion about the control strategy to direct the power flows is reported with reference to two different test procedures used in dynamic experiments, i.e., load levelled and load following

  18. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  19. Technologies for small scale wood-fueled combined heat and power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.; Houmoeller, S.; Thaaning Pedersen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and compare different technologies for small cogeneration systems (up to 2-3 MW{sub e}), based on wood as fuel. For decentralized cogeneration, i.e. for recovering energy from saw mill wood wastes or heat supply for small villages, it is vital to know the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies. Also, for the decision-makers it is of importance to know the price levels of the different technologies. A typical obstacle for small wood cogeneration systems is the installation costs. The specific price (per kW) is usually higher than for larger plants or plants using fossil fuels. For a saw mill choosing between cogeneration and simple heat production, however, the larger installation costs are counter weighed by the sale of electricity, while the fuel consumption is the same. Whether it is profitable or not to invest in cogeneration is often hard to decide. For many years small wood cogeneration systems have been too expensive, leading to the construction of only heat producing systems due to too high price levels of small steam turbines. In recent years a great deal of effort has been put into research and developing of new technologies to replace this traditional steam turbine. Among these are: Steam engines; Stirling engines; Indirectly fired gas turbines; Pressurized down draft combustion. Along with the small scale traditional steam turbines, these technologies will be evaluated in this study. When some or all these technologies are fully developed and commercial, a strong means of reducing the strain on the environment and the greenhouse effect will be available, as the total efficiency is high (up to 90%) and wood is an energy source in balance with nature. (au) EFP-95. 19 refs.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell systems for residential micro-combined heat and power in the UK: Key economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Adam; Leach, Matthew

    The ability of combined heat and power (CHP) to meet residential heat and power demands efficiently offers potentially significant financial and environmental advantages over centralised power generation and heat-provision through natural-gas fired boilers. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) can operate at high overall efficiencies (heat and power) of 80-90%, offering an improvement over centralised generation, which is often unable to utilise waste heat. This paper applies an equivalent annual cost (EAC) minimisation model to a residential solid oxide fuel cell CHP system to determine what the driving factors are behind investment in this technology. We explore the performance of a hypothetical SOFC system—representing expectations of near to medium term technology development—under present UK market conditions. We find that households with small to average energy demands do not benefit from installation of a SOFC micro-CHP system, but larger energy demands do benefit under these conditions. However, this result is sensitive to a number of factors including stack capital cost, energy import and export prices, and plant lifetime. The results for small and average dwellings are shown to reverse under an observed change in energy import prices, an increase in electricity export price, a decrease in stack capital costs, or an improvement in stack lifetime.

  1. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  2. Performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system: Hydrogen and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutichai, Bhawasut; Authayanun, Suthida; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2013-01-01

    The PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is expected to play a significant role in next-generation energy systems. Because most hydrogen that is used as a fuel for PEMFCs is derived from the reforming of natural gas, the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass to produce this hydrogen offers a promising alternative. This study is focused on the performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system. The combined heat and power generation output of this integrated system is designed for residential applications, taking into account thermal and electrical demands. A flowsheet model of the integrated PEMFC system is developed and employed to analyze its performance with respect to various key operating parameters. A purification process consisting of a water–gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor is also necessary in order to reduce the concentration of CO in the synthesis gas to below 10 ppm for subsequent use in the PEMFC. The effect of load level on the performance of the PEMFC system is investigated. Based on an electrical load of 5 kW, it is found that the electrical efficiency of the PEMFC integrated system is 22%, and, when waste heat recovery is considered, the total efficiency of the PEMFC system is 51%. - Highlights: • Performance of a biomass gasification and PEMFC integrated system is analyzed. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC integrated system is developed. • Effect of biomass sources and key parameters on hydrogen and power generation is presented. • The PEMFC integrated system is designed for small-scale power demand. • Effect of load changes on the performance of PEMFC is investigated

  3. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  4. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume II: Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veyo, S

    1997-01-01

    .... Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate...

  5. Natural uranium fueled light water moderated breeding hybrid power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Schneider, A.; Misolovin, A.; Gilai, D.; Levin, P.

    The feasibility of fission-fusion hybrid reactors based on breeding light water thermal fission systems is investigated. The emphasis is on fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) hybrid power reactors that are fueled with natural uranium. Other LWHRs considered include FSS-LWHRs that are fueled with spent fuel from LWRs, and LWHRs which are to supplement LWRs to provide a tandem LWR-LWHR power economy that is fuel-self-sufficient

  6. Fuel Cell/ Super-capacitor power management system assessment and Lifetime Cost study in a 500kVA UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Ben Amira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A 500 KVA Uninterruptible power supply (UPS using Fuel Cells (FC and super-capacitors (SCs was studied with the worst case of 10 minutes and eight hours of interruption per day. A power management system was established to control the FC and the SCs in order to extract the hybridization benefits with a comparison between a Proton exchange membrane FC (PEMFC working alone and another combined with SCs. Moreover, possible FC degradations were discussed. The start/stop cycling, the high-power loads and load changes degradations were taken into consideration in order to estimate the FC lifetime span using a prediction formula. Besides, the FC costs were studied to estimate the best average cost. Finally, the SCs filter constant time and their charging currents were revealed.

  7. Longevity-conscious dimensioning and power management of the hybrid energy storage system in a fuel cell hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaosong; Johannesson, Lars; Murgovski, Nikolce; Egardt, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid energy storage system is optimally sized and controlled for a hybrid bus. • Dynamic battery health model is incorporated in the optimization. • Convex programming is efficient for optimizing hybrid propulsion systems. • Optimal battery replacement strategy is explored. • Comparison to the battery-only option is made in the health-aware optimization. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) play an important role in the performance and economy of electrified vehicles. Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) combining both lithium-ion cells and supercapacitors is one of the most promising solutions. This paper discusses the optimal HESS dimensioning and energy management of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, efficient convex programming is used to simultaneously optimize the HESS dimension (including sizes of both the lithium-ion battery pack and the supercapacitor stack) and the power allocation between the HESS and the fuel cell system (FCS) of the hybrid bus. In the combined plant/controller optimization problem, a dynamic battery State-of-Health (SOH) model is integrated to quantitatively examine the impact of the battery replacement strategy on both the HESS size and the bus economy. Second, the HESS and the battery-only ESS options are systematically compared in the proposed optimization framework. Finally, the battery-health-perceptive HESS optimization outcome is contrasted to the ideal one neglecting the battery degradation (assuming that the battery is durable over the bus service period without deliberate power regulation)

  8. Effects of upgrading systems on energy conversion efficiency of a gasifier - fuel cell - gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrazzi, Simone; Allesina, Giulio; Tartarini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced gasifier-SOFC-MGT system is modeled. • An overall electrical efficiency of 32.81% is reached. • Influence of all the sub-system modeled on the power plant efficiency is discussed. • Compression storage of syngas is taken into account. - Abstract: This work focuses on a DG-SOFC-MGT (downdraft gasifier - solid oxide fuel cell - micro gas turbine) power plant for electrical energy production and investigates two possible performance-upgrading systems: polyphenylene oxide (PPO) membrane and zeolite filters. The first is used to produce oxygen-enriched air used in the reactor, while the latter separates the CO_2 content from the syngas. In order to prevent power plant shutdowns during the gasifier reactor scheduled maintenance, the system is equipped with a gas storage tank. The generation unit consists of a SOFC-MGT system characterized by higher electrical efficiency when compared to conventional power production technology (IC engines, ORC and EFGT). Poplar wood chips with 10% of total moisture are used as feedstock. Four different combinations with and without PPO and zeolite filtrations are simulated and discussed. One-year energy and power simulation were used as basis for comparison between all the cases analyzed. The modeling of the gasification reactions gives results consistent with literature about oxygen-enriched processes. Results showed that the highest electrical efficiency obtained is 32.81%. This value is reached by the power plant equipped only with PPO membrane filtration. Contrary to the PPO filtering, zeolite filtration does not increase the SOFC-MGT unit performance while it affects the energy balance with high auxiliary electrical consumption. This solution can be considered valuable only for future work coupling a CO_2 sequestration system to the power plant.

  9. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  10. Process and container system for transferring or transporting fuel elements from a nuclear power station to a store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vox, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    A system of containers with three types of containers (an inside container, a transport container and a storage container) is used. One either sets the inside container open on the lid side into the transport container first in the water pond of the nuclear power station, and one then sets the fuel elements into the inside container, or one places the inside container, loaded with fuel elements away from the transport container, into the transport container. Both containers are then closed and are transported to the store as a unit. The storage container open on the lid side is prepared there, the floor of the transport container is opened and this, together with the inside container, is lifted above the storage container or set above the storage container. The inside container is then lowered onto the storage container, the transport container is removed and the lid of the storage container is closed. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Informational system to assist decision making at spent nuclear fuel transportation from VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK-1000 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuryndin, A.V.; Kirkin, A.M.; Stroganov, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The developed informational system provides an automated estimations of nuclear and radiation safety parameters during spent nuclear fuel transportation from WWER-440 and WWER-1000 and RBMK-1000 nuclear power plants to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and allows us to determine the optimum cask loading from the dose rates distribution outside of protection point of view [ru

  12. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A. [MSE Laboratory, Mohamed khiderBiskra University (Algeria); Ayad, M. Y., E-mail: ayadmy@gmail.com [R& D, Industrial Hybrid Vehicle Applications (France)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  13. Optimal/flatness based-control of stand-alone power systems using fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Benaouadj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimal control (under constraints based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DCDC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: - Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load according to a proposed daily consumption profile, - Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, - Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, - Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  14. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  15. Fuel cell power plants for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.

    1983-02-01

    While the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell has until recently not been considered competitive with such commercial and industrial energy systems as gas turbine generators and internal combustion engines, electrical current density improvements have markedly improved the capital cost/kW output rating performance of SPE systems. Recent studies of SPE fuel cell applicability to vehicular propulsion have indicated that with adequate development, a powerplant may be produced which will satisfy the performance, size and weight objectives required for viable electric vehicles, and that the cost for such a system would be competitive with alternative advanced power systems.

  16. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  17. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  18. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  19. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  20. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  1. A computer-aided diagnostic and troubleshooting system for fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkle, C.R.

    1990-10-01

    This Interactive Computer-Aided Troubleshooting System (ICATS) was designed as a troubleshooting aid for the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) 11-megawatt dc Module (DCM). ICATS represents an integration of the System Testability and Maintenance Program (STAMP reg-sign) and the Portable Interactive Troubleshooter (POINTER trademark) software packages developed by ARINC Research Corporation. ICATS was designed to aid in the fault isolation of shutdown conditions that may occur in the DCM during on-load operations and start-up, and hold conditions that may occur during start-up. ICATS may also be used to help fault-isolate a return-to-standby condition occurring from on-load operation of the DCM. This report describes the development of ICATS and the ICATS functional design. The unique features of STAMP and POINTER, which allow for diagnostic aids to be designed for systems not yet built and operating, are also described. 10 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs

  2. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  3. CanDan 2, phase 2. Final report. [Fuel cell systems for back-up power and materials handling applications]; CanDan 2, fase 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    CanDan 2 Phase 2 is the second phase of a research and demonstration project for fuel cell backup power systems and fuel cell powered material handling equipment. In the Backup Power segment the fuel cell units have been developed, certified and delivered. A total of 32 fuel cell backup power systems have been delivered for EnergiMidt and in operation since early 2011. Following this project EnergiMidt has purchased another 31 systems in order to make a full transition from battery backup to fuel cell backup in their entire broadband network. In the material handling segment a 10 kW fuel cell system has been fully integrated in the fork lift truck, Dantruck 3000 Power Hydrogen. The result was a much more commercially mature product than expected from the beginning of the project. The result is a finished 2,5T fork lift truck which was presented at the CE-mat fair in April 2011. (LN)

  4. Fuel cell electric vehicle as a power plant and SOFC as a natural gas reformer : An exergy analysis of different system designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Woudstra, T.; van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.

    2016-01-01

    Delft University of Technology, under its "Green Village" programme, has an initiative to build a power plant (car parking lot) based on the fuel cells used in vehicles for motive power. It is a trigeneration system capable of producing electricity, heat, and hydrogen. It comprises three main

  5. 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009. Abstracts. Part 1. Session: Safety of nuclear technology; Innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycle; Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of the 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009 (29 Sep - 2 Oct, 2009, Obninsk). Problems of safety of nuclear technology are discussed, innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles are treated. Abstracts on professional education for nuclear power and industry are presented. Nuclear knowledge management are discussed

  6. Lifecycle Cost Assessment of Fuel Cell Technologies for Soldier Power System Applications. Paper and Presentation for the 43rd Power Sources Conference held 8-9 July 2008, Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-09

    PEMFC in Federal Markets,” 2007 Fuel Cell Seminar, San Antonio, TX, 17 October 2007. 7. Fok, K., “Metal Hydride Fuel Cells: Increases in Power...Lauderdale, FL, March 17-20, 2008. 10. Zhao J., et al, “Reclaim/recycle of Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC ,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 48...hydrogen PEMFC or SOFC systems – Baratto et al, Journal of Power Sources – Citigroup, Dist. Telecom Backup – Battelle, Fuel Cell Seminar 2007 • Fuel

  7. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  8. Electrical supervisory control and data acquisition system for Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Facility (PREFRE-II) at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.; Kaushik, S.; Haneef, K.K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Facility (PREFRE II) is a radio-chemical plant located at Tarapur. The electric power supply to PREFRE-II plant has been provided from a 33 KV Sub-station located in PREFRE-II complex to meet the O and M requirement of plant. The major equipment of the substation includes HT switch board, dry type transformer, LT switch board, Diesel Generator (DG) set and Un-interrupted Power Supply (UPS) System. The power supply to the plant is provided at 415 V voltage level with the help of Power Distribution Boards (PDBs) and Motor Control Centres (MCCs) located at different floors of the plant. The parameters of the electrical equipment of substation and plant are recorded in each shift in the log-book, manually by the operator. To maintain the log-book, the operator needs to go closer to the individual equipment in radioactive area of the plant to read the parameters. The log-book method of monitoring is a cumbersome method and does not include fault event records, trends and diagnostic behavior of the equipment. Electrical Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (E-SCADA) system has been increasingly used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) for control and monitoring of electrical parameters of plant and switchyard equipment. E-SCADA system has been designed, developed and implemented for PREFRE-II plant for remote monitoring of parameters of electrical equipment. E-SCADA system provides monitoring of electrical equipment and renders complete guidance and information with the help of Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the operator to take necessary action during normal and abnormal conditions. E-SCADA with intelligent communication features helps in reducing cabling from field equipment which enhances the fire safety of plant. As a result engineering, operation and maintenance efforts for monitoring are reduced considerably in terms of requirement of skilled man power and accurate data logging of electrical parameters. This system also helps to

  9. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  10. Design of durability test protocol for vehicular fuel cell systems operated in power-follow mode based on statistical results of on-road data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liangfei; Reimer, Uwe; Li, Jianqiu; Huang, Haiyan; Hu, Zunyan; Jiang, Hongliang; Janßen, Holger; Ouyang, Minggao; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-02-01

    City buses using polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the most likely fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized in China. The technical specifications of the fuel cell systems (FCSs) these buses are equipped with will differ based on the powertrain configurations and vehicle control strategies, but can generally be classified into the power-follow and soft-run modes. Each mode imposes different levels of electrochemical stress on the fuel cells. Evaluating the aging behavior of fuel cell stacks under the conditions encountered in fuel cell buses requires new durability test protocols based on statistical results obtained during actual driving tests. In this study, we propose a systematic design method for fuel cell durability test protocols that correspond to the power-follow mode based on three parameters for different fuel cell load ranges. The powertrain configurations and control strategy are described herein, followed by a presentation of the statistical data for the duty cycles of FCSs in one city bus in the demonstration project. Assessment protocols are presented based on the statistical results using mathematical optimization methods, and are compared to existing protocols with respect to common factors, such as time at open circuit voltage and root-mean-square power.

  11. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO{sub 2}-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Han, Wei [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lior, Noam [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6315 (United States); Liu, Meng [Division of Research and Environment Standardization, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO{sub 2} and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO{sub 2} Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO{sub 2} subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO{sub 2} can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO{sub 2} condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh. (author)

  12. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO2-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Lior, Noam; Liu, Meng; Han, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO 2 and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO 2 Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO 2 subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO 2 can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO 2 condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 o C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh.

  13. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, D.P. [Analytic Power Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  14. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  15. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  16. A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Roo, Guillaume; Parsons, John E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

  17. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  18. Modeling and optimization of a heat-pump-assisted high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell micro-combined-heat-and-power system for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    In this study a micro-combined-heat-and-power (micro-CHP) system is coupled to a vapor-compression heat pump to fulfill the residential needs for heating (space heating and water heating) and electricity in detached single-family households in Denmark. Such a combination is assumed to be attractive...... for application, since both fuel cell technology and electric heat pumps are found to be two of the most efficient technologies for generation/conversion of useful energy. The micro-CHP system is fueled with natural gas and includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel processor and other auxiliary components. The micro......-CHP system assumes heat-led operation, to avoid dumping of heat and the use of complicated thermal energy storage. The overall system is grid-interconnected to allow importing and exporting of electricity as necessary. In this study emphasis is given on the operational characterization of the system...

  19. Fuel optimization of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Zejun; Li Zhuoqun; Kong Deping; Xue Xincai; Wang Shiwei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the design practice of the fuel replacement of Qin Shan nuclear power plant, this document effectively analyzes the shortcomings of current replacement design of Qin Shan. To address these shortcomings, this document successfully implements the 300 MW fuel optimization program from fuel replacement. fuel improvement and experimentation ,and achieves great economic results. (authors)

  20. Fuel cell electric vehicle as a power plant : Fully renewable integrated transport and energy system design and analysis for smart city areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and affordable future zero emission power, heat and transport systems require efficient and versatile energy storage and distribution systems. This paper answers the question whether for city areas, solar and wind electricity together with fuel cell electric vehicles as energy generators

  1. Modeling and Optimization of Renewable and Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems for Space Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-14

    electrolyser (Hogen GC 600) which splits the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. The produced hydrogen supplies the fuel cell stack and the...allows the water vapor to be condensed and returned to the electrolyser for consumption will be required. Those items were not available commercially to...charged continuously. The batteries then feed an electrolyzer, which fills up an H2 reservoir that feeds a NEXA 1.2 kW PEMFC stack. The water produced in

  2. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating...... the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business...

  3. Separation of gaseous hydrogen from a water-hydrogen mixture in a fuel cell power system operating in a weightless environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, William E. (Inventor); Suljak, George T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell power system for use in a weightless environment, such as in space, includes a device for removing water from a water-hydrogen mixture condensed from the exhaust from the fuel cell power section of the system. Water is removed from the mixture in a centrifugal separator, and is fed into a holding, pressure operated water discharge valve via a Pitot tube. Entrained nondissolved hydrogen is removed from the Pitot tube by a bleed orifice in the Pitot tube before the water reaches the water discharge valve. Water discharged from the valve thus has a substantially reduced hydrogen content.

  4. Continuous power generation and microbial community structure of the anode biofilms in a three-stage microbial fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyungmi; Okabe, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-15

    A mediator-less three-stage two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) system was developed and operated continuously for more than 1.5 years to evaluate continuous power generation while treating artificial wastewater containing glucose (10 mM) concurrently. A stable power density of 28 W/m3 was attained with an anode hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h and phosphate buffer as the cathode electrolyte. An overall dissolved organic carbon removal ratio was about 85%, and coulombic efficiency was about 46% in this MFC system. We also analyzed the microbial community structure of anode biofilms in each MFC. Since the environment in each MFC was different due to passing on the products to the next MFC in series, the microbial community structure was different accordingly. The anode biofilm in the first MFC consisted mainly of bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, identified as Aeromonas sp., while the Firmicutes dominated the anode biofilms in the second and third MFCs that were mainly fed with acetate. Cyclic voltammetric results supported the presence of a redox compound(s) associated with the anode biofilm matrix, rather than mobile (dissolved) forms, which could be responsible for the electron transfer to the anode. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the anode biofilms were comprised of morphologically different cells that were firmly attached on the anode surface and interconnected each other with anchor-like filamentous appendages, which might support the results of cyclic voltammetry. (orig.)

  5. Renewables, nuclear, or fossil fuels? Scenarios for Great Britain’s power system considering costs, emissions and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Keirstead, James

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare a large number of cost-optimal future power systems for Great Britain. • Scenarios are assessed on cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. • Up to 60% of variable renewable capacity is possible with little cost increase. • Higher shares require storage, imports or dispatchable renewables such as tidal range. - Abstract: Mitigating climate change is driving the need to decarbonize the electricity sector, for which various possible technological options exist, alongside uncertainty over which options are preferable in terms of cost, emissions reductions, and energy security. To reduce this uncertainty, we here quantify two questions for the power system of Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland): First, when compared within the same high-resolution modeling framework, how much do different combinations of technologies differ in these three respects? Second, how strongly does the cost and availability of grid-scale storage affect overall system cost, and would it favor some technology combinations above others? We compare three main possible generation technologies: (1) renewables, (2) nuclear, and (3) fossil fuels (with/without carbon capture and storage). Our results show that across a wide range of these combinations, the overall costs remain similar, implying that different configurations are equally feasible both technically and economically. However, the most economically favorable scenarios are not necessarily favorable in terms of emissions or energy security. The availability of grid-scale storage in scenarios with little dispatchable generation can reduce overall levelized electricity cost by up to 50%, depending on storage capacity costs. The UK can rely on its domestic wind and solar PV generation at lower renewable shares, with levelized costs only rising more than 10% above the mean of 0.084 GBP/kWh for shares of 50% and below at a 70% share, which is 35% higher. However, for more than an 80% renewable

  6. Efficient, High Power Density Hydrocarbon-Fueled Solid Oxide Stack System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative high power density design for direct internal reforming of regolith off-gases...

  7. Efficient, high power density hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide stack system, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative high power density design for direct internal reforming of regolith off-gases...

  8. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  9. Criticality and shielding calculations of an interim dry storage system for the spent fuel from Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M

    2006-01-01

    The Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (CNA-I) has enough room to store its spent fuel (SF) in damp in its two pool houses until the middle of 2015.Before that date there is the need to have an interim dry storage system for spent fuel that would make possible to empty at least one of the pools, whether to keep the plant operating if its useful life is extended, or to be able to empty the reactor core in case of decommissioning.Nucleolectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), due to their joint responsibility in the management of the SF, have proposed interim dry storage systems.These systems have to be evaluated in order to choose one of them by the end of 2006.In this work the Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to make the criticality and shielding calculations corresponding to the model proposed by CNEA.This model suggests the store of sealed containers with 36 or 37 SF in concrete modules.Each one of the containers is filled in the pool houses and transported to the module in a transference cask with lead walls.The results of the criticality calculations indicates that the solutions of SF proposed have widely fulfilled the requirements of subcriticality, even in supposed extreme accidental situations.Regarding the transference cask, the SF dose rate estimations allow us to make a feedback for the design aiming to the geometry and shielding improvements.Regarding the store modules, thicknesses ranges of concrete walls are suggested in order to fulfill the dose requirements stated by the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Argentina [es

  10. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption

  11. Effective economics of nuclear fuel power complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelev, Ya.V.; Klimenko, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Problems of the economic theory and practice of functioning the nuclear fuel power complex (NFPC) are considered. Using the principle of market equilibrium for optimization of the NFPC hierarchical system is analyzed. The main attention is paid to determining the prices of production and consumption of the NFPC enterprises. Economic approaches on the optimal calculations are described. The ecological safety of NPP and NFPC enterprises is analyzed. A conception of the market socialism is presented

  12. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  13. Fiscal 1997 development of fuel cell power generation technology. Part 3. Supplementary explanation to R and D of molten carbonate fuel cell and power generation system; 1997 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu hosoku setsumeisho. 3. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A supplementary explanation was compiled for the results of a commissioned project reported in fiscal 1997 (development of fuel cell power generation technology, and R and D (3) of molten carbonate fuel cell and power generation system). The supplementary explanation was given on the development of parallel flow stack, design/manufacturing of 250 kW stacks, design and manufacturing of 250 kW stacks in connection with installation/adjustment. (NEDO)

  14. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  15. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  16. Preliminary assessment of a symbiotic fusion--fission power system using the TH/U refresh fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Moir, R.W.

    1977-10-01

    Studies of the mirror hybrid reactor by LLL/GA have concluded that the most promising role for this reactor concept is that of a producer of fissile fuel for fission reactors. Studies to date have examined primarily the U/Pu fuel cycle with light-water reactors serving as the consumers of the hybrid-bred fissile fuel; the specific scenarios examined required reprocessing and refabrication of the bred fuel before introduction into the fission reactor. This combination of technologies was chosen to illustrate the manner in which the hybrid reactor concept could serve the needs of, and use the technology of, the fission reactor industry as it now exists (and as it was thought it would evolve). However, the current U.S. Administration has expressed strong concerns about proliferation of nuclear weapons capability and terrorist diversion of weapons-grade nuclear materials. These concerns are based on the projected technology for the light-water reactor/fast breeder reactor using the U/Pu fuel cycle and extensive reprocessing/refabrication. A symbiotic nuclear power generation concept (hybrid fissile producer plus fission burner reactors) is described which eliminates those aspects of the present nuclear fuel cycle that (may) represent significant proliferation/diversion risks. Specifically, the proposed concept incorporates the following features: (1)Th/U 233 fuel cycle, (2) no reprocessing or fabrication of fissile material, and (3) no fissile material in a weapons-grade state

  17. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: Matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [C.N.Cofrentes - Iberdrola Generacion S.A., Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [LAINSA Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper we present is related to SIPPING machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment (SIPPING). SIPPING equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). SIPPING inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the SIPPING system control design and software based on LabVIEW, for control, monitoring and documentation of the SIPPING Test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: to substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for SIPPING system; to equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (author)

  18. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper related to Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment Sipping. The equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). Sipping inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the Sipping system control design and software based on LabVIEWTM, for control, monitoring and documentation of the Sipping test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: 1) To substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for Sipping system. 2) To equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (Author)

  19. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Urrea, M.; Vaquer, J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper related to Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment Sipping. The equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). Sipping inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the Sipping system control design and software based on LabVIEWTM, for control, monitoring and documentation of the Sipping test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: 1) To substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for Sipping system. 2) To equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (Author)

  20. Control strategy for power management, efficiency-optimization and operating-safety of a 5-kW solid oxide fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Jianhua; Cheng, Huan; Deng, Zhonghua; Li, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficiency optimization associated with simultaneous power and thermal management. • Fast load tracing, fuel starvation, high efficiency and operating safety are considered. • Open loop pre-conditioning current strategy is proposed for load step-up transients. • Feedback control scheme is proposed for load step-up transients. - Abstract: The slow power tracking, operating safety, especially the fuel exhaustion, and high efficiency considerations are the key issues for integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems during power step up transients, resulting in the relatively poor dynamic capabilities and make the transient load following very challenging and must be enhanced. To this end, this paper first focus on addressing the efficiency optimization associated with simultaneous power and thermal management of a 5-kW SOFC system. Particularly, a traverse optimization process including cubic convolution interpolation algorithm are proposed to obtain optimal operating points (OOPs) with the maximum efficiency. Then this paper investigate the current implications on system step-up transient performance, then a two stage pre-conditioning current strategy and a feedback power reference control scheme is proposed for load step-up transients to balance fast load following and fuel starvation, after that safe thermal transient is validated. Simulation results show the efficacy of the control design by demonstrating the fast load following ability while maintaining the safe operation, thus safe; efficient and fast load transition can be achieved

  1. Small-Scale Low Cost Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. D. Vora

    2008-02-01

    Progress in tasks seeking greater cell power density and lower cost through new cell designs, new cell materials and lower operating temperature is summarized. The design of the program required Proof-of-Concept unit of residential capacity scale is reviewed along with a summary of results from its successful test. Attachment 1 summarizes the status of cell development. Attachment 2 summarizes the status of generator design, and Attachment 3 of BOP design.

  2. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  3. Cermet-fueled reactors for multimegawatt space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Armijo, J.S.; Kruger, G.B.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomisson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The cermet-fueled reactor has evolved as a potential power source for a broad range of multimegawatt space applications. In particular, the fast spectrum reactor concept can be used to deliver 10s of megawatts of electric power for continuous, long term, unattended operation, and 100s of megawatts of electric power for times exceeding several hundred seconds. The system can also be utilized with either a gas coolant in a Brayton power conversion cycle, or a liquid metal coolant in a Rankine power conversion cycle. Extensive testing of the cermet fuel element has demonstrated that the fuel is capable of operating at very high temperatures under repeated thermal cycling conditions, including transient conditions which approach the multimegawatt burst power requirements. The cermet fuel test performance is reviewed and an advanced cermet-fueled multimegawatt nuclear reactor is described in this paper

  4. Personal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Leal, Elisangela Martins; Walther, David C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible gravimetric energy density spans the range from 500 to 5000Wh/kg, with gravimetric power density requirements from 10 to 1000W/kg. These requirements are the primary goals for the systems presented here. The review examines the interesting and promising concepts in electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical approaches to small-scale power, as well as their technological and physical challenges and limitations. Often it is the limitations that dominate, so that while the technology to create personal autonomy for communications, information processing and mobility has accelerated, similar breakthroughs for the systems powering these devices have not yet occurred. Fuel cells, model airplane engines, and hummingbird metabolism, are three promising examples, respectively, of electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical power production strategies that are close to achieving personal power systems' power demands. Fuel cells show great promise as an energy source when relatively low power density is demanded, but they cannot yet deliver high peak powers nor respond quickly to variable loads. Current small-scale engines, while achieving extraordinary power densities, are too inefficient to achieve the energy density needed for long-duration autonomous operation. Metabolic processes of flying insects and hummingbirds are remarkable biological energy converters, but duplicating, accelerating, and harnessing such power for mobility applications is virtually unexplored. These challenges are significant, and they provide a fertile environment for

  5. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  6. Integrated Microchannel Reformer/Hydrogen Purifier for Fuel Cell Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) propose to develop an integrated hydrogen generator and purifier system for conversion of in-situ...

  7. Viewpoint of utilities regarding fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    The engagement of utilities in nuclear power requires them to engage in an increasing amount of fuel management activities in order to carry out all the tasks involved. Essentially, these activities involve two main areas: The procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; and in-core fuel management. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be borne by the utilities. Today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The fuel management activities of the utilities are analysed with respect to organizational, technical, safeguarding, and financial aspects. The active participation of the utilities in fuel management helps to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during its whole life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be ensured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or, on a larger scale, of a power plant system, i.e. activities by utilities to minimize fuel-cycle effects on the environment, which include optimization of fuel behaviour, and radiation exposure to the public and personnel; and technical and economic evaluations by utilities of out- and in-core fuel management. (author)

  8. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) integrated power plants : System and kinetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thallam Thattai, A.

    2017-01-01

    Increased climate change over past decades has resulted in an increase in the average temperature (also called global warming) of Earth’s climate system. At the recent Paris climate conference (COP21) in 2015, 195 countries in the world have agreed upon a stringent plan to limit global warming below

  10. Integrated information system MBS as a basis for fuel management in conventional power stations; Integriertes Informationssystem MBS als Basis fuer das Brennstoffmanagement in konventionellen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasko, P.; Lindemann, H.; Kern, H.

    2000-07-01

    The fuel cost is a key factor in fossil-fuel power stations, and optimisation of fuel use is an urgent task. Modul Brennstoffe MBS supports all processes relevant for fuel supply and waste management, i.e. projecting, acquisition, optimisation of operation, billing, and evaluation. [German] Die gegenwaertige Situation in der Energiewirtschaft und im liberalisierten Energiemarkt hat zu einem nachhaltigen Kostendruck auf der Seite der Erzeugung gefuehrt. Die Brennstoffkosten in den fossil befeuerten Kraftwerken stellen eine wesentliche Komponente der Erzeugungskosten dar. Vor diesem Hintergrund hat die Optimierung des Brennstoffeinsatzes eine grundsaetzliche Bedeutung gewonnen. Modul Brennstoffe MBS unterstuetzt alle fuer die Brennstoffversorgung und fuer die Entsorgung von konventionellen Kraftwerken relevanten Geschaeftsprozesse. Es umfasst die Geschaeftsvorgaenge Planung, Beschaffung, Einsatzoptimierung, Abrechnung und Auswertung. Die Geschaeftsprozesse sind informationstechnisch im Modul Brennstoffe in einem integrierten System abgebildet. (orig.)

  11. Utilities' view on the fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities engagement in nuclear power requires an increasing amount of fuel management activities by the utilities in order to meet all tasks involved. These activities comprise essentially two main areas: - activities to secure the procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; - activities related to the incore fuel managment. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be realized by the utilities. Starting in the past, today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The scope of utilities' fuel management activities is analyzed with respect to organizational aspects, technical aspects, safeguarding aspects, and financial aspects. Utilities taking active part in the fuel management serves to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during the whole plant life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be assured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or on a larger scale of a power plant system, i.e., utility activities to minimize the effects of fuel cycle on the environment, which includes optimization of fuel behaviour, radiation exposure to public and personnel, and utility technical and economic evaluations of out- and incore fuel management. These activities of nuclear power producing utilities in the field of nuclear fuel cycle are together with a close cooperation with fuel industry as well as national and international authorities a necessary basis for the further utilization of nuclear power

  12. Electrical output of bryophyte microbial fuel cell systems is sufficient to power a radio or an environmental sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, Ross J; Felder, Fabienne; Cooper, Matt B; Madras Rajaraman Iyer, Durgaprasad; Royles, Jessica; Harrison, Susan T L; Smith, Alison G; Harrison, C Jill; Howe, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Plant microbial fuel cells are a recently developed technology that exploits photosynthesis in vascular plants by harnessing solar energy and generating electrical power. In this study, the model moss species Physcomitrella patens , and other environmental samples of mosses, have been used to develop a non-vascular bryophyte microbial fuel cell (bryoMFC). A novel three-dimensional anodic matrix was successfully created and characterized and was further tested in a bryoMFC to determine the capacity of mosses to generate electrical power. The importance of anodophilic microorganisms in the bryoMFC was also determined. It was found that the non-sterile bryoMFCs operated with P. patens delivered over an order of magnitude higher peak power output (2.6 ± 0.6 µW m -2 ) than bryoMFCs kept in near-sterile conditions (0.2 ± 0.1 µW m -2 ). These results confirm the importance of the microbial populations for delivering electrons to the anode in a bryoMFC. When the bryoMFCs were operated with environmental samples of moss (non-sterile) the peak power output reached 6.7 ± 0.6 mW m -2 . The bryoMFCs operated with environmental samples of moss were able to power a commercial radio receiver or an environmental sensor (LCD desktop weather station).

  13. Fuel assembly insertion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhurst, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor facility having fuel bundles: a system for the insertion of a fuel bundle into a position where vertically arranged fuel bundles surround and are adjacent the system comprising, in combination, separate and individual centering devices secured to and disposed on top of each fuel bundle adjacent the position. Each such centering device has a generally box-like cap configuration on the upper end of each fuel bundle and includes: a top wall; first and second side walls, each secured along and upper edge to the top wall; a rear plate attached along opposite vertical edges to the first and second side walls; a front inclined wall joined along an upper edge to the top to the wall and attached along opposite vertical edges first and second side walls; pad means secured to the lower edge of the first and second side walls, the front inclined wall and the rear plate for mounting each centering device on top of an associated fuel bundle; pin means carried by at least two of the pad means engageable with an associated aperature for locating and laterally fixing each centering device on top of its respective fuel bundle. Each front inclined wall of each of the centering devices is orientated on top of its respective fuel bundle to slope upwardly and away from the position where upon downward insertion of a fuel bundle any contact between the lower end of the fuel bundle inserted with a front inclined wall of a centering device will laterally deflect the fuel bundle. Each centering device further includes a central socket means secured to the top wall, and an elongated handling pole pivotally attached to the socket

  14. On-board power supply with fuel cells. Liquid gas fuelled system enables stand alone off-grid power supply; Bordstromversorgung mit Brennstoffzellen. Fluessiggas-betriebenes System ermoeglicht autarke, netzunabhaengige Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2011-07-01

    You reach your final destination for the day, switch off the engine of your motorhome, and sit back to enjoy the view. Cicadas chirping and the music of nature are the only sounds you can hear. And then, far away from the nearest mains outlet, you get your laptop out to check your emails and plan your route for the next day. Quietly, and with low emissions, the electrical power you need is produced by your own on-board fuel cell generator. You know that with the fuel cell, your vehicle battery will always be fully charged. Now that the funded research and testing work has been done, fuel cell hybrid systems are ready for the market. (orig.)

  15. Secondary fuel delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  16. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  17. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  18. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  19. Power system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Zeljko; Cehil, Mislav

    2007-01-01

    Long-term gas purchase contracts usually determine delivery and payment for gas on the regular hourly basis, independently of demand side consumption. In order to use fuel gas in an economically viable way, optimization of gas distribution for covering consumption must be introduced. In this paper, a mathematical model of the electric utility system which is used for optimization of gas distribution over electric generators is presented. The utility system comprises installed capacity of 1500 MW of thermal power plants, 400 MW of combined heat and power plants, 330 MW of a nuclear power plant and 1600 MW of hydro power plants. Based on known demand curve the optimization model selects plants according to the prescribed criteria. Firstly it engages run-of-river hydro plants, then the public cogeneration plants, the nuclear plant and thermal power plants. Storage hydro plants are used for covering peak load consumption. In case of shortage of installed capacity, the cross-border purchase is allowed. Usage of dual fuel equipment (gas-oil), which is available in some thermal plants, is also controlled by the optimization procedure. It is shown that by using such a model it is possible to properly plan the amount of fuel gas which will be contracted. The contracted amount can easily be distributed over generators efficiently and without losses (no breaks in delivery). The model helps in optimizing of fuel gas-oil ratio for plants with combined burners and enables planning of power plants overhauls over a year in a viable and efficient way. (author)

  20. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  1. CANDU fuel - fifteen years of power reactor experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjoy, G.R.; Bain, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel has operated in power reactors since 1962. Analyses of performance statistics, supplemented by examinations of fuel from power reactors and experimental loops have yielded: (a) A thorough understanding of the fundamental behaviour of CANDU fuel. (b) Data showing that the predicted high utilization of uranium has been achieved. Actual fuelling costs in 1976 at the Pickering Generating Station are 1.2 m$/kWh (1976 Canadian dollars) with the simple oncethrough natural-UO 2 fuel cycle. (c) Criteria for operation, which have led to the current very low defect rate of 0.03% of all assemblies and to ''CANLUB'' fuel, which has a graphite interlayer between the fuel and sheath to reduce defects on power increases. (d) Proof that the short length (500 mm), collapsible cladding features of the CANDU bundle are successful and that the fuel can operate at high-power output (current peak outer-element linear power is 58 +- 15% kW/m). Involvement by the utility in all stages of fuel development has resulted in efficient application of this fundamental knowledge to ensure proper fuel specifications, procurement, scheduling into the reactor and feedback to developers, designers and manufacturers. As of mid-1976 over 3 x 10 6 individual elements have been built in a well-estabilished commercially competitive fuel fabrication industry and over 2 x 10 6 elements have been irradiated. Only six defects have been attributed to faulty materials or fabrication, and the use of high-density UO 2 with low-moisture content precluded defects from hydrogen contamination and densification. Development work on UO 2 and other fuel cycles (plutonium and thorium) is continuing, and, because CANDU reactors use on-power fuelling, bundles can be inserted into power reactors for testing. Thus new fuel designs can be quickly adopted to ensure that the CANDU system continues to provide low-cost energy with high reliability

  2. Thermal and water management of low temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell in fork-lift truck power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Rabbani, Abid; Mortensen, Henrik Hilleke

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Developing a general zero dimensional Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) model for a forklift. ► System performance with different cooling fluids. ► Water and thermal management of fuel cell system. ► Effect of inlet temperature, outlet temperature and temperature gradient on system performance. - Abstract: A general zero-dimensional Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) model has been developed for forklift truck application. The balance of plant (BOP) comprises of a compressor, an air humidifier, a set of heat exchangers and a recirculation pump. Water and thermal management of the fuel cell stack and BOP has been investigated in this study. The results show that humidification of the inlet air is of great importance. By decreasing the relative humidity of inlet air from 95% to 25%, the voltage can drop by 29%. In addition, elevated stack temperature can lead to a higher average cell voltage when membrane is fully hydrated otherwise it causes a drastic voltage drop in the stack. Furthermore, by substituting liquid water with water–ethylene glycol mixture of 50%, the mass flow of coolant increases by about 32–33% in the inner loop and 60–65% in the outer loop for all ranges of current. The system can then be started up at about −25 °C with negligible change in the efficiency

  3. 4E analysis and multi objective optimization of a micro gas turbine and solid oxide fuel cell hybrid combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Katebi, Arash

    2014-02-01

    Energy, exergy, economic and environmental (4E) analysis and optimization of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine (SOFC-MGT) system for use as combined generation of heat and power (CHP) is investigated in this paper. The hybrid system is modeled and performance related results are validated using available data in literature. Then a multi-objective optimization approach based on genetic algorithm is incorporated. Eight system design parameters are selected for the optimization procedure. System exergy efficiency and total cost rate (including capital or investment cost, operational cost and penalty cost of environmental emissions) are the two objectives. The effects of fuel unit cost, capital investment and system power output on optimum design parameters are also investigated. It is observed that the most sensitive and important design parameter in the hybrid system is fuel cell current density which has a significant effect on the balance between system cost and efficiency. The selected design point from the Pareto distribution of optimization results indicates a total system exergy efficiency of 60.7%, with estimated electrical energy cost 0.057 kW-1 h-1, and payback period of about 6.3 years for the investment.

  4. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  5. Report on achievement in developing fuel cell power generation technology in fiscal 1998. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system (Summary of the research result); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kenkyu seika no yoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Based on the achievement made in the second term plan of researching and developing a molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system, attempts are made on extending the service life, improving the performance, and reducing the cost. At the same time, lamination, cooling and operation technologies will be established, and a 1000-kW class power generation plant will be developed. Realization of use of coal gasified fuel in the future is aimed. Stack materials and their processing technologies will be developed, the cell durability will be improved, and the total system research will be carried out. This paper describes the achievements made during fiscal 1998. A process and control (PAC) test was performed on the fuel system facilities in the 1000-kW class generation plant, and its result was analyzed. The fuel system facilities had the test program using simulated fuel cells set from the system side digested nearly completely, verifying that actions can be taken for operation using actual fuel cells to be executed in fiscal 1999. Analysis of the test result presented raw material conversion rate of 96.6% or higher, generation of hydrogen plus CO of 740 m{sup 3} N/h, and NOx generation of 10 ppm or less. Stable combustion of a low calorie gas (500 kcal/m{sup 3} N) was achieved, completing all of the research objectives planned for fiscal 1998. (NEDO)

  6. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  7. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  8. Assessment of ethanol-fueled IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell power plants in distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, R. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Lefeld, J. [PSI Energy, Plainfield, IN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ethanol-fueled cell power plants presents several significant opportunities for the power generation industry. The potential exists to reduce pollution, help the nation shift from its dependence on imported fuels, reduce global warming, and strengthen the economy. Two important developments can be merged to create a clean, high-technology, bio-based energy system: the production of ethanol fuels and the application of fuel cell power plants. Utilization of ethanol will be in dual-fueled applications initially, and evolve toward the primary fuel as the need for renewable energy sources increase and the economic competitiveness improves. This assessment addresses the major issues of this proposed concept and outlines the benefits anticipated to the environment, US agriculture, energy supplies, and electric power customers. Economic and technical aspects of the concept are also reviewed. One of PSI Energy`s primary interests is the utilization of renewable fuels supplied by their customer base. The IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell is an advanced electric power generation technology currently under development by M-C Power. Commercial applications within the power generation industry are scheduled to begin during the late 1990s.

  9. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers` sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  10. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers' sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  11. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  12. Analytical investigation of high temperature 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system feasibility in methane hydrate recovery and deep ocean power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) model was developed. • Hydrate bed methane dissociation model was integrated with the SOFC model. • SOFC operated steadily for 120 days at high pressure deep ocean environment. • Burning some of the dissociated gas for SMR heat leads to more net methane produced. • Higher SOFC fuel utilization produces higher integrated system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane hydrates are potential valuable energy resources. However, finding an efficient method for methane gas recovery from hydrate sediments is still a challenge. New challenges arise from increasing environmental protection. This is due in part to the technical difficulties involved in the efficient dissociation of methane hydrates at high pressures. In this study, a new approach is proposed to produce valuable products of: 1. Net methane gas recovery from the methane hydrate sediment, and 2. Deep ocean power generation. We have taken the first steps toward utilization of a fuel cell system in methane gas recovery from deep ocean hydrate sediments. An integrated high pressure and high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) system is analyzed for this application and the recoverable amount of methane from deep ocean sediments is measured. System analysis is accomplished for two major cases regarding system performance: 1. Energy for SMR is provided by the burning part of the methane gas dissociated from the hydrate sediment. 2. Energy for SMR is provided through heat exchange with fuel cell effluent gases. We found that the total production of methane gas is higher in the first case compared to the second case. The net power generated by the fuel cell system is estimated for all cases. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of integrated electrochemical devices to accomplish energy efficient dissociation of methane hydrate gases in deep ocean sediments. Concepts for use of electrochemical devices

  13. Draft, development and optimization of a fuel cell system for residential power generation with steam reformer; Entwurf, Aufbau und Optimierung eines PEM-Brennstoffzellensystems zur Hausenergieversorgung mit Dampfreformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, H

    2006-05-17

    The first development cycle of a residential power generation system is described. A steam reformer was chosen to produce hydrogen out of natural gas. After carbon monoxide purification with a preferential oxidation (PrOx) unit the hydrogen rich reformat gas is feed to the anode of the PEM-fuel cell, where due to the internal reaction with air oxygen form the cathode side water, heat and electricity is produced. Due to an incomplete conversion the anode off gas contains hydrogen and residual methane, which is feed to the burner of the steam reformer to reduce the needed amount of external fuel to heat the steam reformer. To develop the system the components are separately investigated and optimized in their construction or operation to meet the system requirements. After steady state and dynamic characterization of the components they were coupled one after another to build the system. To operate the system a system control was developed to operate and characterize this complex system. After characterization the system was analyzed for further optimization. During the development of the system inventions like a water cooled PrOx, an independent fuel cell controller or a burner for anodic off gas recirculation were made. The work gives a look into the interactions between the components and allows to understand the problems by coupling such components. (orig.)

  14. Study of a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for a geothermal heat pump heated greenhouse and evaluation of the electrolyser efficiency and operational mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic factor of variability of renewable energy sources often limits their broader use. The photovoltaic solar systems can be provided with a power back up based on a combination of an electrolyser and a fuel cell stack. The integration of solar hydrogen power systems with greenhouse heating equipment can provide a possible option for powering stand-alone greenhouses. The aim of the research under development at the experimental farm of Department of Agro-Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari Aldo Moro is to investigate on the suitable solutions of a power system based on photovoltaic energy and on the use of hydrogen as energy vector, integrated with a ground source heat pump for greenhouse heating in a self sustained way. The excess energy produced by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules supplies an alkaline electrolyser; the produced hydrogen gas is stored in pressured storage tank. When the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the heat pump power demand, the fuel cell starts converting the chemical energy stored by the hydrogen fuel into electricity. This paper reports on the description of the realised system. Furthermore the efficiency and the operational mode of the electrolyser were evaluated during a trial period characterised by mutable solar radiant energy. Anyway the electrolyser worked continuously in a transient state producing fluctuations of the hydrogen production and without ever reaching the steady-state conditions. The Faradic efficiency, evaluated by means of an empirical mathematic model, highlights that the suitable working range of the electrolyser was 1.5÷2.5 kW and then for hydrogen production more than 0.21 Nm3h–1.

  15. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2007-09-27

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  16. Fuel cladding mechanical interaction during power ramps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between fuel and cladding may occur as a consequence of two types of phenomenon: i) fuel swelling especially at levels of caesium accumulation, and ii) thermal differential expansion during power changes. Slow overpower ramps which may occur during incidental events are of course one of the circumstances responsible for this second type of fuel cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI). Experiments and analysis of this problem that have been done at C.E.A. allow to determine the main parameters which will fix the level of stress and the risk of damage induced by the fuel in the cladding during overpower transients

  17. Dynamic fuzzy cognitive network approach for modelling and control of PEM fuel cell for power electric bicycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheirandish, Azadeh; Motlagh, Farid; Shafiabady, Niusha; Dahari, Mahidzal; Khairi Abdul Wahab, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Fuzzy cognitive map was proposed for the first time to describe the behaviour of fuel cell electric bicycle system. •Fuzzy rules were applied to explain the cause and effect between concepts. •To predict and analyse the cognitive map involved in the negotiation process. -- Abstract: Modelling Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is the fundamental step in designing efficient systems for achieving higher performance. Among the development of new energy technologies, modelling and optimization of energy processes with pollution reduction, sufficient efficiency and low emission are considered one of the most promising areas of study. Despite affecting factors in PEMFC functionality, providing a reliable model for PEMFC is the key of performance optimization challenge. In this paper, fuzzy cognitive map has been used for modelling PEMFC system that is directed to provide a dynamic cognitive map from the affecting factors of the system. Controlling and modification of the system performance in various conditions is more practical by correlations among the performance factors of the PEMFC derived from fuzzy cognitive maps. On the other hand, the information of fuzzy cognitive map modelling is applicable for modification of neural networks structure for providing more accurate results based on the extracted knowledge from the cognitive map and visualization of the system’s performance. Finally, a rule based fuzzy cognitive map has been used that can be implemented for decision-making to control the system. This rule-based approach provides interpretability while enhancing the performance of the overall system.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. (g) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface shall only be used to transport diesel fuel... storage facility. (h) The diesel fuel piping system must not be located in a borehole with electric power... entry as electric cables or power lines. Where it is necessary for piping systems to cross electric...

  19. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  20. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Hydrogen-fuel-powered bell segments of biomimetic jellyfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Yonas; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank; Haines, Carter; Novitski, David; Baughman, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Artificial muscles powered by a renewable energy source are desired for joint articulation in bio-inspired autonomous systems. In this study, a robotic underwater vehicle, inspired by jellyfish, was designed to be actuated by a chemical fuel source. The fuel-powered muscles presented in this work comprise nano-platinum catalyst-coated multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets, wrapped on the surface of nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA). As a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen gases makes contact with the platinum, the resulting exothermic reaction activates the nickel–titanium (NiTi)-based SMA. The MWCNT sheets serve as a support for the platinum particles and enhance the heat transfer due to the high thermal conductivity between the composite and the SMA. A hydrogen and oxygen fuel source could potentially provide higher power density than electrical sources. Several vehicle designs were considered and a peripheral SMA configuration under the robotic bell was chosen as the best arrangement. Constitutive equations combined with thermodynamic modeling were developed to understand the influence of system parameters that affect the overall actuation behavior of the fuel-powered SMA. The model is based on the changes in entropy of the hydrogen and oxygen fuel on the composite actuator within a channel. The specific heat capacity is the dominant factor controlling the width of the strain for various pulse widths of fuel delivery. Both theoretical and experimental strains for different diameter (100 and 150 µm) SMA/MWCNT/Pt fuel-powered muscles with dead weight attached at the end exhibited the highest magnitude under 450 ms of fuel delivery within 1.6 mm diameter conduit size. Fuel-powered bell deformation of 13.5% was found to be comparable to that of electrically powered (29%) and natural jellyfish (42%). (paper)

  2. Fuel handling solutions to power pulse at Bruce NGS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    In response to the discovery of the power pulse problem in March of 1993, Bruce A has installed flow straightening shield plugs in the inner zone channels of all units to partially reduce the gap and gain an increase in reactor power to 75%. After review and evaluation of solutions to manage the gap, including creep compensators and long fuel bundles, efforts have focused on a different solution involving reordering the fuel bundles to reverse the burnup profile. This configuration is maintained by fuelling with the flow and providing better support to the highly irradiated downstream fuel bundles by changing the design of the outlet shield plug. Engineering changes to the fuel handling control system and outlet shield plug are planned to be implemented starting in June 1996, thereby eliminating the power pulse problem and restrictions on reactor operating power. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Fuel handling solutions to power pulse at Bruce NGS A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R C [Ontario Hydro, Tiverton, ON (Canada). Bruce Nuclear Generating Station-A

    1997-12-31

    In response to the discovery of the power pulse problem in March of 1993, Bruce A has installed flow straightening shield plugs in the inner zone channels of all units to partially reduce the gap and gain an increase in reactor power to 75%. After review and evaluation of solutions to manage the gap, including creep compensators and long fuel bundles, efforts have focused on a different solution involving reordering the fuel bundles to reverse the burnup profile. This configuration is maintained by fuelling with the flow and providing better support to the highly irradiated downstream fuel bundles by changing the design of the outlet shield plug. Engineering changes to the fuel handling control system and outlet shield plug are planned to be implemented starting in June 1996, thereby eliminating the power pulse problem and restrictions on reactor operating power. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. Research on bioorganic fuels as power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Markku J.; Spets, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Department of Energy Technology-TKK, Applied Thermodynamics, PO Box 4400, FI-02201 TKK (Finland); Kiros, Yohannes [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, S100-44 Stockholm (Sweden); Anttila, Tomi [Oy Hydrocell Ltd, Minkkikatu 1-3, 04430 Jaervenpaeae (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with the kind of the bioorganic fuel cells that are equipped with or without ion exchange membranes. The bioorganic materials of interest are alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and glucose, which are obtained from renewable energy sources such as biomass. The operation temperatures of the direct fuel cells cover from room temperature up to 150 C. The direct bioorganic fuel cells belong to the subject area of 'Advanced fuel cells' of the Working group 4 in the EU COST Action 543 among the collaborating Universities and Institutes. Bioorganic fuel cells are suitable for application in small portable power sources, such as backups, battery chargers and in electronic devices. A number of current and earlier works are summarised and advances are highlighted in this area with special emphasis on glucose as a fuel. (author)

  5. MOX fuel for Indian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.; Anantharaman, K.; Purushotham, D.S.C.

    2000-01-01

    A sound energy policy and a sound environmental policy calls for utilisation of plutonium (Pu) in nuclear power reactors. The paper discusses the use of Pu in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in two Indian boiling water reactors (BWRs) at Tarapur. An industrial scale MOX fuel fabrication plant is presently operational at Tarapur which is capable of manufacturing MOX fuels for BWRs and in future for PHWRs. The plant can also manufacture mixed oxide fuel for prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and development work in this regard has already started. The paper describes the MOX fuel manufacturing technology and quality control techniques presently in use at the plant. The irradiation experience of the lead MOX assemblies in BWRs is also briefly discussed. The key areas of interest for future developments in MOX fuel fabrication technology and Pu utilisation are identified. (author)

  6. HyLIFT-FLEX. ''Development and demonstration of flexible and scalable fuel cell power system for various material handling vehicles''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The project has successfully developed and tested a new fuel cell system from H2 Logic in a tow tractor from MULAG. Based on the project results a positive decision has been taken on continuing commercialisation efforts. Next step will be a large scale demonstration of up to 100 units in a new project named HyLIFT-Europe that is expected to commence in early 2013, with support from the FCH-JU programme. Main efforts in the project have been the development of a new fuel cell system, named H2Drive from H2 Logic, and the integration and test in a standard battery powered COMET 3 towing tractor from MULAG. The system size is exactly the same as a standard battery box (DIN measures) and can be easily integrated into e.g. the MULAG vehicle or other electric powered material handling vehicles using the same battery size. Several R and D efforts on the fuel cell system have been conducted with the aim to reduce cost and improve efficiency, among others the following: 1) New air compressor sub-system and control - improving overall system efficiency with {approx}2,5%. 2) New simplified air-based compressor cooling sub-system. 3) New hydrogen compressor sub-system with improved efficiency and reduced cost. 4) New hydrogen inlet and outlet manifold sub-system - resulting in reduction of more than 50% of all sensor components in the fuel cell system. 5) New DC/DC converter with an average efficiency of 97% - a 3% improvement. 6) A new optimized hybrid system that meets the vehicle cycle requirements. In total the R and D efforts have improved the overall fuel cell system efficiency with 10% and helped to reduce costs with 33% compared to the previous generation. A first prototype of the developed H2Drive system has been constructed and integrated into the MULAG Towing Tractor. Only few modifications were made on the base vehicle, among others integration of cabin-heating, displays and motor control. Several internal tests were conducted at H2 Logic and MULAG before making a

  7. Modeling a Distributed Power Flow Controller with a PEM Fuel Cell for Power Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chakravorty

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical power demand is increasing at a relatively fast rate over the last years. Because of this increasing demand the power system is becoming very complex. Both electric utilities and end users of electric power are becoming increasingly concerned about power quality. This paper presents a new concept of distributed power flow controller (DPFC, which has been implemented with a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. In this paper, a PEM fuel cell has been simulated in Simulink/MATLAB and then has been used in the proposed DPFC model. The new proposed DPFC model has been tested on a IEEE 30 bus system.

  8. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  9. A novel proton exchange membrane fuel cell based power conversion system for telecom supply with genetic algorithm assisted intelligent interfacing converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Rajvir; Krishnasamy, Vijayakumar; Muthusamy, Kaleeswari; Chinnamuthan, Periasamy

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Proton exchange membrane fuel cell based telecom tower supply is proposed. • The use of diesel generator is eliminated and battery size is reduced. • Boost converter based intelligent interfacing unit is implemented. • The genetic algorithm assisted controller is proposed for effective interfacing. • The controller is robust against input and output disturbance rejection. - Abstract: This paper presents the fuel cell based simple electric energy conversion system for supplying the telecommunication towers to reduce the operation and maintenance cost of telecom companies. The telecom industry is at the boom and is penetrating deep into remote rural areas having unreliable or no grid supply. The telecom industry is getting heavily dependent on a diesel generator set and battery bank as a backup for continuously supplying a base transceiver station of telecom towers. This excessive usage of backup supply resulted in increased operational expenditure, the unreliability of power supply and had become a threat to the environment. A significant development and concern of clean energy sources, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based supply for base transceiver station is proposed with intelligent interfacing unit. The necessity of the battery bank capacity is significantly reduced as compared with the earlier solutions. Further, a simple closed loop and genetic algorithm assisted controller is proposed for intelligent interfacing unit which consists of power electronic boost converter for power conditioning. The proposed genetic algorithm assisted controller would ensure the tight voltage regulation at the DC distribution bus of the base transceiver station. Also, it will provide the robust performance of the base transceiver station under telecom load variation and proton exchange membrane fuel cell output voltage fluctuations. The complete electric energy conversion system along with telecom loads is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink platform and

  10. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  11. Power generation costs for alternate reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The total electric generating costs at the power plant busbar are estimated for various nuclear reactor fuel cycles which may be considered for power generation in the future. The reactor systems include pressurized water reactors (PWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), light-water pre-breeder and breeder reactors (LWPR, LWBR), and a fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR). Fuel cycles include once-through, uranium-only recycle, and full recycle of the uranium and plutonium in the spent fuel assemblies. The U 3 O 8 price for economic transition from once-through LWR fuel cycles to both PWR recycle and LMFBR systems is estimated. Electric power generation costs were determined both for a reference set of unit cost parameters and for a range of uncertainty in these parameters. In addition, cost sensitivity parameters are provided so that independent estimations can be made for alternate cost assumptions

  12. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  13. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  14. Overview of the CANDU fuel handling system for advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, D.J.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Because of its neutron economies and on-power re-fuelling capabilities the CANDU system is ideally suited for implementing advanced fuel cycles because it can be adapted to burn these alternative fuels without major changes to the reactor. The fuel handling system is adaptable to implement advanced fuel cycles with some minor changes. Each individual advanced fuel cycle imposes some new set of special requirements on the fuel handling system that is different from the requirements usually encountered in handling the traditional natural uranium fuel. These changes are minor from an overall plant point of view but will require some interesting design and operating changes to the fuel handling system. Some preliminary conceptual design has been done on the fuel handling system in support of these fuel cycles. Some fuel handling details were studies in depth for some of the advanced fuel cycles. This paper provides an overview of the concepts and design challenges. (author)

  15. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  16. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  17. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled

  18. A new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine to improve fuel consumption of wind–Diesel power system for non-interconnected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model thermodynamic ideal cycle of a new hybrid pneumaticcombustion engine. ► We optimize commands of all modes and calculate maps of fuel and air consumption. ► We evaluate fuel economy for Wind–Diesel system function of tank volume and wind penetration. ► We find up to 10% of fuel economy i.e. 80 t/year with 100% wind penetration. ► Fuel economy increases with wind penetration and with volume but has asymptotic value. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of an optimized Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine (HPCE) concept that permits reducing fuel consumption for electricity production in non-interconnected remote areas, originally equipped with hybrid Wind–Diesel System (WDS). Up to now, most of the studies on the pneumatic hybridization of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have dealt with two-stroke pure pneumatic mode. The few studies that have dealt with hybrid pneumatic-combustion four-stroke mode require adding a supplementary valve to charge compressed air in the combustion chamber. This modification means that a new cylinder head should be fabricated. Moreover, those studies focus on spark ignition engines and are not yet validated for Diesel engines. Present HPCE is capable of making a Diesel engine operate under two-stroke pneumatic motor mode, two-stroke pneumatic pump mode and four-stroke hybrid mode, without needing an additional valve in the combustion chamber. This fact constitutes this study’s strength and innovation. The evaluation of the concept is based on ideal thermodynamic cycle modeling. The optimized valve actuation timings for all modes lead to generic maps that are independent of the engine size. The fuel economy is calculated for a known site during a whole year, function of the air storage volume and the wind power penetration rate.

  19. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  20. Energy control of supercapacitor/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payman, Alireza; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a flatness based control principle in a hybrid system utilizing a fuel cell as a main power source and a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power source. The control strategy is based on regulation of the dc bus capacitor energy and, consequently, voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm does not use a commutation algorithm when the operating mode changes with the load power variation and, thus, avoids chattering effects. Using the flatness based control method, the fuel cell dynamic and its delivered power is perfectly controlled, and the fuel cell can operate in a safe condition. In the hybrid system, the supercapacitor functions during transient energy delivery or during energy recovery situations. To validate the proposed method, the control algorithms are executed in dSPACE hardware, while analogical current loops regulators are employed in the experimental environment. The experimental results prove the validity of the proposed approach

  1. Spent fuel characterization program in Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, M.; Canencia, R.; Blanco, J.; POMAR, C.

    2010-01-01

    Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a 14x14 PWR reactor built in 1964 in Spain (160 MWe). The commercial operation started in 1969 and finished in 2006. During year 2009, 377 fuel assemblies from cycles 11 to 29 have been stored in 12 containers HI-STORM 100, and positioned in an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installation built near the NPP. The spent fuel characterization and classification is a critical and complex activity that could impact all the storage process. As every container has a number of positions for damaged fuel, the loading plans and the quantity of containers depends on the total fuels classified as damaged. The classification of the spent fuel in Jose Cabrera has been performed on the basis of the Interim Staff Guidance ISG-1 from USNRC, 'Damaged Fuel'. As the storage system should assure thermal limitations, criticality control, retrievability, confinement and shielding for radioactive protection, the criteria analyzed for every spent fuel have been the existence/non existence of fuel leaks; damage that could affect the criticality analysis (as missing fuel pins) and any situation that could affect the future retrievability, as defects on the top nozzle. The first classification was performed based upon existing core records. If there were no indication of operating leakers during the concerned cycles and the structural integrity was adequate, the fuel was classified as intact or undamaged. When operating records indicated a fuel leaker, an additional inspection by ultrasonic testing of all the fuel in the concerned cycle was performed to determine the fuel leakers. If the examination results indicated that the fuel has cladding cracks, it was classified as damaged fuel without considering if it was a gross breach or a hairline crack. Additionally, it was confirmed that the water chemistry specifications for spent fuel pool has been fulfilled. Finally, a visual inspection before dry cask storage was performed and foreign particles were

  2. Spent fuel characterization program in Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloret, M.; Canencia, R. [Product Engineering, Enusa Industrias Avanzadas S.A., Santiago Rusinol 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, J.; POMAR, C. [Direction of Nuclear Generation, Gas Natural SDG, Avda. San Luis 77, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a 14x14 PWR reactor built in 1964 in Spain (160 MWe). The commercial operation started in 1969 and finished in 2006. During year 2009, 377 fuel assemblies from cycles 11 to 29 have been stored in 12 containers HI-STORM 100, and positioned in an Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installation built near the NPP. The spent fuel characterization and classification is a critical and complex activity that could impact all the storage process. As every container has a number of positions for damaged fuel, the loading plans and the quantity of containers depends on the total fuels classified as damaged. The classification of the spent fuel in Jose Cabrera has been performed on the basis of the Interim Staff Guidance ISG-1 from USNRC, 'Damaged Fuel'. As the storage system should assure thermal limitations, criticality control, retrievability, confinement and shielding for radioactive protection, the criteria analyzed for every spent fuel have been the existence/non existence of fuel leaks; damage that could affect the criticality analysis (as missing fuel pins) and any situation that could affect the future retrievability, as defects on the top nozzle. The first classification was performed based upon existing core records. If there were no indication of operating leakers during the concerned cycles and the structural integrity was adequate, the fuel was classified as intact or undamaged. When operating records indicated a fuel leaker, an additional inspection by ultrasonic testing of all the fuel in the concerned cycle was performed to determine the fuel leakers. If the examination results indicated that the fuel has cladding cracks, it was classified as damaged fuel without considering if it was a gross breach or a hairline crack. Additionally, it was confirmed that the water chemistry specifications for spent fuel pool has been fulfilled. Finally, a visual inspection before dry cask storage was performed and foreign particles

  3. Development, investigation and modelling of a micro reformer as part of a system for off-grid power supply with PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochlitz, Lisbeth

    2008-11-18

    In this thesis a micro reformer fuel cell system ({mu}RFCS) for 300 Wel off-grid power supply, fuelled with bioethanol, was simulated, designed, developed and investigated in a test-rig. First a literature study was carried through to point out the specific characteristics of micro reforming, the most important being heat transfer, and present the systems currently under research and already on the market. As a next step, the processes of the RFCS were simulated with the commercial simulation tool CHEMCAD. This comprised thermodynamic equilibrium simulations for the separate reactions of steam reforming, water gas shift and selective methanation. It also included a simulation of the complete {mu}RFCS with thermodynamic equilibrium for all reactors and assumed values for heat loss and fuel cell efficiency. The resulting net electrical efficiency was 24%. As a third step, a reaction pathway scheme with parallel and serial reactions for the steam reforming reaction of ethanol was simulated, developed, evaluated and proven plausible by matching the simulation to experimental results obtained in the {mu}RFCS test rig. The equilibrium simulations were used to evaluate the catalyst screening carried through for reformer, water gas shift and selective methanation catalysts. The catalysts for the {mu}RFCS were chosen and the optimum operating conditions determined by the screening tests. Having accomplished the simulation and design of the system, the largest proportion of this work was spent on the construction, set-up, testing and evaluation of the complete {mu}RFCS. The focus for the evaluations lay on the reformer side of the system. The technical feasibility was demonstrated for an ethanol/water mix of 3 ml/min at S/C 3. The first tests without optimized heat and water management between the reformer system and the fuel cell system resulted in power output of around 115 W{sub el}, at a total electrical efficiency of 31%. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear-powered pacemaker fuel cladding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.

    1976-07-01

    The fabrication of fuel capsules with refractory metal and alloy clads used in nuclear-powered cardiac pacemakers precludes the expedient dissolution of the clad in inorganic acid solutions. An experiment to measure penetration rates of acids on commonly used fuel pellet clads indicated that it is not impossible, but that it would be very difficult to dissolve the multiple cladding. This work was performed because of a suggestion that a 238 PuO 2 -powered pacemaker could be transformed into a terrorism weapon

  5. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  6. Comparative assessment of hydrogen storage and international electricity trade for a Danish energy system with wind power and hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent (Roskilde University, Energy, Environment and Climate Group, Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC) (DK)); Meibom, P.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Hauge Pedersen, A. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (DK)); Lindboe, H.H.; Bregnebaek, L. (ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report is the final outcome of a project carried out under the Danish Energy Agency's Energy Research Programme. The aims of the project can be summarized as follows: 1) Simulation of an energy system with a large share of wind power and possibly hydrogen, including economic optimization through trade at the Nordic power pool (exchange market) and/or use of hydrogen storage. The time horizon is 50 years. 2) Formulating new scenarios for situations with and without development of viable fuel cell technologies. 3) Updating software to solve the abovementioned problems. The project has identified a range of scenarios for all parts of the energy system, including most visions of possible future developments. (BA)

  7. Power Systems Development Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  9. Fuel rod fixing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is a reusable system for fixing a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support. An interlock cap is fixed to the fuel rod and an interlock strip is fixed to the support. The interlock cap has two opposed fingers, which are shaped so that a base is formed with a body part. The interlock strip has an extension, which is shaped so that this is rigidly fixed to the body part of the base. The fingers of the interlock cap are elastic in bending. To fix it, the interlock cap is pushed longitudinally on to the interlock strip, which causes the extension to bend the fingers open in order to engage with the body part of the base. To remove it, the procedure is reversed. (orig.) [de

  10. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  11. Fiscal 1996 result reports of the researches under consignment from NEDO. Developments of fuel cell technology, polymer electrolyte fuel cell, fuel cell power generation system technology, and high-voltage type several tens kW class distributed power source system; Shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko itaku gyomu 1996 nendo seika hokokusho. Nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu, kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu, hatsuden system gijutsu kaihatsu, koden`atsugata suju kW kyu bunsan dengen system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper precisely reports the research result on development of fuel cell technology in fiscal 1996. On verification of cell durability, the cell test result in hydrogen including CO of 100ppm using Pt-Ru catalyst as CO resistant catalyst showed that the loss percent of cell voltage decreases with an increase in Ru content. On development of stack technology, the carbon humidification plate superior in chemical stability was developed as one of the parts for layered stacks. The separator with a water- permeable carbon plate and serpentine flow fields was fabricated for highly layered stacks, and achieved the target performance in single cell power generation test. On establishment of design basis for compact fuel processor, the bench-scale test was conducted of Ru/{gamma}-Al2O3 and Pt-Ru/{gamma}-Al2O3 catalysts as advanced CO selective oxidation catalyst for CO reducers. On demonstration test for the several tens kW class stationary power plant, the system configuration of power generation plants using natural gas as fuel was studied. 106 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Wind power plants the fuel savers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind is a converted from of solar energy. The Sun's radiation heats different parts of the earth at variable rates as the earth surfaces absorb or reflect at different rates. This in turn causes portions of the atmosphere to warm at varying levels. The hot air rises reducing atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface beneath, the cooler air rushes to replace it and in the process creates a momentum called wind. Air possesses mass and when it sets into motion, it contains the energy of that motion, called the Kinetic Energy. A part of the Kinetic Energy of the wind can be converted into other forms of energy i.e. mechanical force or electric power that can be used to perform work. The cost of electric energy from the wind system has dropped from the initial cost of 30 to 40 Cents per kWh to about 5 to 7 Cents/k Wh during the past 20 years. The costs are continually declining as the technology is advanced, the unit size is increased and larger plants are built. Wind power is now a viable, robust and fast growing industry. The cost of wind energy is expected to drop to 2 to 3 Cents / kWh during the next 5 to 10 years. Due to sky-rocketing prices of the fossil fuels, the competitive position of power generation technologies is rapidly changing. Wind energy is likely to emerge as the cheapest source of electric power generation in the global market in the near future. The current assessment of the global wind resources indicate that the wind energy potential is more than double the world's electricity needs. (author)

  13. Synthesis on power electronics for large fuel cells: From power conditioning to potentiodynamic analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardinis, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Active load for fuel cell managing electrical drive constraints: frequency and current ripple can be adjusted independently. • Multi-port resonant soft-switched topology for power management of a thirty kilowatt segmented PEM fuel cell. • Splitting current control strategy for power segmented PEM fuel cell in case of a segment is under fault. • Reversible Buck topology for large fuel cell with control of the fuel cell potential linked to current density nonlinearity. - Abstract: The work addressed in this paper deals with a synthesis on power electronic converters used for fuel cells. The knowledge gap concerns conceptually different electronic converter architectures for PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells able to perform three types of functionalities: The first one is the capacity of emulating an active load representative of electrical drive constraints. In that case, frequency and fuel cell current ripple can be set independently to investigate the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell. The second one is power conditioning applied to large high power and segmented fuel cell systems (“Large” represents several tens of cells and multi-kilowatt stacks), which is a non trivial consideration regarding the topological choices to be made for improving efficiency, compactness and ensure operation under faulty condition. A multi-port resonant isolated boost topology is analyzed enabling soft switching over a large operating range for a thirty kilowatt segmented fuel cell. A splitting current control strategy in case of a segment is under fault is proposed. Each considered converter topologies meet specific constraints regarding fuel cell stack design and power level. The third functionality is the ability for the power electronics to perform analysis and diagnosis techniques, like the cyclic voltammetry on large PEM fuel cell assemblies. The latter technique is an uncommon process for large fuel cell stacks since it is rather performed on

  14. The fuel cycle scoping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, G.D.; Malone, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was created to fill the need for a scoping tool which provides the utilities with the ability to quickly evaluate alternative fuel management strategies, tails assay choices, fuel fabrication quotes, fuel financing alternatives, fuel cycle schedules, and other fuel cycle perturbations. The FCSS was specifically designed for PC's that support dBASE-III(TM), a relational data base software system by Ashton-Tate. However, knowledge of dBASE-III is not necessary in order to utilize the FCSS. The FCSS is menu driven and can be utilized as a teaching tool as well as a scoping tool

  15. Topfuel '95: Fuel for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, 425 nuclear power stations with an installed capacity of 360 263 MW were in operation in 30 countries of the world, and a total of 60 units with a capacity of 53 580 MWe were being cnstructed in 18 countries. The supply of nuclear fuels to these nuclear power stations was the central issue of the Topfuel '95 - Topical Meeting on Nuclear Fuel. More than 350 experts from 23 countries had been invited to Wuerzburg by the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS). The conference was accompanied by an exhibition at which twelve inernational fuel cycle enterprises presented their products, processes, and problem solutions. The poster session in the hall of the Cogress Center Wuerzburg exhibited 42 contributions which are be discussed in the second part of the conference report. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Coal-fuelled systems for peaking power with 100% CO2 capture through integration of solid oxide fuel cells with compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nease, Jake; Adams, Thomas A.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a coal-fuelled integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) system in a load-following power production scenario is discussed. Sixteen SOFC-based plants with optional carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and syngas shifting steps are simulated and compared to a state-of-the-art supercritical pulverised coal (SCPC) plant. Simulations are performed using a combination of MATLAB and Aspen Plus v7.3. It was found that adding CAES to a SOFC-based plant can provide load-following capabilities with relatively small effects on efficiencies (1-2% HHV depending on the system configuration) and levelized costs of electricity (∼0.35 ¢ kW-1 h-1). The load-following capabilities, as measured by least-squares metrics, show that this system may utilize coal and achieve excellent load-tracking that is not adversely affected by the inclusion of CCS. Adding CCS to the SOFC/CAES system reduces measurable direct CO2 emission to zero. A seasonal partial plant shutdown schedule is found to reduce fuel consumption by 9.5% while allowing for cleaning and maintenance windows for the SOFC stacks without significantly affecting the performance of the system (∼1% HHV reduction in efficiency). The SOFC-based systems with CCS are found to become economically attractive relative to SCPC above carbon taxes of 22 ton-1.

  17. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  18. Energy analysis of nuclear power plants and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy analysis has become an increasingly feasible and practical additional method for evaluating the engineering, economic and environmental aspects of power producing systems. Energy analysis compares total direct and indirect energy investment into construction and operation of power plants with their lifetime energy output. Statically we have applied this method to nuclear power producing sytems and their fuel cycles. Results were adapted to countries with various levels of industrialization and resources. With dynamic energy analysis different scenarios have been investigated. For comparison purposes fossil fueled and solar power plants have also been analyzed. By static evaluation it has been shown that for all types of power plants the energy investment for construction is shortly after plant startup being repaid by energy output. Static analyses of nuclear and fossil fuels have indicated values of fuel concentrations below which more energy is required for their utilization than can be obtained from the plants they fuel. In a further step these global results were specifically modified to the economic situations of countries with various levels of industrialization. Also the influence of energy imports upon energy analysis has been discussed. By dynamic energy analyses the cumulative energy requirements for specific power plant construction programs have been compared with their total energy output. Investigations of this sort are extremely valuable not only for economic reasons but especially for their usefulness in showing the advantages and disadvantages of a specific power program with respect to its alternatives. Naturally the impact of these investigations on the fuel requirements is of importance especially because of the today so often cited ''valuable cumulated fossil fuel savings''

  19. Fuel processing requirements and techniques for fuel cell propulsion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Yu, M.

    Fuels for fuel cells in transportation systems are likely to be methanol, natural gas, hydrogen, propane, or ethanol. Fuels other than hydrogen will need to be reformed to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. The fuel reformer must meet stringent requirements for weight and volume, product quality, and transient operation. It must be compact and lightweight, must produce low levels of CO and other byproducts, and must have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Catalytic steam reforming, catalytic or noncatalytic partial oxidation reforming, or some combination of these processes may be used. This paper discusses salient features of the different kinds of reformers and describes the catalysts and processes being examined for the oxidation reforming of methanol and the steam reforming of ethanol. Effective catalysts and reaction conditions for the former have been identified; promising catalysts and reaction conditions for the latter are being investigated.

  20. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  1. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kalyan; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Amit

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant integrated in a multimachine power system. The utilization factor of a fuel stack maintains steady state by tuning the fuel valve in the fuel processor at a rate proportional to a current drawn from the fuel stack. A suitable fuzzy logic control is used for the overall system, its objective being controlling the current drawn by the power conditioning unit and meet a desirable output power demand. The proposed control scheme is verified through computer simulations.

  2. Reactor fueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Noriaki; Hirano, Haruyoshi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To optimally position a fuel catcher by mounting a television camera to a fuel catching portion and judging video images by the use of a computer or the like. Constitution: A television camera is mounted to the lower end of a fuel catching mechanism for handling nuclear fuels and a fuel assembly disposed within a reactor core or a fuel storage pool is observed directly from above to judge the position for the fuel assembly by means of video signals. Then, the relative deviation between the actual position of the fuel catcher and that set in a memory device is determined and the positional correction is carried out automatically so as to reduce the determined deviation to zero. This enables to catch the fuel assembly without failure and improves the efficiency for the fuel exchange operation. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Hazards assessment and technical actions due to the production of pressured hydrogen within a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for agricultural equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot power system formed by photovoltaic panels, alkaline electrolyser and fuel cell stacks was designed and set up to supply the heating system of an experimental greenhouse. The aim of this paper is to analyse the main safety aspects of this power system connected to the management of the pressured hydrogen, such as the explosion limits of the mixture hydrogen-oxygen, the extension of the danger zone, the protection pressure vessels and the system to make unreactive the plant. The electrolyser unit is the core of this plant and from the safety point of view has been equipped with devices able to highlight the malfunctions before they cause damages. Alarm situations are highlighted and the production process is cut off in safe conditions in the event that the operational parameters have an abnormal deviation from the design values. Also the entire power system has been designed so that any failure to its components does not compromise the workers’ safety even if the risk analysis is in progress because technical operations are being carried out for enhancing the plant functionality, making it more suitable to the designed task of supplying electrically the greenhouse heating system during cold periods. Some experimental data pertinent to the solar radiation and the corresponding hydrogen production rate are also reported. At present it does not exist a well-established safety reference protocol to design the reliability of these types of power plants and then the assumed safety measures even if related to the achieved pilot installation, can represent an original base of reference to set up guidelines for designing the safety of power plants in the future available for agricultural purposes.

  4. Automatic fuel charging machine for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neda, Toshikazu; Aoki, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable smooth, safety and rapid refueling by automatically conducting a series of fuel exchange steps through the combination of calculations for fuel control and refueling works. Constitution: Processing operations are conducted based on various data from the memory unit of a computer that processes and stores various data inputted from a nuclear power plant, calculation systems stored in the memory unit of another computer, peripheral units such as typewriters and process input units. A refueling platform is operated by way of a platform control device and a platform driving device, and fuel exchange is conducted by the operation of a channel mounting and demounting device. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO 2 and other emissions (NO x , SO x and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  6. Inherent reactor power controller for a metal-fueled ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Inherent power control for metal-fueled ALMR designs involves using reactivity thermal feedback effects to control reactor power. This paper describes how, using classical control design techniques, a control system for normal load following maneuvers was deigned for a pool-type ALMR. This design provides active control of power removal in the balance of plant, direct control of selected primary and intermediate loop temperatures, and passive control of reactor power. The inherent stability of the strong, fast reactivity feedback effects bring heat production in the core into balance with the heat removal system temperatures, which are controlled to meet power demand. A simulation of the control system successfully responded to a 10% step change in power demand by changing power at an acceptable rate without causing large temperature fluctuations or exceeding thermal limits

  7. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  8. Diversification criteria for power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharbach, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Growing power demand, fuel availability and prices, technology changes, the environmental impacts of energy consumption, the changing regulatory environments and the uncertainties around such elements make the planning for optimal power mix a challenging task. The diversity approach is advocated as a most appropriate planning methodology for the optimal energy mix (Hickey et al., 2010). Shannon Wiener Index (SWI), which is the most cited diversity metric has been used to assess power systems diversity mainly from an energy perspective. To our best knowledge, there is no rigorous justification why energy has been the main variable used in diversification exercises rather than other variables such as capacity. We use a stylized power generation framework to show that diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. We also introduce a Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) that we believe captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI. - Highlights: • Ranking power systems, from a diversity perspective, based on one criteria has many shortcomings. • Diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. • A Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI.

  9. Multi-objective design and operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Triple Combined-cycle Power Generation systems: Integrating energy efficiency and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifzadeh, Mahdi; Meghdari, Mojtaba; Rashtchian, Davood

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrating Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with thermal power plants enhance overall energy efficiency. • However, the high degree of process integration in hybrid power plants limits the operating window. • Multi-objective optimization was applied for integrated design and operation. • The Pareto optimal solutions demonstrated strong trade-off between energy efficiency and operational safety. - Abstract: Energy efficiency is one of the main pathways for energy security and environmental protection. In fact, the International Energy Agency asserts that without energy efficiency, 70% of targeted emission reductions are not achievable. Despite this clarity, enhancing the energy efficiency introduce significant challenge toward process operation. The reason is that the methods applied for energy-saving pose the process operation at the intersection of safety constraints. The present research aims at uncovering the trade-off between safe operation and energy efficiency; an optimization framework is developed that ensures process safety and simultaneously optimizes energy-efficiency, quantified in economic terms. The developed optimization framework is demonstrated for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation system. The significance of this industrial application is that SOFC power plants apply a highly degree of process integration resulting in very narrow operating windows. However, they are subject to significant uncertainties in power demand. The results demonstrate a strong trade-off between the competing objectives. It was observed that highly energy-efficient designs feature a very narrow operating window and limited flexibility. For instance, expanding the safe operating window by 100% will incur almost 47% more annualized costs. Establishing such a trade-off is essential for realizing energy-saving.

  10. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  11. Power Peaking Effect of OTTO Fuel Scheme Pebble Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadipura, T.; Suwoto; Zuhair; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) type of Hight Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a very interesting nuclear reactor design to fulfill the growing electricity and heat demand with a superior passive safety features. Effort to introduce the PBR design to the market can be strengthen by simplifying its system with the Once-through-then-out (OTTO) cycle PBR in which the pebble fuel only pass the core once. Important challenge in the OTTO fuel scheme is the power peaking effect which limit the maximum nominal power or burnup of the design. Parametric survey is perform in this study to investigate the contribution of different design parameters to power peaking effect of OTTO cycle PBR. PEBBED code is utilized in this study to perform the equilibrium PBR core analysis for different design parameter and fuel scheme. The parameters include its core diameter, height-per-diameter (H/D), power density, and core nominal power. Results of this study show that diameter and H/D effectsare stronger compare to the power density and nominal core power. Results of this study might become an importance guidance for design optimization of OTTO fuel scheme PBR.

  12. Disposable self-support paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) as the real time "shock" biosensor for wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiheng; Liu, Yucheng; Williams, Isaiah; Li, Yan; Qian, Fengyu; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Dingyi; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2016-11-15

    A paper-based multi-anode microbial fuel cell (PMMFC) integrated with power management system (PMS) was developed as a disposable self-support real-time "shock" biosensor for wastewater. PMMFCs were examined at three types of shocks (chromium, hypochlorite and acetate) in a batch-mode chamber, and exhibited various responses to shock types and concentrations. The power output of PMMFC sensor was four times as the carbon cloth (CC)-based MFCs, indicating the advantage of paper-based anode for bacterial adhesion. The power output was more sensitive than the voltage output under shocks, and thus preventing the false signals. The simulation of power harvest using PMS indicated that PMMFC could accomplish more frequent data transmission than single-anode MFCs (PSMFC) and CC anode MFCs (CCMMFC), making the self-support wastewater monitor and data transmission possible. Compared with traditional MFC sensors, PMMFCs integrated with PMS exhibit the distinct advantages of tight paper-packed structure, short acclimation period, high power output, and high sensitivity to a wide range of shocks, posing a great potential as "disposable self-support shock sensor" for real time in situ monitoring of wastewater quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, F.R.; Tooper, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of alternative fuel cycles was initiated to identify a fuel cycle with inherent technical resistance to proliferation; however, other key features such as resource use, cost, and development status are major elements in a sound fuel cycle strategy if there is no significant difference in proliferation resistance. Special fuel reprocessing techniques such as coprocessing or spiking provide limited resistance to diversion. The nuclear fuel cycle system that will be most effective may be more dependent on the institutional agreements that can be implemented to supplement the technical controls of fuel cycle materials

  14. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  15. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  16. Emission and economic performance assessment of a solid oxide fuel cell micro-combined heat and power system in a domestic building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, Theo; Worall, Mark; Wu, Shenyi; Riffat, Saffa B.

    2015-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is a promising technological configuration for reducing energy consumption and increasing energy security in the domestic built environment. Fuel cells, on account of their: high electrical efficiency, low emissions and useful heat output have been identified as a key technological option for improving both building energy efficiency and reducing emissions in domestic CHP applications. The work presented in this paper builds upon results currently reported in the literature of fuel cells operating in domestic building applications, with an emission and economic performance assessment of a real, commercially available SOFC mCHP system operating in a real building; under a UK context. This paper aims to assess the emission and economic performance of a commercially available solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) mCHP system, operating at The University of Nottingham's Creative Energy Homes. The performance assessment evaluates, over a one year period, the associated carbon (emission assessment) and operational costs (economic assessment) of the SOFC mCHP case compared to a ‘base case’ of grid electricity and a highly efficient gas boiler. Results from the annual assessment show that the SOFC mCHP system can generate annual emission reductions of up to 56% and cost reductions of 177% compared to the base case scenario. However support mechanisms such as; electrical export, feed in tariff and export tariff, are required in order to achieve this, the results are significantly less without. A net present value (NPV) analysis shows that the base case is still more profitable over a 15 year period, even though the SOFC mCHP system generates annual revenue; this is on account of the SOFC's high capital cost. In summary, grid interaction and incubator support is essential for significant annual emission and cost reductions compared to a grid electricity and gas boiler scenario. Currently capital cost is the greatest barrier to the economic

  17. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  18. Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.)

  19. Automated fuel pin loading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  20. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

  1. Power from plutonium: fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Points of similarity and of difference between fast reactor fuel and fuels for AGR and PWR plants are established. The flow of uranium and plutonium in fast and thermal systems is also mentioned, establishing the role of the fast reactor as a plutonium burner. A historical perspective of fast reactors is given in which the substantial experience accumulated in test and prototype is indicated and it is noted that fast reactors have now entered the commercial phase. The relevance of the data obtained in the test and prototype reactors to the behaviour of commercial fast reactor fuel is considered. The design concepts employed in fuel are reviewed, including sections on core support styles, pin support and pin detail. This is followed by a discussion of current issues under the headings of manufacture, performance and reprocessing. This section includes a consideration of gel fuel, achievable burn-up, irradiation induced distortions and material choices, fuel form, and fuel failure mechanisms. Future development possibilities are also discussed and the Paper concludes with a view on the logic of a UK fast reactor strategy. (U.K.)

  2. Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage test series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.; Osetek, D.J.; Ploger, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) tests planned for the Power Burst Facility (PBF) are described. Bundles containing 32 zircaloy-clad, PWR-type fuel rods will be subjected to severe overheating transients in a high-pressure, superheated-steam environment. Cladding temperatures are expected to reach 2400 0 K, resulting in cladding ballooning and rupture, severe cladding oxidation, cladding melting, fuel dissolution, fuel rod fragmentation, and possibly, rubble bed formation. An experiment effluent collection system is being installed and the PBF fission product monitoring system is being upgraded to meet the special requirements of the SFD tests. Scoping calculations were performed to evaluate performance of the SFD test design and to establish operational requirements for the PBF loop

  3. Project management for the Virginia power spent fuel storage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.

    1992-01-01

    Like Duke Power, Virginia Power has been involved in spent fuel storage expansion studies for a long time - possibly a little longer than Duke Power. Virginia Power's initial studies date back to the late 70s and into the early 80s. Large variety of storage techniques are reviewed including reracking and transshipment. Virginia Power also considered construction a new spent fuel pool. This was one of the options that was considered early on since Virginia Power started this process before any dry storage techniques had been proven. Consolidation of spent fuel is something that was also studied. Finally, construction of dry storage facility was determined to be the technology of choice. They looked a large variety of dry storage technologies and eventually selected dry storage in metal casks at Surry. There are many of reasons why a utility may choose one technology over another. In Virginia Power's situation, additional storage was needed at Surry much earlier than at other utilities. Virginia Power was confronted with selecting a storage technique and having to be a leader in that it was the first U.S. utility to implement a dry storage system

  4. Portable 25W hybrid fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Slee, R.; Tilley, J.

    2003-01-01

    Increased operating periods for portable electrical equipment are driving the development of battery and fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell systems promise greater endurance than battery based systems, and this paper describes the research into, and design of, a hybrid lithium-ion battery / fuel cell power source. The device is primarily aimed at military applications such as powering army radio sets and the UK MoD's Integrated Soldier Technology (IST) programme, but would be equally suitable as a power source for civilian applications such as camcorders, battery chargers etc. The air-breathing fuel cell comprises low cost, robust components, and a single cell is capable of developing >0.5W cm -2 . This power rating, however, is reduced in a stack where heat rejection becomes a critical issue. The stack design lends itself to facile manufacture, and the stack can be assembled in minutes by simply stacking the components into place. The remainder of the system includes two lithium-ion battery packs which provide start-up and shutdown power, and enable a silent-operating mode, during which the fuel cell is powered down, to be selected. The intelligent, electronic control, based upon an embedded RISC microprocessor, ensures safe operation and the recharge of the batteries. The overall system is capable of delivering 25W continuous power at an operating voltage of 12V dc. Preliminary testing results are reported. Advantages of this system include a relatively high gravimetric power density, load-following operation and the confidence of a high performance battery as an emergency backup. (author)

  5. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  6. Effects of Transverse Power Distribution on Fuel Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Daeseong; Park, Jonghark; Seo, Chul Gyo; Chae, Heetaek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, transverse power distributions with segments of 4 and 18 are evaluated. Based on the power distribution, the fuel temperatures are evaluated with a consideration of lateral heat conduction. In the present study, the effect of the transverse power distribution on the fuel temperature is investigated. The transverse power distributions with variation of fuel segment number are evaluated. The maximum power peaking with 12 segments is higher than that with 4 segments. Based on the calculation, 6-order polynomial is generated to express the transverse power distributions. The maximum power peaking factor increases with segments. The averaged power peaking is 2.10, and the maximum power peaking with 18 segments is 2.80. With the uniform power distribution, the maximum fuel temperature is found in the middle of the fuel. As the power near the side ends of the fuel increases, the maximum fuel temperature is found near the side ends. However, the maximum fuel temperature is not found where the maximum transverse power is. This is because the high power locally released from the edge of the fuel is laterally conducted to the cladding. As a result of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of the high power peaking at the edge of the fuel on the fuel outer wall temperature is not significant

  7. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellen, A.

    2007-03-01

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  8. Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    Telecommunications providers rely on backup power to maintain a constant power supply, to prevent power outages, and to ensure the operability of cell towers, equipment, and networks. The backup power supply that best meets these objectives is fuel cell technology.

  9. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  10. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers...

  11. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  12. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-03-30

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  13. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

  14. LiquidPower-1. Development and proof-of-concept of core methanol reformer for stationary and motive fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogsgaard, J.; Mortensen, Henrik [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Skipper, T. [Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    LiquidPower-1 has developed laboratory test systems for methanol reforming and tested reformers from four different suppliers. This has contributed to determining the state-of-the-art level for methanol reforming and enabled an update of the LiquidPower R and D Roadmap onwards a commercialisation of the technology. The project has achieved the following results: 1) A detailed technical specification of methanol reformers for the fuel cell back-up power and hydrogen refueling station markets has been conducted; 2) Laboratory test systems for methanol reformers has been developed and established at Dantherm Power and H2 Logic; 3) Initial test of reformers from four suppliers has been conducted - with two suppliers being selected for continued tests; 4) Extensive laboratory tests conducted of reformers from two suppliers, with the aim to determine state-of-the-art for price, efficiency, capacity and lifetime. Several errors and break-downs were experienced during the test period, which revealed a need for further R and D to improve lifetime and stability; 5) The LiquidPower F and U Roadmap has been updated. Reformer TCO targets (Total Cost of Operation) for each of the markets have been calculated including updated targets for efficiency and cost. These targets also serve as the main ones to be pursued as part of the continued R and D roadmap execution. Compared to the previous edition of the Roadmap, the project has confirmed the viability of methanol reforming, but also revealed that stability and lifetime needs to be addressed and solved before commencing commercialization of the technology. If the Roadmap is successful a commercialization can commence beyond 2015. (Author)

  15. ITER fuel cycle systems layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-10-01

    The ITER fuel cycle building (FCB) will contain the following systems: fuel purification - permeator based; fuel purification - molecular sieves; impurity treatment; waste water storage and treatment; isotope separation; waste water tritium extraction; tritium extraction from solid breeder; tritium extraction from test modules; tritium storage, shipping and receiving; tritium laboratory; atmosphere detritiation systems; fuel cycle control centre; tritiated equipment maintenance space; control maintenance space; health physics laboratory; access, access control and facilities. The layout of the FCB and the requirements for these systems are described. (10 figs.)

  16. Batteryless, wireless sensor powered by a sediment microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Conrad; Dewan, Alim; Heo, Deukhyoun; Beyenal, Haluk

    2008-11-15

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) are considered to be an alternative renewable power source for remote monitoring. There are two main challenges to using SMFCs as power sources: 1) a SMFC produces a low potential at which most sensor electronics do not operate, and 2) a SMFC cannot provide continuous power, so energy from the SMFC must be stored and then used to repower sensor electronics intermittently. In this study, we developed a SMFC and a power management system (PMS) to power a batteryless, wireless sensor. A SMFC operating with a microbial anode and cathode, located in the Palouse River, Pullman, Washington, U.S.A., was used to demonstrate the utility of the developed system. The designed PMS stored microbial energy and then started powering the wireless sensor when the SMFC potential reached 320 mV. It continued powering until the SMFC potential dropped below 52 mV. The system was repowered when the SMFC potential increased to 320 mV, and this repowering continued as long as microbial reactions continued. We demonstrated that a microbial fuel cell with a microbial anode and cathode can be used as an effective renewable power source for remote monitoring using custom-designed electronics.

  17. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  18. Direct fuel cell - A high proficiency power generator for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Steinfeld, G.; Baker, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion of renewable bio-based resources into energy offers significant benefits for our environment and domestic economic activity. It also improves national security by displacing fossil fuels. However, in the current economic environment, it is difficult for biofuel systems to compete with other fossil fuels. The biomass-fired power plants are typically smaller than 50 MW, lower in electrical efficiencies (<25%) and experience greater costs for handling and transporting the biomass. When combined with fuel cells such as the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC), biofuels can produce power more efficiently with negligible environmental impact. Agricultural and other waste biomass can be converted to ethanol or methane-rich biofuels for power generation use in the DFC. These DFC power plants are modular and factory assembled. Due to their electrochemical (non-combustion) conversion process, these plants are environmentally friendly, highly efficient and potentially cost effective, even in sizes as small as a few meagawatts. They can be sited closer to the source of the biomass to minimize handling and transportation costs. The high-grade waste heat available from DFC power plants makes them attractive in cogeneration applications for farming and rural communities. The DFC potentially opens up new markets for biofuels derived from wood, grains and other biomass waste products

  19. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  20. The DACC system. Code burnup of cell for projection of the fuel elements in the power net work PWR and BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.; Boeriu, St.; Gheorghiu, E.; Cristian, I.; Patrulescu, I.; Cimporescu, D.; Ciuvica, P.; Velciu, E.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation system DACC-5 is a zero-dimensional reactor physics code used to calculate the criticality and burn-up of light-water reactors. The code requires as input essential extensive reactor parameters (fuel rod radius, water density, etc.). The nuclear constants (intensive parameters) are calculated with a five-group model (2 thermal and 3 fast groups). A fitting procedure is systematically employed to reduce the computation time of the code. Zero-dimensional burn-up calculations are made in an automatic way. Part one of the paper contains the code physical model and computer structure. Part two of the paper will contain tests of DACC-5 credibility for different light-water power lattices

  1. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Einan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT, fuel cells (FC, photo-voltaic (PV and battery energy storage systems (BESS. FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA techniques for active power controllers in isolated networks is proposed. In this paper, COA is compared with genetic algorithm (GA and particles swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. In order to show efficiency of the proposed controller, this optimal controller has been compared with droop, optimized droop, and conventional fuzzy methods, the dynamic analysis of the island is implemented to assess the behavior of isolated generations accurately and simulation results are reported.

  2. Thin film battery/fuel cell power generating system. Final report, Task E-4, April 1976-April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feduska, W.

    1978-03-31

    A two-year researth program to design and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a high-temperature solid-electrolyte fuel cell is described in detail. A rare-earth chromite, in particular, La /sub 95/Mg /sub 05/Cr /sub 75/Al /sub 25/0/sub 3/ was identified, synthesized by RF-sputtering tested for resistivity, thermal expansion and inertness in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia, and was found promising as a candidate interconnection material. Films of these interconnection materials have been successfully deposited onto stabilized zirconia tubes by electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD) and the technique has been used to fabricate such films in building fuel cell stacks. Tin-doped indium oxide and antimony-doped tin oxide air electrode current collector materials have been successfully (CVD) chemically vapor deposited, as thin films, onto zirconia tubes. Fabrication procedures for the preparation of thin films of the nickel-cermet fuel electrode and yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte have been re-verified and improved for use in preparing unit cells and cell stacks on the program. An in-house extrusion technology for porous calcia-stabilized zirconia tubes has been developed and has been used to provide suitable support tubes for component combination samples, unit cell and cell stack sample preparation. Test concepts for component combinations and for unit cells and cell stacks have been evolved, particularly, the crossed electrode technique, and test equipment has been designed, built and used to evaluate fuel cell components and their interfaces. A five-cell fuel cell stack has been fabricated and operated for 700 hours at 200 mA/cm/sup 2/ at 950 to 980/sup 0/C and was subjected to three temperature cycles during the testing. Three series connected cells of this five cell stack met the 80% voltage efficiency final target objective of the program (less than 10% voltage degradation in 700 hours - with only 300 hours required.)

  3. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  4. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  5. Assessment of Microbial Fuel Cell Configurations and Power Densities

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-07-30

    Different microbial electrochemical technologies are being developed for a many diverse applications, including wastewater treatment, biofuel production, water desalination, remote power sources, and as biosensors. Current and energy densities will always be limited relative to batteries and chemical fuel cells, but these technologies have other advantages based on the self-sustaining nature of the microorganisms that can donate or accept electrons from an electrode, the range of fuels that can be used, and versatility in the chemicals that can be produced. The high cost of membranes will likely limit applications of microbial electrochemical technologies that might require a membrane. For microbial fuel cells, which do not need a membrane, questions remain on whether larger-scale systems can produce power densities similar to those obtained in laboratory-scale systems. It is shown here that configuration and fuel (pure chemicals in laboratory media versus actual wastewaters) remain the key factors in power production, rather than the scale of the application. Systems must be scaled up through careful consideration of electrode spacing and packing per unit volume of reactor.

  6. Assessment of Microbial Fuel Cell Configurations and Power Densities

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.; Wallack, Maxwell J; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; He, Weihua; Feng, Yujie; Saikaly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Different microbial electrochemical technologies are being developed for a many diverse applications, including wastewater treatment, biofuel production, water desalination, remote power sources, and as biosensors. Current and energy densities will always be limited relative to batteries and chemical fuel cells, but these technologies have other advantages based on the self-sustaining nature of the microorganisms that can donate or accept electrons from an electrode, the range of fuels that can be used, and versatility in the chemicals that can be produced. The high cost of membranes will likely limit applications of microbial electrochemical technologies that might require a membrane. For microbial fuel cells, which do not need a membrane, questions remain on whether larger-scale systems can produce power densities similar to those obtained in laboratory-scale systems. It is shown here that configuration and fuel (pure chemicals in laboratory media versus actual wastewaters) remain the key factors in power production, rather than the scale of the application. Systems must be scaled up through careful consideration of electrode spacing and packing per unit volume of reactor.

  7. Pattern fuel assembly loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.J.; Gerkey, K.S.; Miller, T.W.; Wylie, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an interactive system for facilitating preloading of fuel rods into magazines, which comprises: an operator work station adapted for positioning between a supply of fuel rods of predetermined types, and the magazine defining grid locations for a predetermined fuel assembly; display means associated with the work station; scanner means associated with the work station and adapted for reading predetermined information accompanying the fuel rods; a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; prompter/detector means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of a fuel rod into the magazine; and processing means responsive to the scanner means and the sensing means for prompting the operator via the display means to pre-load the fuel rods into desired grid locations in the magazine. An apparatus is described for facilitating pre-loading of fuel rods in predetermined grid locations of a fuel assembly loading magazine, comprising: a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; and means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of fuel rods into the magazine

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered

  9. The Effect of Wood Fuels on Power Plant Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orjala, Markku (Markku.Orjala@vtt.fi); Kaerki, Janne; Vainikka, Pasi [VTT Processes, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2003-11-01

    There is a growing international interest in utilising renewable fuels, also in multifuel applications. Main reasons for this are the objective to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and meet emission limits for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}. On one hand cofiring, defined as simultaneous combustion of different fuels in the same boiler, provides an alternative to achieve emission reductions. This is not only accomplished by replacing fossil fuel with biomass, but also as a result of the interaction of fuel reactants of different origin (e.g. biomass vs. coal). On the other hand, utilisation of solid biofuels and wastes sets new demands for process control and boiler design, as well as for combustion technologies, fuel blend control and fuel handling systems. In the case of wood-based fuels this is because of their high reactivity, high moisture content and combustion residues' high alkaline metal content. Combustion and cofiring properties of fuels have been studied both in VTT Processes' test facilities and in industrial-scale power plant boilers. The formation of alkaline and chlorine compounds in biomass combustion and their effect on boiler fouling and corrosion have been monitored by temperature controlled deposit formation and material monitoring probes. Deposit formation monitoring at full-scale boilers provides unique information on the rate of deposit formation, the effect of sootblowing and consequent changes in heat transfer. Additionally, the data from deposit formation monitoring has been shown to correlate with boiler performance, which gives basis for studying the interrelation of: fuel blend characteristics; deposit formation; boiler performance. If biomass fuels are blended with coal or peat, following implications may be expected: increased rate of deposit formation, shorter sootblowing interval, cleaning of heat transfer surfaces in revisions may be required, bed material agglomeration (in fluidised beds), increased risk of corrosion, higher in

  10. Thermal and water management of low temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell in fork-lift truck power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Rabbani, Raja Abid

    2013-01-01

    A general zero-dimensional Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) model has been developed for forklift truck application. The balance of plant (BOP) comprises of a compressor, an air humidifier, a set of heat exchangers and a recirculation pump. Water and thermal management of the fuel cell...... stack and BOP has been investigated in this study. The results show that humidification of the inlet air is of great importance. By decreasing the relative humidity of inlet air from 95% to 25%, the voltage can drop by 29%. In addition, elevated stack temperature can lead to a higher average cell...... voltage when membrane is fully hydrated otherwise it causes a drastic voltage drop in the stack. Furthermore, by substituting liquid water with water-ethylene glycol mixture of 50%, the mass flow of coolant increases by about 32-33% in the inner loop and 60-65% in the outer loop for all ranges of current...

  11. Development of fuel cell systems for aircraft applications based on synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasel, J.; Samsun, R.C.; Doell, C.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    At present, in the aviation sector considerable scientific project work deals with the development of fuel cell systems based on synthetic fuels to be integrated in future aircraft. The benefits of fuel cell systems in aircraft are various. They offer the possibility to simplify the aircraft layout. Important systems, i.e. the gas turbine powered auxiliary power unit (APU) for electricity supply, the fuel tank inserting system and the water tank, can be substituted by one single system, the fuel cell system. Additionally, the energy demand for ice protection can be covered assisted by fuel cell systems. These measures reduce the consumption of jet fuel, increase aircraft efficiency and allow the operation at low emissions. Additionally, the costs for aircraft related investments, for aircraft maintenance and operation can be reduced. On the background of regular discussions about environmental concerns (global warming) of kerosene Jet A-1 and its availability, which might be restricted in a few years, the aircraft industry is keen to employ synthetic, sulfur-free fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels. These comprise Bio-To-Liquid and Gas-To-Liquid fuels. Within this field of research the Institute of Energy Research (IEF-3) in Juelich develops complete and compact fuel cell systems based on the autothermal reforming of these kinds of fuels in cooperation with industry. This paper reports about this work. (orig.)

  12. Reactor fuel reliability constraints on power shape control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelhaus, F.; Hallam, J.; Sauar, T.

    1977-01-01

    The level of reliability of fuel rods operating in commercial nuclear power plants has been less than desired for a number of reasons. Several of these causes have been successfully minimized, but pellet-clad interaction failures persist. Since power and power change are dominant parameters in this failure mode, restrictions on operational maneuvers have been recommended by all U. S. fuel suppliers. Slower-than-design allowable maneuvers decrease the plant capacity factor, which can cost a utility up to $7 million per year per plant. To assist utility engineering and operations personnel in their day-to-day decisions in this regard, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is initiating a project, designated RP895, to develop a fully computerized Power Shape Monitoring System (PSMS) for core-wide fuel rod reliability prediction. This paper describes the PSMS system and details some of the hardware/software requirements as they are now perceived. Salient results from a just-completed complementary EPRI-funded study, RP509, are described; this effort employed hand data acquisition and many man-machine interfaces that will be fully integrated and automated in the PSMS. The capabilities of the PSMS will derive from the use of modern minicomputer hardware and software and from accurate computational modules that enable near-real-time predictive capability

  13. Challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resource in the evolving energy enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastler, Dan

    The primary market challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resources in evolving energy markets are reviewed. Fuel cell power systems have significant barriers to overcome in their anticipated role as decentralized energy power systems. Market segments for fuel cells include combined heat and power; low-cost energy, premium power; peak shaving; and load management and grid support. Understanding the role and fit of fuel cell systems in evolving energy markets and the highest value applications are a major challenge for developers and government funding organizations. The most likely adopters of fuel cell systems and the challenges facing each adopter in the target market segment are reviewed. Adopters include generation companies, utility distribution companies, retail energy service providers and end-users. Key challenges include: overcoming technology risk; achieving retail competitiveness; understanding high value markets and end-user needs; distribution and service channels; regulatory policy issues; and the integration of these decentralized resources within the electrical distribution system.

  14. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  15. Radial heat conduction in a power reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two radial conduction models, one for steady state and another for unsteady state, in a nuclear power reactor fuel element are developed. The objective is to obtain the temperatures in the fuel pellet and the cladding. The lumped-parameter hypothesis are adopted to represent the system. Both models are verified and their results are compared with similar ones. A method to calculate the conductance in the gap between the UO 2 pellet and the clad and its associated uncertainty is included in the steady state model. (author) [es

  16. Development of on-site spent fuel transfer system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.W.; Pennington, C.W.; Guerra, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) of the United States has sponsored development of conceptual designs for accomplishing spent fuel transfer from spent fuel pools to casks and from one cask to another. Under an EPRI research contract, transnuclear has developed several concepts for spent fuel transfer systems. (J.P.N.)

  17. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the INSTAR [INertial STorage And Recovery] System: A Flywheel-based, High Power Energy Storage System for Improved Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Talancon, Daniel Raul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the INSTAR system: a high-power, cost-effective energy storage system designed to improve HEV regenerative braking capabilities by combining chemical batteries with an electromechanical flywheel. This combination allows the regenerative braking system in hybrid vehicles to recapture more available braking energy at a lower battery pack charging current, increasing vehicle energy efficiency while also potentially increasing battery life.A prototype flyw...

  18. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  19. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines and...

  20. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cell-powered cars. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in the car market. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to cars and offers estimates of market potential. Some fuel-cell powered cars are now available for demonstration purposes but the report concludes that truly commercial sales are unlikely to start before 2010 and widespread deployment is expected to take a further ten years after that. The issue of fuel choice is considered largely resolved with most car manufacturers currently focussing on hydrogen as a fuel. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell cars concludes that cost reduction is now the major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells in cars. More demonstration prototypes and field trials are required to provide information on energy, environmental and economic performance of fuel cell cars. Field trials could also provide information to assist the development of refuelling systems, fuel storage systems, stacks and other system components and to gain experience of building integrated fuel cell systems within the constraints imposed by cars.

  1. Development of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Zou, Meng Lin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cogeneration system that provides high-quality electricity and hot water has been developed. A specially designed thermal management system together with a microcontroller embedded with appropriate control algorithm is integrated into a PEM fuel cell system. The thermal management system does not only control the fuel cell operation temperature but also recover the heat dissipated by FC stack. The dynamic behaviors of thermal and electrical characteristics are presented to verify the stability of the fuel cell cogeneration system. In addition, the reliability of the fuel cell cogeneration system is proved by one-day demonstration that deals with the daily power demand in a typical family. Finally, the effects of external loads on the efficiencies of the fuel cell cogeneration system are examined. Results reveal that the maximum system efficiency was as high as 81% when combining heat and power. (author)

  2. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  3. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  4. Fuel cells - a new contributor to stationary power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Angelo U.

    Stationary power generation historically started as distributed generation near the user, with the configuration of a very open market, where a lot of small competing utilities were offering electricity to the customers. At a second time it became a `monopolistic' business because of technical reasons. Big steam turbines and electric generators, allowing better efficiencies, were more conveniently installed in very large power plants, necessarily located in sites far away from where the power was needed, and the transmission losses were bounded by AC high voltage technology. The Governments were, therefore, trying to balance the power of monopolies, that were limiting the economical development of the countries, by strengthening the concept of electrical energy price public control and, alternatively, by establishing rules to allow a free flow of electricity from one region to the other, or taking direct control through ownership of big and small utilities. The most effective way of making the electric energy system competitive has proved to be the opening of a partial competition in the generation field by forcing the utilities to compare the cost of their energy, produced with new centralised plants, to the price of the available energy, coming from combined heat and power dispersed generators. In fact, with reference to this cost, all the peculiar features of large central stations and dispersed generators were taken into account, like the widespread use of natural gas, the investment risk reduction with single smaller increments of capacity, the transmission and distribution siting difficulties and high costs, the improved system reliability, and, finally, the high quality electric power. Fuel Cells are a recently become available technology for distributed electrical energy production, because they share the main typical aspects, relevant for a distributed power system, like compatibility with other modular subsystem packages, fully automation possibility

  5. Corrosion in batteries and fuel-cell power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Batteries and fuel cells, as electrochemical power sources, provide energy through controlled redox reactions. Because these devices contain electrochemically active components, they place metals in contact with environments in which the metals may corrode. The shelf lives of batteries, particularly those that operate at ambient temperatures depend on very slow rates of corrosion of the electrode materials at open circuit. The means of reducing this corrosion must also be evaluated for its influence on performance. A second major corrosion consideration in electrochemical power sources involves the hardware. Again, shelf lives and service lives depend on very good corrosion resistance of the containment materials and inactive components, such as separators. In those systems in which electrolyte purity is important, even small amounts of corrosion that have not lessened structural integrity can degrade performance. There is a wide variety of batteries and fuel cells, and new systems are constantly under development. Therefore, to illustrate the types of corrosion phenomena that occur, this article will discuss the following systems: lead-acid batteries, alkaline batteries (in terms of the sintered nickel electrode only), lithium ambient-temperature batteries, aluminum/air batteries, sodium/sulfur batteries, phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells

  6. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  7. Compact Fuel-Cell System Would Consume Neat Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Kindler, Andrew; Valdez, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed direct methanol fuel-cell electric-power-generating system, the fuel cells would consume neat methanol, in contradistinction to the dilute aqueous methanol solutions consumed in prior direct methanol fuel-cell systems. The design concept of the proposed fuel-cell system takes advantage of (1) electro-osmotic drag and diffusion processes to manage the flows of hydrogen and water between the anode and the cathode and (2) evaporative cooling for regulating temperature. The design concept provides for supplying enough water to the anodes to enable the use of neat methanol while ensuring conservation of water for the whole fuel-cell system.

  8. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  9. Research and development into power reactor fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notley, M.J.F.

    1983-07-01

    The nuclear fuel in a power reactor must perform reliably during normal operation, and the consequences of abnormal events must be researched and assessed. The present highly reliable operation of the natural UO 2 in the CANDU power reactors has reduced the need for further work in this area; however a core of expertise must be retained for purposes such as training of new staff, retaining the capability of reacting to unforeseen circumstances, and participating in the commercial development of new ideas. The assessment of fuel performance during accidents requires research into many aspects of materials, fuel and fission product behaviour, and the consolidation of that knowledge into computer codes used to evaluate the consequences of any particular accident. This work is growing in scope, much is known from out-reactor work at temperatures up to about 1500 degreesC, but the need for in-reactor verification and investigation of higher-temperature accidents has necessitated the construction of a major new in-reactor test loop and the initiation of the associated out-reactor support programs. Since many of the programs on normal and accident-related performance are generic in nature, they will be applicable to advanced fuel cycles. Work will therefore be gradually transferred from the present, committed power reactor system to support the next generation of thorium-based reactor cycles

  10. FY 2000 report on the results of development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems. Development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems (Development of technology for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems); 2000 nendo kokoritsu nenryo denchi system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no shutsuryoku yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of technologies for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems and waste heat, to spread cogeneration systems incorporating PEFC systems for residential purposes. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. The program for high-efficiency peripherals for residential PFEC systems attempts use of GaN-FET as the semiconductor device of wide band gap and high breakdown voltage to realize conversion efficiency over 90% by improving inverter efficiency. Two types of the prototype heat recovery systems are developed for the PEFC, one incorporating a latent heat cooling system and the other a water cooling system, to improve heat recovery efficiency and increase heat recovery temperature. The program for technology to fit PEFC output to energy demand develops hot water supply systems provided with a hot water storage function for stable supply of hot water irrespective of the heat recovery conditions, and also with a back-up function with burners. The program also develops the PEFC system of fine load following characteristics, for which pure hydrogen is used as the fuel to allow the system to instantaneously follow fluctuating loads. The program for high-efficiency partial load operation technology studies a 1kW-class residential PEFC cogeneration system incorporating a power storage device for high-efficiency operation at partial loads, where the former operates in a high output mode while the latter absorbs fluctuating loads. (NEDO)

  11. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials

  14. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  15. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports

  16. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  17. Report on achievement in developing fuel cell power generation technology in fiscal 1998. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system (Test of the research result report); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes the text of the research result report in the separate volume II-1 from among the fiscal 1998 report on the achievement made on researching and developing a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power generation system. For the AC-DC type system whose high performance and large capacity stacks are being developed, detail designs were made on 250-kW class stack module assembly and installation procedure. At the same time, processing and forming were continued on such main components as electrodes, electrolyte plates and separators. The cells were assembled as modules, sintered, installed and adjusted. Aids were given by the process and control (PAC) test on devices and piping of the fuel cell system block. Cell life extension is also under study. For the parallel flow type stack, two 250-kW stacks were fabricated, and an overall adjustment test was begun thereon in March. For the reformer, an internal reforming system was developed for the 200-kW class system, whose adjustment test is scheduled for April 1999. Capacity increase is also under discussion. For practical use of MCFC, stack life of 40,000 hours is said required. The current status is at the level of exceeding 10,000 hours, but the necessity is seen in suppressing voltage drop associated with lapse of time. (NEDO)

  18. Investigation of WWER fuel behaviour under MIR power ramps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Novikov, V.V.; Agafonov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses results of experimental WWER fuel investigation under power ramps. Specificity of using the research reactor ''MIR'' to accomplish scheduled power rating of fuel is considered. The paper presents the methodology of experiments using irradiation facility ''TEST''. Reactor experiments were performed at burn-up ∼ 10000 MW.day/t UO 2 using standard fuel pins and the ones having backfitted fuel and cladding. (author). 7 figs, 1 tab

  19. Politics of nuclear power and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, R.

    2007-01-01

    -is likely to remain evolving depending on regional and global affairs. Opposition or support for nuclear technology is also likely to be a function of regional and global politics. In response to such pressures, IAEA is organizing a workshop of 140 countries to discuss proposals to guarantee countries' supply of nuclear fuel (September 19-21-, 2006; Vienna). Premise and Question: A single nuclear power plant in a country may be good for the prestige of the country, but such units are unlikely to make a major impact on the energy scene. Hence, in order for nuclear power to play a significant role, countries that decide to 'go nuclear,' would most likely want to diversify a significant fraction of their electricity generating capacity (and possibly heating and, in the future, hydrogen production) to nuclear, possibly requiring at least few and possibly many nuclear power plants. In order to proceed with the nuclear option, these countries would expect a certain level of long term assurance on the fuel supply. What is the kind of options that would satisfy the needs of these countries and at the same time addressing the non-proliferation concerns? Options: The options available to countries for their nuclear program can be categorized as follows. A. Fully indigenous program with complete development of power plants and fuel cycle. B. Fully or partly indigenous program for power plant development; while depending on international consortium for fuel supply and waste treatment. C. Rely on international consortia to build and operate all aspects of nuclear power plants (with local manpower). Others: A total of around fifty to seventy five countries are likely to be interested in nuclear power in the next fifty years. These can be divided in to the three groups (A-C) given above. It is likely that, with time, there will be some expectation to move to higher levels (C to B and B to A). Countries already in group A and those willing to start in group C do not pose an issue. It is

  20. Solid polymer fuel cell stationary power generation design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyke, S.H.; Wood, A.; Williams, G.J.; Kearney, P.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating potential markets for solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) stationary power generating systems and evaluating design options for grid connected and stand-alone systems. The specification of potential application for SPFC systems, initial modelling and economic analysis of twelve candidate SPFC applications, and the ranking and evaluation of candidate applications are examined. Details are given of performance modelling and economic analysis of four preferred SPFC systems (domestic, commercial, light industrial, and transportable generation), and comparison of SPFC with competing technologies. The economics of SPFC and conventional technologies for commercial applications are compared and market opportunities and potential barriers to commercialisation are identified.

  1. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  2. Survey of the power ramp performance testing of KWU'S PWR UO 2, fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ga¨rtner, M.; Fischer, G.

    1987-06-01

    To determine the power ramp performance of KWU's PWR UO 2 fuel, 134 fuel rodlets with burnups of up to 46 GWd/ t (U) and several fuel assemblies with 19 to 30 GWd/t (U) burnup were ramped in power in the research reactors HFR Petten/The Netherlands and R2 Studsvik/Sweden and in the power plants KWO and KWB-A/Germany, respectively. The power ramp tests demonstrate decreasing resistance of the PWR fuel rods to PCI (pellet-to-clad interaction) up to fuel burnups of 35 GWd/t (U) and a reversal effect at higher burnups. The fuel rods can be operated free of defects at fast power transients to linear heat generation rates of up to 400 W/cm, at least.Power levels of up to 490 W/cm can be reached without defects by reducing the ramp rate. After reshuffling according to an out-in scheme, 1-cycle fuel assemblies may return to rod powers of up to 480 W/cm with a power increase rate of up to 10 W/(cm min) without fuel rod damage. Set points basing on these test results and incorporated into the power distribution control and power density limitation system of KWU's advanced power plants guarantee safe plant operation under normal and load follow operating conditions.

  3. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Part 1. Development of fuel cell power generation technologies (Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system); 1999 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenknyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This research and development project is aimed at development of the stacking, cooling and operating technologies for the molten carbonate fuel cell power generation systems, to improve service life and performance of these systems and reduce their cost, based on the results obtained so far by the FY 1993. The R and D efforts are directed to (1) technologies for improving stack performance, (2) development of the plant system by operating a 1,000kW class power generation system, and (3) support technologies, e.g., those for stack materials. The item (1) studies 3 stack types, cross-flow, parallel-flow and internal reforming types, including the electrodes, electrolyte-supporting bases and improvement of performance and service life by separator reforming for the cross-flow and parallel-flow types, and installation and operation of a 200kW class stack system for the internal reforming type, where cells are assembled into the system and tested for their operability, after the auxiliary units are PAC-tested. The item (2) installs a 1,000kW class plant, which is operated, after clearing the requirements set by the related laws, e.g., Electric Utility Industry Law, for starting the operation, to achieve the intended targets. The item (3) includes development of the technologies for stack materials, technologies for handling gases produced by coal gasification, and studies on the total systems. (NEDO)

  4. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    logo, Direct FuelCell and “DFC” are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Applications •On-site self generation of combined heat... of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Fuels Resources for DFC • Natural Gas and LNG • Propane • Biogas (by Anaerobicnaerobic Digestion) - Municipal Waste...FUEL RESOURCES z NATURAL GAS z PROPANE z DFC H2 (50-60%) z ETHANOL zWASTE METHANE z BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency

  5. The price of fuel oil for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, G.J.Y.; Liaw, Y.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study establishes a break-even analysis model for fuel oil generation. The authors calculate the break-even points of the international fuel oil prices for the existing coal-fired power plants, the nuclear power plants and the newly-built coal/oil-fired power plants

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse

  8. Fuel cells show promise as vehicle power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel-cell-powered vehicles appear to offer great promise for energy-saving, high-efficiency transportation. Fuel cells are both highly efficient (50% thermal efficiency has been demonstrated by some) and non-polluting (water being the main by-product). Dramatic improvements in performance have occurred recently due to aerospace and utility RandD efforts. The primary vehicle considered at workshops of laboratory and industrial investigators was a fuel cell/battery hybrid, in which fuel cells are paralleled by batteries. Fuel cells are used for cruising power and battery recharge, while batteries supply transient power for acceleration and starting

  9. Prediction of power-ramp defects in CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, P.; Wadsworth, S.; Daniels, T.

    2010-01-01

    Power ramps result in fuel pellet expansion and can lead to fuel sheath failures by fission product induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Historically, empirical models fit to experimental test data were used to predict the onset of power-ramp failures in CANDU fuel. In 1988, a power-ramped fuel defect event at PNGS-1 led to the refinement of these empirical models. This defect event has recently been re-analyzed and the empirical model updated. The empirical model is supported by a physically based model which can be used to extrapolate to fuel conditions (density, burnup) outside of the 1988 data set. (author)

  10. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  11. Power system health analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation

  12. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  13. MEMS Rotary Engine Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Pisano, Albert P.; Fu, Kelvin; Walther, David C.; Knobloch, Aaron; Martinez, Fabian; Senesky, Matt; Stoldt, Conrad; Maboudian, Roya; Sanders, Seth; Liepmann, Dorian

    This work presents a project overview and recent research results for the MEMS Rotary Engine Power System project at the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center of the University of California at Berkeley. The research motivation for the project is the high specific energy density of hydrocarbon fuels. When compared with the energy density of batteries, hydrocarbon fuels may have as much as 20x more energy. However, the technical challenge is the conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to electricity in an efficient and clean micro engine. A 12.9 mm diameter Wankel engine will be shown that has already generated 4 Watts of power at 9300rpm. In addition, the 1mm and 2.4 mm Wankel engines that BSAC is developing for power generation at the microscale will be discussed. The project goal is to develop electrical power output of 90milliwatts from the 2.4 mm engine. Prototype engine components have already been fabricated and these will be described. The integrated generator design concept utilizes a nickel-iron alloy electroplated in the engine rotor poles, so that the engine rotor also serves as the generator rotor.

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  16. ETV/ESTCP Demonstration Plan - Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Test and Quality Assurance Plan (TQAP) provides data quality objections for the success factors that were validated during this demonstration include energy production, emissions and emission reductions compared to alternative systems, economics, and operability, including r...

  17. Fossil fuel power plant combustion control: Research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasini, S.; Trebbi, G.

    1991-01-01

    Electric power demand forecasts for Italy to the year 2000 indicate an increase of about 50% which, due to the current moratorium on nuclear energy, should be met entirely by fossil fuel power plants. Now, there is growing public concern about possible negative health impacts due to the air pollution produced through the combustion of fossil fuels. In response to these concerns, ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) is investing heavily in air pollution abatement technology R ampersand D. The first phase involves the investigation of pollution mechanisms in order to develop suitable mathematical models and diagnostic techniques. The validity of the models is being tested through through measurements made by sophisticated instrumentation placed directly inside the combustion chambers of steam generator systems. These are allowing engineers to develop improved combustion control methods designed to reduce air pollution at source

  18. Problems of development of Kuzbass fuel power-engineering complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazikin, V.P.; Razumnyak, N.L.; Shatirov, S.V.; Gladyshev, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Problems of Kuzbass fuel and energy complex development, bituminous and brown coal being its main resource, are discussed. Balance reserves of bituminous coal in Kuzbass are estimated as 59 bln. tons, which makes up 29% of the world and nearly 60% of bituminous coal reserves in Russia. Dynamics of price rise in reference to energy-grade coal of Kuzbass is analyzed. The structure of the Kuzbass energy system is considered and characteristics of its major state district electric power plants and heat and power generating plants are provided. Water-coal and water-black oil fuels are od interest for Kuzbass energy production as alternative source of energy. Special attention is paid to environmental problems of coal concentration [ru

  19. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  20. Fuel combustion in thermal power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1983-11-01

    The position of black coal in the energy balance of Japan is discussed. About 75% of electric energy is produced by thermal power plants. Eighty-five per cent of electricity is produced by power plants fired with liquid fuels and 3% by coal fired plants. Coal production in Japan, the forecast coal import to the country by 1990 (132 Mt/year), proportion of coal imported from various countries, chemical and physical properties of coal from Australia, China and Japan are discussed. Coal classification used in Japan is evaluated. The following topics associated with coal combustion in fossil-fuel power plants in Japan are discussed: coal grindability, types of pulverizing systems, slagging properties of boiler fuel in Japan, systems for slag removal, main types of steam boilers and coal fired furnaces, burner arrangement and design, air pollution control from fly ash, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, utilization of fly ash for cement production, methods for removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas using ammonia and catalysts or ammonia without catalysts, efficiency of nitrogen oxide control, abatement of nitrogen oxide emission from boilers by flue gas recirculation and reducing combustion temperatures. The results of research into air pollution control carried out by the Nagasaki Technical Institute are reviewed.

  1. Test facility for auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of fast breeder reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In preparation of constructing ''Monju'', a prototype fast breeder reactor, PNC has been pushing forward its research and development projects and the ACS was constructed under these projects. The auxiliary cooling system is an important engineered safety feature, and is used for safe removal of heat from the reactor at the shutdown. The ACS serves as a means of testing and assessing the auxiliary cooling system for the ''Monju'' and is designed and manufactured to have one fifth capacity of the Monju. The air heat exchanger and the ACS system was designed to withstand higher temperature range of the conventional design code (MITI-501), and finned tubes were applied for effective heat removal. Preheating system was designed to heat up the whole system over 200 0 C within 20 hours to prevent sodium from freezing. Basic performance of ACS was verified satisfactorily by a series of performance tests, such as start up test, flow rate measurement and preheating test before delivery. The experience from designing and construction of ACS and data obtained by these tests will be very instructive for designing and construction of the ''Monju''. (author)

  2. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  3. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  4. PORTABLE PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM: WATER AND HEAT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI NAJIBAH ABD RAHMAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portable polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell power generator is a PEM fuel cell application that is used as an external charger to supply the demand for high energy. Different environments at various ambient temperatures and humidity levels affect the performance of PEM fuel cell power generators. Thermal and water management in portable PEM fuel cells are a critical technical barrier for the commercialization of this technology. The size and weight of the portable PEM fuel cells used for thermal and water management systems that determine the performance of portable PEM fuel cells also need to be considered. The main objective of this paper review was to determine the importance of water and thermal management systems in portable PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this review investigated heat transfer and water transport in PEM fuel cells. Given that portable PEM fuel cells with different powers require different thermal and water management systems, this review also discussed and compared management systems for low-, medium-, and high-power portable PEM fuel cells.

  5. Virginia Power and Department of Energy spent fuel transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruska, M.D.; Schoonen, D.H.

    1986-12-01

    Spent fuel assemblies for the Spent Fuel Storage Cask Testing Program conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were transported to the INEL. A total of 69 spent fuel assemblies (23 shipments) were shipped from Virginia Power's nuclear power plant at Surry, Virginia, to the INEL between July 1985 and June 1986 to fill and test three spent fuel storage casks. The shipments were made over the highway system in Transnuclear, Inc., TN-8L shipping casks on specially constructed trailers. The shipments were moved by diesel tractors owned and operated by Tri-State Motor Transit Company of Joplin, Missouri. The gross vehicle weight for each shipment was 112,000 lb, which was a major consideration when selecting routes for the shipments. Cooperative negotiations with officials for the 17 states involved obtained authorization to transport through their states. The shipping campaign was successfully completed through close communication and cooperation and careful planning and operation by all organizations involved

  6. The basic concepts of a fuel-power detector for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel power is proposed as an alternative to neutron or gamma-ray flux for control and safety functions in CANDU power reactors. To satisfy in-core power monitoring requirements, a detector whose dynamic response corresponds to the heat production rate in the fuel is needed. This report explores the concept of tailoring the response characteristics of a mixed-response self-powered flux detector to match the requirements of an ideal fuel-power detector. (author)

  7. Fuel cell systems and traditional technologies. Part II: Experimental study on dynamic behavior of PEMFC in stationary power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturelli, Lucia; Santangelo, Paolo E.; Tartarini, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on electric generation for stationary applications. The dynamic behavior of a PEMFC-based system has been investigated at both constant and variable load conditions from an experimental point of view. An analysis of efficiency as a function of time has been proposed to summarize the dynamic performance; moreover, current intensity and voltage have been considered as main parameters of interest from the electric point of view. In addition, other energetic and thermodynamic parameters have been studied in this work. The experimental campaign has been carried out over four test typologies: constant load; increasing and decreasing load; random load. These tests have been planned to challenge the system with a variety of load-based cycles, in the frame of a thorough simulation of real-load conditions.

  8. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  9. Power System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Haruhito

    Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.

  10. Energetic-environmental-economic assessment of the biogas system with three utilization pathways: Combined heat and power, biomethane and fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangping; Shang, Dawei; Bao, Di; Zhang, Suojiang; Zheng, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A typical biogas system with three utilization pathways, i.e., biogas upgrading, biogas combined heat and power (CHP), biogas solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were designed. It was assessed from the viewpoint of energy, environment and economy by using energy efficiency, green degree and net present value index respectively. The assessment considered the trade-off relationships among these indexes, which is more comprehensive than previous systematic evaluation work only included single or two of the pathway(s) by using one or two of the index(es). Assessment results indicated that biogas upgrading pathway has the highest systematic energy efficiency (46.5%) and shortest payback period (8.9year) with the green degree production is the lowest (9.29gd/day). While for biogas SOFC pathway, although the green degree production is the highest (21.77gd/day), the payback period is longer (14.5year) and the energy efficiency is 13.6% lower than the biogas upgrading pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle simulation system (VISTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (VISTA) is a simulation system which estimates long term nuclear fuel cycle material and service requirements as well as the material arising from the operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors. The VISTA model needs isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel in order to make estimations of the material arisings from the nuclear reactor operation. For this purpose, in accordance with the requirements of the VISTA code, a new module called Calculating Actinide Inventory (CAIN) was developed. CAIN is a simple fuel depletion model which requires a small number of input parameters and gives results in a very short time. VISTA has been used internally by the IAEA for the estimation of: spent fuel discharge from the reactors worldwide, Pu accumulation in the discharged spent fuel, minor actinides (MA) accumulation in the spent fuel, and in the high level waste (HLW) since its development. The IAEA decided to disseminate the VISTA tool to Member States using internet capabilities in 2003. The improvement and expansion of the simulation code and the development of the internet version was started in 2004. A website was developed to introduce the simulation system to the visitors providing a simple nuclear material flow calculation tool. This website has been made available to Member States in 2005. The development work for the full internet version is expected to be fully available to the interested parties from IAEA Member States in 2007 on its website. This publication is the accompanying text which gives details of the modelling and an example scenario

  12. 46 CFR 28.835 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.835 Section 28.835 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.835 Fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and... impurities from diesel fuel oil systems are permitted in the machinery space provided they are away from any...

  13. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel systems. 183.542 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each fuel system in a boat must have been tested by the boat manufacturer and not leak when subjected to the...

  14. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  16. Simulation of a 250 kW diesel fuel processor/PEM fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphlett, J. C.; Mann, R. F.; Peppley, B. A.; Roberge, P. R.; Rodrigues, A.; Salvador, J. P.

    Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems offer a potential power source for utility and mobile applications. Practical fuel cell systems use fuel processors for the production of hydrogen-rich gas. Liquid fuels, such as diesel or other related fuels, are attractive options as feeds to a fuel processor. The generation of hydrogen gas for fuel cells, in most cases, becomes the crucial design issue with respect to weight and volume in these applications. Furthermore, these systems will require a gas clean-up system to insure that the fuel quality meets the demands of the cell anode. The endothermic nature of the reformer will have a significant affect on the overall system efficiency. The gas clean-up system may also significantly effect the overall heat balance. To optimize the performance of this integrated system, therefore, waste heat must be used effectively. Previously, we have concentrated on catalytic methanol-steam reforming. A model of a methanol steam reformer has been previously developed and has been used as the basis for a new, higher temperature model for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Similarly, our fuel cell evaluation program previously led to the development of a steady-state electrochemical fuel cell model (SSEM). The hydrocarbon fuel processor model and the SSEM have now been incorporated in the development of a process simulation of a 250 kW diesel-fueled reformer/fuel cell system using a process simulator. The performance of this system has been investigated for a variety of operating conditions and a preliminary assessment of thermal integration issues has been carried out. This study demonstrates the application of a process simulation model as a design analysis tool for the development of a 250 kW fuel cell system.

  17. Lifetime prognostics of hybrid backup power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises...... the need for monitoring the system condition for timely maintenance and prevention of downtime. Although present on component level, no current literature addresses the condition monitoring from the perspective of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system such as the telecommunication power supply. This paper...... components: fuel cell, battery, and converters, is given. Finally, the paper presents a discussion on the available monitoring techniques from a commercial hybrid system point view....

  18. Improving the performance of solid oxide fuel cell systems

    OpenAIRE

    Halinen, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems can provide power production at a high electrical efficiency and with very low emissions. Furthermore, they retain their high electrical efficiency over a wide range of output power and offer good fuel flexibility, which makes them well suited for a range of applications. Currently SOFC systems are under investigation by researchers as well as being developed by industrial manufacturers. The first commercial SOFC systems have been on the market for some...

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  20. Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengaus, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

  1. Limit power of nuclear fuel cells with biconcave cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Thiago Antonini; Pelegrini, Marcelo Ferreira; Woiski, Emanuel Rocha; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo

    2004-01-01

    Diffusive media with distributed sources, such as the case of nuclear fuel cells, represent a major role in engineering. Due to the nuclear fission of the chemical element, fuel cells are capable of releasing an enormous amount of thermal energy in spite of their reduced dimensions, in such a way that the maximum power of the reactor is closely related to the fusion temperature of the fuel, and consequently to the maximum temperature in the cell. The cell maximum temperature is, therefore, a chief parameter in nuclear reactor design. Limiting power, of course, depends not only of the fuel thermo physical properties, but also of the cell shape and dimensions. The present work purports the study of the effects of some parameters of cell geometry on the limiting power, especially for cell with biconcave cross sections. Given the large temperature gradients in the cell, the thermal conductivity must be assumed as a generic function of temperature. Therefore, the problem has been modeled as a nonlinear 2 D Poisson-like PDE, with a nontrivial geometry of the boundary. For the analytical solution, Kirchhoff transform has been employed to turn the equation into a linear Poisson equation, a conformal transform brought it to a rectangular domain and Generalized Integral Transform method applied in order to solve the resulting equation. For the numerical solution of the linearized equation, a program has been developed in Python, reusing classes of Ellipt2d, an open-source elliptic solver. The domain has been divided into linear triangular finite elements, and the system of equations resulting of Galerkin method application has been solved, for each parameter set. The trend in critical power has been discussed, as well as the numerical results compared to the analytical solutions and to the literature. (author)

  2. Economic analysis to compare fabrication of nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants at Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouliye Koohi, Mojtaba

    1997-01-01

    Electric power due to its many advantages over other forms of energies covers most of the world's energy demands.The electric power can be produced by various energy converting systems fed by different energy resources like fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro and renewable energies, each having their own appropriate technologies. The fossil fuel not only consumes the deplete and precious sources of non conventional energies but they add pollution to environment too. The nuclear power plants has its own share of radioactive pollutions which, of course can be controlled by taking precautionary measures. The investing cost of each generated unit (KWh) in the nuclear power plants, comparing with its equivalent production by fossil fuels is investigated. The various issues of economical analysis, technical, political and environmental are the different aspects, which individually can influence the decisions for kind of power plant to be installed. Finally, it is concluded that the fossil and nuclear power generations both has its own advantages and disadvantages. Hence, from a specializing point of view, it may not be proper to prefer one over the others

  3. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  4. Development of molten carbonate fuel cells for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The broad and comprehensive program included elements of system definition, cell and system modeling, cell component development, cell testing in pure and contaminated environments, and the first stages of technology scale up. Single cells, with active areas of 45 sq cm and 582 sq cm, were operated at 650 C and improved to state of the art levels through the development of cell design concepts and improved electrolyte and electrode components. Performance was shown to degrade by the presence of fuel contaminants, such as sulfur and chlorine, and due to changes in electrode structure. Using conventional hot press fabrication techniques, electrolyte structures up to 20" x 20" were fabricated. Promising approaches were developed for nonhot pressed electrolyte structure fabrication and a promising electrolyte matrix material was identified. This program formed the basis for a long range effort to realize the benefits of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  6. Postirradiation examination of Kori-1 nuclear power plant fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S.G.; Kim, E.K.; Lee, K.S.; Min, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Full size fuels discharged from Kori-1 PWR nuclear power plant have been subjected to postirradiation examination. The fuels under investigation were irradiated for one- to four-reactor cycles. Nondestructive examination and dismantling of the fuel assemblies have been conducted in the pool of the postirradiation examination facility (PIEF) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institue. Subsequently nondestructive and destructive examinations of fuel rods have been performed in the hot cells of the PIEF. An evaluation of fuel burnup behaviors was based on the postirradiation examination data and the nominal design values. The results did not show any evidence of abnormalities in the fuel integrity. (orig.)

  7. Postirradiation examination of Kori-1 nuclear power plant fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung-Gy, Ro; Eun-Ka, Kim; Key-Soon, Lee; Duck-Kee, Min

    1994-05-01

    Full size fuels discharged from Kori-1 PWR nuclear power plant have been subjected to postirradiation examination. The fuels under investigation were irradiated for one- to four-reactor cycles. Nondestructive examination and dismantling of the fuel assemblies have been conducted in the pool of the postirradiation examination facility (PIEF) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Subsequently nondestructive and destructive examinations of fuel rods have been performed in the hot cells of the PIEF. An evaluation of fuel burnup behaviors was based on the postirradiation examination data and the nominal design values. The results did not show any evidence of abnormalities in the fuel integrity.

  8. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  9. Ex-vessel nuclear fuel transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for transferring fuel assemblies between a fuel transfer area and a fuel storage area while the fuel assemblies remain completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant is described. A fuel transfer area filled with reactor coolant communicating with the reactor vessel below the reactor coolant level provides a transfer area for fuel assemblies in transit to and from the reactor vessel. A positioning mechanism comprising at least one rotatable plug disposed on a fuel transfer tank located outside the reactor vessel cooperates with either the fuel transfer area or the fuel storage area to position a fuel assembly in transit. When in position, a transporting mechanism cooperating with the positioning mechanism lifts or lowers a chosen fuel assembly. The transporting mechanism together with the positioning mechanism are capable of transferring a fuel assembly between the fuel transfer area and the fuel storage area

  10. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  11. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included

  12. Robots in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Masumichi

    1984-01-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. has carried out the technical development concerning ATRs and FBRs, nuclear fuel cycle, the uranium enrichment by centrifugal separation, the reprocessing of spent fuel, and the treatment and disposal of wastes. For the purpose, the Corp. has operated diversified nuclear facilities, and for the operational management of these nuclear facilities, aiming at the reduction of radiation exposure of workers, the shortening of working time, or the rise of the capacity ratio of the facilities, the technical development related to robots has been advanced. Namely, the equipment for the remote maintenace and repair of facilities, the equipment for checkup and monitoring and the equipment for test and inspection are the main subjects of robot development. Hereafter, it is necessary to develop the equipment to which the function of high grade is given and to automate main processes and checkup and monitoring system as well as to improve the reliability and endurance of facilities. The development of the manipulator system for remote maintenance, the facility of handling high radioactive substances and a master-slave manipulator, a power manipulator and a remote transfer equipment, the development of a remote repair and checkup equipment in the reprocessing plant, a remote maintenance and checkup equipment for FBRs and a remote automatic inspection equipment for ATRs are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cell-powered buses. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in buses. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs in buses, the report examines those for alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) in buses. The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to buses and offers estimates of market potential. Some fuel-cell powered buses are now available for demonstration purposes but the report concludes that truly commercial sales are unlikely to start before 2010 and widespread deployment is expected to take a further ten years after that. Buses have now slipped behind cars in terms of worldwide deployment. The issue of fuel choice is considered largely resolved with most fleet vehicle/bus manufacturers currently focussing on hydrogen as a fuel. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell buses concludes that cost reduction is now the major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells in buses. More demonstration prototypes and field trials are required to provide information on energy, environmental and economic performance of fuel cell buses. Field trials could also provide information to assist the development of refuelling systems, fuel storage systems, stacks and other system components and to gain experience of building integrated fuel cell systems.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-09-26

    Reformed gas or coal gasification gas, etc. is used as the fuel gas for fused carbonate fuel cells, however sulfuric compounds are contained in these gases and even after these gases have been treated beforehand through a desulfurizer, a trace quantity of H/sub 2/S is sent to a fuel electrode. Sulfur oxide which is formed at the time of burning and oxidating the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode and becomes sulfate after substituting carbonate, which is the electrolyte of the electrode, causing deterioration of the cell characteristics and durability. With regard to a system that hydrogen rich gas which was reformed from the raw fuel is supplied to a fuel electrode, and its exhaust gas is oxidated through a burner to form carbon dioxide which is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode, this invention proposes the prevention of the aforementioned defects by providing at the down stream of the above burner a remover to trap with fused carbonate such sulfur compounds as SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ in the gas after being oxidated as above. (3 figs)

  15. Fuel oil systems for standby diesel-generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard provides the design requirements for fuel oil system for diesel-generators that provide standby power for a nuclear power generating station. The system includes all essential equipment from and including fuel oil storage tanks up to the terminal connection on the diesel-engine. It does not include that portion of the fuel oil system supplied by the diesel-generator manufacturer which is in accordance with Trial-Use Criteria for Diesel-Generator Units Applied as Standby Power Supplies for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, IEEE-387-1972. This definition of scope is intended to exclude only those factory-assembled, engine-mounted appurtances supplied with a diesel-generator unit. Integral tanks are, however, within the scope of this Standard. It also excludes motors, motor control centers, switchgear, cables, and other electrical equipment which is used in operation of the fuel oil system, except to define interface requirements

  16. Leveraging fuel purchasing and management activities within a competitive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallard, S.; Anderson, A.; Schick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, one can see that competition, deregulation, or at a minimum, a closer focus on the overall economies of power generation is stimulating change within the power sector. Power generation markets are becoming liberalized providing for independent power producers and, in some cases, providing third-party access to the grid. In the US, fuel costs are being transformed from a pass-through expense to the consumer to one of a strategic asset or liability. In every case, fuel quality, fuel-related costs, and managing the fuel purchasing process are key factors in the overall efficiency and financial performance on the power generator. This paper illustrates how effective fuel management requires that the utility or GenCo improve upon historical fuel management/purchasing practices to lower overall generation costs and address the opportunities present in the power and fuel markets. Key framework/principles to be discussed include: Tighter coupling of fuel purchasing, short-term planning, and dispatch functions. Effective planning to link purchased fuel to system demand forecasts, consider contract/transportation constraints/economics, evaluate alternative sources, and consider fuel mix strategies (e.g., between sport, contract, and various regions/qualities). Tools and processes needed to support the new business environment such as fuel impact analysis, application of integrated fuel evaluation/management systems, market forecasting, purchasing, and the role of fuel management in energy trading. Flexibility to support optimal purchasing strategies including shorter purchase cycles, special buys, buys for third parties, and coal tolling. This framework would be discussed using examples from the US, UK, European, and Pacific Rim markets

  17. Calculation device for fuel power history in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagami, Masaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable calculations for power history and various variants of power change in the power history of fuels in a BWR type reactor or the like. Constitution: The outputs of the process computation for the nuclear reactor by a process computer are stored and the reactor core power distribution is judged from the calculated values for the reactor core power distribution based on the stored data. Data such as for thermal power, core flow rate, control rod position and power distribution are recorded where the changes in the power distribution exceed a predetermined amount, and data such as for thermal power and core flow rate are recorded where the changes are within the level of the predetermined amount, as effective data excluding unnecessary data. Accordingly, the recorded data are taken out as required and the fuel power history and the various variants in the fuel power are calculated and determined in a calculation device for fuel power history and variants for fuel power fluctuation. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  19. Effect of wood fuels on power plant operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orjala, M.; Ingalsuo, R.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the research is to determine the critical properties of wood fuels on the basis of power plant operability, to determine the optimal conditions for reduction of harmful detriments, and to study how the storage and processing of wood fuels effect on the operability. Both the CFB and BFB technologies are studied. The project started in December 2000 and it will be ended by the end of 2002. Experts of the Fuels and Combustion research field of VTT Energy carry out the main parts of the research. Experts of the research field of Mineral Processing of VTT Chemical Technology, located in Outokumpu, and Kemian tutkimuspalvelut Oy/Oulu University, located in Outokumpu, participate in the analytics, and the research field of Materials and Manufacturing Technology of VTT Manufacturing Technology in Otaniemi participates in the research on material effects. System Technology Laboratory of Oulu University carries out the power plant automation and boiler control technology research under supervision of Professor Urpo Kortela. Co-operation with the materials research unit of EU's JRC, located in Petten, which started in the research 'Combustion of Forest Chips', will be continues in this research. Co-operation will be made with Swedish Vaermeforsk in the field of information exchange on experiences in utilisation of wood fuels in Swedish power plants and possibilities to join in the projects of Vaermeforsk in this research field. Following companies participate in the project: Etelae-Savon Energia Oy, Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Simpele pasteboard factory of M-Real Oyj and Vaermeforsk AB (Sweden). (orig.)

  20. Ontario Hydro Pickering Generating Station fuel handling system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The report briefly describes the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) on-power fuel handling system and refuelling cycle. Lifetime performance parameters of the fuelling system are presented, including station incapability charged to the fuel handling system, cost of operating and maintenance, dose expenditure, events causing system unavailability, maintenance and refuelling strategy. It is concluded that the 'CANDU' on-power fuelling system, by consistently contributing less than 1% to the PNGS incapability, has been credited with a 6 to 20% increase in reactor capacity factor, compared to off-power fuelling schemes. (author)

  1. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Abueg, R.Z. [Basic Measuring Instruments, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Schwartz, P. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  2. Survey of a technology to introduce the waste-fueled power generation. Basic manual for introduction of the waste-fueled power generation; Haikibutsu hatsuden donyu gijutsu chosa. Haikibutsu hatsuden donyu kihon manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Local government offices, etc., which are expected to shoulder responsibility for introducing the waste-fueled power generation, want to need exact information on technical information concerning the waste-fueled power generation and the method to materialize the introduction plan, etc. Therefore, Electric Power Development Co. surveyed and studied it under the contract with NEDO. The results were collected together as a basic manual for introduction of the waste-fueled power generation. As an outline of the waste-fueled power generation, the manual explains the significance, the present situation and potentials, the waste-fueled power system, an outline of working out the waste-fueled power generation plan, an outline of construction and operation/maintenance of the waste-fueled power generation, an outline of various systems relating to the waste-fueled power generation, etc. As the items for the study of making a concrete plan for power generation equipment, the manual explains the amount of refuse to be incinerated, the present status of generation capacity as viewed from the quality of refuse, the quality of refuse and the design of power generation equipment, boiler efficiency, power generation efficiency, construction cost and operation cost, etc. In addition, the paper describes a case study of the waste-fueled power generation plan. 118 figs., 39 tabs.

  3. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source.

  4. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source

  5. Development of a direct methanol fuel cell system for the power segment below 5 kW; Entwicklung eines Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzellensystems der Leistungsklasse kleiner 5 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noelke, M.

    2006-10-20

    The attractiveness of electrical conversion of liquid methanol in a fuel cell is defined by its simple storage and high energy density. Therefore, direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) qualifies for applications in portable systems and mobile application in the kW-class. The goal of this work is to develop and demonstrate an improved and optimized peripheral DMFC system compared to the current level of technology. The selected mobile application is the retrofit of the energy supply of a ''Scooter'' with a fuel cell system. The required size reduction and the simplification of the DMFC system are realized by an integrated concept, which combines ideally the peripheral system and the fuel cell. A profound analysis of the stack and the peripheral components is a prerequisite for an optimized design. A detailed modelling and understanding of the stack behaviour establish the starting point of this work. The influence of the most important operating parameters like stack temperature, cell voltage, current density, air ratio and methanol concentration is captured accurately by the developed model and validated by experimental data. This shapes the frame work of the following system design approach. For this the clearly defined task of the peripheral system are investigated individually for alternatives and the best option is selected for the final solution. For selecting the right pumps and blowers available products and prototypes are characterized and checked for the system requirements. The investigation and the modelling of the exhaust gas condenser lead to an optimized component design for the ''Scooter'' DMFC design. Additionally, the integration of the anode loop is accomplished consisting of the supply lines, the circulating pump, the gas separator and the exhaust line. The direct coupling of the fuel cell with a lithium-ion battery as an option for electrical conditioning is investigated. In the system modelling the influence

  6. Analysis and Comparison of Si and SiC Power Devices on a Grid-Tie Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    In renewable energy applications power conversion efficiency is major concern. This is especially true for grid-tie energy storage systems based on bidirectional dc-dc and dc-ac converters where power flows through these system components. Latest developments in power semiconductors technology......-tie energy storage systems. Results highlight dc-dc conversion efficiencies up to 98.2% with an isolated topology and dc-ac conversion efficiencies up to 97.7%. Overall system efficiency improvements above 1% are achieved compared to traditional Si devices. Results on efficiency improvement are analyzed...

  7. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  8. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  9. Development of System Engineering Technology for Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hodong; Choi, Iljae

    2013-04-01

    The development of efficient process for spent fuel and establishment of system engineering technology to demonstrate the process are required to develop nuclear energy continuously. The demonstration of pyroprocess technology which is proliferation resistance nuclear fuel cycle technology can reduce spent fuel and recycle effectively. Through this, people's trust and support on nuclear power would be obtained. Deriving the optimum nuclear fuel cycle alternative would contribute to establish a policy on back-end nuclear fuel cycle in the future, and developing the nuclear transparency-related technology would contribute to establish amendments of the ROK-U. S. Atomic Energy Agreement scheduled in 2014

  10. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Water chemistry control in thermal and nuclear power plants. 9. Nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical management of fuels in nuclear power plants aims at maintenance of the soundness of nuclear fuels and at reduction of the radiation exposure of the working employees. With regard to the former, particular attention should be paid to the fabrication process of fuel assembly, mainly for chemical management for fuel cladding tubes together with fuel pellet-clad chemical interactions, and to the outer tubes in the power plants. With regard to the latter, the fabrication process should be carefully controlled to prevent radioactive impurity increase in primary cooling water systems by maintaining cleaning level and decreasing surface contamination. Reactions of zircalloy with water or hydrogen forming ZrH 2 , sintered density of UO 2 pellet controlling water content, pellet-clad interactions, stress corrosion cracking, crud induced fuel failure, behaviors of such fission products as I, Xe, Kr, and Cs in plants are also important to water and chemical management of nuclear fuels. (S. Ohno)

  12. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  13. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  14. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  15. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  16. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage

  17. Nuclear-powered pacemaker fuel cladding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The composite of metals and alloys used in the fabrication of 238 Pu cardiac pacemaker fuel capsules resists the effects of high temperatures, high mechanical forces, and chemical corrosives and provides more than adequate protection to the fuel pellet even from deliberate attempts to dissolve the cladding in inorganic acids. This does not imply that opening a pacemaker fuel capsule by inorganic acids is impossible but that it would not be a wise choice

  18. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...... a down-sized version of the battery pack used in the Mitsubishi iMiEV, which is subjected to power cycles derived from simulations of the vehicle undergoing multiple New European Drive Cycles (NEDC)....

  19. Nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules

  20. Fuel performance experience at TVO nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    TVO nuclear power plant consists of two BWR units of ASEA-ATOM design. The fuel performance experience extending through six cycles at TVO I and four cycles at TVO II is reported. The experience obtained so far is mainly based on ASEA-ATOM 8 x 8 fuel and has been satisfactory. Until autumn 1984 one leaking fuel assembly had been identified at TVO I and none at TVO II. Most of the problems encountered have been related to leaf spring screws and channel screws. The experience indicates that satisfactory fuel performance can be achieved when utilizing strict operational rules and proper control of fuel design and manufacture. (author)

  1. Swedish spent fuel management systems, facilities and operating experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.

    1998-01-01

    About 50% of the electricity in Sweden is generated by means of nuclear power from 12 LWR reactors located at four sites and with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The four utilities have jointly created SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, which has been given the mandate to manage the spent fuel and radioactive waste from its origin at the reactors to the final disposal. SKB has developed a system for the safe handling of all kinds of radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants. The keystones now in operation of this system are a transport system, a central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CLAB), a final repository for short-lived, low and intermediate level waste (SFR). The remaining, system components being planned are an encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and a deep repository for encapsulated spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes. (author)

  2. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  3. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  4. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  5. Thermal Design for Extra-Terrestrial Regenerative Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, R.; Guzik, M.; Jakupca, I.; Bennett, W.; Smith, P.; Fincannon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 C versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  6. Generator gas as a fuel to power a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutak Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of gasification process of dried sewage sludge and use of generator gas as a fuel for dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine are presented. The results of gasifying showed that during gasification of sewage sludge is possible to obtain generator gas of a calorific value in the range of 2.15  2.59 MJ/m3. It turned out that the generator gas can be effectively used as a fuel to the compression ignition engine. Because of gas composition, it was possible to run engine with partload conditions. In dual fuel operation the high value of indicated efficiency was achieved equal to 35%, so better than the efficiency of 30% attainable when being fed with 100% liquid fuel. The dual fuel engine version developed within the project can be recommended to be used in practice in a dried sewage sludge gasification plant as a dual fuel engine driving the electric generator loaded with the active electric power limited to 40 kW (which accounts for approx. 50% of its rated power, because it is at this power that the optimal conditions of operation of an engine dual fuel powered by liquid fuel and generator gas are achieved. An additional advantage is the utilization of waste generated in the wastewater treatment plant.

  7. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions

  8. Analysis to the criticality the storage and containers to the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, R.

    1998-01-01

    Presently analysis the criticality the warehouses and containers the nuclear fuels in Juragua nuclear power plant the property multiplicity determined in these system and it is verified that for the geometry and operation conditions defined in the design as well as in accidents situations, the arrangement the fuel stays subcritical with an appropriate margin

  9. Field Demonstration of Fuel Crud Filtration System at Ulchin Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Duk-Won; Lee, Doo-Ho; Park, Jong-Youl; Choi, In-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Crud deposited onto the fuel assemblies in nuclear power plants was not a serious problem until an upper core flux depression named Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) was found at Callaway, USA in 1989. Though the mechanism of an AOA is not completely understood, crud is believed to be a key component of initiating AOA. After the sufficient amount of corrosion products in the reactor cooling system are deposited on the fuel clad by a sub-cooled nucleate boiling, boron is adsorbed in the crud. Thus a measurable reduction in the neutron flux occurs which causes an AOA problem. A filtration system has been developed to remove the fuel crud from irradiated fuel assemblies for mitigating the axial offset anomaly under a technical cooperation agreement with DEI (Dominion Engineering Inc.). This filtration system with a fuel cleaning fixture was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant unit 2. Within several minutes, detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also, to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device and radiation monitor devices were connected to the filtration system during the cleaning operation. In this study, we completed a functional test and demonstration of an ultrasonic fuel cleaning system by using four spent fuel assemblies. It took only 5 minutes to remove the fuel crud from each fuel assembly. In addition, collective dose rates indicated an average of 8 R/Hr per assembly

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Susan; Rush, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  11. Dimensional response of CANDU fuel to power changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, P J [Fuel Engineering Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Hastings, I J; Morel, P A; Sage, R D; Smith, A D [Fuel Materials Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1983-06-01

    The introduction of CANLUB-coated fuel cladding, modified fuel management schemes, and revisions to the sequence of control rod movements, have eliminated power ramping fuel failures in CANDU power reactors. However, an irradiation program continues at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to determine the effect of various design and operating parameters on the dimensional response of UO{sub 2} fuel elements to power changes, over a range of conditions outside those normally experienced by CANDU power reactor fuel. We have investigated the effect of power changes on element diameter for UO{sub 2} fuel with starting densities of 10.6 and 10.8 Mg/m{sup 3} clad in 0.4 mm thick Zircaloy, at burnups from 0 to 100 MW.h/kg U. Element diameter measurements were obtained at power using an In-Reactor Diameter Measuring Rig (IRDMR). Rates of power change over the range 0.0005 to 0.03 kW.m{sup -1}.s{sup -1} were achieved by a combination of reactor power control and use of a Helium-3 power cycling facility. Total diameter increases in unirradiated elements were about 1% at pellet interface locations for both fuel densities during the initial power increase to 60 kW/m. Diameter changes during subsequent power cycles of these elements from 55 to 100% maximum power were significantly larger for the higher density fuel, ranging from 0.3 to 0.5% compared to less than 0.1% for the standard density (10.6 Mg/m{sup 3}) fuel. In elements pre-irradiated at 27 kW/m to burnups of about 100 MW.h/kg U prior to power ramping, the diameter increases measured after ramping to 55 kW/m also varied with starting fuel density. Diameter changes at pellet interface locations were about 0.9% and 0.6% for higher density and standard density fuel respectively. (author)

  12. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  13. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Einan; Hossein Torkaman; Mahdi Pourgholi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT), fuel cells (FC), photo-voltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimi...

  14. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  15. Ex-vessel nuclear fuel transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A system is described for transferring reactor fuel assemblies between a fuel storage area and a fuel transfer area while the fuel assemblies remain completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant. The invention relates particularly to sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (UK)

  16. Inspection system for Zircaloy clad fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, M.E.; Porter, E.H.; Hansen, H.R.

    1975-10-01

    A description is presented of the design, development, and performance of a remote scanning system for nondestructive examination of fuel rods. Characteristics that are examined include microcracking of fuel rod cladding, fuel-cladding interaction, cladding thickness, fuel rod diameter variation, and fuel rod bowing. Microcracking of both the inner and outer fuel rod surfaces and variations in wall thickness are detected by using a pulsed eddy current technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Fuel rod diameter variation and fuel rod bowing are detected by using two linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) and a signal conditioning system. The system's mechanical features include variable scanning speeds, a precision indexing system, and a servomechanism to maintain proper probe alignment. Initial results indicate that the system is a very useful mechanism for characterizing irradiated fuel rods

  17. FY 1999 Report on results of development of high-efficiency energy system technologies for transportation and domestic use. R and D of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, power system technologies, and several kW class domestic power systems operating at normal pressure; 1999 nendo un'yu minseiyo kokoritsu energy system gijutsu kaihatsu, kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu, hatsuden system gijutsu kaihatsu, joatsu sadogata su kW kyu kateiyo dengen system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1999 results of the research and development project aimed at development of fuel cell systems for power source systems suitable for domestic use. The programs for development of fuel cell body include improvement of the anode forming method for increasing its CO tolerance, enhancing cell performance at 0.5mg-metal/cm{sup 2} as the catalyst quantity to a level almost comparable to that obtainable at 0.9mg-metal/cm{sup 2}. The programs for development of the fuel supply system include studies on endurance of the elements, e.g., starting-up/shutting-down of the Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, using a microreactor, confirming that it is serviceable for at least 1,000 hours. The natural gas reformer is developed and operated, on a trial basis, achieving stable supply of steam and fuel, and thermal efficiency of 82.7%. The operation researches include development and operation of a 1kW class module, achieving the performance surpassing the FY 1999 targets (average cell voltage: 0.70V, output: 1.27kW) with a simulated reformate gas at an air utilization rate of 20% and current density of 0.3A/cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  18. Damage of fuel assembly premature changing in a power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudik, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Material balance, including energy recovery and nuclear fuel flow rate, under conditions of premature FA extraction from power reactor is considered. It is shown that in cases when before and after FA extraction reactor operates not under optimal conditions damage of FA premature changing is proportional to the first degree of fuel incomplete burning. If normal operating conditions of reactor or its operation after FA changing is optimal, the damage is proportional to the square of fuel incomplete burning

  19. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  20. Reliability Assessment of Fuel Cell System - A Framework for Quantitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Shinae; Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell (FC) technologies have been developed to overcome the operational and environmental challenges associated with using conventional power sources. Telecommunication industry, in particular, has implemented FC systems for the backup power function. The designers and manufacturers...... Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) system is estimated for backup power applications, in terms of the critical components, subsystems and the whole system....

  1. Nuclear power as a substitute for fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahramabadi, G. A.; Shirzadi, C.

    2008-01-01

    The challenge in energy policy is to reduce CO 2 emissions and the worlds dependence on oil while satisfying a substantially increased demand for energy. Putting aside the still-speculative possibility of sequestering carbon dioxide, this challenge reduces to that of using energy more efficiently and finding substitutes for fossil fuels. Alternatives to fossil fuels fall into two broad categories: Renewable sources. Most of these sources-including hydroelectric power, wind power, direct solar heating, photovoltaic power, and biomass-derive their energy ultimately from the Sun and will not be exhausted during the next billion years. Geothermal energy and tidal energy are also renewable, in this sense, although they do not rely on the sun. However, there is almost an inverse correlation between the extent to which the source b now being used and the size of the potentially trap able resource. Thus, expansion of hydroelectric power (which is substantially used) is constricted by limited sites and environmental objections, whereas wind (for which the resource is large) is as yet less used and thus is not fully proven as a large-scale contributor. Nuclear sources. The two nuclear possibilities are fission and fusion. The latter would be inexhaustible for all practical purposes, but developing an effective fusion system remains an uncertain hope. Fission energy would also have an extremely long time span if breeder reactors arc employed, but with present-day reactors limits on uranium (or thorium) resources could be an eventual problem. At present, fission power faces problems of public acceptance and economic competitiveness. The broad alternatives of renewable energy and nuclear energy can be considered as being in competition, with one or the other to be the dominant choice, or complementary, with both being extensively employed

  2. Advantages and implications of U233 fueled thermionic space power energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper two recent analyses are reported which demonstrate advantages of a U233 fueled thermionic fuel element (TFE) compared to 93 w/o U235, and that application (mission) has broad latitude in how space power reactor systems could or should be optimized. A reference thermionic reactor system was selected to provide the basis for the fuel comparisons. Both oxide and metal fuel forms were compared. Of special interest was to estimate the efficiencies of the four fuel forms to produce electrical power. A figure of merit (FOM) was defined which is directly proportional to the electrical average electrical power produced is proportional to the electrical power produced per unit uranium mass. In a TFE the average electrical power produced is proportional to the emitter surface area (Esa), hence the ratio Esa/Mu was selected as the FOM. Results indicate that the choice of fuel type and form leads to wide variations in critical and system masses FOM values, and system total power

  3. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally