WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel gas demand

  1. Fuel switching? Demand destruction? Gas market responses to price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation defined fuel switching and addressed the issue regarding which consumers have the capability to switch fuels. In response to short term price aberrations, consumers with fuel switching capabilities reduce their use of one fuel and increase consumption of an alternative fuel. For example, natural gas consumption by some consumers declines in response to price spikes relative to prices of alternative fuels. This presentation also addressed the issue of differentiating between fuel switching and demand destruction. It also demonstrated how to compare gas prices versus alternative fuel prices and how to determine when consumers will likely switch fuels. Price spikes have implications for long term trends in natural gas demand, supply/demand balances and prices. The power generating sector represents a particular class of gas consumers that reduce operating rates of gas fired plants and increase operating rates of other plants. Some gas consumers even shut down plants until gas prices declines and relative economies improve. Some practical considerations for fuel switching include storage tank capacity, domestic refinery production, winter heating season, and decline in working gas storage. tabs., figs

  2. Simulation of fuel demand for wood-gas in combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwinska, Katarzyna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Tucki, Karol; Wata, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    In the era of the oil crisis and proceeding contamination of the natural environment, it is attempted to substitute fossil raw materials with alternative carriers. For many years, road transport has been considered as one of the main sources of the substances deteriorating air quality. Applicable European directives oblige the member states to implement biofuels and biocomponents into the general fuel market, however, such process is proceeding gradually and relatively slowly. So far, alternative fuels have been used on a large scale to substitute diesel fuel or petrol. Derivatives of vegetable raw materials, such as vegetable oils or their esters and ethanol extracted from biomass, are used to that end. It has been noticed that there is no alternative to LPG which, due to financial reasons, is more and more popular as fuel in passenger cars. In relation to solutions adopted in the past, it has been decided to analyse the option of powering a modern passenger car with wood gas - syngas. Such fuel has been practically used since the 1920's. To that end, a computer simulation created in SciLab environment was carried out. Passenger car Fiat Seicento, fitted with Fire 1.1 8V petrol engine with power of 40kW, whose parameters were used to prepare the model, was selected as the model vehicle. The simulation allows the determination of engine demand on the given fuel. Apart from the wood gas included in the title, petrol, methane and LPG were used. Additionally, the created model enables the determination of the engine power at the time of the indicated fuels supply. The results obtained in the simulation revealed considerable decrease in the engine power when the wood gas was supplied and the increased consumption of this fuel. On the basis of the analysis of the professional literature describing numerous inconveniences connected with the use of this fuel as well as the obtained results, it has been established that using the wood gas as alternative fuel is currently

  3. LNG [liquefied natural gas]: Fueling energy demand in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the supply and demand outlook for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the far east, and the basic elements of an LNG supply project in Japan. Power generation is the primary market for LNG in the far east, due to a preference for energy supply diversity, large undeveloped gas resources, drastic improvements in power generation technology, and environmental advantages of natural gas. India and mainland China represent huge potential markets, and projects are under discussion to bring gas by pipeline from Iran or Qatar to both Pakistan or India. The economics of LNG plant development in Japan, including large ($4 billion for field and plant development) capital costs, long-term contracts, government involvement, and gas prices are discussed. Falling yen/dollar exchange rates have substantially bettered the Japanese economy in terms of gas prices. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Natural Gas as Petroleum Fuel Substitution: Analysis of Supply-Demand Projections, Infrastructures, Investments and End-User Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Tjandranegara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum fuels (PF subsidy has long burdens the government spending, and discourages less expensive energy usage such as natural gas (NG. Exporting NG and importing the more expensive PF products cause financial losses to Indonesia. The lack of NG infrastructure is the main hurdle in maximizing domestic NG usage and so does the perception of its high investment costs burdening government spending and pushing the NG transportation cost up. This study calculates the required NG infrastructure and its investments for several levels of PF substitutions up to 2030. To balance the NG demands, the supply from each field and its corresponding infrastructures needed was calculated and optimized using non-linear programming with generalized reduced gradient  method to calculate the lowest transportation cost for the consumers. The study shows with a favorable return on investments attractive to private investors, the NG prices can still be put much lower than PF prices, allowing subsidy, import and production cost savings in many sectors. Furthermore, the highest level of substitution scenario needs only US$ 2.07 billion a year investment, very low compare to the current US$ 14.17 billion a year PF and electricity subsidy.

  5. A Generalized Nash-Cournot Model for the North-Western European Natural Gas Markets with a Fuel Substitution Demand Function: The GaMMES Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Briat, Vincent; GABRIEL, Steve A.; MASSOL, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic Generalized Nash-Cournot model to describe the evolution of the natural gas markets. The major players along the gas chain are depicted including: producers, consumers, storage and pipeline operators, as well as intermediate local traders. Our economic structure description takes into account market power and the demand representation tries to capture the possible fuel substitution that can be made between the consumption of oil, coal, and natural gas in the overall fossil energy consumption. We also take into account long-term contracts in an endogenous way, which makes the model a Generalized Nash Equilibrium problem. We discuss some means to solve such problems. Our model has been applied to represent the European natural gas market and forecast, until 2030, after a calibration process, consumption, prices, production, and natural gas dependence. A comparison between our model, a more standard one that does not take into account energy substitution, and the European Commission natural gas forecasts is carried out to analyze our results. Finally, in order to illustrate the possible use of fuel substitution, we studied the evolution of the natural gas price as compared to the coal and oil prices. (authors)

  6. Effectively managing consumer fuel price driven transit demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a literature review of transit demand elasticities with respect to gas prices, describes features of a transit service area population that may be more sensitive to fuel prices, identifies where stress points in the family of tran...

  7. Fuel demand in Brazil in a dynamic panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gervásio F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of fuel consumers regarding price and income, taking recent changes in the Brazilian fuel market into account. In this market, new market rules, energy policy towards fuel diversification and introduction of flex-fuel engines have determined fuel competition among gasoline, ethanol and compressed natural gas. Using a dynamic panel data model, demand equations for these three fuels are econometrically estimated to obtain consumer adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities in the short and long-run. In addition, the effect of the introduction of flex-fuel engines in the market and the rationality of consumers towards efficiency constraints of the engines were tested. Apart from considerable competition, results show that the dynamics of the Brazilian fuel market revolves around ethanol instead of gasoline. While demands for gasoline and natural gas are inelastic to price, demand for ethanol is elastic in Brazil. Furthermore, after the introduction of the flex-fuel technology the sensitivity of consumers to fuel prices changed, and ethanol consumers take efficiency constrains into account when ethanol prices reach the threshold of 70% of gasoline prices. - Highlights: ► Fuel demand in Brazil is evaluated, considering the changes in the fuel market. ► A dynamic panel data model is used to fit demand equations for fuels. ► Adjustment coefficients, price, cross-price and income elasticities are estimated. ► The impact of flex-fuel technology on the consumer behavior is tested. ► The results showed that the dynamic of the fuel market revolves around ethanol. ► The flex-fuel technology increased the competition among fuels

  8. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets on CO 2 (a greenhouse gas emission standard) are to be achieved. Trends show diesel car sales have accelerated rapidly and that the advantage of new car fuel economy of diesel cars over gasoline ones is narrowing posing a new challenge. We estimate the demand for new car fuel economy in the UK. In the long-run consumers buy fuel economy, but not in the short-run. We found that long-term income and price changes were the main drivers to achieve improvements particularly for diesel cars and that there is no break in the trend of fuel economy induced by the agreement adopted in the 1990s. Policy should target more closely both consumer choice of, and use of, diesel cars.

  9. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  10. Resource Usage Strategies and Trade-Offs between Cropland Demand, Fossil Fuel Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Building Insulation as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioresources are used in different production systems as materials as well as energy carriers. The same is true for fossil fuel resources. This study explored whether preferential resource usages exist, using a building insulation system as an example, with regard to the following sustainability criteria: climate impact, land, and fossil fuel demand. We considered the complete life cycle in a life cycle assessment-based approach. The criteria were compared for two strategies: one used natural fibers as material and generated production energies from fossil fuels; the other generated production energies from bioenergy carriers and transformed fossil resources into the insulation material. Both strategies finally yielded the same insulation effect. Hence, the energy demand for heating the building was ignored. None of the strategies operated best in all three criteria: While cropland demand was lower in the bioenergy than in the biomaterial system, its fossil fuel demand was higher. Net contribution to climate change was in the same range for both strategies if we considered no indirect changes in land use. Provided that effective recycling concepts for fossil-derived insulations are in place, using bioresources for energy generation was identified as a promising way to mitigate climate change along with efficient resource use.

  11. Gas fuels in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Gas fuels are the petroleum substitution fuels that have received the best agreement in most parts of the world. This success is due to the existence of natural gas fields or LPG reserves in several countries and to the possibility of fast development of these resources. Countries with various size and economic policy such as New Zealand, USA, Argentina, Japan or Italy have developed a very significant fleet of gas fuel vehicles. This paper summarizes the consumption of gas fuels, the number of gas fuel equipped vehicles and of gas fuel stations in the principal consuming countries. The size and composition of vehicle fleets varies from one country to the other and depends on the economical and environmental incitements and constraints from the governments. Details are given separately for LPG and natural gas vehicle fuels. (J.S.)

  12. Growth in European gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.

    1993-01-01

    The last three decades witnessed mainly the development of gas pipeline systems as a result of major onshore and offshore gas strikes in the fifties and sixties as well as the increase in gas sales on market segments which has been previously cornered by oil and coal products. Power generation currently is an additional potential market for which the availability of adequate resources plays a major role

  13. Differential impact of gas shortages and fuel-price increases on demand: the case of the hotel industry in New York State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbel, A. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Ravid, A.

    1983-04-01

    The authors assess the impact of the energy crisis on the lodging industry in New York (excluding New York City) by estimating the effects of two related, but not necessarily correlated, variables: gas shortages and energy price increases. Strong evidence supports the conclusion that energy shortages dampen hotel demand while price increases encourage international, intrastate, and interstate shifts in distance distributions of travel destinations as well as changes in number of trips and length of stay, resulting in a slight aggregate increase in demand. Recent industry data relating to occupancy rates and profitability seem to support this conclusion. 16 references, 2 tables.

  14. Natural gas demand in the European household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar

    2005-08-01

    This paper analyzes the residential natural gas demand per capita in 12 European countries using a dynamic log linear demand model, which allows for country-specific elasticity estimates in the short- and long-run. The explanatory variables included lagged demand per capita, heating degree days index, real prices of natural gas, light fuel oil, electricity, and real private income per capita. The short-run own-price and income elasticity tend to be very inelastic, but with greater long-run responsiveness. By splitting the data set in two time periods, an increase in the own-price elasticities were detected for the European residential natural gas demand market as a whole. We have provided support for employing a heterogeneous estimator such as the shrinkage estimator. But the empirical results also motivate a further scrutiny of its properties. (Author)

  15. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorazewiez, S.

    1998-01-01

    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author)

  16. Demand and supply of wood fuels in the emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta, T.; Lahtinen, P.; Laitila, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emission trade according to the EU directive on greenhouse gas emission allowance started at the beginning of the year 2005. This will boost the demand for wood fuels because of the addition-al value of CO 2 neutrality compared to fossil fuels. This bulletin covers the development of the demand and supply of wood fuels from 2002 to 2010 both at a national and a provincial level. The demand and supply balance of wood fuels will be evaluated both without the effect of emission trade and when the emission trade price level is 20 euro/ton- CO 2 for emission rights in 2010. The evaluations of fuel consumption for individual boilers were made with the help of the databases of Electrowatt-Ekono Ltd. The demand for wood fuels was estimated to double by the year 2010, being almost 50 TWh. The share of forest chips of the demand was one third, i.e. 17 TWh. The supply potential was divided into forest chips and solid by-products from forest industry. Forest chip sources included small diameter wood from young forests and logging residues and stumps from re-generation felling sites. The supply potential calculations of logging residues and stump biomass were based on databases of regeneration felling stands. The biomass potential from small diamreter wood was evaluated on the basis of field measurements of NFI 8 and 9 at a provincial level and multi-source data at a municipal level. In 2010, the supply potential of by-products was estimated to be 28 TWh of which 11 TWh was marketable out-side of the internal use of forest industry. Correspondingly, the theoretical potential of forest chips was estimated to be 51 TWh and the techno-economical potential 24 TWh. As a result of the regional optimization model, the energy use of wood fuels was 29 TWh, which was 59 % of the potential demand. In emission trade the demand was 33 TWh, which was 68 % of the potential demand. Regionally, the potential demand for wood fuels for energy use was higher than the supply in all provinces

  17. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  18. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  19. Gas fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Environment protection is one of the major concerns for public and local authorities worldwide. Automotive transports are in a large part responsible of the daily pollution of urban areas. Gaseous fuels can notably contribute to a reduction of this pollution. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part analyses the reasons and components of pollution in the transport sector: increasing use of private cars with respect to public transport systems for short distance travels, preponderance of road transport for long distance goods delivery, increase of air traffic for passengers and freight transports. For the air pollution itself, three levels are considered: the local CO, VOC (volatile organic compounds), SO 2 , NOx and particulates concentration, the regional pollution which corresponds to spatially diluted pollutants over a wider zone (acid rain and photochemical pollution), and the worldwide pollution with the greenhouse effect and the high altitude ozone problem. The vehicles noise in another important source of urban pollution. The second part of the paper analyses the environmental advantages of gaseous fuels and compares the combustion properties and the pollutants and noise emissions from natural gas for vehicles and LPG with respect to the classical liquid fuels used for private cars and trucks. The third part of the paper is devoted to the US Clean Air Act which regroups the actions developed since 1970 to fight against the photochemical pollution and the 'smog' phenomena. Its historical evolution is summarized: the creation of the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), the norms for air quality (NAAQS) and the 1990's eleven amendments about the classification of States pollution, the pollutants emission norms and the development of clean vehicles. (J.S.)

  20. Natural gas supply and demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The outlook for U.S. natural gas supply and demand in the residential, commercial, industrial/cogeneration, electricity and transportation sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 was presented. A summary of gas well completions from 1990 to 1997 was also provided. The Canadian natural gas resource was estimated at 184 trillion cubic feet. In 1996, Canada produced 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, half of which was exported to the U.S. New pipeline projects have been proposed to transport natural gas from eastern offshore areas and the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A table representing U.S. and Canada gas trade from 1990 to 1997 and a map of proposed Canadian and U.S. natural gas pipeline routes were also included. Looking into the future, this speaker predicted continued volatility in natural gas prices. 9 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Demand grows in N. America as gas supply sources shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Growing demand for gas as a power-generation fuel is combining with changing patterns of gas transportation to present North American producers and pipelines with a series of new challenges. Results of a recent Enron study show how natural gas supplies available to US markets continue to shift their center of gravity toward Canadian and western sources. These changes--demand growth paced by electricity generation and supply source relocation--plus extraordinary gas basin price differentials this winter, point to (a) the opportunities for and risks of adding pipeline capacity in the US and Canada, on the one hand, and (b) tough decisions that may need to be made by Gulf of Mexico and Midcontinent area producers, on the other, to compete in an environment of changing economics and infrastructure

  2. Construction of a fuel demand function portraying inter-fuel substitution, a system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Briat, Vincent; Massol, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    Most of the recent numerical market equilibrium models of natural gas markets use imperfect competition assumptions. These models are typically embedded with an oversimplified representation of the demand side, usually a single-variable affine function, that does not capture any dynamic adjustment to past prices. To remedy this, we report an effort to construct an enhanced functional specification using the system dynamics-based model of Moxnes (1987, 1990). Thanks to a vintage representation of capital stock, this putty-clay model captures the effect of both past and current energy prices on fuel consumption. Using a re-calibrated version of this model, we first confirm the pertinence of this modeling framework to represent inter-fuel substitutions at different fuel prices in the industrial sector. Building on these findings, a dynamic functional specification of the demand function for natural gas is then proposed and calibrated. (authors)

  3. Formulation of models for determination of the fuel gas demand and consumption in residential buildings; Formulacao de modelos para determinacao da demanda e consumo de gas combustivel em edificios residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilha, Marina Sangoi de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento; Goncalves, Orestes Marracini [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Construcao Civil

    1996-07-01

    This work presents models for design flow rate and gas volume determination in residential buildings. First, an experimental investigation, applied on a sample of residential buildings at Sao Paulo, Brazil, is described, which essentially consisted in the filling of a form and measurement of gas volume at one minute interval during 10 days (mean). From this data, it was performed a regression analysis in order to explain design flow rate (demand) and gas volume values (consumption), based on different variables. Models proposed on this work are different from the current applied methodology due to their 'open' approach, that is, involved variables can be explicitly found in formulas. (author)

  4. Thai gas demand seen outstripping supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thailand's demand for gas will outstrip supplies in the late 1990s as rapid economic growth continues. Gas will be a cornerstone for Thai energy policy throughout the growth, although sources in neighboring countries need development. Thai gas production will rise 25% from 1992 to average 1 bcfd by 1995. Including production from new discoveries, production could rise to 1.5 bcfd by 2000, up almost 90% from the 1992 level. Increased gas flow output in the mid-1990s will be due largely to development of Gulf of Thailand fields. By 1998, production from Gulf of Thailand fields will not be enough to offset the decline in today's fields. Thailand will need to import more than 1 bcfd by 2005 in the absence of future discoveries in the country. The paper discusses new pipelines and imports

  5. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  6. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  7. Demand powers ahead [Gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, N.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas demand in Europe has been growing steadily for many years and is likely to go on increasing in the domestic sector, the industrial sector and in power generation. In this review a number of features of the market supply situation are reported. Potential new markets for Norwegian gas in eastern and central Europe are being evaluated. Other exporting countries are also keen to obtain a greater share in the expanding European market. Among them are Russia, Algeria and Nigeria, but political uncertainties in each of these countries are a cause for concern. Algeria has new pipelines to supply Italy, Spain and Portugal. The Russian company, Gazprom, has launched the construction of a pipeline to link new gas fields in northern Siberia with western Europe and has set up contracts with German companies which are facilitating the sale of Russian gas in Europe. Supply potential also exists in some of the other countries of the former Soviet Union, such as Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. A group of leading European gas utilities are exploring the feasibility of imports from Iran either via a pipeline link or as liquefied natural gas. The United Kingdom hopes to export North Sea gas into Europe through the proposed Interconnector pipeline from Bacton to Zeebrugge, in th long-term, though, the pipeline may be used for imports into the UK. A controversial proposal to introduce third-party access to European pipelines could alter the whole structure of the market. (UK)

  8. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  9. Fuel switching in Harare : An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Folmer, Henk

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey

  10. Fuel switching in Harare: An almost ideal demand system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambwera, M.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey

  11. Framing scenarios of electricity generation and gas use: EPRI report series on gas demands for power generation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumb, S.; Glover, W.; Hughes, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Results of three EPRI projects have been combined to analyze power industry consumption of gas and other generating fuels. The report's capstone is a scenario analysis of power industry generation and fuel consumption. The Utility Fuel Consumption Model (UFCM), developed for the project, predicts generating capacity and generation by region and fuel through 2015, based on load duration curves, generation dispatch, and expected capacity additions. Scenarios embody uncertain factors, such as electricity demand growth, fuel switching, coal-gas competition, the merit order of gas-coal dispatch, and retirement of nuclear units, that substantially affect gas consumption. Some factors, especially electricity demand have very large effects. The report includes a consistent database on NUG (non-utility generation) capacity and generation and assesses historical and prospective trends in NUG generation. The report shows that NUG capacity growth will soon decline substantially. The study assesses industry capability for price-induced fuel switching from gas to oil and coal, documenting conversions of coal units to dual coal-gas capability and determining that gas-to-oil switching remains a strong influence on fuel availability and gas prices, though regulation and taxation have increased trigger prices for switching. 61 tabs

  12. Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canyurt, Olcay Ersel; Ozturk, Harun Kemal

    2008-01-01

    The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions. (author)

  13. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  15. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Dey, Himadri S.; Kabir, Md. Ashfanoor; Khan, Shahidul I.

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: → Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. → Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. → Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. → Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. → Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  16. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content

  17. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  18. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  19. URBAN FUEL DEMAND IN ETHIOPIA: AN ALMOST-IDEAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etsub [ ETSUB

    URBAN FUEL DEMAND IN ETHIOPIA: AN ALMOST-IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM APPROACH. ♧. Zenebe Gebreegziabher, Arie J. Oskam, and Bayou Demeke. Abstract. This paper investigates the opportunities for reducing the pressure of urban centers on rural forest areas, using a dataset of 350 urban households in Tigrai ...

  20. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine

  1. Supply and demand estimates for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussermann, W.; Hogroian, P.; Krymm, R.; Cameron, J.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the nuclear power growth forecasts described in the papers for Session I.B., estimates of requirements in the nuclear fuel cycle are given, notably concerning: - natural uranium, - enriched uranium, - fuel fabrication services, and - reprocessing services. The influence of realistic scenarios of uranium and plutonium recycling on fuel cycle requirements is discussed. Furthermore, the known plans for uranium and related fuel cycle production capacities are compared with the foreseeable demand. These estimates cover the period between now and the year 2000. However, in order to determine the influence of possible variations in reactor strategies on uranium demand, notably the introduction of breeder reactors, power growth projections and resulting fuel cycle requirements beyond the year 2000 are also briefly considered [fr

  2. Demand for cooking fuels in a developing country: To what extent do taste and preferences matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpalu, Wisdom; Dasmani, Isaac; Aglobitse, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Overreliance on biomass energy, such as firewood and charcoal, for cooking in developing countries has contributed to high rates of deforestation and resulted in substantial indoor pollution, which has negatively impacted the health of many individuals. However, the effectiveness of public policies aimed at encouraging households to switch to cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene, hinges on the extent to which they are mentally committed to specific fuels. Using data on four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) from the Ghana living standards survey, we found strong evidence that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. In addition, with the exception of kerosene that has price-elastic demand, the price elasticities of demand for the fuel types examined are inelastic. This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust. - Highlights: → Overreliance on biomass energy for cooking has contributed to deforestation and indoor pollution. → We estimate demand for four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) in Ghana. → We found that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. → This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust.

  3. Design principles and fabrication method for a miniaturized fuel gas combustion reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Veltkamp, Henk-Willem; de Boer, Meint J.; Zeng, Yaxiang; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Wobbe Index meter is widely used to reflect the energy content and gas quality of a fuel gas mixture. It is highly in demand to downscale from the conventionally large Wobbe Index facility to a miniaturized Wobbe Index meter. Therefore spontaneously combustion of the fuel gas/air mixtures on a

  4. Preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet U.S. transportation energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M. K.; Moore, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that substitutes for conventional petroleum resources will be needed to meet U.S. transportation energy demand in the first half of this century. One possible substitute is natural gas which can be used as a transportation fuel directly in compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas vehicles or as resource fuel for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. This paper contains a preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet future U.S. transportation fuel demand. Several scenarios of natural gas demand, including transportation demand, in the U.S. to 2050 are developed. Natural gas resource estimates for the U. S. are discussed. Potential Canadian and Mexican exports to the U.S. are estimated. Two scenarios of potential imports from outside North America are also developed. Considering all these potential imports, U.S. natural gas production requirements to 2050 to meet the demand scenarios are developed and compared with the estimates of U.S. natural gas resources. The comparison results in a conclusion that (1) given the assumptions made, there are likely to be supply constraints on the availability of U.S. natural gas supply post-2020 and (2) if natural gas use in transportation grows substantially, it will have to compete with other sectors of the economy for that supply-constrained natural gas

  5. Fuel switching in Harare: An almost ideal demand system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey carried out among 500 households in Harare in 2003. Using a multi-stage budgeting approach, the model estimates the share of energy in total household expenditure and the shares of firewood, electricity and kerosene in total energy expenditure. Using the model results simulations show that the main policy handles to reduce the demand for firewood and to mitigate environmental degradation such as deforestation include decreasing prices of alternative fuels, notably kerosene. Moreover, in the long run sound economic policy will positively impact on the energy budget whereas education and the degree of electrification will contribute to a reduction of the use of firewood

  6. IMPACT OF UNCONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION ON LNG SUPPLY AND DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Karasalihović Sedlar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of unconventional gas plays a double role in the case of liquefied natural gas (LNG industry. Technological development of gas production from unconventional resources could result in significant decrease of LNG import demand but at the same time unconventional resources also represent a potential for new sources of LNG supply. In past few years unconventional gas production in North America has increased constantly what has contributed to natural gas prices decrease and LNG imports reduction. The rise of unconventional gas production along with global recession significantly influenced LNG demand decrease in the USA. Concerning unconventional gas production rapid development, potential decrease of LNG demand in rest of the world is expected (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China’s road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-price elasticities for different vehicle categories range from −1.215 to −0.459 (by AIDS) and from −1.399 to −0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses. PMID:28257076

  8. The prospects for Russian gas demand and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.; Dobozi, I.; Maichel, G.; de Vries, R.

    1995-01-01

    Three contributions to the debate on the future of Russian internal gas demand and exports are presented. In the first, it is argued that Russia's domestic demand will continue to fall due to a combination of payment enforcement for large industrial enterprises and their closure arising from restructuring. Information on gas demand is difficult to interpret, but the most significant factor during 1993-94 was the non-payment of bills without supply disconnection. It is estimated that the falling internal demand will put Russia in the position by 2010 of being able roughly to double its exports to Europe compared with 1993. This could be at relatively low cost since the requirement for investment in production and transmission facilities will not be large. The second author examines economic factors that will decided the size of the Russian ''gas bubble''. Uncertainties in domestic demand open up a wide range of scenarios. The predictions of the first author are regarded as an extreme ''low demand case''. Factors which could increase demand are an anticipated turnaround in the Russian economy in the mid 1990s and the likelihood of energy intensive industries, in which gas would have a competitive advantage, remaining as the backbone of the economy. The third contribution discusses natural gas supply and demand forecasts for Western Europe and concludes that the completion of the Gamal-Europe project, completing a second gas supply line from Russia to Europe, is essential. (U.K.)

  9. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  10. Price elasticity of natural gas demand in the power generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    Today, the demand for energy by the electric generation sector is highly competitive and price-responsive. Previous estimates of the price elasticity of natural gas demand in this sector have focused primarily on data from the 1960s and 1970s. Such estimates fail to take full account of economic, regulatory, and legislative developments that have altered the structure of the electric generation market during the 1980s. Structural changes include an increased ability of utilities to choose among generating options, the increase in non-utility generators, the amending of the Fuel Use Act, and a more competitive market for electricity. An accurate estimate of price elasticity requires a refocusing on data from the post-1983 period. The purpose of this paper is to answer two questions: how price responsive (elastic) is natural gas demand in this market; and what changes in natural gas demand elasticity have occurred over time

  11. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  12. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000

  13. Natural gas supply-demand situation and prospect in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 21st century, the reserves of conventional natural gas as well as tight gas in China have been decreasing and their annual production growth rates have been generally reduced from double-digit to one-digit number of percentage. It is predicted that natural gas production will possibly reach up to 134 billion m3 in 2015; and if the marketable rate is 90%, the gas supply volume will probably be 120.6 billion m3 in 2015. Since shale gas development just has started currently, about 0.6 billion m3 of the marketable shale gas will be added to gas supply in 2015. The CBM gas production especially such gas consumption has long been lagged behind the expected targets, and what's more, flaws exist in their statistics; on this basis, it is assumed that the marketable CBM gas will be 4 billion Nm 3 in 2015. With so many achievements made in the coal gas exploitation, it is forecasted that about 5.5 billion m3 coal gas will be added to gas supply in 2015. In total, the domestic fuel gas supply is roughly estimated to be 131 billion m3 in 2015; if the gas consumption in the year is presumably 231 billion m3, about 100 billion m3 gas will then be imported in 2015. From the presumable actual imports of piped gas and LNG terminals, there is still a gap of 27–30 billion m3 in 2015. Therefore, it is suggested that more LNG receiving terminals be put into production in advance and the increment of import gas be needed from Middle Asia. Also, it is proposed that the statistics be completed on the practical marketable fuel gas quantity in the fundamental study of energy planning in the National 13th Five-Year Plan. In conclusion, the economic system reform process is the key to the further development of oil and gas industry in China.

  14. Urban fuel demand in Ethiopia: an almost‐ideal demand system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the opportunities for reducing the pressure of urban centers on rural forest areas, using a dataset of 350 urban households in Tigrai in northern Ethiopia. We applied an almost‐ideal demand system to fuels. The results suggest that reducing the pressure of urban centers on local forests cannot be ...

  15. Has the natural gas fueled bus any future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Helsinki City Transport has decided to operate public transport in the center of the city with tramways and gas-fuelled busses. The decision is that there will be about 100 natural gas fueled busses in Helsinki by the year 2003. European exhaust gas emission (NO x and particulates) regulations have tightened strongly during the past few years. The regulations have forced to search for new fuels by the side of development of diesel engines. Alcohols, in spite of favourable fuel properties, are too expensive, so the use of them needs large subsidies for transportation sector. Gaseous fuels, both LPG and natural gas are suitable fuels for Otto cycle-cycle engines. After the previous oil crisis the interest in gas-fuelled engines has steadily decreased, but at present it is increasing again because of the objectives to decrease emissions of heavy vehicles at the level of gasoline-fuelled vehicles, equipped with three-way catalyst. From the point of view of emissions natural gas and LPG are seen as equivalent alternatives. The price of LPG varies on the basis of demand and on the basis of the prices of other oil products. Refuelling of a vehicle and storage of LPG in liquid form in the tank of the vehicle is easier than refuelling and fuel storage of natural gas. Investments to refuelling equipment of LPG are only 20% of those of the natural gas refuelling systems. The problem of natural gas is also the fact that is not easy to carry in the vehicle. Even if natural gas is compressed to pressure of 200 bars, it requires six times larger tanks if the refuelling intervals are the same. Liquefaction of natural gas reduces the volume significantly, but this is complicated and hence expensive. The tank of a vehicle should be vacuum insulated because the temperature of the LNG is about 160 deg C. Tank volume of LPG is only about twice that of diesel oil. Safety of natural gas is high, because it is lighter than the air, nearly a half of the density of the air. Octane ratings

  16. Natural gas : the green fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.S.; Harbinson, S.W.; Tertzakian, P.; Wall, T.; Wilkinson, J.; Graham, M.; Young, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that the demand for crude oil exceeds supply and other energy sources are needed to met the shortfall. Natural gas and coal are the only 2 current energy sources that have the global capacity to, by themselves, address increased energy demand in a timely manner. Both these resources have been used primarily for power generation and heating. This paper discussed the transition that will likely occur in which natural gas and coal will be used increasingly as transportation fuels. It presented data comparing the environmental impact of using methane versus coal and proposed natural gas as the future green fuel. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the current Canadian natural gas market. The strengths include recent discoveries in the Horn River Basin and the Montney plays in British Columbia which are expected to triple natural gas production within the next decade. The weaknesses include an oversupply of gas compared to current demand; gas prices are currently in a range that are barely economic for many shale plays; and Canadian gas is disadvantaged for sales in the United States by additional pipeline transportation costs. The opportunities include global export opportunities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the proposed Kitimat LNG export facility and others off the west coast of Canada. The threat facing natural gas development is the strong competition for market share with coal. However, emissions data and energy efficiencies provide evidence to support the choice to use natural gas. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs.

  17. Automotive fuel consumption in Brazil. Applying static and dynamic systems of demand equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iootty, Mariana; Pinto, Helder Jr.; Ebeling, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate and explain the performance of the Brazilian demand for automotive fuels in the period 1970-2005. It estimates the price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector in the country: gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol and diesel. The analysis of the expenditure allocation process among these fuels is carried out through the estimation of a linear approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Two estimation methods were implemented: the static (through a seemingly unrelated regression) and a dynamic (through a vector error correction model). Specification tests support the use of the latter. The empirical analysis suggests a high substitutability between gasoline and ethanol; being this relation higher than the one observed between gasoline and CNG. The study shows that gasoline, ethanol and diesel are normal goods, and with the exception of ethanol, they are expenditure elastic. CNG was estimated as an inferior good. (author)

  18. Automotive fuel consumption in Brazil: Applying static and dynamic systems of demand equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana, E-mail: miootty@ie.ufrj.b [IE-UFRJ (Institute of Economics-Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Energy Economics Group (Brazil); UFRRJ (Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil); Pinto, Helder [IE-UFRJ (Institute of Economics-Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Energy Economics Group (Brazil); Ebeling, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.ebeling@ibp.org.b [Brazilian Petroleum Institute (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to investigate and explain the performance of the Brazilian demand for automotive fuels in the period 1970-2005. It estimates the price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector in the country: gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol and diesel. The analysis of the expenditure allocation process among these fuels is carried out through the estimation of a linear approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Two estimation methods were implemented: the static (through a seemingly unrelated regression) and a dynamic (through a vector error correction model). Specification tests support the use of the latter. The empirical analysis suggests a high substitutability between gasoline and ethanol; being this relation higher than the one observed between gasoline and CNG. The study shows that gasoline, ethanol and diesel are normal goods, and with the exception of ethanol, they are expenditure elastic. CNG was estimated as an inferior good.

  19. Automotive fuel consumption in Brazil. Applying static and dynamic systems of demand equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana [IE-UFRJ (Institute of Economics - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Energy Economics Group (Brazil); UFRRJ (Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil); Pinto, Helder Jr. [IE-UFRJ (Institute of Economics - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Energy Economics Group (Brazil); Ebeling, Francisco [Brazilian Petroleum Institute (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to investigate and explain the performance of the Brazilian demand for automotive fuels in the period 1970-2005. It estimates the price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector in the country: gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol and diesel. The analysis of the expenditure allocation process among these fuels is carried out through the estimation of a linear approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Two estimation methods were implemented: the static (through a seemingly unrelated regression) and a dynamic (through a vector error correction model). Specification tests support the use of the latter. The empirical analysis suggests a high substitutability between gasoline and ethanol; being this relation higher than the one observed between gasoline and CNG. The study shows that gasoline, ethanol and diesel are normal goods, and with the exception of ethanol, they are expenditure elastic. CNG was estimated as an inferior good. (author)

  20. Fission gas behaviour in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    During irradiation, nuclear fuel changes volume, primarily through swelling. This swelling is caused by the fission products and in particular by the volatile ones such as krypton and xenon, called fission gas. Fission gas behaviour needs to be reliably predicted in order to make better use of nuclear fuel, a factor which can help to achieve the economic competitiveness required by today's markets. These proceedings communicate the results of an international seminar which reviewed recent progress in the field of fission gas behaviour in light water reactor fuel and sought to improve the models used in computer codes predicting fission gas release. State-of-the-art knowledge is presented for both uranium-oxide and mixed-oxide fuels loaded in water reactors. (author)

  1. An emerging economic view of world natural gas demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsett, W.H.; Ackerman, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is swiftly moving from a locally traded commodity in regional markets to a globally traded commodity. This paper describes a numerical model of international gas trade which evaluates the effects of inter- and intra-regional gas trade on demand, supply and price. Preliminary evidence indicates natural gas prices are 15 to 30% lower in real terms when inter-regional trade occurs and local consumption of natural gas increases relative to fuel oil in the local market. Natural gas developers or marketers that explicitly consider the inter-regional impacts of gas trade will have a greater likelihood of understanding the risks in marginal projects and are more likely to embrace economic projects and eschew noneconomic projects

  2. On the demand for natural gas in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Zheng, Xinye; Han, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Using a set of unbalanced panel data for Chinese's cities during the period of 2006–2009, this study aims to estimate the price and income elasticities of residential demand for natural gas. Natural gas consumption is specified as a function of its own price; substitute prices; urban wages; and other supply, climate, and housing characteristics. Using a feasible generalised least squares (FGLS) technique, which controls for panel heteroskedasticity and panel correlation, we find that natural gas consumption is price elastic and income inelastic when other covariates (e.g., the supply of natural gas pipeline and heating degree days) are controlled. In addition, there are large variations in demand behaviours across China's regions. There is a substantial income effect on demand for natural gas in southern China, whereas the northern regions are found to have a higher price effect. In addition, the substitution effect between coal and natural gas is significant in North China but is not significant in South China. These findings have several important policy implications for natural gas pricing and supply cost analysis in the context of China. - Highlights: • We estimate the price and income elasticities of residential demand for natural gas. • We use a set of unbalanced panel data for Chinese's cities during 2006–2009. • We use a feasible generalised least squares approach. • We find that natural gas consumption is price elastic and income inelastic. • We find large variations in demand behaviours across China's regions

  3. Modelling fuel demand for different socio-economic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Graham, Daniel J.; Noland, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    The fuel demand literature provides a range of estimates of the long and short-run price and income elasticities of gasoline demand for different countries and states. These estimates can be very useful in predicting the overall impacts of policy approaches designed to reduce fuel consumption and to address concerns of carbon emissions or energy security. However, analysis of policy options based on elasticities that are homogenous across income groups provides no information about the relative distributional burden that may be faced by different sectors of the population. Different responses to the same change in price or income are likely to occur, dependent on both travel needs and income levels. This paper estimates gasoline demand elasticities for different income quintiles in the United States to test for heterogeneity in demand response. Group wise summary consumer expenditure data for 20 years is used to derive the elasticity estimates. The results show that the elasticities do vary across groups and follow a U-pattern from the lowest to the highest income quintile. The lowest income quintile is found to have the largest price elasticity. The lowest and the highest income quintiles appear to be statistically insensitive to any changes in income. The rebound effect also follows the U-pattern, with the highest rebound observed among the wealthiest households. Rural households appear to have lower price elasticity than households in urban areas. (author)

  4. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  5. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  6. U.S., Canadian pipelines producers lining up to meet Mexican gas demand growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on prospects for continued strong growth in Mexican demand for natural gas imports that have U.S. and Canadian producers and pipelines queueing up to serve expected demand. In 1991, more than 25 U.S. companies exported a combined 61.7 bcf of gas into Mexico, an increase of more than 390% from 1990's total of 15.7 bcf. According to the Department of Energy Office of Fuels Programs (OFP), about 27.5 bcf of gas left the U.S. for Mexico in fourth quarter 1991 alone, an average 299 MMcfd. DOE has granted short term authorization to more than 65 countries to export gas into Mexico. Another 25 companies have short term export applications pending

  7. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  8. EMF 9 scenarios Canadian natural gas: Potential demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The basic analytical perspectives of this work are: (1) Canada is a price taker on the US natural gas market; (2) Gas competes with HFO in both markets, and Canada is integrated into the international oil market; (3) Canadian and US income growth rates are consistent with each other, given the major influence of US economic performance on that of the Canadian economy; and (4) Given the price, income and other assumptions, we used the Board's Energy Demand Model to calculate annual demand for natural gas in each price case. We used the Board's models for reserves additions and productive capacity estimation to calculate potential annual supply. The difference between demand and potential supply is the potential exportable volume. The annual productive capacity curve assumes, agnostically, that all potential production is sold yearly

  9. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements

  10. History of gas fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizing the history of gas fuels in France consist essentially in the description of an economic and tax adventure with shortage constraints. The technology itself was developed long time ago and its principle do not raise any problem except for its optimization. The first LPG car was built in 1912 in the USA and fixed engines using town-gas as fuel were developed earlier. The French experience started during the second World War liquid fuels shortage and with the discovery of the Saint-Marcet gas field. The following history is directly related to the geopolitical fluctuations of energy supplies such as the independence of Algeria and the successive petroleum crashes. This short paper describes separately the evolution of natural gas for vehicles (NGV) and LPG fuels. The development of LPG fuels for public use vehicles started in 1979 but did not reached its expected impact due to the single-fuel constraint for vehicle design, applied until 1985, and to an unfavourable tax policy. Only public companies were capable to develop their own LPG vehicles fleet. The tendency of LPG development has recently changed as a consequence of the reinforcement of the environmental and economical policies initiated during the 70's. (J.S.)

  11. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  12. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  13. The role of bio-fuels in satisfying US transportation fuel demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Berk; Kassebaum, Paul G.; Fitch, Jonathan V.; Thompson, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the abundant interest in conversion of agricultural products into useful energy carriers, there have been relatively few studies assessing the magnitude of the impact these fuels can make on satisfying US energy demands. There have been fewer studies of unintended consequences stemming from these enterprises, although several research groups have begun questioning the appropriate levels of subsidies provided to individuals and companies to stimulate production of bio-fuels. In this paper, the production capacities for bio-fuels-ethanol and biodiesel-are evaluated for their potential impact on the US energy market. Several ramifications of these technologies are reviewed. This study concludes that ethanol or biodiesel production do not appear scalable to make a significant difference on the US fossil fuel demand for transportation. Aspects of this study point to systemic changes that may be required in lifestyles and attitudes toward energy consumption. Finally, comments regarding US energy policies are included to stimulate discussion

  14. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  16. U.S. natural gas liquids supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    United States supply and demand situation for natural gas liquids (NGL) was reviewed. The presentation was in four parts: (1) key assumptions for U.S. NGL supply and demand, (2) specific balances for ethane, propane, and butane, (3) some of the key changes now occurring at the customer level, and how these might affect NGLs, and (4) a suggestion of where the future might deviate from projections so severely that projections could be fundamentally wrong. Despite such 'exogenous variables' higher demand projections downstream in the chemical industry were said to be appearing, albeit in scattered fashion. It was estimated that even fractionally higher economic growth could add 3.5 billion pounds to ethylene demand in the USA in the year 2005. 15 figs

  17. Gas blanket fueling of a tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a speculative investigation of the potential of fueling a Tokamak by introducing a sufficiently large quantity of gaseous deuterium and tritium at the vacuum wall boundary. It is motivated by two factors: current generation tokamaks are, in a manner of speaking, fueled from the edge quite successfully as is evidenced by pulse lengths that are long compared to particle recycling times, and by rapid plasma density increase produced by gas puffing, alternative, deep penetration fueling techniques that have been proposed possess severe technological problems and large costs

  18. America: AGA [American Gas Association] initiative aims to boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    This article focuses on the aim of the American Gas Association to increase natural gas demand in the key areas of gas electric generation, natural gas vehicles, gas cooling, and conversion of oil burning facilities, electric water heaters and household appliances such as space heating, stoves, washers and lighting. The need to improve the reliability of natural gas supplies is discussed. It is anticipated that natural gas will not replace coal as the main energy source for power generation, but that it will help utilities to meet environmental regulations. (UK)

  19. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  20. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  1. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union; Modelisation de la demande de carburant appliquee a l`europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorazewiez, S

    1998-01-19

    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author) 330 refs.

  2. Management reporting in gas and fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.L.; Foot, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    Gas and Fuel is the sole supplier of reticulated natural gas to 1.3 m customers in the State of Victoria, Australia. Reporting is performed monthly and is tailored to satisfy the requirements of the Board, executive management and business units. The reports include profit and cash statements, gas sales data, capital expenditure, benchmarks, operational data and human resources information. The reports are a mixture of written commentary, accounting statements and graphical presentations. The reports are used at monthly Board and executive meetings to review performance and manage the business. (au)

  3. Fuel arrangement for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel arrangement for a high temperature gas cooled reactor including fuel assemblies with separate directly cooled fissile and fertile fuel elements removably inserted in an elongated moderator block also having a passageway for control elements

  4. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  5. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  6. Gas fermentation for commodity chemicals and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Gas fermentation is a microbial process that contributes to at least four of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. The process converts waste and greenhouse gases into commodity chemicals and fuels. Thus, world's climate is positively affected. Briefly, we describe the background of the process, some biocatalytic strains, and legal implications. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  8. Forecasting world and regional aviation jet fuel demands to the mid-term (2025)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Gastineau, Pascal; Chevallier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This article provides jet fuel demand projections at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. Air traffic forecasts are performed using dynamic panel-data econometrics. Then, the conversion of air traffic projections into quantities of jet fuel is accomplished by using a complementary approach to the 'Traffic Efficiency' method developed previously by the UK Department of Trade and Industry to support the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (). According to our main scenario, air traffic should increase by about 100% between 2008 and 2025 at the world level, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of 4.7%. World jet fuel demand is expected to increase by about 38% during the same period, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of 1.9% per year. According to these results, energy efficiency improvements allow reducing the effect of air traffic rise on the increase in jet fuel demand, but do not annihilate it. Jet fuel demand is thus unlikely to diminish unless there is a radical technological shift, or air travel demand is restricted. - Highlights: → Jet fuel demand is forecasted at the worldwide and regional level until 2025. → Regional heterogeneity must be considered when forecasting jet fuel demand. → World air traffic should increase by about 100% between 2008 and 2025. → World jet fuel demand is expected to increase by about 38% during the same period. → Technological progress will not be enough to decrease the world jet fuel demand.

  9. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands up to the year AD 2010 for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for France. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  10. Gas as a growth factor for the emerging economies: Natural gas resources Worldwide. Gas: alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-01-01

    All the qualities of gas - available, affordable, efficient, acceptable and reliable - make this energy a cornerstone both for the development of emerging countries and for new economic activities. Another advantage is that gas is available everywhere in a gaseous and/or liquid form, according to the particular infrastructure (gas pipeline, gas tankers). Moreover, gas can be consumed in different sectors - residential, commercial or industrial - and for different uses - electricity generation or clean fuel for transportation. A first part of this paper presents the natural gas resources Worldwide (Cedigaz data) while a second part reviews the development around the world of the use of gas - liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas - as alternative fuels

  11. Landfill gas as vehicle fuel; Deponigas som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Johansson, Nina; Karlsvaerd, Johan (Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    technique). Today there are full-scale plants for the PSA while the distillation technology is under development and expected to be on the market within a year. The product gas can be both CBG and LBG. Because of similarities in the physical properties of methane and nitrogen, the methane losses of landfill gas upgrading is relatively high and amounts to 16-23% depending on technology choices. The methane content in the residual gas flow can be used for energy production, possibly after addition of fuel in case that the methane content is too low. Methane losses and electricity demand of the upgrading process corresponds to 25-30% of the energy content in the incoming landfill gas. With the right conditions it is possible to achieve a cost-effective landfill gas upgrading. It requires relatively large landfill gas flows and an important aspect is the treatment of residual gas flows that can be used for energy production, possibly after addition of fuel. While comparing landfill gas upgrading, heat production and combined heat and power production (CHP), the value of vehicle fuel, heat and electricity are very important for the overall economy of each system. An important parameter is also how much of the generated heat that can be sold over the year. In comparison between landfill gas upgrading and digestion gas upgrading, the investment cost is twice as high for landfill gas upgrading as a result of higher operational and capital costs and higher methane losses. When the raw landfill gas is valued low, there is room for higher upgrading costs since the digester gas has a higher production cost. In an example for a landfill gas flow of 750 Nm3/h with a methane content of 46% ( approx30 GWh/year), the landfill gas upgrading cost is estimated to 0.26 SEK/kWh. The conclusion of the completed investigation is that there is already technology available for landfill gas upgrading and the technologies are under rapid development. Still experience in commercial facilities is

  12. Balancing gas supply and demand with a sustainable gas supply chain : A study based on field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. J. Bekkering; prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; Drs. E.J. Hengeveld; A.A. Broekhuis

    2013-01-01

    The possibilities of balancing gas supply and demand with a green gas supply chain were analyzed. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, the produced biogas is upgraded to (Dutch) natural gas standards. The applicability of modeling yearly gas demand data in a

  13. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  14. Remarks on the demands for the qualification of high density fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1984-01-01

    Research reactors using today highly enriched uranium (HEU) will be obliged within the next years to use low enriched uranium (LEU). The qualification of this fuel is a major task researches are doing world-wide. As qualification can be a relative statement the demands on the qualification of high density fuel from the standpoint of a research reactor operator are given. The needed qualification steps are described: test of miniplates, test fuel elements and whole core conversion. The different demands on the qualified fuel from the fuel fabricator, the licensing procedure and the reactor operator are discussed. Finally the status of qualification for high density fuel is summarized. (orig.) [de

  15. Natural gas in Brazil's energy matrix: demand for 1995-2010 and usage factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Elton; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius de A; Alonso, P.S.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the constraints hampering achievement of the 12% share planned for natural gas in Brazil's energy matrix by 2010, and advises policies for reaching that goal on the basis of forecasts and three probable scenarios for the development of the Brazilian economy. The 12% share goal was established in 1993 by the Ministry of Mines and Energy and confirmed in 2000, and is now in full development. The figures used to represent the estimates of natural gas demands in the three scenarios were obtained from the Integrated Energy Planning Model (MIPE--Modelo Integrado de Planejamento Energetico), which is a technical and economic forecasting model developed by a group of researchers linked to the Energy Planning Program run by the Graduate Engineering Programs Coordination Unit at the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE-UFRJ) under the sponsorship of Petrobras (a Brazilian enterprise operating in the oil and gas segment) and Eletrobras (a Brazilian enterprise in charge of electricity demand planning). The analysis of the constraints take place under the aegis of the objective proposed by the Brazilian Government. The authors suggest specific actions to be taken in four application areas of natural gas: industrial, electric power generation, domestic distribution and vehicular fleet conversions. All the actions proposed encourage the use of a fuel with low environmental impacts and high calorie power, replacing firewood and other polluting fuels and are evaluated relative to the impacts occurring in society, especially from the standpoint of social welfare in a developing country. The necessity of developing the goods and services infrastructure in the country to support the natural gas insertion in the Brazilian energy matrix is also addressed

  16. Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P

    2013-05-21

    An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

  17. Combustion of Syngas Fuel in Gas Turbine Can Combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouki Ghenai

    2010-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the combustion of syngas fuel mixture in gas turbine can combustor is presented in this paper. The objective is to understand the impact of the variability in the alternative fuel composition and heating value on combustion performance and emissions. The gas turbine can combustor is designed to burn the fuel efficiently, reduce the emissions, and lower the wall temperature. Syngas mixtures with different fuel compositions are produced through different coal and biom...

  18. Heavy duty gas turbines experience with ash-forming fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Molière, M.; Sire, J.

    1993-01-01

    The heavy duty gas turbines operating in power plants can burn various fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy oils. Ash-forming fuels can have detrimental effects on the turbine hardware such as : combustion troubles, erosion, corrosion and fouling by ashes. For decades, progress has been made by the gas turbine industry, especially in the fields of superalloy metallurgy, coating and cooling technology. Furthermore, fuel treatments inspired by the petroleum and marine-engine industries (elec...

  19. Estimating elasticities of demand for natural gas in the European household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the residential natural gas demand in 12 European countries using a dynamic loglinear demand model, which allows for country-specific elasticity estimates in the short-run and long run. The explanatory variables include a heating degree days index, real prices of natural gas, light fuel oil, electricity, and real private income per capita. Our data set is a country panel with annual observations from 1978 to 2002. Short panel data sets like this represents a challenge for econometric estimation, as standard estimators often provide implausible estimates of elasticities. The demand model is estimated using both homogeneous and heterogeneous estimators, with a particular focus on the shrinkage estimator (an empirical Bayes estimator). The shrinkage short-run own-price and income elasticity tend to be very inelastic, but with greater long-run responsiveness. We provide support for employing a heterogeneous estimator such as the shrinkage estimator. But the empirical results also motivate a further scrutiny of its properties. We also consider the problem of reporting t-statistics of shrinkage estimators in the empirical Bayes (EB) framework and the problem of using the delta method to approximate the elasticities. The delta method biases upward the t-statistics of the shrinkage elasticities. An alternative approach, the bootstrap sampling methods obtained more reliable confidence intervals. We call into question - is the traditional way of constructing confidence intervals or t-statistics of the shrinkage estimator to naive. (Author)

  20. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  1. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  2. Combustion of Syngas Fuel in Gas Turbine Can Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouki Ghenai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of the combustion of syngas fuel mixture in gas turbine can combustor is presented in this paper. The objective is to understand the impact of the variability in the alternative fuel composition and heating value on combustion performance and emissions. The gas turbine can combustor is designed to burn the fuel efficiently, reduce the emissions, and lower the wall temperature. Syngas mixtures with different fuel compositions are produced through different coal and biomass gasification process technologies. The composition of the fuel burned in can combustor was changed from natural gas (methane to syngas fuel with hydrogen to carbon monoxide (H2/CO volume ratio ranging from 0.63 to 2.36. The mathematical models used for syngas fuel combustion consist of the k-ε model for turbulent flow, mixture fractions/PDF model for nonpremixed gas combustion, and P-1 radiation model. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results obtained in this study show the change in gas turbine can combustor performance with the same power generation when natural gas or methane fuel is replaced by syngas fuels.

  3. Assessment of demand for natural gas from the electricity sector in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash; Victor, David G.

    2009-01-01

    competes with coal as a base-load option if price difference is below US $ 4 per MBtu. At higher price difference gas penetrates only the peak power market. Gas demand is lower in the high economic growth scenario, since electricity sector is more flexible in substitution of primary energy. Gas demand......Electricity sector is among the key users of natural gas. The sustained electricity deficit and environment policies have added to an already rising demand for gas. This paper tries to understand gas demand in future from electricity sector. This paper models the future demand for gas in India from...... the electricity sector under alternative scenarios for the period 2005–2025, using bottom-up ANSWER MARKAL model. The scenarios are differentiated by alternate economic growth projections and policies related to coal reforms, infrastructure choices and local environment. The results across scenarios show that gas...

  4. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  5. Axial gas flow in irradiated PWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagbjartsson, S.J.; Murdock, B.A.; Owen, D.E.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1977-09-01

    Transient and steady state axial gas flow experiments were performed on six irradiated, commercial pressurized water reactor fuel rods at ambient temperature and 533 K. Laminar flow equations, as used in the FRAP-T2 and SSYST fuel behavior codes, were used with the gas flow results to calculate effective fuel rod radial gaps. The results of these analyses were compared with measured gap sizes obtained from metallographic examination of one fuel rod. Using measured gap sizes as input, the SSYST code was used to calculate pressure drops and mass fluxes and the results were compared with the experimental gas flow data

  6. Thermodynamics of the fuel fragmentation gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.B.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of nuclear reactor safety studies, a program is in progress at ORNL whereby fuel-fragmentation situations are mocked up by the application of high-current capacitor discharges through solid UO 2 samples. The goal of the present work is to predict such quantities as the number of gas and liquid fragments and their energy distributions. The point of view adopted is that upon fragmentation, a cloud of UO 2 vapor is formed containing ''primeval'' liquid fragments which act as condensation centers. In the evolution of time, fragment growth is controlled by nucleation, coagulation and evaporation processes. Eventually, the vapor-droplet system will reach a situation in which clusters (fragments) of various sizes and UO 2 vapor will coexist in an ''association-disassociation'' equilibrium. Thus, the physical model considered here consists of the identification of the fragmentation gas with an ''imperfect'' vapor, made up of interacting UO 2 vapor and liquid fragments. The results of the study are presented

  7. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  8. Long-term implications of alternative light-duty vehicle technologies for global greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses global light-duty vehicle (LDV) transport in the upcoming century, and the implications of vehicle technology advancement and fuel-switching on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands. Five different vehicle technology scenarios are analyzed with and without a CO 2 emissions mitigation policy using the GCAM integrated assessment model: a reference internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, an advanced internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, and three alternative fuel vehicle scenarios in which all LDVs are switched to natural gas, electricity, or hydrogen by 2050. The emissions mitigation policy is a global CO 2 emissions price pathway that achieves 450 ppmv CO 2 at the end of the century with reference vehicle technologies. The scenarios demonstrate considerable emissions mitigation potential from LDV technology; with and without emissions pricing, global CO 2 concentrations in 2095 are reduced about 10 ppmv by advanced ICEV technologies and natural gas vehicles, and 25 ppmv by electric or hydrogen vehicles. All technological advances in vehicles are important for reducing the oil demands of LDV transport and their corresponding CO 2 emissions. Among advanced and alternative vehicle technologies, electricity- and hydrogen-powered vehicles are especially valuable for reducing whole-system emissions and total primary energy. - Highlights: → Alternative-fuel LDVs reduce whole-system CO 2 emissions, even without carbon pricing. → Alternative-fuel LDVs enhance the CO 2 mitigation capacity of the transportation sector. → Electric and hydrogen vehicles reduce whole-system primary energy supporting LDV transport.

  9. Projected Alaskan royalty gas production and its relationship to projected natural gas demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobey, P.L.; O' Connor, K.M.; Gilbreth, O.K.; Miller, J.C.; Hamilton, H.H.

    1976-04-01

    Using conservative parameters for the natural gas surplus analysis, a Prudhoe Bay field royalty surplus above residential-commercial needs was found for all pipeline capacities. When the more probable pipeline throughputs are considered (2.0 and 2.5 billion cubic feet per day), surpluses of over 70 percent of the pipeline royalty capacities are present until 1990. The probable effect of future estimated energy production and proven additional gas reserves will insure a surplus above 90 percent of royalty gas for the entire twenty-year period in the 2.0 Bcf per day and 2.5 Bcf per day cases. The assumption that royalty gas will be needed to supply future power demands in the greater Anchorage area must be weighted against the high probability that additional coal-fired generators and hydroelectric power development will be available. After the present commitments of working gas are exhausted, the probable addition of a new alternate energy source added to the likelihood of additional commitments of working gas being acquired by suppliers would insure a solid royalty surplus after 1990.

  10. Re-emerging tiger economies boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the economic crises of Southeast Asia focussing on Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Papua New Guinea. the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar, and discusses the recoveries, the countries' economies and the growth in the Asian gas market. Details are given of natural gas reserves, the production and export of liquefied natural gas, exploration and development, the use of gas for power generation, and the Pan Asian gas grid

  11. Performance of low-Btu fuel gas turbine combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, S.; Bowen, J.H.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.

    1995-11-01

    This reports on a project to develop low BTU gas fuel nozzle for use in large gas turbine combustors using multiple fuel nozzles. A rich-quench-lean combustor is described here which reduces the amount of NO{sub x} produced by the combustion of the low BTU gas. The combustor incorporates a converging rich stage combustor liner, which separates the rich stage recirculation zones from the quench stage and lean stage air.

  12. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  13. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  14. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  15. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David J.

    Rising oil costs, global warming, national security concerns, economic concerns and escalating energy demands are forcing the engineering communities to explore methods to address these concerns. It is the intention of this thesis to offer a proposal for a novel design of a combined cycle, an advanced nuclear helium reactor/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that will help to mitigate some of the above concerns. Moreover, the adoption of this proposal may help to reinvigorate the Nuclear Power industry while providing a practical method to foster the development of a hydrogen economy. Specifically, this thesis concentrates on the importance of the U.S. Nuclear Navy adopting this novel design for its nuclear electric vessels of the future with discussion on efficiency and thermodynamic performance characteristics related to the combined cycle. Thus, the goals and objectives are to develop an innovative combined cycle that provides a solution to the stated concerns and show that it provides superior performance. In order to show performance, it is necessary to develop a rigorous thermodynamic model and computer program to analyze the SOFC in relation with the overall cycle. A large increase in efficiency over the conventional pressurized water reactor cycle is realized. Both sides of the cycle achieve higher efficiencies at partial loads which is extremely important as most naval vessels operate at partial loads as well as the fact that traditional gas turbines operating alone have poor performance at reduced speeds. Furthermore, each side of the cycle provides important benefits to the other side. The high temperature exhaust from the overall exothermic reaction of the fuel cell provides heat for the reheater allowing for an overall increase in power on the nuclear side of the cycle. Likewise, the high temperature helium exiting the nuclear reactor provides a controllable method to stabilize the fuel cell at an optimal temperature band even during transients helping

  16. View of the LP gas supply/demand in Asia and a survey of the Middle East trend; Asia no LP gas jukyu tenbo to Chuto doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    A study was made on the LP gas supply/demand in Asia including an outlook for 2000. Eleven countries in Asia including NIES countries, ASEAN countries, China and India have been continuing their rapid growth of economy and have rapidly been increasing their energy consumption. There, LP gas spreads as a home use fuel, and countries excluding some LP gas producing countries depend considerably upon the import from the Middle East. The LP gas consumption quantity is steadily increasing in China and India having huge population, etc., and dependence of LP gas is increasing upon LP gas producing countries of the Middle East. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, the domestic consumption of LP gas, mostly butane, is increasing. Namely, butane is used as raw material of MTBE, and LP gas as that of petroleum chemicals. The Middle East has a lot of plant projects of a sizable size in the future, which predicts that LP gas export from LP gas producing countries of the Middle East is decreasing. 2 refs., 62 figs., 57 tabs.

  17. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  18. URBAN FUEL DEMAND IN ETHIOPIA: AN ALMOST-IDEAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etsub [ ETSUB

    fuelwood demand and other factors that explained the differences in energy ... energy expenditure pattern of electrified households was affected by household ...... Geothermal. 0.0. 0.0. 0.0. 0.0. 13.9. 23.6. Total. 2,538.2. 2,837.5. 3,279.7. 3,486.7. 3,672.8. 3,911.2. SCS. Hydro. 17.9. 19.7. 21.3. 16.5. 19.2. 20.1. Diesel. 31.1.

  19. Estimating the residential demand function for natural gas in Seoul with correction for sample selection bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lim, Hea-Jin; Kwak, Seung-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, the consumption of natural gas in Korea has increased dramatically. This increase has mainly resulted from the rise of consumption in the residential sector. The main objective of the study is to estimate households' demand function for natural gas by applying a sample selection model using data from a survey of households in Seoul. The results show that there exists a selection bias in the sample and that failure to correct for sample selection bias distorts the mean estimate, of the demand for natural gas, downward by 48.1%. In addition, according to the estimation results, the size of the house, the dummy variable for dwelling in an apartment, the dummy variable for having a bed in an inner room, and the household's income all have positive relationships with the demand for natural gas. On the other hand, the size of the family and the price of gas negatively contribute to the demand for natural gas. (author)

  20. Estimating Price Elasticity of Demand for Motor Fuel in the Transport Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vasilyevna Mazurova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of long-term forecasts of prices and demand on regional energy markets requires accounting for the future changes in the interactions between the greater economy and its energy sector, along with the possible emergence of new factors and specific regional features determining those interactions. The proposed approach allows the study of a correlation between demand and prices for motor fuel, taking into account the competition of energy carriers, the dynamics of energy prices, resource constraints, the use of new technologies and the uncertainty of input data. The main feature of the proposed approach is the combined estimation of the price elasticity of demand for motor fuel with optimization of fuel supply in the region. Thus the author determined elasticity of demand based on the comparison of economic efficiency of the use of different fuels. The study includes results of experimental calculations and forecasted price according to demand for motor fuel in freight transportation for the expected development conditions of the Far Eastern federal district

  1. Interdependencies between transport fuel demand, efficiency and quality: An application to Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlich, Roland; Wirl, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interdependencies between technical efficiencies and energy demand which are often either treated in isolation or do not get the sufficient attention in the literature. More precisely, this paper uses technical efficiencies as one crucial determinant of energy demand in order to integrate at least two issues that are usually investigated separately from each other: the rebound effect resulting from improved technical efficiencies and the asymmetry of energy demand. In this regard, our paper sets out a theoretical framework which has the following implications: higher efficiency increases service demand (first order rebound), low fuel prices and higher efficiency increases the demand for quality (second order) which in turn increases service demand further (third order); ceteris paribus, energy price shocks should increase scrapping rates; fuel prices direct the R and D expenditures of car producers; those on engine efficiency are irreversible, which has the consequence that energy price elasticities depend on the history of energy prices rather than being asymmetrical. Derived implications are subsequently tested on Austrian data. In particular, the purchasing decision diesel versus gasoline powered cars allows to refute the myth that consumers apply high implicit rates for discounting the future benefit from efficient cars. - Research Highlights: ►Dependencies between efficiency, fuel price, quality and fuel demand are modelled. ►Austrian data supports model implications for the defined rounds of rebounds. ►R and D efforts are directed by fuel prices surpassing a threshold on large markets. ►Consumers apply low implicit discount rates for future benefits from efficient cars. ►Effects of policy instruments (fuel efficiency standard, taxes, etc.) are discussed.

  2. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  3. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujotomo Isworo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%, and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant has a high electrical efficiency (45%. Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  4. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  5. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  6. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2003-12-01

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  7. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  8. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  9. Fuel cell/gas turbine system performance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G.T.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Because of the synergistic effects (higher efficiencies, lower emissions) of combining a fuel cell and a gas turbine into a power generation system, many potential system configurations were studied. This work is focused on novel power plant systems by combining gas turbines, solid oxide fuel cells, and a high-temperature heat exchanger; these systems are ideal for the distributed power and on- site markets in the 1-5 MW size range.

  10. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables

  11. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasiri, Sunil [Department of Economics, University of Colombo, P.O. Box. 1490, Colombo 3 (Sri Lanka)]. E-mail: sunilch@sltnet.lk

    2006-09-15

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables.

  12. Fuel flexibility via real-time Raman fuel-gas analysis for turbine system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Woodruff, S.; Chorpening, B.; Tucker, D.

    2015-06-01

    The modern energy production base in the U.S. is increasingly incorporating opportunity fuels such as biogas, coalbed methane, coal syngas, solar-derived hydrogen, and others. In many cases, suppliers operate turbine-based generation systems to efficiently utilize these diverse fuels. Unfortunately, turbine engines are difficult to control given the varying energy content of these fuels, combined with the need for a backup natural gas supply to provide continuous operation. Here, we study the use of a specially designed Raman Gas Analyzer based on capillary waveguide technology with sub-second response time for turbine control applications. The NETL Raman Gas Analyzer utilizes a low-power visible pump laser, and a capillary waveguide gas-cell to integrate large spontaneous Raman signals, and fast gas-transfer piping to facilitate quick measurements of fuel-gas components. A U.S. Department of Energy turbine facility known as HYPER (hybrid performance system) serves as a platform for apriori fuel composition measurements for turbine speed or power control. A fuel-dilution system is used to simulate a compositional upset while simultaneously measuring the resultant fuel composition and turbine response functions in real-time. The feasibility and efficacy of system control using the spontaneous Raman-based measurement system is then explored with the goal of illustrating the ability to control a turbine system using available fuel composition as an input process variable.

  13. Microbial fuel cells: Running on gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2017-06-01

    Methane is an abundant energy source that is used for power generation in thermal power plants via combustion, but direct conversion to electricity in fuel cells remains challenging. Now, a microbial fuel cell is demonstrated to efficiently convert methane directly to current by careful selection of a consortium of microorganisms.

  14. Structural shift in global natural gas markets: Demand boom in Asia, supply shock in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Holz, Franziska; Richter, Philipp M.; von Hirschhausen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The significance of natural gas is on the rise due to the restructuring and decarbonization of energy systems worldwide. Natural gas is widely available and flexible as it can be used in electricity generation, manufacturing, transport, and private households. Compared to other fossil fuels, natural gas produces relatively low carbon dioxide emissions during combustion. For this reason, the natural gas sector also has an important supportive role to play when it comes to the European energy t...

  15. State of technology on hydrogen fueled gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esgar, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A series of investigations was conducted episodically from the 1950's to the early 1970's to investigate the feasibility and potential problem areas in the use of hydrogen fuel for gas turbine engines. A brief summary and bibliography are presented of the research that has been conducted by NASA, its predecessor NACA, and by industry under U. S. Air Force sponsorship. Although development efforts would be required to provide hydrogen fueled gas turbine engines for aircraft, past research has shown that hydrogen fueled engines are feasible, and except for flight weight liquid hydrogen pumps, there are no problem areas relating to engines requiring significant research.

  16. Household consumption, associated fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Greece between 1990 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how Greece's household consumption has changed between 1990 and 2006 and its environmental implications in terms of fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The results show that the 44% increase in Greece's household expenditure between 1990 and 2006 was accompanied by a 67% increase in fossil fuel demand. Of this total, indirect demand accounted for approximately 60% throughout the 16-year period, increasing by 56% overall, whereas direct fossil fuel demand grew by 80%. The results also show that associated CO 2 emissions increased by 60%, resulting in a 'relative decoupling' from energy demand. This relative decoupling is shown to be due to fossil fuel mix changes from the supply side rather than action from consumers. These insights highlight the opportunities for demand-side policies to further reduce fossil fuel demand and CO 2 emissions, allowing Greece to set more proactive and ambitious post-Kyoto targets.

  17. Change of odor characteristics of fuel gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    For safety reasons, very small amounts of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) are added to the natural gas distributed through pipelines in Switzerland. The aim is to give the naturally odorless gas a strong smell of mineral coal gas so that inhabitants will be warned of gas leaks. However, experts suspected that this typical smell would be lost when natural gas flows through soils that are polluted with mineral oils and that the nauseous odor would be replaced by a pleasant one. This suspicion was confirmed by flow tests carried out with different types of soil (organic substances' share: 6.6 - 11.4%; various pollutants). (author)

  18. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  19. Fuel strategies for natural gas fired cogeneration and IPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is the outline of a presentation on managing the risk of varying fuel costs as part of a successful fuel strategy for natural gas fired cogeneration and Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects. So long as the fuel cost that electric utilities recover from their ratepayers differs from the fuel costs incurred by IPP and Qualifying Facility (QF) plant operators, the largest variable cost risk of any QF or IPP will continue to be the cost of fuel. Managing that risk is the mission of any successful fuel procurement strategy. Unfortunately, a quick review of the last 20 years in the oil and gas industry reveals dramatic and substantial changes in price and fuel availability that few, if any, industry experts could have predicted in 1971. Recognizing that the fuel cost risk to a QF or IPP investor also spans a 20 year period, the typical term of a QF or IPP power purchase contract, a successful fuel procurement strategy must consider and address the likelihood of future changes. Due to federal and state regulatory changes made from 1978 to 1989, the current structure of the oil and gas industry appears to provide end-users with the tools to improve the manageability of fuel cost risks. QF and IPP developers can choose the type of service they desire and can negotiate most of the contractual elements of that service. Until electric utilities are allowed to flow through their rates the fuel costs incurred by QFs and IPPs, a thorough analysis of the available fuel procurement options prior to development of a QF or IPP will continue to be absolutely necessary

  20. Fuel assembly for gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellowlees, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel assembly is described for gas-cooled nuclear reactor which consists of a wrapper tube within which are positioned a number of spaced apart beds in a stack, with each bed containing spherical coated particles of fuel; each of the beds has a perforated top and bottom plate; gaseous coolant passes successively through each of the beds; through each of the beds also passes a bypass tube; part of the gas travels through the bed and part passes through the bypass tube; the gas coolant which passes through both the bed and the bypass tube mixes in the space on the outlet side of the bed before entering the next bed

  1. Forecasting Air Traffic and corresponding Jet-Fuel Demand until 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, Benoit; Gastineau, Pascal; Chevallier, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides i) air traffic and ii) Jet-Fuel demand projections at the worldwide level and for eight geographical zones until 2025. The general methodology may be summarized in two steps. First, air traffic forecasts are estimated using econometric methods. The modeling is performed for eight geographical zones, by using dynamic panel-data econometrics. Once estimated from historical data, the model is then used to generate air traffic forecasts. Second, the conversion of air traffic projections into quantities of Jet-Fuel is accomplished using the 'Traffic Efficiency' method developed previously by UK DTI to support the IPCC (IPCC (1999)). One of our major contribution consists in proposing an alternative methodology to obtain Energy Efficiency coefficients and energy efficiency improvements estimates based on modeling at the macro-level. These estimates are obtained by directly comparing the evolution of both Jet-Fuel consumption and air traffic time series from 1983 to 2006. According to our 'Business As Usual' scenario, air traffic should increase by about 100% between 2008 and 2025 at the world level, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of about 4.7%. World Jet-Fuel demand is expected to increase by about 38% during the same period, corresponding to a yearly average growth rate of about 1, 9% per year. Air traffic energy efficiency improvements yield effectively to reduce the effect of air traffic rise on the Jet-Fuel demand increase, but do not annihilate it. Thus, Jet- Fuel demand is unlikely to diminish unless there is a radical technological shift, or air travel demand is restricted. (authors)

  2. Fuel Development For Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Meyer

    2006-06-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [ ]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is a dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the U.S. and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic ‘honeycomb’ structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  3. Feebates, rebates and gas-guzzler taxes: a study of incentives for increased fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.; Patterson, P.D.; Singh, Margaret; Li Jia

    2005-01-01

    US fuel economy standards have not been changed significantly in 20 years. Feebates are a market-based alternative in which vehicles with fuel consumption rates above a 'pivot point' are charged fees while vehicles below receive rebates. By choice of pivot points, feebate systems can be made revenue neutral. Feebates have been analyzed before. This study re-examines feebates using recent data, assesses how the undervaluing of fuel economy by consumers might affect their efficacy, tests sensitivity to the cost of fuel economy technology and price elasticities of vehicle demand, and adds assessments of gas-guzzler taxes or rebates alone. A feebate rate of $500 per 0.01 gallon per mile (GPM) produces a 16 percent increase in fuel economy, while a $1000 per 0.01 GPM results in a 29 percent increase, even if consumers count only the first 3 years of fuel savings. Unit sales decline by about 0.5 percent but sales revenues increase because the added value of fuel economy technologies outweighs the decrease in sales. In all cases, the vast majority of fuel economy increase is due to adoption of fuel economy technologies rather than shifts in sales

  4. Gas release from pressurized closed pores in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.; Donnelly, S.E.; Armour, D.G.; Matzke, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gas release from the nuclear fuels UO 2 and UN out of pressurized closed pores produced by autoclave anneals has been studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). Investigation of gas release during heating and cooling has indicated stress related mechanical effects leading to gas release. This release occurred in a narrow temperature range between about 1000 and 1500 K for UO 2 , but it continued down to ambient temperature for UN. No burst release was observed above 1500 K for UO 2 . (orig.)

  5. Implications of using alternate fuel cycles to meet Ontario's nuclear power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.H.K.

    1978-08-01

    The use of alternate fuel cycles to meet an assumed nuclear capacity growth rate in Ontario is examined. Two criteria are used: the ability of the alternate fuel cycles to lessen the uranium demand; and the ease of commercialization. The nuclear strategies considered assume the use of the natural uranium cycle and, starting in the year 2000, the gradual introduction of an alternate fuel cycle. The alternate fuel cycles reviewed are enriched uranium, mixed oxides, and a variety of thorium cycles. The cumulative uranium requirement to the year 2070, and the growth and size of the reprocessing and fuel fabrication industries are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analyses on nuclear capacity growth rate, recycling loss and delay time are also described. (auth)

  6. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  7. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  8. Road transport fuels in europe: the explosion of demand for diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    In the last 20 years, road transport fuel consumption has more than doubled in European countries, due to strong growth on the diesel passenger car segment and in the transport of road freight. In an economy heavily dependent on oil, European authorities are seeking to promote alternative energy solutions, such as motor fuels produced from biomass

  9. Nuclear design for high temperature gas cooled reactor (GTHTR300C) using MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Tomoaki; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    A design study of the hydrogen cogeneration high temperature gas cooled reactor (GTHTR300C) that can produce both electricity and hydrogen has been carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The GTHTR300C is the system with thermal power of 600MW and reactor outlet temperature of 950degC, which is expected to supply the hydrogen to fuel cell vehicles after 2020s. In future, the full deployment of fast reactor cycle without natural uranium will demand the use of Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels in the GTHTR300C. Therefore, a nuclear design was performed to confirm the feasibility of the reactor core using MOX fuels. The designed reactor core has high performance and meets safety requirements. In this paper, the outline of the GTHTR300C and the nuclear design of the reactor core using MOX fuels are described. (author)

  10. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG: A futuristic fuel for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is fast becoming a serious global problem with increasing population and its subsequent demands. This has resulted in increased usage of hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engines. Hydrogen resources are vast and it is considered as one of the most promising fuel for automotive sector. As the required hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations are not meeting the demand, widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles is not possible in the near future. One of the solutions for this hurdle is to blend hydrogen with methane. Such types of blends take benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Enriching natural gas with hydrogen could be a potential alternative to common hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engine applications. Many researchers are working on this for the last few years and work is now focused on how to use this kind of fuel to its maximum extent. This technical note is an assessment of HCNG usage in case of internal combustion engines. Several examples and their salient features have been discussed. Finally, overall effects of hydrogen addition on an engine fueled with HCNG under various conditions are illustrated. In addition, the scope and challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.

  11. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also

  12. Fuel demand elasticities for energy and environmental policies: Indian sample survey evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundimeda, Haripriya; Koehlin, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    India has been running large-scale interventions in the energy sector over the last decades. Still, there is a dearth of reliable and readily available price and income elasticities of demand to base these on, especially for domestic use of traditional fuels. This study uses the linear approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA-AIDS) using micro data of more than 100,000 households sampled across India. The LA-AIDS model is expanded by specifying the intercept as a linear function of household characteristics. Marshallian and Hicksian price and expenditure elasticities of demand for four main fuels are estimated for both urban and rural areas by different income groups. These can be used to evaluate recent and current energy policies. The results can also be used for energy projections and carbon dioxide simulations given different growth rates for different segments of the Indian population. (author)

  13. Tracing the External Origin of the AGN Gas Fueling Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Raimundo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared observations of the active galaxy MCG–6-30-15 provide strong evidence that its molecular gas fueling reservoir is of external origin. MCG–6-30-15 has a counter-rotating core of stars within its central 400 pc and a counter-rotating disc of molecular gas that extends as close as ~50–100 pc from the central black hole. The gas counter-rotation establishes that the gas reservoir in the center of the galaxy originates from a past external accretion event. In this contribution we discuss the gas and stellar properties of MCG–6-30-15, its past history and how the findings on this galaxy can be used to understand AGN fueling in S0 galaxies with counter-rotating structures.

  14. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    infrastructure. Because of their high per-vehicle fuel use, central fueling and sensitivity to fuel costs, fleets will continue to be the primary target for NGV deployment and station development efforts. The transit sector is projected to continue to account for the greatest vehicular natural gas use and for new volume growth. New tax incentives and improved life-cycle economics also create opportunities to deploy additional vehicles and install related vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure in the refuse, airport and short-haul sectors. Focusing on fleets generates the highest vehicular natural gas throughout but it doesn't necessarily facilitate public fueling infrastructure because, generally, fleet operators prefer not to allow public access due to liability concerns and revenue and tax administrative burdens. While there are ways to overcome this reluctance, including ''outside the fence'' retail dispensers and/or co-location of public and ''anchor'' fleet dispensing capability at a mutually convenient existing or new retail location, each has challenges that complicate an already complex business transaction. Partnering with independent retail fuel station companies, especially operators of large ''truck stops'' on the major interstates, to include natural gas at their facilities may build public fueling infrastructure and demand enough to entice the major oil companies to once again engage. Garnering national mass media coverage of success in California and Utah where vehicular natural gas fueling infrastructure is more established will help pave the way for similar consumer market growth and inclusion of public accessibility at stations in other regions. There isn't one ''right'' business model for growing the nation's NGV inventory and fueling infrastructure. Different types of station development and ownership-operation strategies will continue to be warranted for

  15. A Comparison of Optimal Operation of a Residential Fuel Cell Co-Generation System Using Clustered Demand Patterns Based on Kullback-Leibler Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Hasizume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating residential energy systems like co-generation systems, hot water and electricity demand profiles are critical. In this paper, the authors aim to extract basic time-series demand patterns from two kinds of measured demand (electricity and domestic hot water, and also aim to reveal effective demand patterns for primary energy saving. Time-series demand data are categorized with a hierarchical clustering method using a statistical pseudo-distance, which is represented by the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence of two Gaussian mixture distributions. The classified demand patterns are built using hierarchical clustering and then a comparison is made between the optimal operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell co-generation system and the operation of a reference system (a conventional combination of a condensing gas boiler and electricity purchased from the grid using the appropriately built demand profiles. Our results show that basic demand patterns are extracted by the proposed method, and the heat-to-power ratio of demand, the amount of daily demand, and demand patterns affect the primary energy saving of the co-generation system.

  16. Price elasticity of Swiss motor fuel demand; Elasticite-prix de la demande d'essence en Suisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranzini, A. [Haute Ecole de Gestion de Geneve (HEG-Geneve), Centre de Recherche Appliquee en Gestion (CRAG), Carouge (Switzerland); Neto, D.; Weber, S. [Universite de Geneve, Laboratoire d' Economie Appliquee (LEA), Geneve (Switzerland)

    2009-07-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the University of Geneva takes a look at the price elasticity of motor fuel demand in Switzerland. Macro-economic data on petrol and diesel consumption is used to calculate short and long-term price elasticity. Various factors that have an influence on prices are discussed. Data for the period 1970 - 2008 is used. A method developed by Engle and Granger is used to examine short and long-term developments in this area. A large number of variables are used in mathematical models to explain price developments. The methods used are described and the results are presented in tabular form. Various external effects such the oil-price shocks and price developments in neighbouring countries are examined.

  17. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  18. Supply and demand of natural gas in the world and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissik, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Based on data from the July 1991 published report of the International Gas Union (IGU) committee Supply and Demand an overview is given of the expectations for the natural gas supply, with special attention to Western Europe and the late Soviet Union. Data are presented for natural gas reserves and natural gas supply and demand in Eastern Europe (mainly USSR), Western Europe, North America (USA and Canada), and reserves in the Middle East. The conclusions drawn concern mainly Western Europe. It appears that the natural gas supplies in the world are still very large and sufficient for decades. Western Europe however must rely on foreign reserves more and more, which will have an impact on the natural gas prices. The reserves in the Soviet Union (mainly Siberia and the Arctic area) will be of great importance to the West European countries. 6 figs., 4 ill

  19. Simulation modelling for new gas turbine fuel controller creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendland, L. E.; Pribylov, V. G.; Borisov, Yu A.; Arzamastsev, M. A.; Kosoy, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    State of the art gas turbine fuel flow control systems are based on throttle principle. Major disadvantage of such systems is that they require high pressure fuel intake. Different approach to fuel flow control is to use regulating compressor. And for this approach because of controller and gas turbine interaction a specific regulating compressor is required. Difficulties emerge as early as the requirement definition stage. To define requirements for new object, his properties must be known. Simulation modelling helps to overcome these difficulties. At the requirement definition stage the most simplified mathematical model is used. Mathematical models will get more complex and detailed as we advance in planned work. If future adjusting of regulating compressor physical model to work with virtual gas turbine and physical control system is planned.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  1. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  2. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  3. First European fuel cell installation with anaerobic digester gas in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbeck, M.; Klinge, T.; Döding, B.

    The City of Ahlen in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany and RWE Fuel Cells GmbH, Essen, cooperate in order to install a molten carbonate fuel cell in the municipal sewage works of Ahlen in May/June 2005. The MCFC unit, a so-called HotModule made by MTU CFC Solutions, Ottobrunn operates on anaerobic digester gas and provides power and heat for the sewage works. This is the first project of its kind in Europe. This article outlines the experiences of RWE Fuel Cells with planning, installation and operation of MCFC systems and is focussing on the use of digester gas. The engineering and installation phase is described regarding to the special features of digester gas, for example variation in gas composition and impurities as well as different flow rates. The results of the first months of operation are interpreted and influences to the performance of the fuel cell on digester gas composition are compared. One focus of the recent RWE Fuel Cells projects is the use of MCFC systems using different biofuels. With the results from planning, installation and operation of the MCFC in Ahlen a system design for the application of different fuels can be validated and tested.

  4. Development of a Dual-Fuel Gas Turbine Engine of Liquid and Low-Calorific Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masamichi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    We developed a dual-fuel single can combustor for the Niigata Gas Turbine (NGT2BC), which was developed as a continuous-duty gas turbine capable of burning both kerosene and digester gas. The output of the NGT2BC is 920kW for continuous use with digester gas and 1375kW for emergency use with liquid fuel. Digester gas, obtained from sludge processing at sewage treatment plants, is a biomass energy resource whose use reduces CO2 emissions and take advantage of an otherwise wasted energy source. Design features for good combustion with digester gas include optimized the good matching of gas injection and swirl air and reduced reference velocity. The optimal combination of these parameters was determined through CFD analysis and atmospheric rig testing.

  5. 76 FR 52652 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... and Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company's (TGP) proposed Station 230C Project in the above referenced dockets. National Fuel and TGP request authorization to construct facilities in Pennsylvania and New York... environmental effects of the construction and operation of National Fuel's and TGP's proposed projects in...

  6. Forecasting the natural gas demand in China using a self-adapting intelligent grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Bo; Li, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Reasonably forecasting demands of natural gas in China is of significance as it could aid Chinese government in formulating energy policies and adjusting industrial structures. To this end, a self-adapting intelligent grey prediction model is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional grey models which have the inherent drawbacks of fixed structure and poor adaptability, the proposed new model can automatically optimize model parameters according to the real data characteristics of modeling sequence. In this study, the proposed new model, discrete grey model, even difference grey model and classical grey model were employed, respectively, to simulate China's natural gas demands during 2002–2010 and forecast demands during 2011–2014. The results show the new model has the best simulative and predictive precision. Finally, the new model is used to forecast China's natural gas demand during 2015–2020. The forecast shows the demand will grow rapidly over the next six years. Therefore, in order to maintain the balance between the supplies and the demands for the natural gas in the future, Chinese government needs to take some measures, such as importing huge amounts of natural gas from abroad, increasing the domestic yield, using more alternative energy, and reducing the industrial reliance on natural gas. - Highlights: • A self-adapting intelligent grey prediction model (SIGM) is proposed in this paper. • The SIGM has the advantage of working with exponential functions and linear functions. • The SIGM solves the drawbacks of fixed structure and poor adaptability of grey models. • The demand of natural gas in China is successfully forecasted using the SIGM model. • The study findings can help Chinese government reasonably formulate energy policies.

  7. Characterization of biomass producer gas as fuel for stationary gas engines in combined heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project has been the characterization of biomass producer gas as a fuel for stationary gas engines in heat and power production. More than 3200 hours of gas engine operation, with producer gas as fuel, has been conducted at the biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP...... from 50% to 90% load. Biomass producer gas is an excellent lean burn engine fuel: Operation of a natural aspirated engine has been achieved for 1.2...

  8. Heat removal in gas-cooled fuel rod clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1975-01-01

    For a thermo- and fluid-dynamic analysis of fuel rod cluster subchannels for gas-cooled breeder reactors, the following values must be verified: a) friction coefficient as flow parameter; b) Stanton number as heat transfer parameter; c) influence of spacers on friction coefficient and Stanton number; d) heat and mass exchange between subchannels with different temperatures. These parameters are established by combining results of single experiments and of integral experiments. Mention is made of further studies to be performed in order to determine the heat removal from gas-cooled fast breeder fuel elements. (HR) [de

  9. Considerations on Seismic Design of Installations using Natural Gas Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tokar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents issues relating to existing standards underlying seismic design restrictions for non-structural components (NSC related to constructions. Are presented measures that can be implemented to maintain a high level of safety in case of earthquake, natural gas plants, which due to the flammability of fuel, carry some risk of fire or explosion. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for seismic design of facilities using natural gas fuel for new buildings but also to review the existing installations in buildings by taking mandatory measures.

  10. The impact of small scale cogeneration on the gas demand at distribution level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandewalle, J.; D’haeseleer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact on the gas network of a massive implementation of cogeneration. • Distributed energy resources in a smart grid environment. • Optimisation of cogeneration scheduling. - Abstract: Smart grids are often regarded as an important step towards the future energy system. Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration has several advantages in the context of the smart grid, which include the efficient use of primary energy and the reduction of electrical losses through transmission. However, the role of the gas network is often overlooked in this context. Therefore, this work presents an analysis of the impact of a massive implementation of small scale (micro) cogeneration units on the gas demand at distribution level. This work shows that using generic information in the simulations overestimates the impact of CHP. Furthermore, the importance of the thermal storage tank capacity on the impact on the gas demand is shown. Larger storage tanks lead to lower gas demand peaks and hence a lower impact on the gas distribution network. It is also shown that the use of an economically led controller leads to similar results compared to classical heat led control. Finally, it results that a low sell back tariff for electricity increases the impact of cogeneration on the gas demand peak

  11. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  12. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  13. The demand for clean-fuel vehicles by Dutch local authorities. A stated choice analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, P.

    2012-08-15

    Previous research showed that the era of cheap fossil fuels is over. Also, 23% of the worldwide emission of CO2 is produced by road transport. These problems demand a change in the propulsion of vehicles. Because the diffusion of clean-fuel vehicles is not happening at this moment, something has to change. Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory is used to state that a critical mass of vehicles is needed to stimulate the diffusion of these vehicles. Due to public procurement Dutch local authorities (DLA's) can help stimulating this diffusion. Unfortunately these DLA's are not purchasing clean-fuel vehicles yet. To gain insight in what is hampering the diffusion of these vehicles by DLA's, a discrete choice experiment was created about the preferences by these DLA's. Six vehicle attributes were used to describe each vehicle. The results showed that the initial purchase price and the amount of local emission were experienced as the most important attributes by DLA's, where initial purchase price has a negative influence and local emission a positive influence in the choice for a new vehicle. Next, fuel price, range and availability of the fuel were found evenly important. Fuel price had a negative influence and both range and availability of fuel had a positive influence on the choice for a new vehicle. Finally, time to refuel/recharge was found least important and also negatively influencing the choice.

  14. Recent rapid increases in the demand for city gas in manufacturing industries and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shigero

    1992-01-01

    City gas companies in Japan are experiencing an expansion in demand for gas in all manufacturing industries. The reason for this is, first and foremost, external, in that the first and second oil crises and the recent Gulf War have placed the oil market in a state of flux. That is to say, supply and demand in the oil products market is unstable while the stability of city gas, which is the main raw material for LNG, is being highly appraised. Another external reason is related to a subject much in the news recently the world over - the environment. City gas is highly regarded for its minimum environmental impact. Domestic reasons for the expansion include the fact that with the increase in use of city gas in manufacturing industries, the end user is beginning to recognize the various special qualities that city gas possesses. The expansion is also due in part to the unrelenting efforts in sales by the gas producers themselves. This report focuses on the expansion in demand in city gas over the past ten years from the point of view of Tokyo Gas as a producer that has been party to the increased sales of city gas in manufacturing industries for over 10 years giving views on the reasons for the increase. Graphic reports of the actual situation of the industry at meetings such as these are rare and therefore although this is slightly different from the main theme, I would like to proceed with the debate in the hope that this will be beneficial in the expansion of future gas demand in countries all over the world

  15. Prospects of natural gas demand and pipeline projects in the East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, A.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the natural gas industry in East Asia was discussed. It was predicted that by 2010, the demand for natural gas could potentially reach 80 billion cubic feet per day. This represents an 8 per cent per year growth rate from a 1995 baseline. Similarly, it was predicted that by 2010, the region's natural gas supply could potentially reach 65 billion cubic feet per day which would represent 2.5 times the supply of natural gas in 1995. The additional demand will most likely be supplied from the Middle East in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), from Eastern Russia through pipelines of LNG, or from North America in the form of LNG. Some gas may also be supplied from Central Asia through pipelines. The price and cost of natural gas are major uncertainties in the future of the East Asian gas demand. Pipeline projects from Russia to China were discussed. Japan and Korea are also interested in collaborating on the feasibility study with Russia and China on a 3,400 km pipeline of 60 inch diameter from the Koviktinskoye gas field through Mongolia to Beijing, Tianjin and Korea, transporting 20 to 30 billion cubic metres of gas annually. A natural gas pipeline project transporting gas from the southern edge of the Sakhalin Island to the Tokyo area was also discussed. The project would involve construction of a 2,200 km 40-48 inch pipeline, much of it undersea, transporting 6 to 12 million tonnes of liquid natural gas, annually

  16. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim

  17. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  18. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  19. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  20. Long term outlook for gas supply and demand 2007-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Given the economic crisis and the even greater focus of energy policy in recent years on energy efficiency and renewables, earlier expectations in respect of gas demand have to be lowered. Nonetheless, there are still good prospects for gas expanding its position in the EU energy market in the medium to long term. Environmental friendliness and highly efficient technologies in all areas of energy supply give gas a key role in a realistic EU climate policy, the goals of which cannot be achieved solely through increased use of renewables. Its green qualities make gas attractive in direct utilisation in homes and businesses, in centralised power generation, in local CHP plant (including micro-CHP), and - in some member states - in the transport sector too. The current slump in demand is accompanied by strong supply pressure on European procurement markets. Experts do not predict that the present excess supply situation will continue in the long term. It is expected that imports to Europe will rise in order to compensate for the impending fall in domestic European production and to supply additional gas. The procurement challenge cannot be considered in isolation from global developments. The increasing demand for gas worldwide will intensify the competition for global gas reserves on international markets. The European gas industry emphasises the importance of fostering long-term relationships with major suppliers, transit countries and key partners in the EU as well as with multilateral organisations and structures.

  1. Biomass & Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Fuel For Gas Turbine (Power Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made by major power generation equipment manufacturers in the development of market applications for hydrogen fuel use in gas turbines in recent years. Development of a new application using gas turbines for significant reduction of power plant CO2 e...

  2. Natural gas participation on brazilian demand supply of liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Rachid, L.B. de

    1991-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids Production, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) among them, has undergone a continuous growth and technological development until the first half of the eighties. This paper presents the natural gas processing activity development in Brazil, in the last 20 years, and the increasing share of LPG produced from natural gas in the supply of LPG domestic market. Possibilities of achieving greater shares are discussed, based on economics of natural gas processing projects. Worldwide gas processing installed capacity and LPG pricing tendencies, and their influence in the construction of new Natural Gas Processing Units in Brazil, are also discussed. (author)

  3. Future fuel choices in Asia - the economics of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The greatest opportunities for foreign private sector involvement in gas-based power in Asia exist in the less developed countries. Factors contributing to these opportunities include rapid economic growth, increased environmental concern, the need for private sector finance and technology to sustain economic growth, an excess of under-developed gas reserves and continued advances in the efficiency of gas turbine combined cycle power generation. A tripling of gas demand is expected in Asia over the period 1992 to 2000 in meeting 100-120 GW of the new power capacity of 700 GW necessary to sustain planned economic growth. Supply costs are likely to be high, however. Despite the current excess of undeveloped reserves in Asia, these will not be sufficient to meet the demand, will be relatively expensive to develop and are often remote from the market centres. Greater dependence on liquefied natural gas from outside the region is inescapable. The economics of gas-fired production is also threatened by the prospective emergence of more efficient coal-based technologies. A fundamental change in gas contracting practices, recognizing the long term incremental avoided cost of power utilities, is needed in the face of high supply costs. The role of the private sector is crucial to the realisation of the fundamental environmental and technical advantages of gas-based power in Asia but there are difficulties to be overcome in the investment framework before a significant expansion in private projects can occur. (7 figures) (UK)

  4. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert B.; Hegarty, William P.; Studer, David W.; Tirados, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  5. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  6. Behaviour of gas cooled reactor fuel under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Behaviour of Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel under Accident Conditions was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the review of the development status and for the discussion on the behaviour of gas cooled reactor fuel under accident conditions and to identify areas in which additional research and development are still needed and where international co-operation would be beneficial for all involved parties. The meeting was attended by 45 participants from France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, CEC and the IAEA. The meeting was subdivided into five technical sessions: Summary of Current Research and Development Programmes for Fuel; Fuel Manufacture and Quality Control; Safety Requirements; Modelling of Fission Product Release - Part I and Part II; Irradiation Testing/Operational Experience with Fuel Elements; Behaviour at Depressurization, Core Heat-up, Power Transients; Water/Steam Ingress - Part I and Part II. 22 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. At the end of the meeting a round table discussion was held on Directions for Future R and D Work and International Co-operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Gas fuels for the transport sector; Denmark; Gas til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses suggest that especially biogas, but also natural gas in macroeconomic terms will be attractive propellants, including for heavy transport. To implement a Danish expansion of gas infrastructure for transportation, the report recommends the following essential elements: 1) A Danish rollout should be closely linked to contracts with fleet owners with heavy vehicles / taxis / vans and the like, thus ensuring high utilization of filling stations; 2) About 10 larger, flexible CNG filling stations set up at major fleet owners is estimated as sufficient for an initial deployment phase, strategically distributed in and around Copenhagen, the major cities and along the main road network from Sweden to Germany; 3) A certain time-limited funding for the construction of infrastructure is likely to cause a rapid spread, if desired, and if other business conditions are in place; 4) There is a need for adjustment of tax terms - the rules for green taxes should be adjusted, and it should be considered to lower the taxes on CNG and biogas; 5) Natural gas mixed with biogas should be an integral element of a comprehensive strategy to ensure maximum CO{sub 2} displacement. (LN)

  8. Fission gas retention and axial expansion of irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    Out-of-reactor experiments utilizing direct electrical heating and infrared heating techniques were performed on irradiated metallic fuel. The results indicate accelerated expansion can occur during thermal transients and that the accelerated expansion is driven by retained fission gases. The results also demonstrate gas retention and, hence, expansion behavior is a function of axial position within the pin

  9. Effect of Recrystallization on Gas Bubble Swelling in UMo Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2017-07-31

    Recrystallization plays an important role in swelling kinetics of irradiated metallic nuclear fuels. This talk will present a three-dimensional microstructure-dependent swelling model by integrating the evolution of intra-and inter- granular gas bubbles, dislocation loop density, and recrystallization.

  10. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI Corp., embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the proce...

  11. Fission gas release from fuel at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.; Beyer, C.E.; Voglewede, J.C.

    1978-03-01

    The release of fission gas from fuel pellets at high burnup is reviewed in the context of the safety analysis performed for reactor license applications. Licensing actions are described that were taken to correct deficient gas release models used in these safety analyses. A correction function, which was developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its consultants, is presented. Related information, which includes some previously unpublished data, is also summarized. The report thus provides guidance for the analysis of high burnup gas release in licensing situations

  12. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuels and Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    At the third annual meeting of the technical working group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), held in Vienna, in 2004, it was suggested 'to develop manuals/handbooks and best practice documents for use in training and education in coated particle fuel technology' in the IAEA's Programme for the year 2006-2007. In the context of supporting interested Member States, the activity to develop a handbook for use in the 'education and training' of a new generation of scientists and engineers on coated particle fuel technology was undertaken. To make aware of the role of nuclear science education and training in all Member States to enhance their capacity to develop innovative technologies for sustainable nuclear energy is of paramount importance to the IAEA Significant efforts are underway in several Member States to develop high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) based on either pebble bed or prismatic designs. All these reactors are primarily fuelled by TRISO (tri iso-structural) coated particles. The aim however is to build future nuclear fuel cycles in concert with the aim of the Generation IV International Forum and includes nuclear reactor applications for process heat, hydrogen production and electricity generation. Moreover, developmental work is ongoing and focuses on the burning of weapon-grade plutonium including civil plutonium and other transuranic elements using the 'deep-burn concept' or 'inert matrix fuels', especially in HTGR systems in the form of coated particle fuels. The document will serve as the primary resource materials for 'education and training' in the area of advanced fuels forming the building blocks for future development in the interested Member States. This document broadly covers several aspects of coated particle fuel technology, namely: manufacture of coated particles, compacts and elements; design-basis; quality assurance/quality control and characterization techniques; fuel irradiations; fuel

  13. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissett, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for removing sulfur species from a stream of fuel gas produced by the gasification of sulfur-containing fuel. It comprises a vertically oriented housing, a bed of particulate sulfur sorbent, means for directing a stream of sulfur-bearing fuel gas upwardly through the bed in the housing, vertically oriented first conduit means contacting an upper region of the bed, second conduit means in communication with the vertically oriented first conduit means at a location underlying the bed, means for introducing a steam of oxygen-containing gases into the second conduit means, separating means coupled to the second conduit means at the preselected location and third conduit means in communication with the separating means and a lower region in the bed for conveying the separated regenerated sorbent from the separating means into the lower region of the bed

  14. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport

  15. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio; Del Rio, Pablo; Jorge-Garcia, Marta; Burguillo, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  16. Optimizing renewable energy, demand response and energy storage to replace conventional fuels in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, David B.; Harvey, L.D. Danny

    2015-01-01

    Electricity systems with high penetrations of renewable energy require a mix of resources to balance supply with demand, and to maintain safe levels of system reliability. A load balancing methodology is developed to determine the optimal lowest-cost mix of renewable energy resources, demand response, and energy storage to replace conventional fuels in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Three successive cumulative scenarios are considered: the displacement of fossil fuel generation, the planned retirement of an existing nuclear reactor, and the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet. The results show that each of these scenarios is achievable with energy generation costs that are not out of line with current and projected electricity generation costs. These transitions, especially that which proposes the electrification of the vehicle fleet, require significant investment in new generation, with installed capacities much higher than that of the current system. Transitions to mainly renewable energy systems require changes in our conceptualization of, and approach to, energy system planning. - Highlights: • Model three scenarios to replace conventional fuels with renewables, storage and DR (demand response). • Determine optimal low-cost mix of resources for each scenario. • Scenarios require much higher installed capacities than current system. • Energy transitions require changes in approach to energy system planning.

  17. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  18. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  19. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Q; Guarnieri, MT; Tao, L; Laurens, LML; Dowe, N; Pienkos, PT

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Bioconversion of Natural Gas to Liquid Fuel. Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Qiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laurens, Lieve M. L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dowe, Nancy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Moreover, methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. Our review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  1. Advanced modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungen Yin

    2011-01-15

    The main goal of this small-scale project is to investigate oxy-combustion of natural gas (NG) through advanced modeling, in which radiation, chemistry and mixing will be reasonably resolved. 1) A state-of-the-art review was given regarding the latest R and D achievements and status of oxy-fuel technology. The modeling and simulation status and achievements in the field of oxy-fuel combustion were also summarized; 2) A computer code in standard c++, using the exponential wide band model (EWBM) to evaluate the emissivity and absorptivity of any gas mixture at any condition, was developed and validated in detail against data in literature. A new, complete, and accurate WSGGM, applicable to both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion modeling and applicable to both gray and non-gray calculation, was successfully derived, by using the validated EWBM code as the reference mode. The new WSGGM was implemented in CFD modeling of two different oxy-fuel furnaces, through which its great, unique advantages over the currently most widely used WSGGM were demonstrated. 3) Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed for oxy-NG flame and air-NG flame, in which dissociation effects were considered to different degrees. Remarkable differences in oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion were revealed, and main intermediate species that play key roles in oxy-fuel flames were identified. Different combustion mechanisms are compared, e.g., the most widely used 2-step global mechanism, refined 4-step global mechanism, a global mechanism developed for oxy-fuel using detailed chemical kinetic modeling (CHEMKIN) as reference. 4) Over 15 CFD simulations were done for oxy-NG combustion, in which radiation, chemistry, mixing, turbulence-chemistry interactions, and so on were thoroughly investigated. Among all the simulations, RANS combined with 2-step and refined 4-step mechanism, RANS combined with CHEMKIN-based new global mechanism for oxy-fuel modeling, and LES combined with different combustion

  2. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  3. Energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions during the production of a passenger car in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Rapidly-rising oil demand and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road vehicles in China, passenger cars in particular, have attracted worldwide attention. As most studies to date were focused on the vehicle operation stage, the present study attempts to evaluate the energy demand and GHG emissions during the vehicle production process, which usually consists of two major stages-material production and vehicle assembly. Energy demand and GHG emissions in the material production stage are estimated using the following data: the mass of the vehicle, the distribution of material used by mass, and energy demand and GHG emissions associated with the production of each material. Energy demand in the vehicle assembly stage is estimated as a linear function of the vehicle mass, while the associated GHG emission is estimated according to the primary energy sources. It is concluded that the primary energy demand, petroleum demand and GHG emissions during the production of a medium-sized passenger car in China are 69,108 MJ, 14,545 MJ and 6575 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq). Primary energy demand, petroleum demand and GHG emissions in China's passenger car fleets in 2005 would be increased by 22%, 5% and 30%, respectively, if the vehicle production stage were included.

  4. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Gillett, James E.; Basel, Richard A.; Antenucci, Annette B.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  5. Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) fuel and In-Core Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.D.; Sterbentz, J.; Meyer, M.; Lowden, R.; Hoffman, E.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) has been chosen as one of six candidates for development as a Generation IV nuclear reactor based on: its ability to fully utilize fuel resources; minimize or reduce its own (and other systems) actinide inventory; produce high efficiency electricity; and the possibility to utilize high temperature process heat. Current design approaches include a high temperature (2 850 C) helium cooled reactor using a direct Brayton cycle, and a moderate temperature (550 C - 650 C) helium or supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) cooled reactor using direct or indirect Brayton cycles. These design choices have thermal efficiencies that approach 45% to 50%, and have turbomachinery sizes that are much more compact compared to steam plants. However, there are challenges associated with the GCFR, which are the focus of current research. This includes safety system design for decay heat removal, development of high temperature/high fluence fuels and materials, and development of fuel cycle strategies. The work presented here focuses on the fuel and preliminary in-core fuel management, where advanced ceramic-ceramic (cercer) dispersion fuels are the main focus, and average burnups to 266 M Wd/kg appear achievable for the reference Si C/(U,TRU)C block/plate fuel. Solid solution (pellet) fuel in composite ceramic clad (Si C/Si C) is also being considered, but remains as a backup due to cladding fabrication challenges, and high centerline temperatures in the fuel. (Author)

  6. Enron sees major increases in U.S. gas supply, demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.; Stram, B.

    1991-01-01

    Enron Corp., Houston, in an extensive study of U.S. natural-gas supply and demand through the year 2000, has found that the U.S. gas-resource base is 1,200 tcf. Despite current weaknesses in natural-gas prices, demand growth will be strong although affected by oil-price assumptions. This paper reports on highlights in the areas of reserves and production which include gains in both categories in the Rockies/Wyoming, San Juan basin, and Norphlet trends (offshore Alabama). The Midcontinent/Hugoton area exhibits reserve declines in a period of flat production. In the U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC) offshore, both production and reserves decline over the forecast period. These projections are derived from a base-case price of $4.07/MMBTU by 2000. U.S. gas production exhibits a production decline in a low oil-price case from 19 to 16.4 tcf by 2000, if prices are 30% below the base case, that is, $2.93/MMBTU. Gains in commercial gas use are strong under either scenario of a base oil price of $29.80 in 1990 dollars in the year 2000 or a low oil price of $20.50 in 1990 dollars in 2000. Demand for natural gas for power generation grows as much as 1.5 tcf by 2000 in the Enron base case and by 300 bcf by 2000 in the low crude-oil price case

  7. Demand for seasonal gas storage in northwest Europe until 2030. Simulation results with a dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.; Oezdemir, Oe.

    2010-01-01

    The fact that depletion of indigenous gas production increases gas import dependency is widely known and accepted. However, there is considerable less attention for the implications of indigenous resource depletion for the provision of seasonal flexibility. The traditionally largest source of seasonal flexibility in Europe is indigenous gas production, mainly based in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. With the depletion of indigenous sources the market increasingly needs to rely on other sources for seasonal flexibility, such as gas storage facilities. We investigate the future need for gas storage as a source for seasonal flexibility provision using a dynamic gas market model (GASTALE) in which different potential sources for seasonal flexibility - gas production, imports via pipeline, LNG imports and storage facilities - compete with each other in a market-based environment. The inclusion of seasonal flexibility properties in a gas market model allows a more complex analysis of seasonal flexibility issues than previously documented in literature. This is demonstrated in an analysis of the future demand for gas storage in northwestern Europe until 2030. Our results indicate that there is substantial need for additional gas storage facilities and thus supports current project proposals for new investment in gas storage facilities. (author)

  8. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  9. adaptation of natural gas for motor fuels in nigeria transport system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, as a result of limiting reserve of crude oil and the clamour for the deregulation of the petroleum sector of the nation's economy, there is need to look beyond liquid fuel (gasoline, diesel) as vehicular fuels. The viability of adapting natural gas for motor fuels had been presented. Natural gas as automobile fuel ...

  10. Modernization of burner devices of gas- and liquid-fueled power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakov, N. S.; Leikam, A. E.; Asoskov, V. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2012-03-01

    The paper describes three types of low-toxic gas-fuel-oil burners that have up to now been implemented at several of Russia's power stations in the conversion of coal-fired boilers to natural-gas and fuel-oil combustion and modernization of gas-fuel oil boilers using known combustion technologies to suppress the formation of nitric oxides.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS...

  12. Estimating the agricultural demand for natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in the presence of measurement error in the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1994-01-01

    The paper begins by discussing the importance of accurate estimates of the price elasticity of demand and some of the problems frequently encountered in obtaining these estimates. To these problems is added that associated with inaccuracy in the measurement of the dependent variable and one or more of the independent variables that affect the quantity demanded. Two diagnostics, i.e. the regression coefficient bounds and the bias correction factor, have been introduced to assess the effect that such measurement error has on the estimated coefficients of demand relationships. The regression coefficient bounds diagnostic was used to indicate a range over which the true price responsiveness of farmers to changes in energy prices lies. The results suggest that each 1% increase (decrease) in the price of energy will result in a decrease (increase) of between 0.41 and 0.17% in the quantity of natural gas demanded and a decrease (increase) of between 0.48 and 0.07% in the quantity of liquefied petroleum gas demanded. (author)

  13. Ambient Laboratory Coater for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, Duane D.; Counce, Robert M.; Lima Rojas, Irma D.

    2010-01-01

    This research is targeted at developing improved experimentally-based scaling relationships for the hydrodynamics of shallow, gas-spouted beds of dense particles. The work is motivated by the need to more effctively scale up shallow spouted beds used in processes such as in the coating of nuclear fuel particles where precise control of solids and gas circulation is critically important. Experimental results reported here are for a 50 mm diameter spouted bed containing two different types of bed solids (alumina and zirconia) at different static bed depths and fluidized by air and helium. Measurements of multiple local average pressures, inlet gas pressure fluctuations, and spout height were used to characterize the bed hydrodynamics for each operating condition. Follow-on studies are planned that include additional variations in bed size, particle properties, and fluidizing gas. The ultimate objective is to identify the most important non-dimensional hydrodynamic scaling groups and possible spouted-bed design correlations based on these groups.

  14. Ambient Laboratory Coater for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane D. Bruns; Robert M. Counce; Irma D. Lima Rojas

    2010-06-09

    this research is targeted at developing improved experimentally-based scaling relationships for the hydrodynamics of shallow, gas-spouted beds of dense particles. The work is motivated by the need to more effctively scale up shallow spouted beds used in processes such as in the coating of nuclear fuel particles where precise control of solids and gas circulation is critically important. Experimental results reported here are for a 50 mm diameter spouted bed containing two different types of bed solids (alumina and zirconia) at different static bed depths and fluidized by air and helium. Measurements of multiple local average pressures, inlet gas pressure fluctuations, and spout height were used to characterize the bed hydrodynamics for each operating condition. Follow-on studies are planned that include additional variations in bed size, particle properties, and fluidizing gas. The ultimate objective is to identify the most important non-dimensional hydrodynamic scaling groups and possible spouted-bed design correlations based on these groups.

  15. Demand of the power industry of Russia for gas turbines: the current state and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, S. P.; Dil'man, M. D.; Ionov, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    The use of gas-turbine plants (GTPs) in the power industry of Russia is analyzed. Attention is paid to microturbines and low-, medium-, high-, and superhigh-power GTPs. The efficiency of the gas-turbine plants of domestic and foreign manufacture is compared. The actual values of the installed capacity utilization factor and the corresponding efficiency values are calculated for most GTPs operating in the country. The long-term demand of the country's electric power industry for GTPs for the period until 2040 is determined. The estimates have been obtained for three basic applications of the gas turbines, viz., for replacement of the GTPs that have exhausted their lifetime, replacement of outdated gas-turbine plants at gas-and-oilburning power plants, and construction of new thermal power plants to cover the anticipated growing demand for electric power. According to the findings of the research, the main item in the structure of the demand for GTPs will be their use to replace the decommissioned steam-turbine plants, predominantly those integrated into combined-cycle plants. The priority of the reconstruction of the thermal power plants in operation over the construction of new ones is determined by the large excess of accumulated installed capacities in the country and considerable savings on capital costs using production sites with completed infrastructure. It is established that medium- and high-power GTPs will be the most in-demand plants in the electric power industry. The demand for low-power GTPs will increase at high rates. The demand for microturbines is expected to be rather great. The demand for superhigh-power plants will become quantitatively significant after 2025 and grow rapidly afterwards. The necessity of accelerated development of competitive domestic GTPs with a wide range of capacities and mastering of their series manufacture as well as production of licensed gas turbines at a high production localization level on the territory of the country

  16. World crude oil and natural gas. A demand and supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichene, Noureddine

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies

  17. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  18. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...

  19. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  20. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  1. Year Ahead Demand Forecast of City Natural Gas Using Seasonal Time Series Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akpinar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of natural gas, a major clean energy source, increases as energy demand increases. We studied specifically the Turkish natural gas market. Turkey’s natural gas consumption increased as well in parallel with the world‘s over the last decade. This consumption growth in Turkey has led to the formation of a market structure for the natural gas industry. This significant increase requires additional investments since a rise in consumption capacity is expected. One of the reasons for the consumption increase is the user-based natural gas consumption influence. This effect yields imbalances in demand forecasts and if the error rates are out of bounds, penalties may occur. In this paper, three univariate statistical methods, which have not been previously investigated for mid-term year-ahead monthly natural gas forecasting, are used to forecast natural gas demand in Turkey’s Sakarya province. Residential and low-consumption commercial data is used, which may contain seasonality. The goal of this paper is minimizing more or less gas tractions on mid-term consumption while improving the accuracy of demand forecasting. In forecasting models, seasonality and single variable impacts reinforce forecasts. This paper studies time series decomposition, Holt-Winters exponential smoothing and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA methods. Here, 2011–2014 monthly data were prepared and divided into two series. The first series is 2011–2013 monthly data used for finding seasonal effects and model requirements. The second series is 2014 monthly data used for forecasting. For the ARIMA method, a stationary series was prepared and transformation process prior to forecasting was done. Forecasting results confirmed that as the computation complexity of the model increases, forecasting accuracy increases with lower error rates. Also, forecasting errors and the coefficients of determination values give more consistent results. Consequently

  2. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  3. Hydrogen Rich Natural Gas as a Fuel for SOFC Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leucht, Florian; Henke, Moritz; Willich, Caroline; Westner, Christina; Kallo, Josef; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in installed renewable power in Europe and especially in Germany, the need for energy storage becomes urgent. One interesting option due to its high energy density is the generation of hydrogen from renewable electricity using electrolysis. Produced hydrogen can either be sold as fuel for mobile applications or it can be stored in existing infrastructure. One major storage capability is the natural gas pipeline network in which a huge amount of energy can be stored and distr...

  4. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  5. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  6. Lurgi MegaMethanol technology. Delivering the building blocks for the future fuel and monomer demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzel, T. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes the central role of methanol within a changing environment with respect to feedstock availability as well as steadily growing demand in fuel and monomer demand. The current large-scale production facilities are described with respect to the technological challenges in order to ensure the availability of sufficient methanol for down-stream applications. Different down-stream applications are described which clearly confirm that methanol is the dominant C1-building block due to its chemical flexibility. It is concluded that by means of the implementation of two MTP (Methanol to Propylene) projects in China initiated the era of ''down-stream methanol'' has begun in the industry. (orig.)

  7. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Thomas [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine power plant with a solid oxide fuel cell for marine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and gas turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. It includes a study of a heat-recovery system for 18 MW SOFC fuelled by natural gas, to provide the electric power demand onboard commercial vessels. Feasible heat-recovery systems are investigated, taking into account different operating conditions of the combined system. Two types of SOFC are considered, tubular and planar SOFCs, operated with either natural gas or hydrogen fuels. This paper includes a detailed thermodynamic analysis for the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed, not only for the whole plant but also for each individual component, in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effect of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance is investigated. It is found that a high overall efficiency approaching 70% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using SOFC system under pressure. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine power plant with a solid oxide fuel cell for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. It includes a study of a heatrecovery system for 18 MW SOFC fuelled by natural gas, to provide the electric power demand onboard commercial vessels. Feasible heat-recovery systems are investigated, taking into account different operating conditions of the combined system. Two types of SOFC are considered, tubular and planar SOFCs, operated with either natural gas or hydrogen fuels. This paper includes a detailed thermodynamic analysis for the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed, not only for the whole plant but also for each individual component, in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effect of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance is investigated. It is found that a high overall efficiency approaching 70% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using SOFC system under pressure. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  10. Gas demand growth and trade in South-East Europe: What perspectives for Bulgaria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    2002-01-01

    Gas demand and trade are said to grow in South-East Europe, and inter-regional gas transit is believed to gain importance. Despite a 5 to 10 year delay in economics and energy reforms compared to EU accession countries, prospects for economic recovery and a sustained growth of gas demand around 3.9%/year to 2020 in the region and 6.7% in Bulgaria appear real. Growth is contained by investment needs, vested interests in, and competition from, coal and nuclear as well as concerns about future gas prices, and import dependence. The densification of national and regional gas systems will proceed. Inter-regional (North-South and East-West) high-capacity gas pipeline will emerge as a tempting business perspective. While these perspectives are medium- and long-term, competition among pipeline projects is already waging at present. Bulgaria, Romania and Greece position themselves so as to safeguard future transit revenues, the latter country, in cooperation with Turkey, appearing to move fast with the support of the EU. A region wide optimisation of infrastructure projects appears desirable, however national strategic interests may conflict. (author)

  11. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  12. Particle swarm optimization of driving torque demand decision based on fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Peihong; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhan, Xiaowen; Li, Jingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management strategy based on logic threshold is proposed for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain model is established using MATLAB/Simulink based on experimental tests of the power components, which is validated by the comparison with the verified simulation model which is built in the AVL Cruise. The influence of the driving torque demand decision on the fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is studied using a simulation. The optimization method for the driving torque demand decision, which refers to the relationship between the accelerator pedal opening and driving torque demand, from the perspective of fuel economy is formulated. The dynamically changing inertia weight particle swarm optimization is used to optimize the decision parameters. The simulation results show that the optimized driving torque demand decision can improve the PHEV fuel economy by 15.8% and 14.5% in the fuel economy test driving cycle of new European driving cycle and worldwide harmonized light vehicles test respectively, using the same rule-based energy management strategy. The proposed optimization method provides a theoretical guide for calibrating the parameters of driving torque demand decision to improve the fuel economy of the real plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. - Highlights: • The influence of the driving torque demand decision on the fuel economy is studied. • The optimization method for the driving torque demand decision is formulated. • An improved particle swarm optimization is utilized to optimize the parameters. • Fuel economy is improved by using the optimized driving torque demand decision.

  13. Demand for storage of natural gas in northwestern Europe: Trends 2005-30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffler, Felix; Kuebler, Madjid

    2007-01-01

    We provide an estimation of the additional need for underground storage facilities in northwestern Europe until 2030. Storage is one important source to provide supply flexibility in order to match the seasonal demand for natural gas. However, this supply flexibility is now largely provided in northwestern Europe by indigenous production. Declining reserves will increase the dependency on imports from far-off sources, which are less flexible. Hence, flexibility must be provided by additional storage. Our estimation is based on production and consumption forecasts for natural gas and observations of the relationship between the supply and demand of gas and the supply and demand of flexibility in the period 1995-2005. We provide different scenarios to check for the robustness of our results. We estimate that by 2030, between 10.2 (with no strategic storage) and 29.0 billion cubic meters (BCM) of working gas volume (with 10 percent strategic storage for imports from non-EU countries) will be required, in addition to the existing 40 BCM. We conclude that, with well-functioning markets for flexibility, market forces could close a storage gap of 10.2 BCM in time. Strategic storage obligations would require state intervention and a well-balanced relation between a regulated part of the storage market for strategic reserves and the market for the operational use of storage

  14. Radial flow fuel nozzle for a combustor of a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Gregory Scott; Boardman, Gregory Allen; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-07-05

    A combustor for a gas turbine generally includes a radial flow fuel nozzle having a fuel distribution manifold, and a fuel injection manifold axially separated from the fuel distribution manifold. The fuel injection manifold generally includes an inner side portion, an outer side portion, and a plurality of circumferentially spaced fuel ports that extend through the outer side portion. A plurality of tubes provides axial separation between the fuel distribution manifold and the fuel injection manifold. Each tube defines a fluid communication path between the fuel distribution manifold and the fuel injection manifold.

  15. Fuel leak detection apparatus for gas cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for detecting nuclear fuel leaks within nuclear power system reactors, such as high temperature gas cooled reactors. The apparatus includes a probe assembly that is inserted into the high temperature reactor coolant gaseous stream. The probe has an aperture adapted to communicate gaseous fluid between its inside and outside surfaces and also contains an inner tube for sampling gaseous fluid present near the aperture. A high pressure supply of noncontaminated gas is provided to selectively balance the pressure of the stream being sampled to prevent gas from entering the probe through the aperture. The apparatus includes valves that are operable to cause various directional flows and pressures, which valves are located outside of the reactor walls to permit maintenance work and the like to be performed without shutting down the reactor.

  16. Fuel gas production from animal residue. Dynatech report No. 1551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wise, D.L.; Wentworth, R.L.

    1977-01-14

    A comprehensive mathematical model description of anaerobic digestion of animal residues was developed, taking into account material and energy balances, kinetics, and economics of the process. The model has the flexibility to be applicable to residues from any size or type of animal husbandry operation. A computer program was written for this model and includes a routine for optimization to minimum unit gas cost, with the optimization variables being digester temperature, retention time, and influent volatile solids concentration. The computer program was used to determine the optimum base-line process conditions and economics for fuel gas production via anaerobic digestion of residues from a 10,000 head environmental beef feedlot. This feedlot at the conditions for minimum unit gas cost will produce 300 MCF/day of methane at a cost of $5.17/MCF (CH/sub 4/), with a total capital requirement of $1,165,000, a total capital investment of $694,000, and an annual average net operating cost of $370,000. The major contributions to this unit gas cost are due to labor (37 percent), raw manure (11 percent), power for gas compression (10 percent), and digester cost (13 percent). A conceptual design of an anaerobic digestion process for the baseline conditions is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the unit gas cost to changes in the major contributions to unit gas cost was performed, and the results of this analysis indicate areas in the anaerobic digestion system design where reasonable improvements could be expected so as to produce gas at an economically feasible cost. This sensitivity analysis includes the effects on unit gas cost of feedlot size and type, digester type, digester operating conditions, and economic input data.

  17. Low-Carbon Fuel and Chemical Production by Anaerobic Gas Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Burton, Freya; Köpke, Michael; Simpson, Séan Dennis

    World energy demand is expected to increase by up to 40% by 2035. Over this period, the global population is also expected to increase by a billion people. A challenge facing the global community is not only to increase the supply of fuel, but also to minimize fossil carbon emissions to safeguard the environment, at the same time as ensuring that food production and supply is not detrimentally impacted. Gas fermentation is a rapidly maturing technology which allows low carbon fuel and commodity chemical synthesis. Unlike traditional biofuel technologies, gas fermentation avoids the use of sugars, relying instead on gas streams rich in carbon monoxide and/or hydrogen and carbon dioxide as sources of carbon and energy for product synthesis by specialized bacteria collectively known as acetogens. Thus, gas fermentation enables access to a diverse array of novel, large volume, and globally available feedstocks including industrial waste gases and syngas produced, for example, via the gasification of municipal waste and biomass. Through the efforts of academic labs and early stage ventures, process scale-up challenges have been surmounted through the development of specialized bioreactors. Furthermore, tools for the genetic improvement of the acetogenic bacteria have been reported, paving the way for the production of a spectrum of ever-more valuable products via this process. As a result of these developments, interest in gas fermentation among both researchers and legislators has grown significantly in the past 5 years to the point that this approach is now considered amongst the mainstream of emerging technology solutions for near-term low-carbon fuel and chemical synthesis.

  18. European future natural gas demand and supply diversification: key issues for Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Elschner, E.

    1996-01-01

    policy and the activities of the ECE as well as the promoters of the Energy Charter are fostering this process. (3) All European gas industries, in addition, are confronted with the following challenges: to meet the growing gas demand by securing additional gas supplies; to build new pipelines and storage facilities; to diversify gas supplies (eastern and central European countries); to optimize diversification of gas supplies (Western European countries); to interconnect pipeline grids and to strengthen security of supply, as the dominating goal of the whole European gas business

  19. Gas prices and fuel efficiency in the U.S. automobile industry: Policy implications of endogenous product choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Jacob Pleune

    I develop, estimate, and utilize an economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. I do so to address policy questions concerning automotive fuel efficiency (the relationship between gasoline used and distance traveled). Fuel efficiency has played a prominent role in our domestic energy policy for over 30 years. Recently it has received even more attention due to rising gas prices and concern over the environment and energy dependence. The model gives quantitative predictions for market fuel efficiency at various gas prices and taxes. The model makes contributions that are both methodological and policy based, and the two chapters of the dissertation focus on each in turn. The first chapter discusses the economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. The model allows firms to choose the fuel efficiency of their new vehicles, which allows me to predict fuel efficiency responses to policy and market conditions. These predictions were not possible with previous economic models which held fuel efficiency fixed. In the model, consumers care more about fuel efficiency when gas prices are high, and firms face a technological tradeoff between providing fuel efficiency and other quality. The level of the gas price, therefore, working through consumer demand, shifts firms' optimal locations along this technology frontier. Demand is nested logit, supply is differentiated products oligopoly, and data are from the U.S. automobile market from 1971-2007. In addition to endogenizing product choice, I also contribute to the modeling literature by relaxing restrictive identifying assumptions and obtaining more realistic estimates of fuel efficiency preference. The model predicts sales declines and compositions from the summer of 2008 with reasonable success. The second chapter discusses two counterfactual policy scenarios: maintained summer 2008 gas prices, and achieving 35 mpg (miles per gallon). At 3.43 per gallon (the summer 2008 price, 23% above 2007), the model predicts

  20. The Employment of spatial autoregressive models in predicting demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de; Silva, Alexandre Pinto Alves da

    2010-01-01

    Develop the natural gas network is critical success factor for the distribution company. It is a decision that employs the demand given location 'x' and a future time 't' so that the net allows the best conditions for the return of the capital. In this segment, typical network industry, the spatial infra-structure vision associated to the market allows better evaluation of the business because to mitigate costs and risks. In fact, economic models little developed in order to assess the question of the location, due to its little employment by economists. The objective of this article is to analyze the application of spatial perspective in natural gas demand forecasting and to identify the models that can be employed observing issues of dependency and spatial heterogeneity; as well as the capacity of mapping of variables associated with the problem. (author)

  1. Fission gas behavior in mixed-oxide fuel during transient overpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randklev, E.H.; Treibs, H.A.; Mastel, B.; Baldwin, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Fission gas behavior can be important in determining fuel pin and core performance during a reactor transient. The results are presented of examinations characterizing the changes in microstructural distribution and retention of fission gas in fuel for a series of transient overpower (50 cents/s) tested mixed-oxide fuel pins and their steady state siblings

  2. Analysis of GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, D.M.; Singh, J.; Pine, G.D.; Kline, D.; Barron, M.; Cheung, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model using the four scenarios defined for the Energy Modeling Forum Number 9 (EMF-9) described in EMF-9 Working Paper 9.4 (1987). The analysis is designed both to showcase the GRI North American Regional model as well as to infer meaningful results about the North American natural gas system. The focus of the analysis is not R ampersand D per se; R ampersand D analysis using the model is conducted regularly by GRI and described elsewhere. Rather, the objective is to analyze some of the major uncertainties in the North American gas market, uncertainties that potentially affect all players including GRI. In particular, the authors seek to quantify the overall economic environment in which production, transmission, distribution, consumption, and R ampersand D decisions will be made and how different that overall environment might be under alternative assumptions. An attendant objective of this analysis has been to enlist economists from a range of organizations (producers, regulators, GRI, and consultants) to carefully scrutinize the GRI North American Regional model and results. In particular, the coauthors were assembled from diverse organizations to review and evaluate model outputs, applying their particular experience and perspective. The four EMF-9 scenarios upon which this paper is based are described in detail later in this document. Briefly, scenario one represents a world with a surfeit of gas and a relatively high oil price projection; scenario two considers a lower oil price forecast; scenario three assumes a pessimistic outlook for the gas resource base with the same oil prices as scenario one; and scenario four examines a higher level of demand for gas in the North American gas market. An important objective of this analysis is to illustrate the predictive power of multi-scenario comparisons (as contrasted with detailed analysis of any individual scenario)

  3. Utilization of alternative marine fuels for gas turbine power plant onboard ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, M. Morsy; Seddiek, Ibrahim Sadek

    2013-03-01

    Marine transportation industry is undergoing a number of problems. Some of these problems are associated with conventional marine fuel-oils. Many researchers have showed that fuel-oil is considered as the main component that causes both environmental and economic problems, especially with the continuous rising of fuel cost. This paper investigates the capability of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuel instead of diesel oil for marine gas turbine, the effect of the alternative fuel on gas turbine thermodynamic performance and the employed mathematical model. The results showed that since the natural gas is categorized as hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using the natural gas was found to be close to the diesel case performance. The gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be 1% less in the case of hydrogen compared to the original case of diesel.

  4. Utilization of alternative marine fuels for gas turbine power plant onboard ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morsy El Gohary

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine transportation industry is undergoing a number of problems. Some of these problems are associated with conventional marine fuel-oils. Many researchers have showed that fuel-oil is considered as the main component that causes both environmental and economic problems, especially with the continuous rising of fuel cost. This paper investigates the capability of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuel instead of diesel oil for marine gas turbine, the effect of the alternative fuel on gas turbine thermodynamic performance and the employed mathematical model. The results showed that since the natural gas is categorized as hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using the natural gas was found to be close to the diesel case performance. The gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be 1% less in the case of hydrogen compared to the original case of diesel.

  5. Gas to fuel and chemicals: from technology to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercialization of natural gas reserves via synthesis to liquid products is a particularly active area of research which could permit this energy carrier to penetrate new markets. This study provides a global perspective of developments in this area, the technology and its economic and environmental implications, completed by a full review of current projects. A number of research centres as well as engineering companies and oil and gas companies are engaged in significant research programmes to improve the processes employed in the gas to liquids chain. This section provides a complete picture of the recent technology developments and the areas for potential future improvement.The research activities of each organisation and the process scheme employed are described.The implications of the major differences in the technologies are reviewed. Each step in the GTL chain-feed preparation, syngas production, the Fischer-Tropsch process and product work up is covered. The relationship between the products from the process and the technology employed is discussed. Aside from the technological aspects, the economics of the GTL process remains the major hurdle to be overcome if this technology is to be more widely utilized.The key parameters affecting the economics of GTL developments are the cost of natural gas, capital investments and the impact of economies of scale.The key driver for the oil and gas companies is to provide a way of commercializing natural gas reserves when other means, such as pipeline transportation or LNG, are not viable. This section provides a review of the costs and economics of the GTL chain taking into account the process configuration and resulting capital costs, the products produced, the effect of scale and other relevant factors.The aim is to provide an understanding of the economic factors affecting the GTL chain. Middle distillate fuels produced from the GTL process are sulphur and aromatics free and will be attractive for use in the

  6. The Effects of Fuel and Cylinder Gas Densities on the Characteristics of Fuel Sprays for Oil Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of a general research on fuel-injection engines for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of fuel and cylinder gas densities with several characteristics of fuel sprays for oil engines. The start, growth, and cut-off of single fuel sprays produced by automatic injection valves were recorded on photographic film by means of special high-speed motion-picture apparatus. This equipment, which has been described in previous reports, is capable of taking twenty-five consecutive pictures of the moving spray at the rate of 4,000 per second. The penetrations of the fuel sprays increased and the cone angles and relative distributions decreased with increase in the specific gravity of the fuel. The density of the gas into which the fuel sprays were injected controlled their penetration. This was the only characteristic of the chamber gas that had a measurable effect upon the fuel sprays. Application of fuel-spray penetration data to the case of an engine, in which the pressure is rising during injection, indicated that fuel sprays may penetrate considerably farther than when injected into a gas at a density equal to that of the gas in an engine cylinder at top center.

  7. Performance analysis of a biogas-fueled micro gas turbine using a validated thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikpey Somehsaraei, Homam; Mansouri Majoumerd, Mohammad; Breuhaus, Peter; Assadi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on an investigation of the fuel flexibility and performance analysis of micro gas turbines (MGTs) in biogas application. For this purpose, a steady state thermodynamic model of an MGT was developed and validated by experimental data obtained from a 100 kW MGT test rig. Quite good agreement was obtained between the measurements and the simulation results. A wide range of biogas compositions with varying methane content was simulated for this study. Necessary minor modifications to fuel valves and compressor were assumed to allow engine operation with the simulated biogas composition. The effects of biogas on the engine performance were fully analyzed at various operational conditions by changing the power demand and also the ambient temperature. Compared to the natural gas fueled case, the mass flow and pressure ratio in the MGT decreased, which resulted in a slight reduction of the surge margin. This effect became more severe, however, at low power loads and/or low ambient temperatures. For all operational conditions, the electrical efficiency decreased with decreasing methane content of the biogas. The results also indicated the negative effect of the biogas on the heat recovery in the recuperator, which lowered as the methane content of the fuel decreased. - Highlights: •The MGT performance and fuel flexibility were investigated in biogas application. •A thermodynamic model of the MGT was developed and validated with experimental data. •Changes in performance and operating conditions of components were studied. •The results showed the viability of the MGT for use in biogas application

  8. Uranium, resources, production and demand including other nuclear fuel cycle data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    The uranium reserves exploitable at a cost below 15 dollars/lb U 3 O 8 , are 210,000 tonnes. While present uranium production capacities amount to 26,000 tonnes uranium per year, plans have been announced which would increase this capacity to 44,000 tonnes by 1978. Given an appropriate economic climate, annual capacities of 60,000 tonnes and 87,000 tonnes could be attained by 1980 and 1985, respectively, based on presently known reserves. However, in order to maintain or increase such a capacity beyond 1985, substantial additional resources would have to be identified. Present annual demand for natural uranium amounts to 18,000 tonnes and is expected to establish itself at 50,000 tonnes by 1980 and double this figure by 1985. Influences to increase this demand in the medium term could come from shortages in other fuel cycle capacities, i.e. enrichment (higher tails assays) and reprocessing (no uranium and plutonium recycle). However, the analysis of the near term uranium supply and demand situation does not necessarily indicate a prolongation of the current tight uranium market. Concerning the longer term, the experts believe that the steep increase in uranium demand foreseen in the eighties, according to present reactor programmes, with doubling times of the order of 6 to 7 years, will pose formidable problems for the uranium industry. For example, in order to provide reserves sufficient to support the required production rates, annual additions to reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years. Efforts to expand world-wide exploration levels to meet this challenge would be facilitated if a co-ordinated approach were adopted by the nuclear industry as a whole

  9. Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustor Flametube Facility Upgraded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, James E.; Nemets, Steve A.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Smith, Timothy D.; Frankenfeld, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    In fiscal year 2003, test cell 23 of the Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL 23) at the NASA Glenn Research Center was upgraded with the addition of gaseous hydrogen as a working propellant and the addition of a 450-psig air-supply system. Test flexibility was further enhanced by upgrades to the facility control systems. RCL 23 can now test with gaseous hydrogen flow rates up to 0.05 lbm/sec and jet fuel flow rates up to 0.62 lbm/sec. Research airflow rates up to 3 lbm/sec are possible with the 450-psig supply system over a range of inlet temperatures. Nonvitiated, heated air is supplied from a shell and tube heat exchanger. The maximum nonvitiated facility air temperature is 1100 F at 1.5 lbm/sec. Research-section exhaust temperatures are limited to 3200 F because of material and cooling capacity limits. A variety of support systems are available depending on the research hardware configuration. Test section ignition can be provided via either a hydrogen air torch system or an electronic spark system. Emissions measurements are obtained with either pneumatically or electromechanically actuated gas sample probes, and the electromechanical system allows for radial measurements at a user-specified axial location for measurement of emissions profiles. Gas analysis data can be obtained for a variety of species, including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx), oxygen (O2), unburnt hydrocarbons, and unburnt hydrogen. Facility control is accomplished with a programmable logic control system. Facility operations have been upgraded to a system based on graphical user interface control screens. A data system is available for real-time acquisition and monitoring of both measurements in engineering units and performance calculations. The upgrades have made RCL 23 a highly flexible facility for research into low emissions gas turbine combustor concepts, and the flame tube configuration inherently allows for a variety of fuel nozzle

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  11. 76 FR 18751 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Supply Corporation (National Fuel) and Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (TGP). National Fuel's Northern... County, Pennsylvania. TGP's Station 230C Project would involve construction and operation of facilities... Need To Know?'' was attached to the project notice National Fuel and TGP provided to landowners. This...

  12. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  13. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  14. 75 FR 51032 - National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing August 12, 2010. Take notice that on August 10, 2010, National fuel Gas Distribution Corporation submitted a... Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA''). Any person desiring to participate in this rate proceeding must...

  15. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(d) of the Act provides for a... proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary energy source; (2...

  16. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  17. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  18. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  19. Criteria Development for Gas Turbine Premixer Flameholding Tendencies of Natural Gas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Lewis, Elliot Gregory

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements, stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when the fuel contains hydrogen. The two main approaches for coping with flashback are either to design a combustor that is resistant to flashback, or to design a premixer that will not anchor a flame if flashback occurs. Even with a well-designed combustor, flashback can occur under certain circumstances. Thus it is necessary to determine how to avoid flameholding within the premixer passageways of a gas turbine. To this end, an experiment was designed that would determine the flameholding propensities at elevated pressures and temperatures of three different classes of geometric features commonly found in gas turbine premixers, with both natural gas and hydrogen containing fuel. Experiments to find the equivalence ratio at blow off were conducted within an optically accessible test apparatus with four flameholders: 0.25 and 0.50 inch diameter cylinders, a reverse facing step with a height of 0.25 inches, and a symmetric airfoil with a thickness of 0.25 inches and a chord length of one inch. Tests were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 750 K, at pressures up to 9 atmospheres. Typical bulk velocities were between 40 and 100 m/s. The effect of the airfoil's angle of rotation was also investigated. Blow off for hydrogen reactions was found to occur at much lower adiabatic flame temperatures than natural gas reactions. Additionally it was observed that at high pressures and high turbulence intensities, reactant velocity does not have a noticeable effect on the point of blow off due in large part to corresponding increases in turbulent flame speed. Finally a semi empirical correlation was developed that predicts flame

  20. Continuous determination of biochemical oxygen demand using microbial fuel cell type biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, In Seop; Jang, Jae Kyung; Gil, Geun Cheol; Kim, Mia; Kim, Hyung Joo; Cho, Byung Won; Kim, Byung Hong

    2004-01-15

    A mediator-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used as a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor in an amperometric mode for real-time wastewater monitoring. At a hydraulic retention time of 1.05 h, BOD values of up to 100 mg/l were measured based on a linear relationship, while higher BOD values were measured using a lower feeding rate. About 60 min was required to reach a new steady-state current after the MFCs had been fed with different strength artificial wastewaters (Aws). The current generated from the MFCs fed with AW with a BOD of 100 mg/l was compared to determine the repeatability, and the difference was less than 10%. When the MFC was starved, the original current value was regained with a varying recovery time depending on the length of the starvation. During starvation, the MFC generated a background level current, probably due to an endogenous metabolism.

  1. Ecodriving and carbon footprinting : understanding how public education can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Ecodriving is a collection of changes to driving behavior and vehicle maintenance designed to impact fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in existing vehicles. Because of its promise to improve fuel economy within the existing fleet, e...

  2. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  3. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  4. Production and release of the fission gas in (Th U)O2 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio S.

    1982-06-01

    The volume, composition and release of the fission gas products were caculated for (Th, U)O 2 fuel rods. The theorectical calculations were compared with experimental results available on the literature. In ThO 2 + 5% UO 2 fuel rods it will be produced approximated 5% more fission gas as compared to UO 2 fuel rods. The fission gas composition or Xe to Kr ratio has showed a decreasing fuel brunup dependence, in opposition to that of UO 2 . Under the same fuel rod operational conditions, the (Th, U)O 2 fission gas release will be smaller as compared to UO 2 . This behaviour of (Th, U)O 2 fuel comes from smallest gas atom difusivity and higher activation energies of the processes that increase the fission gas release. (Author) [pt

  5. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  6. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  7. Energy management strategy for fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on prediction of energy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, Mauro G.; Costa-Castelló, Ramon; Roda, Vicente; Nigro, Norberto M.; Junco, Sergio; Feroldi, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Offering high efficiency and producing zero emissions Fuel Cells (FCs) represent an excellent alternative to internal combustion engines for powering vehicles to alleviate the growing pollution in urban environments. Due to inherent limitations of FCs which lead to slow transient response, FC-based vehicles incorporate an energy storage system to cover the fast power variations. This paper considers a FC/supercapacitor platform that configures a hard constrained powertrain providing an adverse scenario for the energy management strategy (EMS) in terms of fuel economy and drivability. Focusing on palliating this problem, this paper presents a novel EMS based on the estimation of short-term future energy demand and aiming at maintaining the state of energy of the supercapacitor between two limits, which are computed online. Such limits are designed to prevent active constraint situations of both FC and supercapacitor, avoiding the use of friction brakes and situations of non-power compliance in a short future horizon. Simulation and experimentation in a case study corresponding to a hybrid electric bus show improvements on hydrogen consumption and power compliance compared to the widely reported Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy. Also, the comparison with the optimal strategy via Dynamic Programming shows a room for improvement to the real-time strategies.

  8. Utilization of alternative marine fuels for gas turbine power plant onboard ships

    OpenAIRE

    M. Morsy El Gohary; Ibrahim Sadek Seddiek

    2013-01-01

    Marine transportation industry is undergoing a number of problems. Some of these problems are associated with conventional marine fuel-oils. Many researchers have showed that fuel-oil is considered as the main component that causes both environmental and economic problems, especially with the continuous rising of fuel cost. This paper investigates the capability of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuel instead of diesel oil for marine gas turbine, the effect of the alternative fu...

  9. An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine using hydrogen as inducted fuel and diesel as injected fuel with exhaust gas recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Probir Kumar; Maji, Dines [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Heat Power Laboratory, Kolkata 32, West Bengal (India)

    2009-06-15

    Fast depletion of fossil fuels is demanding an urgent need to carry out research work to find out the viable alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. The technology for producing hydrogen from a variety of resources, including renewable, is evolving and that will make hydrogen energy system as cost-effective. Hydrogen safety concerns are not the cause for fear but they simply are different than those we are accustomed to with gasoline, diesel and other fossil fuels. For the time being full substitution of diesel with hydrogen is not convenient but use of hydrogen in a diesel engine in dual fuel mode is possible. So Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The experiment is conducted using diesel-hydrogen blend. A timed manifold induction system which is electronically controlled has been developed to deliver hydrogen on to the intake manifold. The solenoid valve is activated by the new technique of taking signal from the rocker arm of the engine instead of cam actuation mechanism. In the present investigation hydrogen-enriched air has been used in a diesel engine with hydrogen flow rate at 0.15 kg/h. As diesel is substituted and hydrogen is inducted, the NO{sub x} emission is increased. In order to reduce NO{sub x} emission an EGR system has been developed. In the EGR system a lightweight EGR cooler has been used instead of bulky heat exchanger. In this experiment performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, BSEC are determined and emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, smoke and exhaust gas temperature are measured. Dual fuel operation with hydrogen induction coupled with exhaust gas recirculation results in lowered emission level and improved performance level compared to

  10. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  11. Influence of diffusion of fuel-efficient motor vehicles on gasoline demand for individual user owned passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Trends in the demand for petrol in Japan for cars owned by individuals are discussed with reference to expected improvements in fuel efficiency for new models and the results of a survey of user preferences for fuel-efficient vehicles. Demand for petrol in Japan has continued to increase in line with the number of cars used by individual owners. A questionnaire on motor vehicles sent to households found that, while cost and body style were the primary factors in car purchase, three-quarters of respondents would consider buying a low fuel consumption (LFC) version of the model chosen. The influence of LFC vehicles on future demand for petrol was estimated for up to 2015 by combining market timing with consumer preferences. Comparison of the estimated petrol consumption by LFC cars with the Government's requirement for reduced energy use by the transport sector in order to meet its climate change targets indicated a shortfall and a need to increase consumer demand for LFC vehicles. Government measures to reduce energy use in the transport sector, fuel efficiency targets for 2010, major LFC cars, fuel efficiency improvements by major Japanese motor manufacturers and scenarios for assessing the influence of LFC cars are summarised in five tables. Trends in petrol consumption and estimated use by individual user owned passenger cars are shown graphically

  12. U.S. oil and gas demand set to grow again in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that renewed economic growth in 1993 will increase total U.S. energy use, bringing a modest gain in demand for petroleum products and continued healthy growth in natural gas consumption. On the other side of the equation, production of crude and condensate in the U.S. will drop again in 1993. This year's drilling won't do much to reverse this dismal trend. The Journal projects the number of well completions to be virtually the same as last year, though operators say they may drill more exploration wells this year. The widening gap between domestic production and demand will mean another sizable increase in imports. U.S. refining capacity will slip this year because of the high cost of meeting environmental regulations. Reduced capacity, coupled with increased product demand, will raise refinery utilization rates to almost 90%. Outside the U.S., the worldwide recession is still keeping a lid on demand growth. And despite the continued production decline in the U.S. and the C.I.S. world crude supply will be more than adequate in 1993. Kuwait's return to prewar production levels, the prospect of Iraq's reentry into the market, and capacity expansion plans will keep downward pressure on prices throughout the year

  13. Leveling the playing field of transportation fuels: Accounting for indirect emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Steven; Eyer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas transportation fuels are credited in prior studies with greenhouse gas emissions savings relative to petroleum-based fuels and relative to the total emissions of biofuels. These analyses, however, overlook a source of potentially large indirect emissions from natural gas transportation fuels, namely the emissions from incremental coal-fired generation caused by price-induced substitutions away from natural-gas-fired electricity generation. Because coal-fired generation emits substantially more greenhouse gases and criteria air pollutants than natural-gas-fired generation, this indirect coal-use change effect diminishes potential emissions savings from natural gas transportation fuels. Estimates from a parameterized multi-market model suggest the indirect coal-use change effect rivals in magnitude the indirect land-use change effect of biofuels and renders natural gas fuels as carbon intensive as petroleum fuels. - Highlights: •Natural gas used in transport causes indirect emissions in the electricity sector. •These emissions result from increased coal use in electricity generation. •They rival in magnitude indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions of biofuels. •Natural gas fuels are estimated to be as carbon intensive as the petroleum fuels. •Policy ignores indirect emissions from natural gas.

  14. Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

  15. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  16. Gas Turbine High Temperature Gas (Helium) Reactor Using Pebble Bed Fuel Derived from Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Project goals: Build on the $1B investment spent during the NGNP Project for the only true Inherently Safe Small Modular Reactor Design – the only SMR design that can make this claim due to negative temperature coefficient of reactivity - no containment required – less construction cost. NPMC in Partnership with Pebble Bed Modular Group, a fully owned subsidiary of Eskom, RSA to Factory Build Complete Plant in Modular Sections at Factory Site in Oswego, NY for transport to site by rail or shipping for world wide export. NPMC will provide Project and Construction Management of all new builds from plant sites through construction, commissioning and startup using local labor. License and Construct ion of spent fuel processing facility in both NY and South Africa using Proven Technology. Ultimate goals of project: 1. Award of the 2013 US DOE Innovative SMR $452M cost share grant for US NRC License Certification 2.Build Full Scale Demonstration Plant at Koeburg, RSA with World Bank Funding managed by NPMC in collaboration with our legal firm, Haynes and Boone LLP 3. Take Plant Orders Immediately (10% Down Payment) 4. Form Strategic Alliance with Domestic and/or International Utility

  17. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels; Cicli combinati e cogenerazione con gas naturale e combustibili alternativi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusso, R. [Turbotecnica SpA, Florence (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels.

  18. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  19. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  20. Improving the dynamic response of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell as a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyunsoo; Chang, In Seop; Kang, Kui Hyun; Jang, Jae Kyung; Kim, Byung Hong

    2004-11-01

    The dynamic behavior of a mediator-less, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied as a continuous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor. The response time and the sensitivity were analyzed through the step-change testing of the fuel concentration. The MFC of 25 ml had the shortest response time of 36 +/- 2 min at the fuel-feeding rate of 0.53 ml min(-1) and the resistance of 10 ohms. A smaller MFC of 5 ml had a response time of 5 +/- 1 min.

  1. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shao, Lin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tsvetkov, Pavel [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  2. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-01-01

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  3. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  4. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated natural gas fuel to determine the effect of increasing fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperatures ranged from ambient to 800 K (980 F). Combustor pressure was 6 atmospheres and the inlet air temperature ranged from 589 to 894 K (600 to 1150 F). The NOx emission index increased with fuel temperature at a rate of 4 to 9 percent per 100 K (180 F), depending on the inlet air temperature. The rate of increase in NOx was lowest at the highest inlet air temperature tested.

  5. Microgeneration of electricity with producer gas in dual fuel mode operation; Microgeracao de eletricidade com gas de gaseificacao num motor gerador dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo J.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A.; Secco, Deonir [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura - UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: samuel.souza@unioeste.br; Ricieri, Reinaldo P. [Engenharia Agricola - UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Among the alternatives to meet the increasing of world demand for energy, the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a technological process of biomass energy production of a gaseous bio fuel. The fuel gas has a low calorific value that can be used in Diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil Diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 7.36 k W (10 HP) coupled to an electric generator 5.5 k W. Diesel oil mixed with intake air was injected, as the oil was injected via an injector of the engine (dual mode). The fuel gas was produced in a down draft gasifier. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 k W to 3.5 k W through a set of electrical resistances. Diesel oil consumption was measured with a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood decreased Diesel consumption by up to 57%. (author)

  6. Large-scale application of natural gas as an engine fuel in public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstegen, P.; Nieuwenhuis, A.; Van Schagen, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Options and bottlenecks for the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in public transportation have been inventorized and discussed. Based on interviews with representatives of transportation businesses and their umbrella organizations the demands and wishes are listed in chapter one. In chapter two several types of natural gas storage cylinders, focusing on the weight and the costs of the cylinders and the consequences for the road tax. In chapter three attention is paid to the delivery possibilities of the bus manufacturers DAF, Mercedes-Benz, Volvo and MAN. Technical specifications and data on the energy consumption, emission and other aspects are presented. In chapter three the characteristics of fastfill stations and slowfill stations are assessed for implementing problems, costs and reliability. The costs for the use of CNG in buses, as discussed in chapter five, consist of additional costs for the bus, maintenance, road tax, filling station, safety provisions, and reduced costs for the fuel. In chapter six the regulations and legislation for the use of CNG in vehicles, filling stations and storage cylinders is dealt with. In the final chapters seven and eight the necessity of introductory courses and training is briefly discussed, and an overview of current projects in the Netherlands is given. 13 figs., 14 tabs., refs

  7. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  8. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport. Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology. (author)

  9. Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ahmed A.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Orasche, J.; Abbaszade, G.; Lintelmann, J.; Arteaga-Salas, J. M.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Harndorf, H.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-09-01

    Gas phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from a research ship diesel engine at Rostock University, Germany. The ship engine was operated using two different types of fuels, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF). Sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using cartridges and impingers. Both sampling methods involved the derivatization of CCs with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by two analytical techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). Analysis of DNPH cartridges by GC-SIM-MS method has resulted in the identification of 19 CCs in both fuel operations. These CCs include ten aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, isobutanal, butanal, isopentanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, nonanal), three unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde), three aromatic aldehyde (benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde, m,o-molualdehyde), two ketones (acetone, butanone) and one heterocyclic aldehyde (furfural). In general, all CCs under investigation were detected with higher emission factors in HFO than DF. The total carbonyl emission factor was determined and found to be 6050 and 2300 μg MJ-1 for the operation with HFO and DF respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the dominant carbonyls in the gas phase of ship engine emission. Formaldehyde emissions factor varied from 3500 μg MJ-1 in HFO operation to 1540 μg MJ-1 in DF operation, which is 4-30 times higher than those of other carbonyls. Emission profile contribution of CCs showed also a different pattern between HFO and DF operation. The contribution of formaldehyde was found to be 58% of the emission profile of HFO and about 67% of the emission profile of DF. Acetaldehyde showed opposite behavior with higher contribution of 16% in HFO compared to 11% for DF. Heavier carbonyls

  10. Gas cooled fast reactor materials: compatibility and reaction kinetics of fuel/matrices couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechelle, J.; Aufore, L.; Basini, V.; Belin, R.; Vaudez, S.

    2004-01-01

    Fourth Generation Gas cooled Fast Reactor concept implies a fast neutron spectrum and aims to lead to an iso-generation of minor actinides. Criteria have been defined for these fuels such as: high core filling factor, efficient fuel cooling, low operation temperature, i.e. 400-850 deg C, good fission product retention, burn-ups in the range of 5-8 atom%, Pu content in the range of 15-25%. Materials matching this demand are considered: mixed uranium - plutonium nitrides and carbides as fuels, whereas TiN, TiC, ZrN, ZrC, SiC are investigated as inert matrices. Thermo-chemical compatibility studies have been carried out, mostly for (U,Pu)N/SiC and (U,Pu)N/TiN couples. They have been associated to matching diffusional studies. For the first studies, accidental reactor conditions have been chosen (1600 deg C) so as to select a couple. Results are presented in terms of nature and quantity of resulting phases identified by XRD and SEM for thermodynamical equilibrium experiments. (authors)

  11. Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical origins of how changes in fuel composition affect autoignition of the end gas, leading to engine knock, are analyzed for a natural gas engine. Experiments in a lean-burn, high-speed medium-BMEP gas engine are performed using a reference natural gas with systematically varied

  12. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  13. BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS CO-FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUEL FOR FUEL-CELL VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of an examination of prospects for utilizing renewable energy crops as a source of liquid fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources and reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Fuel cells would provide an optimum vehicle technology fo...

  14. Away-from-reactor storage of spent nuclear fuel: factors affecting demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinneen, P.M.; Solomon, K.A.; Triplett, M.B.

    1980-10-01

    This report analyzes factors that affect the magnitude and timing of demand for government AFRs, relative to the demand for other storage options, to assist policymakers in predicting this demand. Past predictions of AFT demand range widely and often appear to conflict. This report helps to explain the apparent conflicts among existing demand predictions by demonstrating their sensitivity to changes in key assumptions. Specifically, the report analyzes factors affecting the demand for government AFR storage facilities; illustrates why demand estimates may vary; and identifies actions that may be undertaken by groups, within and outside the government, to influence the level and timing of demands

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced

  16. Well-to-tank energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of transportation fuels vol. 1, 2, 3.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    There are differing yet strongly held views among the various ''stakeholders'' in the advanced fuel/propulsion system debate. In order for the introduction of advanced technology vehicles and their associated fuels to be successful, it seems clear that four important stakeholders must view their introduction as a ''win'': (1) Society, (2) Automobile manufacturers and their key suppliers, (3) Fuel providers and their key suppliers, and (4)Auto and energy company customers. If all four of these stakeholders, from their own perspectives, are not positive regarding the need for and value of these advanced fuels/vehicles, the vehicle introductions will fail. This study was conducted to help inform public and private decision makers regarding the impact of the introduction of such advanced fuel/propulsion system pathways from a societal point of view. The study estimates two key performance criteria of advanced fuel/propulsion systems on a total system basis, that is, ''well'' (production source of energy) to ''wheel'' (vehicle). These criteria are energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of distance traveled. The study focuses on the U.S. light-duty vehicle market in 2005 and beyond, when it is expected that advanced fuels and propulsion systems could begin to be incorporated in a significant percentage of new vehicles. Given the current consumer demand for light trucks, the benchmark vehicle considered in this study is the Chevrolet Silverado full-size pickup

  17. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  18. The development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Linwei; Geng, Jia; Li, Weqi; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript aims to systematically review the development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China and to draw policy implications for decision making. This manuscript presents a brief overview of natural gas development and the potential of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China, followed by an introduction to the development of various technology pathways for using natural gas as an automotive fuel, including CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles, LNG (liquefied natural gas) vehicles, and others. This material suggests, a large potential to increase the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel, especially for CNG and LNG vehicles. The following activities will promote the development of natural gas vehicles: prioritizing vehicle use in the utilization of natural gas, supporting the construction of natural gas filling stations, developing a favorable pricing policy for natural gas used in vehicles, and enhancing the research and development to further improve the technology performance, especially for the technology of LNG vehicles. -- Highlights: •An overview of the natural gas development in China. •A systematic introduction of the development of natural gas vehicles in China. •A review of the technological performance of natural gas vehicles. •Policy suggestions to promote the development of natural gas vehicles in China

  19. PRICE TRANSMISSION AND HOUSEHOLDS DEMAND ELASTICITY FOR FROZEN FISH UNDER FUEL SUBSIDY REFORM IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoja Felix Odemero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel subsidy removal is assumed to translate to general increase in the cost of operating business such as fish marketing.The response of price of fish and corresponding demand elasticity are welfare issues worthy of investigation in Nigeria. The present study evaluates price transmission in fish marketing system by analysing the response of fish market indices to fuel subsidy reform in Nigeria. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from purposively selected 78 frozen fish marketers, were analysed with descriptive statistics and regression model. A test of hypothesis shows a significant price transmission of about 100% (P < 0.05. Marketing cost increased by 31.8% and profitability dropped by 24.20%, confirming negative effect of new price regime. The result further revealed a 0.05% drop in quantity of frozen fish demanded by households. It was recommended that economic measures should be introduced by the government to cushion the effect of fuel policy removal.

  20. Analysis of reactivity accidents of the RSG-GAS core with silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiran

    2002-01-01

    The fuels of RSG-GAS reactor is changed from uranium oxide to uranium silicide. For time being, the fuel of RSG-GAS core are mixed up between oxide and silicide fuels with 250 gr of loading and 2.96 g U/cm 3 of density, respectively. While, silicide fuel with 300 gr of loading is still under research. The advantages of silicide fuels are can be used in high density, so that, it can be stayed longer in the core at higher burn-up, therefore, the length of cycle is longer. The silicide fuel in RSG-GAS core is used in step-wise by using mixed up core. Firstly, it is used silicide fuel with 250 gr of loading and then, silicide fuel with 300 gr of loading (3.55 g U/cm 3 of density). In every step-wise of fuel loading must be analysed its safety margin. In this occasion, it is analysed the reactivity accident of RSG-GAS core with 300 gr of silicide fuel loading. The calculation was done by using POKDYN code which available at P2TRR. The calculation was done by reactivity insertion at start up and power rangers. From all cases which were have been done, the results of analysis showed that there is no anomaly and safety margin break at RSG-GAS core with 300 gr silicide fuel loading

  1. Modelling of fission gas swelling in the high burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Chan Bock; Bang, Je Gun; Jung, Yeon Ho

    1999-06-01

    Discharge burnup of the fuel in LWR has been increased to improve the fuel economy, and currently the high burnup fuel of over 70 MWd/kg U-rod avg. is being developed by the fuel vendors worldwide. At high burnup, thermal / mechanical properties of the fuel is known to change and new phenomenon could arise. This report describes the model development on fission gas swelling in high burnup UO 2 fuel. For the low burnup fuel, swelling only by the solid fission products has been considered in the fuel performance analysis. However, at high burnup fuel, swelling by fission gas bubbles can not be neglected anymore. Therefore, fission gas swelling model which can predict bubble swelling of the high burnup UO 2 fuel during the steady-state and the transient conditions in LWR was developed. Based on the bubble growth model, the empirical fission gas swelling model was developed as function of burnup, time and temperature. The model showed that fuel bubble swelling would be proportional to the burnup by the power of 1.157 and to the time by the power of 0.157. Comparison of the model prediction with the measured fission gas swelling data under the various burnup and temperature conditions showed that the model would predict the measured data reasonably well. (author). 20 refs., 8 tabs., 17 figs

  2. The future supply of and demand for candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a literature survey carried out to assess the future world supply of and demand for titanium, copper and lead. These metals are candidate materials for the fabrication of containers for the immobilization and disposal of Canada's nuclear used-fuel waste for a reference Used-fuel Disposal Centre. Such a facility may begin operation by approximately 2020, and continue for about 40 years. The survey shows that the world has abundant supplies of titanium minerals (mostly in the form of ilmenite), which are expected to last up to at least 2110. However, for copper and lead the balance between supply and demand may warrant increased monitoring beyond the year 2000. A number of factors that can influence future supply and demand are discussed in the report

  3. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  4. 78 FR 13661 - National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on February 12, 2013, National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation filed for...

  5. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  6. Accounting for the Boundary Problem at Subnational Level: The Supply–Demand Balance of Biomass Cooking Fuels in Kitui County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bär

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, the high demand for wood-based cooking fuels calls for urgent policy action to steer the cooking energy sector towards more sustainability. While the subnational scale is growing in importance for policy planning, current energy assessments still only consider individual entities without taking into account resource flows. Ignoring flows of biomass cooking fuels in supply–demand assessments is a system boundary problem that can lead to misleading policy recommendations. In this paper, we tackle the boundary problem in subnational supply–demand assessments and provide a tool to support knowledge-based decision-making on the management of biomass cooking fuels in sub-Saharan Africa. Using Kitui County as a case study, we developed and tested an approach consisting of a supply model, local demand model, balance model, availability model, and adjusted balance model. The balance model only considers local fuel supplies and demand, whereas the adjusted balance model also considers external demand, which reduces the locally available supply of fuel. The results show that fuel demand and supply are spatially heterogeneous and vary between wood-based and non-woody fuels, and that the transport distance of fuels strongly affects local fuel availability and determines whether the supply–demand balance is positive or negative. We conclude that subnational energy policies should consider geographical distribution of supply and demand, aim to increase the fuel mix, consider external demand in supply–demand assessments, and differentiate between fuels for self-consumption and the market.

  7. Analytical applications of microbial fuel cells. Part I: Biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, Maria C; Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Cortón, Eduardo

    2015-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices, where usually the anode (but sometimes the cathode, or both) contains microorganisms able to generate and sustain an electrochemical gradient which is used typically to generate electrical power. In the more studied set-up, the anode contains heterotrophic bacteria in anaerobic conditions, capable to oxidize organic molecules releasing protons and electrons, as well as other by-products. Released protons could reach the cathode (through a membrane or not) whereas electrons travel across an external circuit originating an easily measurable direct current flow. MFCs have been proposed fundamentally as electric power producing devices or more recently as hydrogen producing devices. Here we will review the still incipient development of analytical uses of MFCs or related devices or set-ups, in the light of a non-restrictive MFC definition, as promising tools to asset water quality or other measurable parameters. An introduction to biological based analytical methods, including bioassays and biosensors, as well as MFCs design and operating principles, will also be included. Besides, the use of MFCs as biochemical oxygen demand sensors (perhaps the main analytical application of MFCs) is discussed. In a companion review (Part 2), other new analytical applications are reviewed used for toxicity sensors, metabolic sensors, life detectors, and other proposed applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  9. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  10. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Kudla, R.J.; Chattha, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH 4 ) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH 4 appear to account for the higher CH 4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  11. Nongray-gas Effects in Modeling of Large-scale Oxy-fuel Combustion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Quite some studies have been conducted in order to implement oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycle in conventional utility boilers as an effective effort of carbon capture and storage. However, combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is significantly different from conventional air-fuel firing, ...

  12. Large-scale production of alternative synthetic fuels from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybkjaer, I.; Hansen, J.B. [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Production of alternative liquid fuel from natural gas is an important option for the exploitation of remote gas fields. The products can be fuel methanol, synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel, and substitute fuels such as Dimethyl Ether (DME) which has been demonstrated to have attractive properties as a substitute diesel fuel. In each case the synthesis of the product requires preparation of synthesis gas with specified properties, and in all cases is the synthesis gas section the most important part of the plant both in terms of initial investments and in operating costs. Furthermore, proper integration of the synthesis gas section with other sections of the plant including the steam and power system is very important for the optimization of the overall process concept. The paper describes the various reforming technologies available for synthesis gas production - adiabatic pre-reforming, fired tubular reforming, secondary (oxygen-fired) reforming, and autothermal reforming - and the possibilities for manufacturing synthesis gas with different properties by these technologies alone or in combination. Large-scale manufacture of DME - the new alternative diesel fuel - from natural gas is described in some detail. The description covers the synthesis gas preparation, the product synthesis and purification, and the overall process economics. The properties of DME as a diesel fuel are briefly discussed. 22 refs.

  13. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  14. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  15. Experimental Campaign Tests on Ultra Micro Gas Turbines, Fuel Supply Comparison and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for miniaturized radio-controlled vehicles inspired the following research. The uses of these unmanned miniaturized/micro vehicles range from aero-modeling to drones for urban control and military applications too. The common characteristic of these vehicles is the need for a light and compact propulsion system. The radio-controlled (RC turbines for modeling are ideally suited for this purpose, guaranteeing the necessary thrust with compactness and lightness. This device is a miniaturized turbojet, and it is generally composed of three basic elements: compressor, combustion chamber and turbine. The main goal of the paper is to evaluate the turbojet performance for considering the possibility of its use as a range extender in a hybrid vehicle. Considering the total volume constraints, it will be important to evaluate the specific fuel consumption. Also from the environmental point of view, the possibility of feeding the device with gas has been considered and, consequently, the needed device modifications performed. The test bench has been realized and assembled at the University Department Laboratory. Several different experimental configurations are reproduced and reported here, to obtain performance maps. The experiments results have been compared to previous tests results, as well as numerical simulations. Therefore, it has been possible to make a comparison between the two different fuels. The results show that this device can be used as a range extender for a hybrid vehicle. Moreover, the various tests have shown that, acting on the control unit, it is possible to feed the device with gas (mixture of propane and butane, obtaining a further benefit from the economic point of view. Surely, an in-depth study of the turbine management logic would produce a further advantage in terms of fuel consumption.

  16. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Marianne [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomich, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This case study explores the production and use of renewable compressed natural gas (R-CNG)—derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste—to fuel heavy-duty refuse trucks and other natural gas vehicles in Sacramento, California.

  17. U.S. Forest Greenhouse Gas Impacts of a continued Expansion of E.U. Wood Pellet Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, G.; Baker, J.; Ohrel, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The United States has ambitious goals of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. A portion of these reductions are based on expected contributions from land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF). The European Union has similar goals which have resulted in a doubling of wood pellets exported from US ports destined for EU power plants over the last few years. There are potential conflicts between the GHG consequences of this pellet supply and the LULUCF contribution to US GHG goals. This study seeks to inform the discussion by modeling US forest GHG accounts using data measured on a grid of over 150,000 USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) forestland plots across the conterminous United States. Empirical yield functions are estimate from plot log volume, biomass and carbon and provide the basis for changes in forest characteristics over time. Demand data based on a spatial database of over 2,000 forest product manufacturing facilities representing 11 intermediate and 13 final solid and pulpwood products. Manufacturing and logging costs are specific to slope, log size, and volume removed along with transportation costs based on fuel prices, FIA plot, and milling locations. The resulting partial spatial equilibrium model of the US forest sector is solved annually for the period 2010 - 2030 with demand shifted by energy prices and macroeconomic indicators from the US EIA's Annual Energy Outlook for a series of potential wood pellet export targets. For each wood pellet export level simulated, figures showing historic and scenario-specific forest products production are generated. Maps of the spatial allocation of both forest harvesting and carbon fluxes are presented at the National level and detail is given in both the US North and Southeast.

  18. Performance analysis of a gas turbine for power generation using syngas as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jun; Cha Kyu Sang; Kim, Tong Seop; Sohn, Jeong Lak; Joo, Yong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant converts coal to syngas, which is mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, by the gasification process and produces electric power by the gas and steam turbine combined cycle power plant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of using syngas in a gas turbine, originally designed for natural gas fuel, on its performance. A commercial gas turbine is selected and variations of its performance characteristics due to adopting syngas is analyzed by simulating off-design gas turbine operation. Since the heating value of the syngas is lower, compared to natural gas, IGCC plants require much larger fuel flow rate. This increase the gas flow rate to the turbine and the pressure ratio, leading to far larger power output and higher thermal efficiency. Examination of using two different syngases reveals that the gas turbine performance varies much with the fuel composition

  19. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  20. Integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling, Charles J.; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-03-19

    A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

  1. Method of fabricating an integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling, Charles J.; Terry, Peter L.

    1988-03-22

    A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

  2. Gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system complying with multiple fuels (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagyu, Sumio; Maekawa, Koich; Sugawara, Koich; Hayashida, Masaru; Fujishima, Ichiro; Fukuyama, Yuji; Morikawa, Tomoyuki; Yamato, Tadao; Obata, Norio [Advanced Technology Lab., Kubota Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes recent results at Kubota to develop a gas engine driven freon-free heat supply system. Utilizing a gas mixture which consists of CO and H{sub 2} supplied from a broad area energy utilization network, the system produces four heat sources (263 K, 280 K, 318 K, and 353 K) for air-conditioning, hot water supply, and refrigeration in a single system. It also conforms to fuel systems that utilize methane and hydrogen. This multi-functional heat supply system is composed of an efficient gas engine (methanol gas engine) and a freon-free heat pump (heat-assisted Stirling heat pump). The heat-assisted Stirling heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power provided by engine exhaust heat. By proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the heat pump is supplied with the maximum share of the original energy fueling the engine. Developing the system will establish freon-free thermal utilization system technology that satisfies both wide heat demands and various fuel systems. (orig.)

  3. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    obtained experimental data, the research studied the control of airflow to regulate the temperature of reactors within the fuel processor. The dynamic model provided a platform to test the dynamic response for different control gains. With sufficient sensing and appropriate control, a rapid response to maintain the temperature of the reactor despite an increase in power was possible. The third part of the research studied the use of a fuel cell in conjunction with photovoltaic panels, and energy storage to provide electricity for buildings. This research developed an optimization framework to determine the size of each device in the hybrid energy system to satisfy the electrical demands of buildings and yield the lowest cost. The advantage of having the fuel cell with photovoltaic and energy storage was the ability to operate the fuel cell at baseload at night, thus reducing the need for large battery systems to shift the solar power produced in the day to the night. In addition, the dispatchability of the fuel cell provided an extra degree of freedom necessary for unforeseen disturbances. An operation framework based on model predictive control showed that the method is suitable for optimizing the dispatch of the hybrid energy system.

  4. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from...... showed that guaiacol formed significant amount of deposits. The structure observed was a lacquer type of deposit. It was determined that there was no distinct deposit formation due to phenol. Experiments were conducted with a 0.48 litre one-cylinder high compression ratio SI engine fueled by synthetic...... producer gas. Known quantities of tar compounds were added to the fuel gas and the CCD were examined. The experiments showed significant formation of deposits when guaiacol was added to the fuel, whereas for phenol only minor CCD formation was observed. Particulate matter in the exhaust gas was sampled...

  5. Development of the Low Swirl Injector for Fuel-Flexible GasTurbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlejohn, D.; Cheng, R.K.; Nazeer,W.A.; Smith, K.O

    2007-02-14

    Industrial gas turbines are primarily fueled with natural gas. However, changes in fuel cost and availability, and a desire to control carbon dioxide emissions, are creating pressure to utilize other fuels. There is an increased interest in the use of fuels from coal gasification, such as syngas and hydrogen, and renewable fuels, such as biogas and biodiesel. Current turbine fuel injectors have had years of development to optimize their performance with natural gas. The new fuels appearing on the horizon can have combustion properties that differ substantially from natural gas. Factors such as turbulent flame speed, heat content, autoignition characteristics, and range of flammability must be considered when evaluating injector performance. The low swirl injector utilizes a unique flame stabilization mechanism and is under development for gas turbine applications. Its design and mode of operation allow it to operate effectively over a wide range of conditions. Studies conducted at LBNL indicate that the LSI can operate on fuels with a wide range of flame speeds, including hydrogen. It can also utilize low heat content fuels, such as biogas and syngas. We will discuss the low swirl injector operating parameters, and how the LSC performs with various alternative fuels.

  6. National blueprint for the deployment of liquefied natural gas as marine fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Based on a consultation of professional bodies, this blueprint expresses the strong commitment of the French State with economic actors towards an energy transition on the long term, and more particularly concerns the development of LNG (liquefied natural gas) as marine fuel. This objective complies with national and European environmental objectives for the reduction of greenhouse emissions and for a better air quality. This blueprint notably develops two European directives which addresses the sulphur content of marine fuels, and the deployment of an infrastructure for alternative fuels. In its first part, this document states the strong political support to the development of LNG: environmental objectives, existing financial levers for a progressive evolution towards LNG, adaptation of the regulatory framework for a sustainable emergence of a LNG sector, implementation of specific trainings of sea-based and ground-based personnel for the handling of LNG. It sketches the development of LNG for each French coastline (Manche-North Sea, Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea) by analysing the potential demand, and by presenting current projects. Some specific issues related to LNG development are then addressed and discussed: creation of global LNG sectors, inclusion of projects within a trans-national approach, taking of the LNG multimodal reality into account. A set of actions is finally defined: definition of a national framework, stronger support of actors in the search for relevant financing solutions, emergence of harmonized regulatory conditions, implementation of relevant training for LNG handling, support to the implementation of projects which will enable the emergence of a LNG sector for fuel supply in France

  7. Steady-state fission gas behavior in uranium-plutonium-zirconium metal fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, W.G.; Wazzan, A.R.; Okrent, D.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of fission gas release and induced swelling in steady state irradiated U-Pu-Zr metal fuels is developed and computer coded. The code is used to simulate, with fair success, some gas release and induced swelling data obtained under the IFR program. It is determined that fuel microstructural changes resulting from zirconium migration, anisotropic swelling, and thermal variations are major factors affecting swelling and gas release behavior. (orig.)

  8. Optimal energy management of the smart parking lot under demand response program in the presence of the electrolyser and fuel cell as hydrogen storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannati, Jamil; Nazarpour, Daryoosh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management of IPL is considered in the presence of wind turbine and PV system. • The optimal charge and discharge powers of EVs, dispatch power of LDG are determined. • Charging/discharging decisions of electrolyser and fuel cell are determined. • Demand response program is used to manage the peak load to reduce the operation cost. • Global optimal is guaranteed in proposed model by mixed-integer linear programming. - Abstract: Nowadays, utilization of distributed generation sources and electric vehicles (EVs) are increased to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, intelligent parking lots (IPL) are increased in response to the increase in the number of EVs. Therefore, optimal operation of distributed generation sources and IPL in the power market without technical scheduling will follow some economic problems for the owner of IPL and some technical problems for the operator of distribution network. Therefore, in this paper, an optimal energy management has been proposed for an IPL which includes renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic system) and local dispatchable generators (micro-turbines). Also, determination of optimal charge and discharge powers of hydrogen storage system (HSS) containing electrolyser, hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cell has been considered in the proposed model. Furthermore, the time-of-use rates of demand response program are proposed to flatten the load curve to reduce the operation cost of IPL. The objective function includes minimizing the operation costs of upstream grid and local dispatchable generators as well as charging and discharging cost of IPL subject to the technical and physical constraints under demand response program in the presence of HSS. The proposed model is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming and solved using GAMS optimization software under CPLEX solver. Four case studies are investigated to validate the proposed model to show the positive

  9. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  10. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  11. Short-term electricity demand and gas price forecasts using wavelet transforms and adaptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hang T.; Nabney, Ian T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some forecasting techniques for energy demand and price prediction, one day ahead. These techniques combine wavelet transform (WT) with fixed and adaptive machine learning/time series models (multi-layer perceptron (MLP), radial basis functions, linear regression, or GARCH). To create an adaptive model, we use an extended Kalman filter or particle filter to update the parameters continuously on the test set. The adaptive GARCH model is a new contribution, broadening the applicability of GARCH methods. We empirically compared two approaches of combining the WT with prediction models: multicomponent forecasts and direct forecasts. These techniques are applied to large sets of real data (both stationary and non-stationary) from the UK energy markets, so as to provide comparative results that are statistically stronger than those previously reported. The results showed that the forecasting accuracy is significantly improved by using the WT and adaptive models. The best models on the electricity demand/gas price forecast are the adaptive MLP/GARCH with the multicomponent forecast; their NMSEs are 0.02314 and 0.15384 respectively. (author)

  12. ISO New England Dual Fuel Capabilities to Limit Natural Gas and Electricity Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adder, Justin M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Since 2000, natural gas has seen tremendous growth as a fuel source for electricity generation in the United States (U.S.) with annual installations exceeding 20 GW in all but four years. It also accounts for an increasingly significant share of the nation’s electricity generation, growing from around 15 percent in the early part of the 2000s to between 26 and 29 percent in the last three years. (1) Increasing reliance on natural gas has led to concerns that an extreme weather event – which may cause curtailments in gas delivery – or a natural gas infrastructure failure could lead to local or regional electric reliability issues. (2) These concerns stem from differences in delivery methods of natural gas to electric generating units (EGUs) contrasted with the fuel delivery and storage methods for traditional baseload power systems (i.e. coal and nuclear units).1 (3) Although it seems that there is an abundance of natural gas in a post-shale gas world, infrastructure limitations and differences in electric and natural gas markets persist that differentiate natural gas-fired generators from traditional baseload power generators. Such concerns can be partially mitigated by modifying natural gas EGUs for operation on secondary fuels and installing on-site fuel storage for the secondary fuel, thus ensuring continuity of operation in the case of a gas delivery problem.2 This report examines technical, regulatory, and market issues associated with operating power plants primarily fueled with natural gas, on a secondary fuel, such as fuel oil or liquefied natural gas (LNG). In addition, a regional case study was completed to identify the current and near-term potential for dual fuel operation in New England, along with a market impact analysis of potential cost savings during an extreme weather event. The New England Independent System Operator (ISO-NE) was selected as the study area based on a preponderance of natural gas-fired generators contributing to the

  13. C1-carbon sources for chemical and fuel production by microbial gas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürre, Peter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2015-12-01

    Fossil resources for production of fuels and chemicals are finite and fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Thus, sustainable fuel supply, security, and prices necessitate the implementation of alternative routes to the production of chemicals and fuels. Much attention has been focussed on use of cellulosic material, particularly through microbial-based processes. However, this is still costly and proving challenging, as are catalytic routes to biofuels from whole biomass. An alternative strategy is to directly capture carbon before incorporation into lignocellulosic biomass. Autotrophic acetogenic, carboxidotrophic, and methanotrophic bacteria are able to capture carbon as CO, CO2, or CH4, respectively, and reuse that carbon in products that displace their fossil-derived counterparts. Thus, gas fermentation represents a versatile industrial platform for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and fuels from diverse gas resources derived from industrial processes, coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and extracted natural gas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fuel spill identification by gas chromatography -- genetic algorithms/pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, B.K.; Moores, A.J.; Faruque, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gas chromatography and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of 256 gas chromatograms of neat jet fuels. 31 fuels that have undergone weathering in a subsurface environment were correctly identified by type using discriminants developed from the gas chromatograms of the neat jet fuels. Coalescing poorly resolved peaks, which occurred during preprocessing, diminished the resolution and hence information content of the GC profiles. Nevertheless a genetic algorithm was able to extract enough information from these profiles to correctly classify the chromatograms of weathered fuels. This suggests that cheaper and simpler GC instruments ca be used to type jet fuels

  15. Natural gas and quality of fuels for the reduction of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Occhio, L.; Andreetto, B.

    1998-01-01

    The production of atmospheric pollutants in combustion processes depends on plant characteristic, combustion conditions and fuel quality. The influence of fuel quality on the emission of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dust and carbon dioxide and on the emission of some toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is analysed. The comparison between the emission limits, fixed by the Italian legislation, and the uncontrolled pollutant emissions, produced by fossil fuel combustion in power plants and industrial use, shows that, in order to comply with the limits, a reduction of pollutant emissions is required through the use of abatement systems and cleaner fuels where natural gas has a primary role. The use of cleaner fuels is particularly required in heating plants and appliances for the residential sector, where the development of new gas technologies further increases the environmental advantages of natural gas in comparison with other fuels [it

  16. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  17. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians

  18. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from an...

  19. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....4.1. Liner means the inner gas tight container or gas cylinder to which the overwrap is applied... statement: “If there is a question about the proper use, installation, or maintenance of this container... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.253 - Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to another. Bars shall not be used under valves or... (84 m 3) of gas. (v) Acetylene and liquefied fuel-gas cylinders shall be manifolded in a vertical... gas shall be drained into drip pots constructed so as to permit pumping or draining out the condensate...

  1. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to...

  2. 76 FR 2902 - National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Docket No. PR07-19-002 National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of..., National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation (National Fuel) filed a request for an extension consistent with... Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies, Order No. 735, 131 FERC ] 61,150 (May 20, 2010...

  3. Will the supply meet the demand? The future of the natural gas liquids market in the WCSB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauft, T.

    2004-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) price influences were reviewed in this presentation, as well as issues concerning North American propane demand and waterborne imports. A review of U.S. propane stocks was provided as well as regional temperature outlooks for 2004-2005. A cracking feedstock parity forecast was presented, as well as United States gross gas plant margins and propane prices to July 2005. Canadian propane inventories and prices were reviewed. A propane supply and demand forecast to 2020 was presented. Alberta's natural gas supply and intra-Alberta oil sand gas demand growth were discussed. Various market uncertainties include higher levels of activity; the potential of petroleum prices falling due to a reduction of geopolitical risk; the possibility of a U.S. recession; and the growth of Alberta's oil sands industry, with resulting demand for natural gas. It was concluded that the NGL market in North America will continue to be balanced, with waterborne imports becoming more critical. It was suggested that inventories are adequate for the expected winter season. It was also suggested that Canadian NGL supplies are expected to decline, and that prices are expected to soften in the spring of 2005, with falling natural gas and crude oil prices. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific value, fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J.; Hoppesteyn, P.D.J.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU-funded, international R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, low calorific flue fuel gas. The objects of the project are: To design, manufacture and test a pressurised, high temperature gas turbine combustor for biomass derived LCV fuel gas; to develop a steady-state and dynamic model describing a combustor using biomass-derived, low calorific value fuel gases; to gather reliable experimental data on the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the combustor; to study the steady-state and dynamic plant behaviour using a plant layout wich incorporates a model of a gas turbine suitable for operation on low calorific value fuel gas. (orig)

  5. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  6. Supply and demand elasticities in the U.S. ethanol fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchansky, Matthew S.; Monks, James

    2009-01-01

    The market for ethanol has grown from approximately 1.2 billion gallons in 1997 to almost 5 billion gallons in 2006. With the huge increase in ethanol demand in recent years, the growth in derived demand for corn has driven up many food prices. This paper uses monthly data from 1997-2006 to estimate the market supply and demand for ethanol at the national level. The simultaneous determination of the supply and demand curves using two-stage least squares allows for the calculation of supply and demand-side elasticities, which are important results in light of the tremendous growth in this market and recent legislation concerning ethanol. (author)

  7. Design of a miniature hydrogen fueled gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, M.; Lopiccolo, R. C.; Simonson, M. R.; Serovy, G. K.; Okiishi, T. H.; Miller, M. J.; Sisto, F.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and delivery of a miniature hydrogen-fueled gas turbine engine are discussed. The engine was to be sized to approximate a scaled-down lift engine such as the teledyne CAE model 376. As a result, the engine design emerged as a 445N(100 lb.)-thrust engine flowing 0.86 kg (1.9 lbs.) air/sec. A 4-stage compressor was designed at a 4.0 to 1 pressure ratio for the above conditions. The compressor tip diameter was 9.14 cm (3.60 in.). To improve overall engine performance, another compressor with a 4.75 to 1 pressure ratio at the same tip diameter was designed. A matching turbine for each compressor was also designed. The turbine tip diameter was 10.16 cm (4.0 in.). A combustion chamber was designed, built, and tested for this engine. A preliminary design of the mechanical rotating parts also was completed and is discussed. Three exhaust nozzle designs are presented.

  8. Analysis of fuel retention on MAST by global gas balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Lisgo, S.; Maddison, G.; MAST Team

    2010-07-01

    The retention of deuterium fuel during MAST discharges has been studied using the method of global gas balance. The results show that with inter-shot 4He-GDC, the total number of particles retained for a discharge increases with the total number of injected particles, and the total retention fraction stays very high, and can be almost 100%. However, it is observed that disruptions can reduce the wall inventory. With inter-shot 4He-GDC to recondition surfaces on MAST, the retention for all shots analysed has not been observed to saturate, while if there is no 4He-GDC before a shot, the following plasma density can become uncontrollable owing to lower wall pumping capacity. This indicates that a majority of injected particles is retained in the walls/divertor targets during each discharge and that most of them can be recovered with 4He-GDC, suggesting that on the short time-scale of MAST pulses, the particle balance is dominated by direct implantation of ions and neutral particles in shallow surface layers.

  9. The making of a market. Supply- and demand-side perspectives on institutional innovation in Sweden's wood fuel use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis documents and analyses the rapidly increasing wood fuel use in Sweden in five separate studies of prominent actors in the making of the wood fuel market. These studies report government policy, forest owners' incentives, and district heating companies' experiences. The development of wood fuel use is examined as a story of technological and institutional change initially prompted by government policy. The change has involved dedicated action among all of the actors, with the Swedish government initiating new policies, legislation, and information activities, with district heating companies investing in new technology and trading, and with forest owners making new decisions on forest management practices. Institutional change in the wood fuel sector, in other words, is the result of innovation on the part of the actors involved. The papers included in the study identify and analyse concerns of the actors involved in making the wood fuel market. Within the district heating sector, transaction costs, as measured by problems to trade perceived by managements, have decreased with learning. Transformation costs, due to technical problems, are not perceived to have followed this trend. Technical investments in heat production have a long technical life time and demand large investment costs. This in turn means long planning and decision periods. Investments are made for a number of company-specific reasons, perhaps most importantly simply to increase heat and/or electricity generation capacity. Policy instruments may tip a decision in favor of wood fuels, but they could not be the single parameter determining company investments. Two kinds of forest owners selling wood fuels were identified, a forest manager type who acts more on his/her own initiative, and another kind, who relies more on the advice of the traditional timber buyer. Forest owners selling wood fuels contemplating whether to sell wood fuels or not are strongly influenced by soil fertility

  10. Experience in producing LEU fuel elements for the RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Soentono, S.

    1991-01-01

    To achieve a self-reliance in the operation of the 30 MW Multipurpose Research Reactor at Serpong (the RSG-GAS), a fuel element production facility has been constructed nearby. The main task of the facility is to produce MTR type fuel and control elements containing U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion LEU fuel for the RSG-GAS. The hot commissioning activity has started in early 1988 after completion of the cold commissioning using depleted uranium in 1987, marking the beginning of the real production activity. This paper briefly describes the main features of the fuel production facility, the production experience gained so far, and its current production activity. (orig.)

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine systems operating with various biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, H.C.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V. [Process and Energy Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Section Energy Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) systems provide a thermodynamically high efficiency alternative for power generation from biofuels. In this study biofuels namely methane, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, and ammonia are evaluated exergetically with respect to their performance at system level and in system components like heat exchangers, fuel cell, gas turbine, combustor, compressor, and the stack. Further, the fuel cell losses are investigated in detail with respect to their dependence on operating parameters such as fuel utilization, Nernst voltage, etc. as well as fuel specific parameters like heat effects. It is found that the heat effects play a major role in setting up the flows in the system and hence, power levels attained in individual components. The per pass fuel utilization dictates the efficiency of the fuel cell itself, but the system efficiency is not entirely dependent on fuel cell efficiency alone, but depends on the split between the fuel cell and gas turbine powers which in turn depends highly on the nature of the fuel and its chemistry. Counter intuitively it is found that with recycle, the fuel cell efficiency of methane is less than that of hydrogen but the system efficiency of methane is higher. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Main conditions and effectiveness of gas fuel use for powering of dual fuel IC self-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are fuelled mostly with liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel. Nowadays the gaseous fuels are applied as driving fuel of combustion engines. In case of spark ignition engines the liquid fuel (petrol can be totally replaced by the gas fuels. This possibility in case of compression engines is essentially restricted through the higher self-ignition temperatures of the combustible gases in comparison to classical diesel oil. Solution if this problem can be achieved by using of the dual fuel system, where for ignition of the prepared fuel gas - air mixture a specified amount of the liquid fuel (diesel oil should be additionally injected into the combustion chamber. For assurance that the combustion process proceeds without mistakes and completely, some basic conditions should be satisfied. In the frame of this work, three main aspects of this problem are taken into account: a. filling efficiency of the engine, b. stoichiometry of the combustion, c. performance of mechanical parameters (torque, power. A complex analysis of these conditions has been done and some achieved important results are presented in the paper.

  13. A comparative study of long-term energy demand and potential greenhouse gas emission control in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaquazzaman, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    This report presents a comparative study of long-term energy demand and potential greenhouse gas emissions projections from energy demand and supply sectors in Bangladesh covering the period 2000 to 2020. The study was conducted employing the IAEA's tool ENPEP- BALANCE model. This study presents a reliable energy system plan with minimal carbon emission for the country. Primary energy demands distributed by energy carriers and electricity demand have been projected based on macro-economic growth scenarios constructed for national energy policy of 1996. The conservation of indigenous energy resources was emphasized to build a long-term secured energy supply system. The potential energy supply options including nuclear energy and prospective greenhouse gas mitigation options were analyzed

  14. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  15. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  16. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  17. Demand for ground transportation fuel and pricing policy in Asian tigers: A comparative study of Korea and Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, S.; Chakravorty, U.; Leung, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper examines the demand for gasoline and diesel in the ground transportation sectors of South Korea and Taiwan, comparing the effects of their different pricing policies and stages of economic growth. To account for substitutability between the two fuels, the model proposed here uses a system of equations estimated simultaneously with time-series data from 1973--1992. Results yield demand elasticities that confirm previous research showing that oil product demand is generally price inelastic, which income elasticities (reflecting a longer period of economic growth than previous studies in the Asian region) are lower than those previously reported. The estimated demand functions are then used to generate forecasts for both countries and, in particular, for an assumed reduction in a 180% tax on gasoline in Korea. Forecasted increases in demand by the year 2010 range from 40 to 180%, while the tax analysis suggests that Korea's pricing policy has reduced total demand and promoted the use of diesel over gasoline.

  18. Simulation of gas and water management strategies in PEM fuel cells for UAV power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nasir; Smith, Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) a involve a number of complex fluid phenomena that are not well understood. The focus of this research is to design a fuel cell that addresses the issues of gas and water management for the power requirements for an Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV). Often in conventional stack design, PEM fuel cells are connected electrically in series to create the desired voltage and feed from a common fuel or oxidant stream. This method of fueling, often leads to an uneven distribution of fluid within the stack, causing issues such as cell flooding, dehydration of membrane and inevitably poor fuel cell performance. Generally, fuel cell designers and developers incorporate higher stoichiometric gas flow rates and use flow field designs with high pressure drops in order to counter this phenomenon, ensuring even gas distribution. This method, although effective for water removal, leads to added cost and higher levels of wasted fuel. Using a simulation based approach we demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of an individual fuel and oxidant flow distribution, integrated with an individual sequential exhaust technique for a 6-8 cell stack which outputs 300-500 Watts of power. Using varied exhaust configurations the most optimal active gas management strategy will be outlined and recommended to give the best stack performance.

  19. Analysis of Neutron Flux Distribution in Rsg-Gas Reactor With U-Mo Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taswanda Taryo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of U-Mo fuels in research reactors seems to be promising and, recently, world researchers have carried out these such activities actively. The National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN which owns RSG-GAS reactor available in Serpong Research Center for Atomic Energy should anticipate this trend. It is, therefore, this research work on the use of U-Mo fuels in RSG-GAS reactor should be carried out. The work was focused on the analysis of neutron flux distribution in the RSG-GAS reactor using different content of molybdenum in U-Mo fuels. To begin with, RSG-GAS reactor core model was developed and simulated into X, Y and Z dimensions. Cross section of materials based on the developed cells of standard and control fuels was then generated using WIMS-D5-B. The criticality calculations were finally carried out applying BATAN-2DIFF code. The results showed that the neutron flux distribution obtained in U-Mo-fuel-based RSG-GAS core is very similar to those achieved in the 300-gram sillicide-fuel-based RSG-GAS reactor core. Indeed, the utilization of the U-Mo RSG-GAS core can be very similar to that of the high-density sillicide reactor core and even could be better in the future.

  20. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated ASTM Jet-A fuel to determine the effect of increased fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperature ranged from ambient to 700 K. The NOx emission index increased at a rate of 6 percent per 100 K increase in fuel temperature.

  1. Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-11-20

    A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

  2. Leveling off the energy demand. Air conditioning by town gas NEXT STAGE. Energy juyo no heijunka wo motomete. Gas reibo NEXT STAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1994-07-01

    Utilizing various types of energy with combining them rationally is now drawing attention. One of these types of energy is the town gas. The air conditioning by town gas draws a special attention. The town gas is characterized by environmental conservation, energy saving, and comfortability. The town gas does not contain sulfur compounds which cause the acid rain. The town gas produces the least amount of carbon dioxide among all the fossil fuel. The air conditioning by the town gas is getting popular. Examples are Tokyo Dome in Tokyo, Pavilion Plaza, a new shopping spot in Fukuoka, Umeda Sky Building in Osaka, Dai-ich Apparel Center in Tokyo, Ohno Memorial Hospital in Osaka, Nagoya Municipal Integrated Stadium in Nagoya, Meguro-Gajoen in Tokyo, and New Yomiuri-Shimbun Building in Sapporo. 41 figs.

  3. Fission gas release from oxide fuels at high burnups (AWBA development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollins, C.C.

    1981-02-01

    The steady state gas release, swelling and densification model previously developed for oxide fuels has been modified to accommodate the slow transients in temperature, temperature gradient, fission rate and pressure that are encountered in normal reactor operation. The gas release predictions made by the model were then compared to gas release data on LMFBR-EBRII fuels obtained by Dutt and Baker and reported by Meyer, Beyer, and Voglewede. Good agreement between the model and the data was found. A comparison between the model and three other sets of gas release data is also shown, again with good agreement

  4. Gas Temperature and Radiative Heat Transfer in Oxy-fuel Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckström, Daniel; Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Klas

    This work presents measurements of the gas temperature, including fluctuations, and its influence on the radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames. The measurements were carried out in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test unit. The in-furnace gas temperature was measured by a suction pyrometer...... temperature than the suction pyrometer in the low velocity regions of the furnace, a difference which is likely to be an effect of the purge gas added in the optical probe. The measured temperature fluctuations were evaluated by modeling of the gas radiation. The influence from the measured fluctuations...

  5. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  6. Improving operational efficiency of fuel oil facilities used at gas-and-oil-fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnukov, A. K.; Rozanova, F. A.; Bazylenko, A. A.; Zhurbilo, V. L.; Tereshko, V. S.; Perevyazchikov, V. A.; Parakevich, A. L.

    2009-09-01

    Results obtained from experimental investigations of energy consumption are described, and ways for considerably reducing it are proposed taking as an example the fuel oil facility at the 2400-MW Lukoml District Power Station, which operates predominantly on gas.

  7. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  8. Study on the fuel cycle cost of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300). Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, Masanobu; Katanishi, Shoji; Nakata, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Oda, Takefumi; Izumiya, Toru [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    In the basic design of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300), reduction of the fuel cycle cost has a large benefit of improving overall plant economy. Then, fuel cycle cost was evaluated for GTHTR300. First, of fuel fabrication for high-temperature gas cooled reactor, since there was no actual experience with a commercial scale, a preliminary design for a fuel fabrication plant with annual processing of 7.7 ton-U sufficient four GTHTR300 was performed, and fuel fabrication cost was evaluated. Second, fuel cycle cost was evaluated based on the equilibrium cycle of GTHTR300. The factors which were considered in this cost evaluation include uranium price, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, storage of spent fuel, reprocessing, and waste disposal. The fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated at about 1.07 yen/kWh. If the back-end cost of reprocessing and waste disposal is included and assumed to be nearly equivalent to LWR, the fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated to be about 1.31 yen/kWh. Furthermore, the effects on fuel fabrication cost by such of fuel specification parameters as enrichment, the number of fuel types, and the layer thickness were considered. Even if the enrichment varies from 10 to 20%, the number of fuel types change from 1 to 4, the 1st layer thickness of fuel changes by 30 {mu}m, or the 2nd layer to the 4th layer thickness of fuel changes by 10 {mu}m, the impact on fuel fabrication cost was evaluated to be negligible. (author)

  9. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  10. Analysis of Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine for Wet Biomass Fuels Based on commercial micro gas turbine data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    The results of a study of a novel gas turbine configuration is being presented. In this power plant, an Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (IFGT), is being fueled with very wet biomass. The exhaust gas is being used to dry the biomass, but instead of striving to recover as much as possible of the thermal...... fueled by dry biomass assuming negligible pressure loss in the heat exchanger and the combustion chamber, the IFGT fueled with wet biomass (Wet IFGT) assuming no pressure losses, and finally both the Simple and the Wet IFGT incorporating typical data for pressure losses of commercially available micro...... turbines. The study shows that the novel configuration, in which an IFGT and a drying unit have been combined, has considerable merit, in that its performance exceeds that of the currently available methods converting wet biomass to electric power by a factor of five. The configuration also has clear...

  11. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    for the surrogate is also performed to understand the effect of physicochemical properties on combustion as well as the emission behavior of the fuel. MI-5 exhibited an optimal torque at higher load conditions. A reduction of 11.26% NOx emission for MI-5 is observed when compared to conventional fuel. At higher......Synthetic diesel fuel produced from natural gas via gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology is referred to as ultraclean fuel but is still challenged for full certification as diesel fuel. GTL diesel lacks certain hydrocarbons and chemical constituents, which although are benign to the environment, result...... fuels that have fewer components. Screening of thousands of additives is a tedious task and can be done efficiently via computer based modeling to quickly and reliably identify a small number of promising candidates. These models are used to guide the formulation of five surrogates and predict...

  12. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  13. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Electric Controlled Injection Device Equipped on Gas Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Wenqing Ge; Yanjun Zhao; Bo Li; Binbin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Since there exist the problems of engine temping and combustion instability on the heavy-duty gas fuel engine based on single-point injection system, an electronically controlled multi-point injection system utilizing moving-coil electromagnetic linear actuator and mushrooms type valve structure was developed. The influence mechanism to gas fuel intake and mixing process caused by injection pulse width and installation site of the injection device was determined by the established CFD numeric...

  15. Data compilation report: Gas and liquid samples from K West Basin fuel storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-one gas and liquid samples were taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin during a March 1995 sampling campaign. (Spent fuel from the N Reactor is stored in sealed canisters at the bottom of the K West Basin.) A description of the sampling process, gamma energy analysis data, and quantitative gas mass spectroscopy data are documented. This documentation does not include data analysis

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  17. A fission gas release model for MOX fuel and its verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Y.H.; Sohn, D.S.; Strijov, P.

    2000-01-01

    A fission gas release model for MOX fuel has been developed based on a model for UO 2 fuel. Using the concept of equivalent cell, the model considers the uneven distribution of Pu within the fuel matrix and a number of Pu-rich particles that could lead to a non-uniform fission rate and fission gas distribution across the fuel pellet. The model has been incorporated into a code, COSMOS, and some parametric studies were made to analyze the effect of the size and Pu content of Pu-rich agglomerates. The model was then applied to the experimental data obtained from the FIGARO program, which consisted of the base irradiation of MOX fuels in the BEZNAU-1 PWR and the subsequent irradiation of four refabricated fuel segments in the Halden reactor. The calculated gas releases show good agreement with the measured ones. In addition, the present analysis indicates that the microstructure of the MOX fuel used in the FIGARO program is such that it has produced little difference in terms of gas release compared with UO 2 fuel. (author)

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  19. Price quotes for oil. AFM - quotes for gas oil and fuel oil on the ARA market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Prices quoted during the last few weeks for fuel oil and gas oil on the ARA market, on the New York future market, by the Berlin price supervision authority, FOB TW from German storage or refinery, and on the German commodity markets for fuel oil are listed.

  20. Fission Gas Release in LWR Fuel Rods Exhibiting Very High Burn-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two UO2Zr BWR type test fuel rods were irradiated to a burn-up of about 38000 MWd/tUO2. After non-destructive characterization, the fission gas released to the internal free volume was extracted and analysed. The irradiation was simulated by means of the Danish fuel performance code WAFER-2, which...

  1. Determination of internal pressure and the backfill gas composition of nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, M.A.; Cota S, G.; Merlo S, L.; Fernandez T, F.

    1997-01-01

    An important consideration in the nuclear fuel manufacturing is the measurement of the helium atmosphere pressure and its composition analysis inside the nuclear fuel rod. In this work it is presented a system used to measure the internal pressure and to determine the backfill gas composition of fuel rods. The system is composed of an expansion chamber provided of a seals system to assure that when rod is drilled, the gas stays contained inside the expansion chamber. The system is connected to a pressure measurement digital system: Baratron MKS 310-AHS-1000. Range 1000 mm Hg from which the pressure readings are taken when this is stabilized in all the system. After a gas sample is sent toward a Perkin Elmer gas chromatograph, model 8410 with thermal conductivity detector to get the corresponding chromatogram and doing the necessary calculations for obtaining the backfill gas composition of the rod in matter. (Author)

  2. Fission gas release and pellet microstructure change of high burnup BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, N.; Ohira, K.; Tsuda, K.; Fischer, G.; Ota, T.

    1998-01-01

    UO 2 fuel, with and without Gadolinium, irradiated for three, five, and six irradiation cycles up to about 60 GWd/t pellet burnup in a commercial BWR were studied. The fission gas release and the rim effect were investigated by the puncture test and gas analysis method, OM (optical microscope), SEM (scanning electron microscope), and EPMA (electron probe microanalyzer). The fission gas release rate of the fuel rods irradiated up to six cycles was below a few percent; there was no tendency for the fission gas release to increase abruptly with burnup. On the other hand, microstructure changes were revealed by OM and SEM examination at the rim position with burnup increase. Fission gas was found depleted at both the rim position and the pellet center region using EPMA. There was no correlation between the fission gas release measured by the puncture test and the fission gas depletion at the rim position using EPMA. However, the depletion of fission gas in the center region had good correlation with the fission gas release rate determined by the puncture test. In addition, because the burnup is very large at the rim position of high burnup fuel and also due to the fission rate of the produced Pu, the Xe/Kr ratio at the rim position of high burnup fuel is close to the value of the fission yield of Pu. The Xe/Kr ratio determined by the gas analysis after the puncture test was equivalent to the fuel average but not to the pellet rim position. From the results, it was concluded that fission gas at the rim position was released from the UO 2 matrix in high burnup, however, most of this released fission gas was held in the porous structure and not released from the pellet to the free volume. (author)

  3. Impact of inlet fogging and fuels on power and efficiency of gas turbine plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Mehaboob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational study to assess the performance of different gas turbine power plant configurations is presented in this paper. The work includes the effect of humidity, ambient inlet air temperature and types of fuels on gas turbine plant configurations with and without fogger unit. Investigation also covers economic analysis and effect of fuels on emissions. GT frames of various sizes/ratings are being used in gas turbine power plants in Saudi Arabia. 20 MWe GE 5271RA, 40 MWe GE-6561B and 70 MWe GE-6101FA frames are selected for the present study. Fogger units with maximum mass flow rate of 2 kg/s are considered for the present analysis. Reverse Osmosis unit of capacity 4 kg/s supplies required water to the fogger units. GT PRO software has been used for carrying out the analysis including; net plant output and net efficiency, break even electricity price and break even fuel LHV price etc., for a given location of Saudi Arabia. The relative humidity and temperature have been varied from 30 to 45 % and from 80 to 100° F, respectively. Fuels considered in the study are natural gas, diesel and heavy bunker oil. Simulated gas turbine plant output from GT PRO has been validated against an existing gas turbine plant output. It has been observed that the simulated plant output is less than the existing gas turbine plant output by 5%. Results show that variation of humidity does not affect the gas turbine performance appreciably for all types of fuels. For a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to increase by 5 and 2 %, respectively for all fuels, for GT only situation. However, for GT with Fogger scenario, for a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to further increase by 3.2 and 1.2 %, respectively for all fuels. For all GT frames with fogger, the net plant output and efficiency are relatively higher as compared to GT only case for all

  4. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  5. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Fabio; Stoppato, Anna; Benato, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen). Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  6. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiro Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen. Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  7. The effect of a phase out of nuclear power in OECD countries on demand for fossil fuel and on sulphur precipitation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report has been prepared to evaluate the effect of a phase out of nuclear generating capacity in OECD countries on the demand for, and price of, coal and oil in 1990 and 1995, and to assess the effect of increased use of fossil fuels on pollution from sulfur precipitation in Sweden. Our forecasts are based on the model which is shown diagrammatically. We begin with overall energy demand and in particular with forecasts of electricity demand in the key OECD countries. Demand is related to existing capacity and to current plans to install new capacity. The fuel demand resulting from these present plans has been calculated - this provides the base case. Existing and planned non-nuclear capacity is then related to demand and the nuclear capacity which must be retained in 1990 and the new non nuclear capacity which must be constructed for 1995 has been estimated. Fuel demand under these new conditions has then been computed and the increase resulting from a nuclear phase out has been calculated. The effect of this increase has been related to overall world demand for fuels and the effect on prices has been predicted. The emission, transport and precipitation of sulfur in Sweden and its neighbours has been considered. The increase in precipitation which will occur as a result of this greater use of fossil fuels has been calculated

  8. Development of coal gas production technology acceptable for fuel cells; Nenryo denchiyo sekitan gas seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, N.; Omata, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In utilizing coal for high-efficiency direct power generation using fuel cells, it is necessary that coal be fed into the fuel cells after having been made into ash-free gaseous fuel. Research and development works are being carried out with an objective to develop a coal gasification furnace most suitable for fuel cells and establish a system to refine coal up to the one that can be fed into fuel cells. Fiscal 1995 has conducted investigations on coal gasification technologies, air separation technologies, and gas refining technologies as the important element technologies, and a trial design on integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems. This paper reports from among the above items the result of the trial design on an IGFC system using molten carbonate fuel cells. The paper describes system comparison on paths of produced gases and anode waste gas, comparison on refining processes using a wet system and a dry system, and parameter studies on oxygen concentration in gasifying agents. It was made clear that the suitable furnace is an oxygen blown coal gasification furnace, and the power generation efficiency at the system terminal can be higher than 53%. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Low NO sub x heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Combustion technology generation coal gas fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are described. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannual swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperature and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 btu/scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were on the order of 4 percent to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 percent to 18 percent conversion efficiency when src-2 liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium btu gas (220 to 270 btu/scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. Both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and erbs fuel, and all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

  10. Gas Turbine Engine with Air/Fuel Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Michael Abraham (Inventor); Donovan, Eric Sean (Inventor); Krautheim, Michael Stephen (Inventor); Vetters, Daniel Kent (Inventor); Chouinard, Donald G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique aircraft propulsion gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engines with heat exchange systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  11. The fuel of choice: forecasting natural gas availability and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines predictions set out in the US Energy Information Administration's 'International Energy Outlook 2001' concerning growth in energy consumption, the use of natural gas for electricity generation, and growth in worldwide natural gas consumption in industrialised and developing countries. The reported increase in global natural gas reserves is considered, and regional activity and natural gas reserves in North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, Central and South America, Asia, the Middle East and Asia are discussed

  12. Urban transportation energy conservation: analytic procedures for estimating changes in travel demand and fuel consumption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, T.J.; Suhrbier, J.H.

    1979-10-01

    This series of reports provides metropolitan planning organizations with analytical tools that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative transportation policies in achieving reductions in overall fuel consumption. To ensure a high measure of accuracy, the analysis goes beyond the first order effects, i.e., the shift from single occupant autos as the mode chosen for the work trip to more fuel efficient means of travel. Questions treated include what will happen with the autos left at home as a result of increased carpooling for work trips. Will certain policies, such as gasoline price increases, directly impact non-work tripmaking. Will a particular transportation policy affect all segments of the population, or will certain groups be impacted significantly more than others. The methodology developed links together several disaggregate travel demand models to predict auto ownership, work trip mode choice, and non-work travel demands. This report introduces the theoretical basis for the travel demand models used, describes these models and their linkages both with each other and with the various submodels, and documents the assumptions made in developing the model system and using it to forecast responses to alternative transportation policies. Emphasis is placed on the conceptual framework of the model system and specification of the individual models and submodels.

  13. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  14. Apparatus for mixing fuel in a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-04-21

    A combustor nozzle includes an inlet surface and an outlet surface downstream from the inlet surface, wherein the outlet surface has an indented central portion. A plurality of fuel channels are arranged radially outward of the indented central portion, wherein the plurality of fuel channels extend through the outlet surface.

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  16. Liquefied natural gas, a maritime fuel: Initiatives for the energy transition now under way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdeau, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Usually considered to be a simple means for easily transporting natural gas over long distances, liquefied natural gas is rapidly gaining ground as a new maritime fuel. As it seeks to reduce its emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases, the maritime transportation industry is preferring this alternative to liquid petroleum fuels because of its low cost and environmental advantages. Developing this new fuel for maritime and river shipping runs up against several difficulties that, to be solved, call for, among other things, setting up a new supply chain - in which Gaztransport and Technigaz (GTT) wants to find its place

  17. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. Low NO subx heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Coal gas addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T.; Sederquist, R.

    1982-01-01

    The performance and emissions from a rich-lean combustor fired on simulated coal gas fuels were investigated using a 12.7-cm diameter axially-staged burner originally designed for operation with high heating value liquid fuels. A simple, tubular fuel injector was substituted for the liquid fuel nozzle; no other combustor modifications were made. Four test fuels were studied including three chemically bound nitrogen-free gas mixtures with higher heating values of 88, 227, and 308 kj/mol (103, 258 and 349 Btu/scf), and a 227 kj/mol (258 Btu/scf) heating value doped with ammonia to produce a fuel nitrogen content of 0.5% (wt). Stable, ultra-low nitrogen oxide, smoke-free combustion was attained for the nitrogen-free fuels. Results with the doped fuel indicated that less than 5% conversion of NH3 to nitrogen oxide levels below Environmental Protection Agency limits could be achieved. In some instances, excessive CO levels were encountered. It is shown that use of a burner design employing a less fuel-rich primary zone than that found optimum for liquid fuels would yield more acceptable CO emissions.

  19. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  20. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  1. 75 FR 8323 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Line N Projects, Notice of Public Scoping Meeting, and Request for... Project (the Line N Projects), proposed by National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel), in Greene...

  2. 76 FR 30339 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...] National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed Northern Access Project On June 6, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects staff will hold a public scoping meeting to obtain input related to the environmental analysis of National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation's (National Fuel...

  3. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on... a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse...

  4. Study of a hybrid system using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas turbine; Estudo de um sistema hibrido empregando celula de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) e turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Gallo, Giulliano Batelochi; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: caetano@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, applying a combined cycle using gas turbine for rational decentralized energy production is analyzed. The relative concepts about the fuel cell are presented, followed by some chemical and technical information such as the change of Gibbs free energy in isothermal fuel oxidation directly into electricity. This represents a very high fraction of the lower heating value (LHV) of a hydrocarbon fuel. In the next step a methodology for the study of SOFC and gas turbine system is developed, considering the electricity and steam production for a hospital. This methodology is applied to energetic analysis. Natural gas is considered as a fuel. A Sankey Diagram shows that the hybrid SOFC system is a good opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in Brazil. It is necessary to consider that the cogeneration in this version also is a good technical alternative, demanding special methods of design, equipment selection and contractual deals associated to electricity and fuel supply. (author)

  5. Gas-cooled fast reactor fuel-cost assessment. Final report, October 1978-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    This program, contracted to provide a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment, comprised the following basic activities: establish agreement on the ground rules for cost assessment, prepare a fuel factory flow sheet, and prepare a cost assessment for fuel assembly fabrication. Two factory sizes, 250 and 25 MTHM/year, were considered for fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment. The work on this program involved utilizing GE LMFBR cost assessment and fuel factory studies experience to provide a cost assessment of GCFR fuel assembly fabrication. The recent impact of highly sensitive safety and safeguards environment policies on fuel factory containment, safety, quality assurance and safeguards costs are significantly higher than might have been expected just a few years ago. Fuel assembly fabrication costs are significant because they represent an estimated 30 to 60% of the total fuel cycle costs. In light of the relative high cost of fabrication, changes in the core and assembly design may be necessary in order to enhance the overall fuel cycle economics. Fabrication costs are based on similar operations and experience used in other fuel cycle studies. Because of extrapolation of present technology (e.g., remote fuel fabrication versus present contact fabrication) and regulatory requirements, conservative cost estimates were made.

  6. Effect of Gas Fueling Location on H-mode Access in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Biewer, T.; Bush, C.; Chang, C.S.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2003-01-01

    The dependence of H-mode access on the poloidal location of the gas injection source has been investigated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We find that gas fueling from the center stack midplane area produces the most reproducible H-mode access with generally the lowest L-H threshold power in lower single-null configuration. The edge toroidal rotation velocity is largest (in direction of the plasma current) just before the L-H transition with center stack midplane fueling, and then reverses direction after the L-H transition. Simulation of these results with a 2-D guiding-center Monte Carlo neoclassical transport code is qualitatively consistent with the trends in the measured velocities. Double-null discharges exhibit H-mode access with gas fueling from either the center stack midplane or center stack top locations, indicating a reduced sensitivity of H-mode access on fueling location in that shape

  7. Local Fission Gas Release and Swelling in Water Reactor Fuel during Slow Power Transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Walker, C.T.; Ray, I.L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Gas release and fuel swelling caused by a power increase in a water reactor fuel (burn-up 2.7–4.5% FIMA) is described. At a bump terminal level of about 400 W/cm (local value) gas release was 25–40%. The formation of gas bubbles on grain boundaries and their degree of interlinkage are the two...... factors that determine the level of fission gas release during a power bump. Release begins when gas bubbles on grain boundaries start o interlink. This occurred at r/r0 ~ 0.75. Release tunnels were fully developed at r/r0 ~ 0.55 with the result that gas release was 60–70% at this position....

  8. State participation in the creation of fuel-cell-based power plants to meet civilian demand in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekhota, F.N.

    1996-04-01

    At present, up to 70% of Russian territory is not covered by central electrical distribution systems. In the field of fuel cell power plants, Russia is at parity with the leading foreign countries with respect to both technical and economic performance and the level of research being conducted. Civilian use of these generating systems on a broad scale, however, demands that a number of problems be solved, particularly those relating to the need for longer plant service life, lower unit cost of electricity, etc. The Ministry of Science and technical Policy of the Russian Federation issued a decree creating a new are of concentration, `Fuel Cell Based Power Plants for Civilian Needs,` in the GNTPR `Environmentally Clean Power Industry,` which will form the basis for financial support in this area out of the federal budget.

  9. On-Demand Gas-to-Liquid Process To Fabricate Thermoresponsive Antimicrobial Nanocomposites and Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Park, Jae Hong; Byeon, Jeong Hoon

    2017-05-10

    Antimicrobial material is emerging as a major component of the mitigation strategy against microbial growth on abiotic surfaces. In this work, a newly designed process is proposed to fabricate thermoresponsive antimicrobial nanocomposites (TANs) and coatings (TACs) as an on-demand system. Thermoresponsive polymer (TRP)-incorporated silver (Ag) nanocomposites with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs; Ag-SNP@TRP or Ag-CNT@TRP) were produced by a single-pass gas-to-liquid process. The SNPs or CNTs were first produced by spark ablation and successively injected for dispersal in a liquid cell containing polydimethylsiloxane, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), and silver nitrate under ultrasound irradiation. Suspensions of Ag-SNP@TRP or Ag-CNT@TRP nanocomposites were then deposited on a touch screen panel (TSP) protection film via electrohydrodynamic spray to form transparent antibacterial coatings. Fundamental antibacterial activities of TANs were evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The TANs showed stronger antibacterial activities at the higher temperature for all testing conditions. Lower minimum inhibitory concentrations of Ag-SNP@TRP and Ag-CNT@TRP nanocomposites were required against the two bacteria at 37 °C compared to those at 27 °C. The TACs on display showed elevated antimicrobial activity when the panel was turned on (38.1 °C) compared with when the panel was turned off (23.8 °C). This work provides a utilizable concept to continuously fabricate TANs and TACs, and it specifically offers stimuli-sensitive control of antimicrobial activity on TSPs, including other frequently touched surfaces.

  10. Fission gas release and fuel rod chemistry related to extended burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review the state of the art in fission gas release and fuel rod chemistry related to extended burnup. The meeting was held in a time when national and international programmes on water reactor fuel irradiated in experimental reactors were still ongoing or had reached their conclusion, and when lead test assemblies had reached high burnup in power reactors and been examined. At the same time, several out-of-pile experiments on high burnup fuel or with simulated fuel were being carried out. As a result, significant progress has been registered since the last meeting, particularly in the evaluation of fuel temperature, the degradation of the global thermal conductivity with burnup and in the understanding of the impact on fission gas release. Fifty five participants from 16 countries and one international organization attended the meeting. 28 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers. Refs, figs, tabs and photos

  11. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  12. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L [Albuquerque, NM; Williams, Brian E [Pacoima, CA; Benander, Robert E [Pacoima, CA

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  13. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L [Albuquerque, NM; Williams, Brian E [Pocoima, CA; Benander, Robert E [Pacoima, CA

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  14. Natural gas -- introduction on the market as a motor fuel without tax reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.; Weber, J.-C.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article reviews the history of efforts being made to promote the use of gas as a motor fuel in Switzerland and the work done in various institutions in Europe and Switzerland on natural gas driven vehicles, from small cars up to full sized trucks and hybrid vehicles. The reduction of airborne pollution as a result of using natural gas is looked at and the certification of vehicles according to European and American standards is commented. The motor fuel taxing situation in Switzerland and various parliamentary initiatives calling for the reduction of taxes on more environmentally friendly fuels such as natural gas are discussed. The use of biogas as a tax-exempted motor fuel and the technology necessary for its refinement is examined and its potential assessed. Pilot and demonstration projects in the natural gas fuels area are described and the gas industry's activities in their promotion are discussed. The article is concluded by a look at today's fiscal and technical situation; future trends and developments on the market are also discussed

  15. Fuel nozzle assembly for use as structural support for a duct structure in a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-03-31

    A fuel nozzle assembly for use in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer housing of the fuel nozzle assembly includes an inner volume and provides a direct structural connection between a duct structure and a fuel manifold. The duct structure defines a flow passage for combustion gases flowing within the combustor apparatus. The fuel manifold defines a fuel supply channel therein in fluid communication with a source of fuel. A fuel injector of the fuel nozzle assembly is provided in the inner volume of the outer housing and defines a fuel passage therein. The fuel passage is in fluid communication with the fuel supply channel of the fuel manifold for distributing the fuel from the fuel supply channel into the flow passage of the duct structure.

  16. Demand for alternative-fuel vehicles when registration taxes are high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential futures for alternative-fuel vehicles in Denmark, where the vehicle registration tax is very high and large tax rebates can be given. A large stated choice dataset has been collected concerning vehicle choice among conventional, hydrogen, hybrid, bio......-diesel, and electric vehicles. We estimate a mixed logit model that improves on previous contributions by controlling for reference dependence and allowing for correlation of random effects. Both improvements are found to be important. An application of the model shows that alternative-fuel vehicles with present...... technology could obtain fairly high market shares given tax regulations possible in the present high-tax vehicle market....

  17. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J. R.; Alvin, M. A.; Wenglarz, R. A.; Patel, P.

    1982-10-01

    Coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants are listed. Those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed are characterized. An analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC was developed. An analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals was developed. The candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants are discussed. A reference wet cleanup system, parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems, efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings, and a final report are discussed.

  18. Theoretical Considerations Governing the Dehydration of Fuels by Gas Blowing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krynitsky, John A

    1957-01-01

    .... A number of solutions applicable to the dehydration of JP-5 fuel under a variety of operating conditions are included to demonstrate the relative importance of the above parameters and to illustrate the type of performance possible.

  19. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  20. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  1. Development of an engine control system using city gas and biogas fuel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Kanno, Masanobu; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Kaneko, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The gas engine control system was developed using both city gas and biogas flexibly. ► The developed control system corporates with an original controller. ► The target value of O 2 emission is decided by Wobbe index of mixture fuel and load. ► The controller achieved stable operation for fuel mix ratio and load changing. -- Abstract: In this paper, a gas engine system capable of stable operation at any mix ratio of city gas 13A and biogas was developed. The gas engine system consists of a spark-ignition gas engine, an additional electric throttle valve for fuel and our own control algorithm. The engine is a 3-cylinder 1.6-l engine that was originally used for co-generation, and the fuel throttle valve was added to respond to different fuel compositions. The control algorithm was also designed to adjust the fuel and air ratio to attain a higher generation efficiency and lower NOx emission with different mix ratios of city gas 13A, biogas and load. Before developing the controller, the effect of the mix ratio on generation efficiency and NOx emission was investigated under various load conditions. The following summarizes the experimental results: a control algorithm using the Wobbe index for mixed fuels was formulated; this index determines the target fuel-to-air ratio. Next, operation tests were performed under varying fuel mix ratios and loads by applying the control algorithm to the gas engine. The target engine rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration was realized in 5 s when the biogas fraction varied from 20% to 40% and from 70% to 40%. When the load was also varied from 9.4 kW to 0.5 kW and from 0.5 kW to 9.4 kW at a constant rate, the rotational speed and exhaust O 2 concentration achieved the target values in 20 s. Under both transient operation conditions, the engine system met the NOx emission requirement, and the results indicate that the simple hardware modification to a conventional gas engine and our original control

  2. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  3. Thermodynamic simulation of biomass gas steam reforming for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate a small-scale fuel cell system for power generation using biomass gas as fuel. The methodology encompasses the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, as well as solves the problem of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. In this case the complex system is the internal reforming of biomass gas to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell input variables are: operational voltage, cell power output, composition of the biomass gas reforming, thermodynamic efficiency, electrochemical efficiency, practical efficiency, the First and Second law efficiencies for the whole system. The chemical compositions, molar flows and temperatures are presented to each point of the system as well as the exergetic efficiency. For a molar water/carbon ratio of 2, the thermodynamic simulation of the biomass gas reforming indicates the maximum hydrogen production at a temperature of 1070 K, which can vary as a function of the biomass gas composition. The comparison with the efficiency of simple gas turbine cycle and regenerative gas turbine cycle shows the superiority of SOFC for the considered electrical power range.

  4. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2006-01-01

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then-contrary to common practice-any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000 to 2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation. (author)

  5. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  6. Fuel rod analysis to respond to high burnup and demanding loading requirements. Probabilistic methodology recovers design margins narrowed by degrading fuel thermal conductivity and progressing FGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, R.; Heins, L.; Sontheimer, F.

    1997-01-01

    The proof that fuel rods will safely withstand all loads arising from inpile service conditions is generally achieved through the assessment of a number of design criteria by using a conservative analysis methodology in conjunction with design limits ''on the safe side''. The classical approach is the application of a fuel rod code to the Worst Case which is defined by the combination of most unfavorable conditions and assumptions with respect to the criterion under consideration. As it is evident that the deterministic construction of such Worst Cases imply an (unknown but) intuitively very high degree of conservatism, it is not surprising that this will develop to cause problems the more demanding fuel insertion conditions have to be anticipated (increased burnup, high efficiency loading schemes, etc.). A certain relief can be gained form cautious revisions of single design limits based on grown performance experience. But this increase of knowledge allows as well to change the established deterministic ''go/no-go'' conception into a better differentiating assessment methodology by which the quantification of the implied conservatism and the remaining design margins is possible: the Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). Principles and elements of the PDM are described. An essential prerequisite is a best-estimate fuel rod code which incorporates the latest state of knowledge about potential performance limiting phenomena (e.g. burnup degradation of fuel oxide thermal conductivity) as Siemens/KWU's CARO-E does. An example is given how input distributions for rod data and model parameters transfer into a frequency distribution of maximum rod internal pressure, and indications are given how this is to be interpreted in view of a probabilistically re-formulated design criterion. The PDM provides a realistic conservative assessment of design criteria and will thus recover design margins for increasingly aggravated loading conditions. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Impact of compression on gas transport in non-woven gas diffusion layers of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, Dieter; Yu, Junliang; Gaiselmann, Gerd; Reimer, Uwe; Manke, Ingo; Schmidt, Volker; Lehnert, Werner

    2016-06-01

    Gas transport in non-woven gas diffusion layers of a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell was calculated with the Lattice Boltzmann method. The underlying micro structure was taken from two sources. A real micro structure was analyzed in the synchrotron under the impact of a compression mask mimicking the channel/rib structure of a flow field. Furthermore a stochastic geometry model based on synchrotron X-ray tomography studies was applied. The effect of compression is included in the stochastic model. Gas transport in these micro structures was simulated and the impact of compression was analyzed. Fiber bundles overlaying the micro structure were identified which affect the homogeneity of the gas flow. There are significant deviations between the impact of compression on effective material properties for this type of gas diffusion layers and the Kozeny-Carman equation.

  8. A supply demand model for exploration of the future of the Dutch gas sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eker, S.; Van Daalen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Import dependency and the extent of renewable gas production are two outcomes of interest concerning the future of gas supply in the Netherlands. Due to the complexity of internal mechanisms and uncertainties associated with the natural gas production, the production of renewable gases, and the

  9. Effect of fuel molecular structure on soot formation in gas turbine combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegeli, D. W.; Moses, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of fuel variations at the same hydrogen content on the formation of soot in a gas turbine combustor was studied. Six fuels were burned to a combustor over a matrix of about 50 test conditions with test conditions ranging over 500-1800 kPa (5-18 atm) pressure and 500-1000 K burner inlet temperature; fuel-air ratios were varied from 0.008-0.024. Flame radiation measurements were made through a sapphire window toward the end of the primary zone. The hydrogen content of the six test fuels ranged from 12.80 to 12.88%. Five fuels emphasized hydrocarbon types: (mono, di, and tricyclic), naphthenes (decalin) and partially hydrogenated aromatics (tetralin); the sixth fuel emphasized final boiling point.

  10. A microstructure-dependent model for fission product gas release and swelling in UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notley, M.J.F.; Hastings, I.J.

    1979-06-01

    A model for the release of fission gas from irradiated UO2 fuel is presented. It incorporates fission gas diffusion bubble and grain boundary movement,intergranular bubble formation and interlinkage. In addition, the model allows estimates of the extent of structural change and fuel swelling. In the latter, contributions of thermal expansion, densification, solid fission products, and gas bubbles are considered. When included in the ELESIM fuel performance code, the model yields predictions which are in good agreement with data from UO2 fuel elements irradiated over a range of water-cooled reactor conditions: linear power outputs between 40 and 120 kW/m, burnups between 10 and 300 MW.h/kg U and power histories including constant, high-to-low and low-to-high power periods. The predictions of the model are shown to be most sensitive to fuel power (temperature), the selection of diffusion coefficient for fission gas in UO2 and burnup. The predictions are less sensitive to variables such as fuel restraint, initial grain size and the rate of grain growth. (author)

  11. Concept for a LNG Gas Handling System for a Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rachow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ships are using LNG as main engine fuel because based on the facts that LNG has no sulphur content, and its combustion process, LNG produces low NOx content compared to heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. LNG is not only produces low gas emission, but may have economic advantages. In the engine laboratory of maritime studies department in Warnemunde, Germany, there is a diesel engine type MAN 6L23/30 A, where the mode operation of these engine would be changed to dual fuel engine mode operation. Therefore, in this thesis, the use dual fuel engine will be compared where it will utilize natural gas and marine diesel oil and select the required components for fuel gas supply system. By conducting the process calculation, engine MAN 6L23/30 A requires the capacity natural gas of 12.908  for 5 days at full load. A concept for LNG supply system would be arranged from storage tank until engine manifold. Germanischer Lloyd and Project Guide of dual fuel engine will be used as a guidelines to develop an optimal design and arrangement which comply with the regulation.

  12. Thermal behaviour of high burnup PWR fuel under different fill gas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    During its more than 40 years of existence, a large number of experiments have been carried out at the Halden Reactor Project focusing on different aspects related to nuclear reactor fuel. During recent years, the fuels testing program has mainly been focusing on aspects related to high burnup, in particular in terms of fuel thermal performance and fission gas release, and often involving reinstrumentation of commercially irradiated fuel. The paper describes such an experiment where a PWR rod, previously irradiated in a commercial reactor to a burnup of ∼50 MWd/kgUO 2 , was reinstrumented with a fuel central oxide thermocouple and a cladding extensometer together with a high pressure gas flow line, allowing for different fill gas compositions and pressures to be applied. The paper focuses on the thermal behaviour of such LWR rods with emphasis on how different fill gas conditions influence the fuel temperatures and gap conductance. Rod growth rate was also monitored during the irradiation in the Halden reactor. (author)

  13. Sceneries and projections of demands of natural gas in Brazil; Cenario e projecoes das demandas de gas natural no pais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianca, Marcos Duilio de Oliveira; Marques, Ziney Dias [SENAI - Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sistema FIRJAN

    2004-07-01

    Interest in Natural Gas in Brazil emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, against a background in which the global giants of the petroleum and gas industries stated that reserves within the country were not commercially viable. This scenario changed with the discovery of numerous oil and gas fields and resulted in the participation of numerous foreign companies bidding for exploration and production rights in the new fields established by ANP. Natural Gas has come to assume a new dimension with further recent discoveries in Santos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe and Urucu, with proven reserves in the order of 490 billion m3. This new dimension is reinforced by PETROBRAS's current strategic plan which considers investments in the order of 3.5 Billion U$ dollars for the production, processing and transport of Natural Gas and half a billion dollars for thermoelectric power stations. The use of Natural Gas in industries, in general, and in the generation of electricity will provide a strong push for the country's economy, substituting other sources of energy with the recognized advantages for production and reduced environmental impact. In this new era 24 gas distribution companies, widely distributed throughout Brazil, are also programming new investments to make best the use of Natural Gas for industry, commerce, for the residential sector and throughout all the national territory. (author)

  14. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetano Roche, Maria; Mourato, Susana; Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  15. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies. (author)

  16. Public attitudes towards and demand for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles: A review of the evidence and methodological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetano Roche, Maria, E-mail: maria.yetano@wupperinst.or [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany) and Department of Geography and Environment; London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Fischedick, Manfred; Pietzner, Katja; Viebahn, Peter [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, PO BOX 100480, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen and fuel cell end-use technologies, focusing on vehicles. These studies are then contrasted with related research into alternative fuel vehicles. The paper finally discusses the main trends in research and avenues for further work in this field. We recommend, among other things, the use of approaches that build knowledge and familiarity with the technology prior to the exploration of attitudes, and the set up of studies that take a whole-systems perspective of hydrogen technologies and that look at hydrogen in the context of other competing clean technologies.

  17. Demand outlook for jet fuel in Brazil; Perspectivas da demanda de querosene de aviacao (QAV) no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saide, Clara Santos Martins; Aragao, Amanda P.; Machado, Giovani V.; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.B.; Valle, Ricardo Nascimento e Silva do [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to forecast the demand for jet fuel for the next years, by applying aggregate models. The relevance of this issue is evidenced by the strong growth of air transport in recent years and the growth prospects of the sector, especially regarding the evolution of the use of this modal in middle-income population classes, since the number of trips per capita in Brazil is still much lower than in developed countries. The key variables in the models' specifications proposed in this study are: Brazil's GDP, the activity level of the sector (measured in passenger-kilometers and ton-kilometers, respectively, for air transport of passengers and cargo) and energy intensity. Findings show that the demand for jet fuel is expected to grow by an average of 6-8% per year until 2020, under the assumptions of an average GDP growth of 4.7% per year and energy efficiency gains of 1% per year. (author)

  18. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China); Ya-Tang Cheng [Power Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  19. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  20. Environmental analysis of present and future fuels in 2D simple model marine gas tubines

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, M. Morsy

    2013-12-01

    Increased worldwide concerns about fossil fuel costs and effects on the environment lead many governments and scientific societies to consider the hydrogen as the fuel of the future. Many researches have been made to assess the suitability of using the hydrogen gas as fuel for internal combustion engines and gas turbines; this suitability was assessed from several viewpoints including the combustion characteristics, the fuel production and storage and also the thermodynamic cycle changes with the application of hydrogen instead of ordinary fossil fuels. This paper introduces the basic environmental differences happening when changing the fuel of a marine gas turbine from marine diesel fuel to gaseous hydrogen for the same power output. Environmentally, the hydrogen is the best when the CO2 emissions are considered, zero carbon dioxide emissions can be theoretically attained. But when the NOx emissions are considered, the hydrogen is not the best based on the unit heat input. The hydrogen produces 270% more NOx than the diesel case without any control measures. This is primarily due to the increased air flow rate bringing more nitrogen into the combustion chamber and the increased combustion temperature (10% more than the diesel case). Efficient and of course expensive NOx control measures are a must to control these emissions levels.

  1. Environmental analysis of present and future fuels in 2D simple model marine gas tubines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morsy El Gohary

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased worldwide concerns about fossil fuel costs and effects on the environment lead many governments and scientific societies to consider the hydrogen as the fuel of the future. Many researches have been made to assess the suitability of using the hydrogen gas as fuel for internal combustion engines and gas turbines; this suitability was assessed from several viewpoints including the combustion characteristics, the fuel production and storage and also the thermodynamic cycle changes with the application of hydrogen instead of ordinary fossil fuels. This paper introduces the basic environmental differences happening when changing the fuel of a marine gas turbine from marine diesel fuel to gaseous hydrogen for the same power output. Environmentally, the hydrogen is the best when the CO2 emissions are considered, zero carbon dioxide emissions can be theoretically attained. But when the NOx emissions are considered, the hydrogen is not the best based on the unit heat input. The hydrogen produces 270% more NOx than the diesel case without any control measures. This is primarily due to the increased air flow rate bringing more nitrogen into the combustion chamber and the increased combustion temperature (10% more than the diesel case. Efficient and of course expensive NOx control measures are a must to control these emissions levels.

  2. Hydrogen from reformer gas a novel fuel and bridging technology: A combustion perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, P.; Checkel, M.D.; Fleck, B.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Constant-volume combustion experiments measuring laminar burning velocity are presented for combinations of methane, inert diluent and H{sub 2}/CO mixtures that would result from steam reforming of methane. The experiments illustrate the very attractive prospects of on-board steam reforming in natural gas powered vehicles that would employ exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve combustion performance and reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Laminar burning velocity in the partially reformed fuel stream can be maintained at levels similar to that of air/natural gas mixtures by increasing the prereforming of the fuel at increasing concentrations of EGR. Up to 40% dilution was tested, requiring that 53% of the methane fuel be reformed to maintain burning velocity. Calculations indicate NO{sub x} levels are similar to scenarios with unreformed fuel. The knowledge base from this and similar experiments is required to allow for the future adoption of on-board fuel reforming in IC engines. This is a critical intermediate step in introducing hydrogen as a fuel to the currently fossil-hydrocarbon oriented economy and fuel delivery infrastructure. (author)

  3. An adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system for short-term natural gas demand estimation: Uncertain and complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Asadzadeh, S.M.; Ghanbari, A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate short-term natural gas (NG) demand estimation and forecasting is vital for policy and decision-making process in energy sector. Moreover, conventional methods may not provide accurate results. This paper presents an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of NG demand. Standard input variables are used which are day of the week, demand of the same day in previous year, demand of a day before and demand of 2 days before. The proposed ANFIS approach is equipped with pre-processing and post-processing concepts. Moreover, input data are pre-processed (scaled) and finally output data are post-processed (returned to its original scale). The superiority and applicability of the ANFIS approach is shown for Iranian NG consumption from 22/12/2007 to 30/6/2008. Results show that ANFIS provides more accurate results than artificial neural network (ANN) and conventional time series approach. The results of this study provide policy makers with an appropriate tool to make more accurate predictions on future short-term NG demand. This is because the proposed approach is capable of handling non-linearity, complexity as well as uncertainty that may exist in actual data sets due to erratic responses and measurement errors.

  4. 40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the running change. (ii) If the recalculated city or highway fuel economy value in paragraph (b)(3... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600.314-01 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  5. 40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the running change. (ii) If the recalculated city or highway fuel economy value in paragraph (b)(3... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600.314-86 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  6. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  7. Fission gas release behavior in high burnup UO2 fuels with developed rim-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, Katsumi; Kashibe, Shinji; Hayashi, Kimio

    2002-01-01

    The effect of rim structure formation and external restraint pressure on fission gas release at transient conditions has been examined by using an out-of-pile high pressure heating technique for high burnup UO 2 fuels (60, 74 and 90 GWd/t), which had been irradiated in test reactors. The latter two fuels bore a developed rim structure. The maximum heating temperature was 1500 degC, and the external pressures were independently controlled in the range of 10-150 MPa. The present high burnup fuel data were compared with those of previously studied BWR fuels of 37 and 54 GWd/t with almost no rim structure. The fission gas release and bubble swelling due to the growth of grain boundary bubbles and coarsened rim bubbles were effectively suppressed by the strong restraint pressure of 150 MPa for all the fuels; however the fission gas release remarkably increased for the two high burnup fuels with the developed rim structure, even at the strong restraint conditions. From the stepwise de-pressurization tests at an isothermal condition of 1500degC, the critical external pressure, below which a large burst release due to the rapid growth and interlinkage of the bubbles abruptly begins, was increased from a 40-60 MPa level for the middle burnup fuels to a high level of 120-140 MPa for the rim-structured high burnup fuels. The high potential for transient fission gas release and bubble swelling in the rim-structured fuels was attributed to highly over-pressurized fission gases in the rim bubbles. (author)

  8. A microbial fuel cell with improved cathode reaction as a low biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kui Hyun; Jang, Jae Kyung; Pham, The Hai; Moon, Hyunsoo; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung Hong

    2003-08-01

    Mediator-less microbial fuel cells (MFC) enriched with oligotrophic microbes were optimized through enhancement of cathode reaction and lowering O2 diffusion into the anode compartment as a low BOD sensor. The optimization of the MFC has greatly improved the maximum current and coulomb yield. The oligotroph-type MFC could be used as a low BOD sensor with high operational stability, good repeatability and reproducibility.

  9. On-Line Fuel Failure Monitor for Fuel Testing and Monitoring of Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Bourham, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. The TRISO microsphere (∼ 1-mm diameter) is composed of a UO2 kernel surrounded by a porous pyrolytic graphite buffer, an inner pyrolytic graphite layer, a silicon carbide (SiC) coating, and an outer pyrolytic graphite layer. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel is expected to range from 4%-10% (higher enrichments are also being considered). The layer/coating system that surrounds the UO2 kernel acts as the containment and main barrier against the environmental release of radioactivity. To understand better the behavior of this fuel under in-core conditions (e.g., high temperature, intense fast neutron flux, etc.), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a fuel testing program that will take place at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During this project North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers will collaborate with INL staff for establishing an optimized system for fuel monitoring for the ATR tests. In addition, it is expected that the developed system and methods will be of general use for fuel failure monitoring in gas cooled VHTRs.

  10. On0Line Fuel Failure Monitor for Fuel Testing and Monitoring of Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari; Mohamed A. Bourham

    2010-04-22

    IVery High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. The TRISO microsphere (~ 1- mm diameter) is composed of a UO2 kernel surrounded by a porous pyrolytic graphite buffer, an inner pyrolytic graphite layer, a silicon carbide (SiC) coating, and an outer pyrolytic graphite layer. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel is expected to range from 4% – 10% (higher enrichments are also being considered). The layer/coating system that surrounds the UO2 kernel acts as the containment and main barrier against the environmental release of radioactivity. To understand better the behavior of this fuel under in-core conditions (e.g., high temperature, intense fast neutron flux, etc.), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a fuel testing program that will take place at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During this project North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers will collaborate with INL staff for establishing an optimized system for fuel monitoring for the ATR tests. In addition, it is expected that the developed system and methods will be of general use for fuel failure monitoring in gas cooled VHTRs.

  11. Analysis of transient fission gas behaviour in oxide fuel using BISON and TRANSURANUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, T.; Bruschi, E.; Pizzocri, D.; Pastore, G.; Van Uffelen, P.; Williamson, R. L.; Luzzi, L.

    2017-04-01

    The modelling of fission gas behaviour is a crucial aspect of nuclear fuel performance analysis in view of the related effects on the thermo-mechanical performance of the fuel rod, which can be particularly significant during transients. In particular, experimental observations indicate that substantial fission gas release (FGR) can occur on a small time scale during transients (burst release). To accurately reproduce the rapid kinetics of the burst release process in fuel performance calculations, a model that accounts for non-diffusional mechanisms such as fuel micro-cracking is needed. In this work, we present and assess a model for transient fission gas behaviour in oxide fuel, which is applied as an extension of conventional diffusion-based models to introduce the burst release effect. The concept and governing equations of the model are presented, and the sensitivity of results to the newly introduced parameters is evaluated through an analytic sensitivity analysis. The model is assessed for application to integral fuel rod analysis by implementation in two structurally different fuel performance codes: BISON (multi-dimensional finite element code) and TRANSURANUS (1.5D code). Model assessment is based on the analysis of 19 light water reactor fuel rod irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA IFPE (International Fuel Performance Experiments) database, all of which are simulated with both codes. The results point out an improvement in both the quantitative predictions of integral fuel rod FGR and the qualitative representation of the FGR kinetics with the transient model relative to the canonical, purely diffusion-based models of the codes. The overall quantitative improvement of the integral FGR predictions in the two codes is comparable. Moreover, calculated radial profiles of xenon concentration after irradiation are investigated and compared to experimental data, illustrating the underlying representation of the physical mechanisms of burst release.

  12. Analysis of transaction costs for the supply and demand for wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.; Parikka, M.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of the project was to analyse the importance of transaction costs for the supply and demand for woodfuels in Sweden. The project covered the period of great expansion of woodfuel use in the district heating sector, from 1980 until present. It uses literature studies, case studies and surveys. New institutional theory and transaction cost theory was applied. Several transaction costs have influenced both supply from the forest owners and demand from the main users, the district heating plants. Many of these transaction costs have been reduced by the market players, through learning, technical improvements and institutional innovations. Actions to reduce transaction costs have accompanied technical improvements of handling and transport. Strategies for woodfuel procurement have also been analysed. Important conclusions of the project for a change in the energy system are presented

  13. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2017-03-01

    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  14. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  15. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  16. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-12-28

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN(-) in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD.

  17. The Employment of spatial autoregressive models in predicting demand for natural gas; O Emprego de modelos auto-regressivos espaciais na previsao de demanda para gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Alexandre Pinto Alves da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica

    2010-07-01

    Develop the natural gas network is critical success factor for the distribution company. It is a decision that employs the demand given location 'x' and a future time 't' so that the net allows the best conditions for the return of the capital. In this segment, typical network industry, the spatial infra-structure vision associated to the market allows better evaluation of the business because to mitigate costs and risks. In fact, economic models little developed in order to assess the question of the location, due to its little employment by economists. The objective of this article is to analyze the application of spatial perspective in natural gas demand forecasting and to identify the models that can be employed observing issues of dependency and spatial heterogeneity; as well as the capacity of mapping of variables associated with the problem. (author)

  18. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Lewis, Samuel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Sepaniak, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  19. On gas and particle radiation in pulverized fuel combustion furnaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in a combustor. This paper presents a refined weighted sum of gray gases model for computational fluid dynamics modelling of conventional air-fuel combustion, which has greater accuracy and completeness than the existing gaseous radiative property ...

  20. Correlation of Chemical Characteristics with Fuel Properties by Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Fuels," Department of Energy Technical Report No. DOE/BC/10043-12, October 1980. 10. Brown, J.G. and Tosh , J.D., "Measurement and Inspr-=tion of Engines...MISSILE PLANT US ARMY MATERIEL ARMAMEMT PROJ MGR, FIGHTING VEHICLE SYS READINESS CMD ATTN DRCPM-FVS-SE ATTN DRSAR-LEM WARREN MI 48090 ROCK ISLAND

  1. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

    2010-09-15

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  2. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  3. Tritium monitoring in the GCFR sweep gas fuel irradiation capsule BG-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Pruitt, M.E.; Longest, A.W.; Epstein, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    The release of tritium and its transport pathways were studied in a vented, pressure-equalized fuel rod which simulated a fuel rod in a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). The purpose was to determine the fraction of total tritium production transported via the various pathways and to determine its chemical form (tritiated hydrogen or water). It was concluded that the fuel rod and its effluent venting lines retained low concentrations of HT (or T 2 ) and any HTO (or T 2 O) present. However, the addition of 1% hydrogen to the helium carrier gas quantitatively eluted the tritium from the charcoal trap integral to the fuel rod and from the effluent lines. The chemical composition of the tritium arriving at the monitoring system could be determined by means of converters which convert HT to HTO and vice versa. Ht was the dominant species in the samples measured

  4. Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Seok; Chung, J.N.; Chen, Yen-Cho

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. → Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO 2 absorbent unit are investigated. → The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. → The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO 2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO 2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  6. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts. The paper reports the progress on the following tasks: engineering and modifications: AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal; and research and development on new processes for DME, chemistry and catalyst development, and oxygenates via synthesis gas.

  7. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles: A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo; Melaina, Marc W.

    2011-01-01

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. - Research Highlights: →The broad scale adoption of CNG for transportation in Argentina was initiated by a market demand for an effective fuel that was priced at a significantly lower level compared to the mainstream alternatives. →The Argentine played a marginal role in the development of refueling infrastructure. →The role of the government focused on sending clear signals to the marketplace and developing effective codes and standards. →Consumers willingness to switch to CNG increases as state of the economy deteriorates and disposable incomes decrease.

  8. Gas-Cooled Thorium Reactor with Fuel Block of the Unified Design

    OpenAIRE

    Shamanin, Igor; Bedenko, Sergey; Chertkov, Yuriy; Gubaydulin, Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Scientific researches of new technological platform realization carried out in Russia are based on ideas of nuclear fuel breeding in closed fuel cycle and physical principles of fast neutron reactors. Innovative projects of low-power reactor systems correspond to the new technological platform. High-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactors with good transportability properties, small installation time, and operation without overloading for a long time are considered perspective. Such small mod...

  9. Modeling combustion of ammonia/hydrogen fuel blends under gas turbine conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Hua; Valera Medina, Agustin; Bowen, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    To utilize ammonia as an alternative fuel for future power generation, it is essential to develop combustion chemical kinetic mechanisms which can describe in some detail the reaction characteristics and combustion properties. In the present study, a detailed chemical-kinetics mechanism is developed to validate premixed combustion characteristics of ammonia and hydrogen fuel blends comprehensively. In order to obtain a useful model for gas turbine applications, the proposed kinetic mechanism ...

  10. Laboratory Measurements of Gas Phase Pyrolysis Products from Southern Wildland Fuels using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharko, N.; Safdari, S.; Danby, T. O.; Howarth, J.; Beiswenger, T. N.; Weise, D.; Myers, T. L.; Fletcher, T. H.; Johnson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Combustion is an oxidation reaction that occurs when there is less fuel available than oxidizers, while pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process that occurs under "fuel rich" conditions where all of the available oxidizers are consumed leaving some fuel(s) either unreacted or partially reacted. Gas-phase combustion products from biomass burning experiments have been studied extensively; less is known, however, about pyrolysis processes and products. Pyrolysis is the initial reaction occurring in the burning process and generates products that are subsequently oxidized during combustion, yielding highly-oxidized chemicals. This laboratory study investigates the pyrolysis processes by using an FTIR spectrometer to detect and quantify the gas-phase products from thermal decomposition of intact understory fuels from forests in the southeastern United States. In particular, a laboratory flat-flame burner operating under fuel rich conditions (no oxygen) was used to heat individual leaves to cause decomposition. The gas-phase products were introduced to an 8 meter gas cell coupled to an infrared spectrometer were used to monitor the products. Trace gas emissions along with emission ratios, which are calculated by dividing the change in the amount of the trace gas by the change in the amount of CO, for the plant species, gallberry (Ilex glabra) and swampbay (Persea palustris) were determined. Preliminary measurements observed species such as CO2, CO, C2H2, C2H4, HCHO, CH3OH, isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, phenol and NH3 being produced as part of the thermal decomposition process. It is important to note that FTIR will not detect H2.

  11. Fuel cells: new technology of natural gas for energetical building; Pilas de combustible: nueva tecnologia de gas natural para edificios energeticamente autoabastecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells have emerged in the last decade as one of the most promising new and sustainable natural gas technologies for meeting the energy needs of all the economy sectors into the 21st century. Fuel Cells are an environmentally clean, quiet, and highly efficient method for generating electricity and heat from natural gas. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly to usable energy (electricity and heat) without combustion. For this reason, the application and use of the fuel cell technology may be the most important technological advancement of the next century. At the beginning of the 2000 year Sociedad de Gas de Euskadi, s. a. started a demonstration project in favour of the high-temperature planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for domestic micro-CHP utilization. This type is certainly most exacting from the materials standpoint, and it offers the advantage of uncomplicated fuel pretreatment. (Author)

  12. Meeting the growing demand for gas from Asia: Prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2014-01-01

    With a consumption of 645 billion cubic metres (bcm) in 2012, Asia-Oceania became the second largest regional market in the world after North America. Currently booming, this market has the largest growth potential in the medium and long term and will significantly impact the international gas landscape. The Asian gas market is facing structural and institutional reforms needed for natural gas to ensure its crucial role in the future energy mix. In this paper, the international association CEDIGAZ analyses the specific characteristics of the Asian gas market and presents its growth prospects in the medium and long term. These prospects are contingent upon an economic and regulatory environment in favour to natural gas. In the future, interactions between energy, regional markets and prices will intensify in a context of the internationalization of gas markets and the growth of a flexible LNG supply. Asia needs to adapt global market changes to its own regional market. Some regulatory, commercial and contractual moves are underway for natural gas to be competitive and attractive at regional and local level. These changes must enable the materialization of the massive investments required to ensure the expansion of the Asian gas market, which is crucial for a successful energy transition. However, the perspectives for a competitive wholesale market with convergence of spot prices within the region (as with the European gas market) are restricted by the low level of pipeline exchanges, the lack of liquidity and the disparate stages of development of the natural gas markets. In addition, the details of how reforms will be achieved and their direction will require a clear political willingness, as the expected growth of natural gas could be held back by changing priorities in government strategies

  13. RIM formation and its effect on fission gas release in water reactor fuels at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, C.S.; Sah, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Water Reactor Fuels irradiated to burnup of more than 45 MWD/kg were found by several investigators to contain a porous region near the pellet periphery with submicroscopic grain sizes and a local burnup higher than the average fuel burnup. The resonance capture of neutrons in the rim region results in higher plutonium concentrations there, which results in more fissions, more accumulated burnup and more defects in the microstructure. The exact mechanism of the formation of the rim microstructure is still not very clear. This so-called RIM effect results in different properties in the rim region compared to the rest of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of the rim region is significantly degraded, thereby resulting in increases in the fuel center temperature and higher fission gas release. The modelling of the effects of the rim on fuel properties and fission gas release so far has been largely empirical in nature. A threshold burnup is usually identified beyond which the RIM formation starts, and then a growth rate of the rim with burnup is assumed. This paper describes the current understanding of the Rim Effect and its consequences on fission gas release in water reactor fuels. The approach of modelling rim effect in computer code PROFESS is also described. (author)

  14. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of natural gas based fuel chains for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-04-15

    This research compares the use of natural gas, methanol, and hydrogen as transportation fuels. These three fuel chains start with the extraction and processing of natural gas in the Norwegian North Sea and end with final use in Central Europe. The end use is passenger transportation with a sub-compact car that has an internal combustion engine for the natural gas case and a fuel cell for the methanol and hydrogen cases. The life cycle assessment is performed by combining a process based life-cycle inventory with economic input-output data. The analysis shows that the potential climate impacts are lowest for the hydrogen fuel scenario with CO2 deposition. The hydrogen fuel chain scenario has no significant environmental disadvantage compared to the other fuel chains. Detailed analysis shows that the construction of the car contributes significantly to most impact categories. Finally, it is shown how the application of a hybrid inventory model ensures a more complete inventory description compared to standard process-based life-cycle assessment. This is particularly significant for car construction which would have been significantly underestimated in this study using standard process life-cycle assessment alone.

  15. Nuclear fuel supply and demand in Western Europe 1991-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusa, L.

    1992-01-01

    For the past ten years, Unipede and Open have jointly conducted an annual survey among their respective European members about nuclear programmes and nuclear fuel cycle requirements and supplies (uranium and enrichment). Its geographical scope is Western Europe, restricted to those countries having a current nuclear power programme. The respondents are the electric utilities in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany (western Laender only), Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Exclusively electric utilities are surveyed here, i.e. excluding national procurement organizations, traders, brokers, financial institutions, etc. For those countries where more than one utility is active, the responses covers the whole of the country electrical system and not only that of the respondents. The data, obtained from the individual utilities in the same format, are aggregated and form the basis of the report. This surveys cover uranium and enrichment requirements and supplies, recycling of uranium and plutonium, inventories; the quality of the data is guaranteed by the fact that the respondents are generally those people who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the nuclear fuel cycle in their country. The 1991 survey was launched in early June and replies were received between late June and September. This report aims at analysing the aggregated results of the survey and at providing some comments on the evolution of major parameters from the previous years. (author) 13 figs., refs

  16. Process integration methodology for natural gas-fueled heat pumps and cogeneration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Alan P.

    1988-11-01

    A process integration methodology was developed for analyzing industrial processes, identifying those that will benefit from natural gas fueled heat pumps and cogeneration system as well as novel, process-specific opportunities for further equipment improvements, including performance targets. The development included the writing of software to assist in implementing the methodology and application of the procedures in studies using both literature data and plant operating data. These highlighted potential applications for gas fueled heat pumps in ethylene processes and liquor distilling plants, and slightly less attractive opportunities in a number of other plants. Many of the processes studied showed excellent potentials for cogeneration applications.

  17. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... it reacts with air and produces electricity. The exhausted gases out of the SOFC enter a burner for further fuel combusting and finally the off-gases are sent to a gas turbine to produce additional electricity. Different plant configurations have been studied and the best one found to be a regenerative gas...

  18. Studies in the dissolver off-gas system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, E.; Huefner, R.; Weirich, F.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations of possible modifications of the process steps of a dissolver off-gas (DOG) system for a spent FBR fuel reprocessing plant are reported. The following operations are discussed: iodine removal from the fuel solution; behaviour of NOsub(x) and iodine in nitric acid off-gas scrubbers at different temperatures and nitric acid concentrations; iodine desorption from the scrub acid; selective absorption of noble gases in refrigerant-12; cold traps. The combination of suitable procedures to produce a total DOG system is described. (U.K.)

  19. Assessment of Restrained demand of Electricity, Natural Gas and Alcohol into Clean Development Context at Aracatuba Administrative Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideier, Raphael B.; Ueocka, Marcos Z.; Udaeda, Miguel E.M. [Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dep. de Engenharia de Energia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bernal, Jonathas [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper assesses the restrained market of electricity, natural gas and alcohol in the Aracatuba Administrative Region (RAA) comparing the consumption with the average consumption of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and Florida State, USA. Projections are made for the attendance of these demands in the context of clean development in a hypothetical set. Results show that the total restrained electric demand in the RAA was estimated in 22,467 MWh monthly in respect to Sao Paulo and 477,052 MWh monthly in respect to Florida, it means more power than the whole production of the region today and 3 times the demand nowadays. And the restrained vehicle demand in relation to the average of the state of Sao Paulo was low, about 5%, resulting in a restrained demand of less than 10 million liters per year (alcohol and gasoline). As the current production is about 2 billion liters of alcohol per year, one conclusion is that the RAA has potential to supply its necessity and export using only 10% of its territory in planted area of sugarcane.

  20. A Driving Force Analysis and Forecast for Gas Consumption Demand in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, gas has begun to be widely used in power generation as well as in manufacturing because of the environmental advantages, lower cost, and the relative safety and reliability. Accurate prediction of future gas consumption is of great importance for energy security. In this paper, we first use path analysis to select the core factors that impact gas consumption, then use the RBF-QRNN model and BVAR model separately to predict future gas consumption, and finally discuss and compare the results from the two models. The results show that if there is a positive growth in GDP, urbanization, and population, then gas consumption is expected to increase over a comparatively long time. In detail, gas consumption is expected to remain at about 25% of all energy consumption, GDP’s contribution to gas consumption is expected to be about 53%, and the urbanization rate contribution would be about 15%. Gas consumption in China is predicted to reach around 178649.23 million cubic meters by the end of 2015 and about 264698.86 million cubic meters by 2020.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction from fossil fuels: options and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    If levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are to be stabilized over the next 50 years, net emissions from the use of fossil fuels have to be reduced. One concept worth exploring is the removal of carbon dioxide from plant flue gases and disposing of it in a manner that sequesters it from the atmosphere. A number of technologies, which are either commercially available or under development, promise to make this concept viable. The question of where to dispose of the carbon dioxide removed is not the limiting factor, given the potential for use in enhanced hydrocarbon production as well as other geological disposal options. In the longer term, fossil fuel use will significantly decline, but these extraction and sequestration technologies can provide the time for the transition to take place in a manner which causes least impact to the economies of the world. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional, gas phase fuel cell with a laccase biocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; LaBarge, Samuel; Spott, Benjamin A.

    A fuel cell using an enzymatic biocathode operating in a gas phase mode is reported. The electrode was prepared using a three-dimensional conductive electrode matrix. An enzyme solution containing laccase and a mediator was distributed into a hydrophilic matrix of carbon felt fibers creating a porous gas-flowing electrode. A Pt-based gas diffusion electrode served as the anode. A maximum power density of 9.4 W m -2 (2.9 kW m -3) was obtained with 15 U of enzyme cm -2, with hydrogen as the fuel. Power density was found to be a function of the enzyme loading, air flow rate, volume of the liquid phase and the humidity of the air stream. The ability to use methanol and ethanol as vapors in gas phase was also shown. The introduction of three-dimensionality into the electrode architecture and operation of the fuel cell in a gas phase mode to supply the fuel and the oxidant demonstrates an avenue for improving the power density of EFCs.

  3. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  4. CFD Analysis of the Fuel Temperature in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, W. K.; Chun, T. H.; Lee, W. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) have received a renewed interest as potential sources for future energy needs, particularly for a hydrogen production. Among the HTGRs, the pebble bed reactor (PBR) and a prismatic modular reactor (PMR) are considered as the nuclear heat source in Korea's nuclear hydrogen development and demonstration project. PBR uses coated fuel particles embedded in spherical graphite fuel pebbles. The fuel pebbles flow down through the core during an operation. PMR uses graphite fuel blocks which contain cylindrical fuel compacts consisting of the fuel particles. The fuel blocks also contain coolant passages and locations for absorber and control material. The maximum fuel temperature in the core hot spot is one of the important design parameters for both PBR and PMR. The objective of this study is to predict the fuel temperature distributions in PBR and PMR using a computational fluid dynamics(CFD) code, CFX-5. The reference reactor designs used in this analysis are PBMR400 and GT-MHR600

  5. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  6. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  7. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

  8. Method for evaluating natural gas demand scenarios (Demangas Project); Metodologia para avaliacao de cenarios de demanda pelo gas natural (Projeto Demangas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Luis Antonio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas de Transportes; Santos, Gilberto T. dos; Silva, Silvio C. da; Ribeiro, Jose Luis D.; Fogliatto, Flavio S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Produtos e Processos

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed for the evaluation of the existing and potential market for natural gas in the industrial, automotive, residential and commercial sectors of Rio Grande do Sul. The methodology is based upon a marketing research framework and consists of the definition of the problem; application of qualitative, quantitative and stated-preference enquiries; review of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice; and, also, interviews with specialists. The methodology is consolidated in four software that enable the simulation of different demand scenarios of natural gas up to the year 2010. The development of this methodology comprised the participation of more than 1,000 potential users of natural gas and allowed the state company in charge of distributing natural gas to: structure the problem of forecasting the consumption of natural gas within a new context of competition in the energy industry; help the formulation of the strategic plan of the company with regard to investment strategies and incrementing the number of clients; and propose marketing efforts to promote the adoption of natural gas as an alternative energy source. (author)

  9. Edge seal for a porous gas distribution plate of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Singh, Rajindar

    1984-01-01

    In an improved seal for a gas distribution plate of a fuel cell, a groove is provided extending along an edge of the plate. A member of resinous material is arranged within the groove and a paste comprising an immobilized acid is arranged surrounding the member and substantially filling the groove. The seal, which is impervious to the gas being distributed, is resistant to deterioration by the electrolyte of the cell.

  10. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  11. TESTING OF GAS REACTOR MATERIALS AND FUEL IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has long been involved in testing gas reactor materials, and has developed facilities well suited for providing the right conditions and environment for gas reactor tests. This paper discusses the different types of irradiation hardware that have been utilized in past ATR irradiation tests of gas reactor materials. The new Gas Test Loop facility currently being developed for the ATR is discussed and the different approaches being considered in the design of the facility. The different options for an irradiation experiment such as active versus passive temperature control, neutron spectrum tailoring, and different types of lead experiment sweep gas monitors are also discussed. The paper is then concluded with examples of different past and present gas reactor material and fuel irradiations

  12. Securing Supply and Demand: Natural Gas Pipelines and the Europe-Russia Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Challenge,” The National Interest, issue 88 (Mar/Apr 2007): 50. 2 Guy Chazan, “New Route to Europe Cleared For Natural Gas From Russia,” Wall Street Journal Eastern...to Double Capacity of Gas Pipeline,” The Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), 16 May 2009, A6. 34 Evans-Pritchard, “Europe Breaks Free from...http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518040802313746. Chazan, Guy. “New Route to Europe Cleared For Natural Gas From Russia,” Wall Street Journal Eastern

  13. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  14. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  15. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  16. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  17. Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.J.; Lords, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission products into or onto a particulate. These particulates would be trapped by a second sintered metal filter or downstream packed bed. A packed bed scrub column can be used to eliminate most of the iodine-129 and tritium. A molecular sieve bed is proposed to collect the residual 129 I and other tramp radionuclides downstream (Ruthenium, etc.). Krypton-85 can be recovered, if need be, either by cryogenics or by the KALC process (Krypton Adsorption in Liquid Carbon dioxide). Likewise carbon-14 in the form of carbon dioxide could be collected with a caustic or lime scrub solution and incorporated into a grout. Sulfur dioxide present will be well below regulatory concern level of 4.0 tons per year and most of it would be removed by the scrubber. Carbon monoxide emissions will depend on the choice of burner and start-up conditions. Should the system exceed the regulatory concern level, a catalytic converter in the final packed bed will be provided. Radon and its daughters have sufficiently short half-lives (less than two minutes). If necessary, an additional holdup bed can be added before the final HEPA filters or additional volume can be added to the molecular sieve bed to limit radon emissions. The calculated total effective dose equivalent at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory boundary from a single release of all the 3 , 14 C, 85 Kr, and 129 I in the total fuel mass if 0.43 mrem/year

  18. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  19. Block fuel element for gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a block fuel element consisting of only one carbon matrix which is almost isotropic of high crystallinity into which the coated particles are incorporated by a pressing process. This block element is produced under isostatic pressure from graphite matrix powder and coated particles in a rubber die and is subsequently subjected to heat treatment. The main component of the graphite matrix powder consists of natural graphite powder to which artificial graphite powder and a small amount of a phenol resin binding agent are added

  20. Improving Fuel Cycle Design and Safety Characteristics of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, W.F.G. van

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR)is one of the Generation IV reactor concepts. This concept specifically targets sustainability of nuclear power generation. In nuclear reactors fertile material is converted to fissile fuel. If the neutrons inducing fission are highly energetic, the opportunity exists to convert more than one fertile nucleus per fission, thereby effectively breeding new nuclear fuel. Reactors operating on this principle are called ‘Fast Breeder Reactor’. Since natural uranium contains 99.3%of the fertile isotope 238 U, breeding increases the energy harvested from the nuclear fuel. If nuclear energy is to play an important role as a source of energy in the future, fast breeder reactors are essential for breeding nuclear fuel. Fast neutrons are also more efficient to destruct heavy (Minor Actinide, MA) isotopes, such as Np, Am and Cm isotopes, which dominate the long-term radioactivity of nuclear waste. So the waste life-time can be shortened if the MA nuclei are destroyed. An important prerequisite of sustainable nuclear energy is the closed fuel cycle, where only fission products are discharged to a final repository, and all Heavy Metal (HM) are recycled. The reactor should breed just enough fissile material to allow refueling of the same reactor, adding only fertile material to the recycled material. Other key design choices are highly efficient power conversion using a direct cycle gas turbine, and better safety through the use of helium, a chemically inert coolant which cannot have phase changes in the reactor core. Because the envisaged core temperatures and operating conditions are similar to thermal-spectrum High Temperature Reactor (HTR) concepts, the research for this thesis initially focused on a design based on existing HTR fuel technology: coated particle fuel, assembled into fuel assemblies. It was found that such a fuel concept could not meet the Generation IV criteria set for GCFR: self-breeding is difficult, the temperature