WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel elements transportation

  1. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  2. Investigation of silver and iodine transport through silicon carbide layers prepared for nuclear fuel element cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, E.; van der Berg, N. G.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hancke, J. J.; Barry, J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2011-03-01

    Transport of silver and iodine through polycrystalline SiC layers produced by PBMR (Pty) Ltd. for cladding of TRISO fuel kernels was investigated using Rutherford backscattering analysis and electron microscopy. Fluences of 2 × 10 16 Ag + cm -2 and 1 × 10 16 I + cm -2 were implanted at room temperature, 350 °C and 600 °C with an energy of 360 keV, producing an atomic density of approximately 1.5% at the projected ranges of about 100 nm. The broadening of the implantation profiles and the loss of diffusors through the front surface during vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 1400 °C was determined. The results for room temperature implantations point to completely different transport mechanisms for silver and iodine in highly disordered silicon carbide. However, similar results are obtained for high temperature implantations, although iodine transport is much stronger influenced by lattice defects than is the case for silver. For both diffusors transport in well annealed samples can be described by Fickian grain boundary diffusion with no abnormal loss through the surface as would be expected from the presence of nano-pores and/or micro-cracks. At 1100 °C diffusion coefficients for silver and iodine are below our detection limit of 10 -21 m 2 s -1, while they increase into the 10 -20 m 2 s -1 range at 1300 °C.

  3. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  4. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  5. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  6. SNTP program fuel element design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Ales, Matthew W.

    1993-06-01

    The SNTP program is evaluating the feasibility of utilizing a particle bed reactor to develop a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. The optimum fuel element arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the fuel element have been developed and are being tested.

  7. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  8. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  9. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  10. Protected Nuclear Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, J. H.; Schumar, J. F.

    1962-12-01

    A stainless steel-clad actinide metal fuel rod for use in fast reactors is reported. In order to prevert cladding failures due to alloy formation between the actinide metal and the stainless steel, a mesh-like sleeve of expanded metal is interposed between them, the sleeve metal being of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium, or vanadium. Liquid alkali metal is added as a heat transfer agent. (AEC)

  11. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  12. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  13. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  14. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  15. Thermionic fuel element technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Horner, M. W.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of research, conducted between the mid-1960s and 1973, on the multiconverter thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) that comprise the reactor core of an SP-100 thermionic reactor system are presented. Fueled-emitter technology, insulator technology and cell and TFE assembly technology of the prototypical TFEs which were tested in-pile and out-of-pile during these years are described. The proto-TFEs have demonstrated reproducible performance within 5 percent and no premature failures within the 1.5 yr of operation (with projected 3-yr lifetimes). The two primary life-limiting factors had been identified as thermionic emitter dimensional increase due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to 7 yr or longer are available and will be investigated in the 1984-1985 SP-100 program for resolution of critical technology issues. Design diagrams and test graphs are included.

  16. A high temperature fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, A.; Nakai, M.; Ninomiya, Y.

    1982-12-21

    A solid electrolyte which conducts electricity with heating by oxygen ions and operates at a temperature of 1,000C is used in the element. The cathode, besides the ionic conductivity in oxygen, has an electron conductivity. The anode has electron conductivity. Substances such as Bi203, into which oxides of alkaline earth metals are added, are used for making the cathode. The electrolyte consists of ZrO2 and Y2O3, to which CaO is added. WC, to which an H2 type fuel is fed, serves as the anode. The element has a long service life.

  17. HTGR spent fuel composition and fuel element block flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.J.; Holder, N.D.; Pierce, V.H.; Robertson, M.W.

    1976-07-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. Fully enriched uranium fissile material and thorium fertile material are used in the initial reactor core and for makeup fuel in the recycle core loadings. Bred /sup 233/U and unburned /sup 235/U fissile materials are recovered from spent fuel elements, refabricated into recycle fuel elements, and used as part of the recycle core loading along with the makeup fuel elements. A typical HTGR employs a 4-yr fuel cycle with approximately one-fourth of the core discharged and reloaded annually. The fuel element composition, including heavy metals, impurity nuclides, fission products, and activation products, has been calculated for discharged spent fuel elements and for reload fresh fuel and recycle fuel elements for each cycle over the life of a typical HTGR. Fuel element compositions are presented for the conditions of equilibrium recycle. Data describing compositions for individual reloads throughout the reactor life are available in a detailed volume upon request. Fuel element block flow data have been compiled based on a forecast HTGR market. Annual block flows are presented for each type of fuel element discharged from the reactors for reprocessing and for refabrication.

  18. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.L. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Systems Assessment Dept.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N. [RI SIA Lutch, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  19. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.L. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Systems Assessment Dept.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N. [RI SIA Lutch, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  20. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel element. Kernreaktorbrennelement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1985-03-28

    The fuel element box for a BWR is situated with a corner bolt on the inside in one corner of its top on the top side of the top plate. This corner bolt is screwed down with a bolt with a corner part which is provided with leaf springs outside on two sides, where the bolt has a smaller diameter and an expansion shank. The bolt is held captive to the bolt head on the top and the holder on the bottom of the corner part. The holder is a locknut. If the expansion forces are too great, the bolt can only break at the expansion shank.

  2. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  3. Visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    Selected fuel elements stored in both ``good fuel`` and ``bad fuel`` canisters in K East Basin were extracted and visually examined full length for damage. Lower end damage in the ``bad fuel`` canisters was found to be more severe than expected based on top end appearances. Lower end damage for the ``good fuel`` canisters, however, was less than expected based on top end observations. Since about half of the fuel in K East Basin is contained in ``good fuel`` canisters based on top end assessments, the fraction of fuel projected to be intact with respect to IPS processing considerations remains at 50% based on these examination results.

  4. Thermal Safety Analysis and Experimental Validation of New Fuel Element Transportation Container%新燃料元件运输容器热工安全分析及试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春秋; 邹佳讯; 衣大勇; 张金山

    2016-01-01

    The new fuel element transportation container is a specific equipment de‐signed for transporting 493 reactor’s fuel elements .In order to insure the safety of fuel elements during transportation and fulfill the requirements of standard GB 11806—2004 ,thermal design calculation and validation experiments were carried out .The accu‐racy of the container’s thermal design was proven by comparing thermal design results with thermal experimental data .The safety of the new fuel elements can be insured and the requirements of GB 11806—2004 can be fulfilled by using the new fuel elements transportation container under both normal transport condition and accidental transport condition .%新燃料元件运输容器是为运输493反应堆燃料元件设计的专用设备。为保证燃料元件在运输过程中的安全性,使运输容器及燃料元件的各项性能指标符合标准GB 11806—2004的要求,对运输容器进行了热工设计计算和验证试验。通过计算与相应热工试验结果的比较,验证了运输容器热工设计的准确性。采用该运输容器运输新燃料元件,在正常运输工况和事故运输工况下可保证燃料元件的安全,完全满足GB 11806—2004的规定。

  5. Transportation fuels from energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Kulsrestha, G.N.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))

    1993-01-01

    Biomass constituents in the form of energy crops can be used as starting materials in the production of transportation fuels. The potential of biocrudes obtained from laticiferous species belonging to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae for the production of hydrocarbon fuels has been explored. Results of studies carried out on upgrading these biocrudes by catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst are presented. (author)

  6. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  7. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  8. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  9. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  10. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  11. Dual-radial cell thermionic fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Charles W.

    A dual-radial cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) has been proposed and partially evaluated. The cell has the capacity to produce considerably more power per gram of fuel than does a single-cell TFE, with a total electrical power in a fast reactor system of several hundred kWs, conservatively operated.

  12. Visual examinations of K west fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    Over 250 fuel assemblies stored in sealed canisters in the K West Basin were extracted and visually examined for damage. Substantial damage was expected based on high cesium levels previously measured in water samples taken from these canisters. About 11% of the inner elements and 45% of the outer elements were found to be failed in these examinations. Canisters that had cesium levels of I curie or more generally had multiple instances of major fuel damage.

  13. Methods of making transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  14. Renewable Fuels for Cross Border Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlin, Markus; Zauner, Martin; Reichmuth, Matthias; Nill, Moritz; Wacker, Manfred; Galster, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has increased slowly in most sectors and the transport sector is predominantly depending on traditional fossil fuels notably petrol and diesel. This has created a difficult situation concerning the fuel supply and fuel prices as well as an increase of emissions of climate gasses. A number of local and regional projects have been carried out and are still ongoing regarding the use of renewable fuels in the transport sector. Most of those covers captive fleets of bus...

  15. 球床反应堆燃料元件脉冲气力提升动力特性分析%Dynamical Analysis of Impulse Pneumatic Transportation of Fuel Element in Pebble Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凯; 沈鹏; 都东; 王鑫; 张海泉

    2012-01-01

    球床反应堆采用球形燃料元件多次通过堆芯的循环运行方式,燃料元件从堆芯底部连续单列排出后依靠管路气动推力逐一被提升至堆芯顶部.本文建立了球形燃料元件“近等径”管路脉冲气力提升运动模型,并在此基础上分析了气源压力、控制阀有效截面积、球外径与管内径的直径比等参数对提升过程燃料元件运行速度的影响.利用测速装置测量了10 MW球床反应实验堆提升器出口燃料元件的运行速度,实验结果接近理论分析结果.近等径球流管路脉冲气力提升运动模型的建立及实验研究为球床反应堆燃料输送系统优化设计及运行调控提供了理论依据.%Pebble bed reactors use "multi-pass" circulation scheme of spherical fuel element. The fuel spheres are uploaded from the core one by one, and lifted up to return to the core through the pneumatic conveying pipeline. In this paper, the motion model of impulse pneumatic transportation of spherical fuel characterized by the "approximately equal diameter" was established. Some influences, such as air supply pressure, effective area of controlling valve, sphere-to-pipe diameter ratio, etc. , to the velocity of fuel elements were analyzed. The practical velocity of fuel element was measured by using speed measuring instrument fixed in 10 MW pebble bed reactor. The test results agree with the theoretical results. The establishment of the motion model of fuel element in impulse pneumatic transportation provides the foundation for the optimum design and regulation of fuel transporting system.

  16. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  17. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  18. Structural analysis of reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of fuel-element modeling is presented that traces the development of codes for the prediction of light-water-reactor and fast-breeder-reactor fuel-element performance. It is concluded that although the mathematical analysis is now far advanced, the development and incorporation of mechanistic constitutive equations has not kept pace. The resultant reliance on empirical correlations severely limits the physical insight that can be gained from code extrapolations. Current efforts include modeling of alternate fuel systems, analysis of local fuel-cladding interactions, and development of a predictive capability for off-normal behavior. Future work should help remedy the current constitutive deficiencies and should include the development of deterministic failure criteria for use in design.

  19. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  20. HTGR fuel element structural design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloway, R.; Gorholt, W.; Ho, F.; Vollman, R.; Yu, H.

    1986-09-01

    The structural design of the large HTGR prismatic core fuel elements involve the interaction of four engineering disciplines: nuclear physics, thermo-hydraulics, structural and material science. Fuel element stress analysis techniques and the development of structural criteria are discussed in the context of an overview of the entire design process. The core of the proposed 2240 MW(t) HTGR is described as an example where the design process was used. Probabalistic stress analysis techniques coupled with probabalistic risk analysis (PRA) to develop structural criteria to account for uncertainty are described. The PRA provides a means for ensuring that the proposed structural criteria are consistent with plant investment and safety risk goals. The evaluation of cracked fuel elements removed from the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the USA is discussed in the context of stress analysis uncertainty and structural criteria development.

  1. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  2. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  4. Research Development of MOX Fuel Element Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Qi-fa; YANG; Ting-gui; SHANG; Gai-bin; YIN; Bang-yue; ZHOU; Guo-liang; LI; Qiang; JIANG; Bao-jun

    2015-01-01

    The project of"MOX Fuel Element Research"led by China Institute of Atomic Energy,404Company Ltd.and CNPE Zhengzhou Branch are members of the project research team.The research task of 2015had been accomplished successfully,and the research productions of this year build up a basis for the future research,also

  5. Automatic inspection for remotely manufactured fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gibbs, K.S.; Benedict, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Two classification techniques, standard control charts and artificial neural networks, are studied as a means for automating the visual inspection of the welding of end plugs onto the top of remotely manufactured reprocessed nuclear fuel element jackets. Classificatory data are obtained through measurements performed on pre- and post-weld images captured with a remote camera and processed by an off-the-shelf vision system. The two classification methods are applied in the classification of 167 dummy stainless steel (HT9) fuel jackets yielding comparable results.

  6. Fuel burnup calculation of a research reactor plate element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Nadia Rodrigues dos; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: nadiasam@gmail.com, E-mail: zrlima@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists in simulating the burnup of two different plate type fuel elements, where one is the benchmark MTR of the IAEA, which is made of an alloy of uranium and aluminum, while the other belonging to a typical multipurpose reactor is composed of an alloy of uranium and silicon. The simulation is performed using the WIMSD-5B computer code, which makes use of deterministic methods for solving neutron transport. In developing this task, fuel element equivalent cells were calculated representing each of the reactors to obtain the initial concentrations of each isotope constituent element of the fuel cell and the thicknesses corresponding to each region of the cell, since this information is part of the input data. The compared values of the k∞ showed a similar behavior for the case of the MTR calculated with the WIMSD-5B and EPRI-CELL codes. Relating the graphs of the concentrations in the burnup of both reactors, there are aspects very similar to each isotope selected. The application WIMSD-5B code to calculate isotopic concentrations and burnup of the fuel element, proved to be satisfactory for the fulfillment of the objective of this work. (author)

  7. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  8. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  9. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); LeDuc, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-25

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  10. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Maheras, Steven J.; Jensen, Philip J.; England, Jeffery L.; LeDuc, Dan

    2014-09-24

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  11. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  12. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  13. Subcritical Noise Analysis Measurements with Fresh and Spent Research Reactor Fuels Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Kryter, R.C.; Miller, V.C.

    1999-02-01

    The verification of the subcriticality is of utmost importance for the safe transportation and storage of nuclear reactor fuels. Transportation containers and storage facilities are designed such that nuclear fuels remain in a subcritical state. Such designs often involve excess conservatism because of the lack of relevant experimental data to verify the accuracy of Monte Carlo codes used in nuclear criticality safety analyses. A joint experimental research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., and the University of Missouri was initiated to obtain measured quantities that could be directly related to the subcriticality of simple arrays of Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel elements. A series of measurement were performed to assess the reactivity of materials such as BORAL, stainless steel, aluminum, and lead that are typically used in the construction of shipping casks. These materials were positioned between the fuel elements. In addition, a limited number of measurements were performed with configurations of fresh and spent (irradiated) fuel elements to ascertain the reactivity of the spent fuel elements. In these experiments, fresh fuel elements were replaced by spent fuel elements such that the subcritical reactivity change could be measured. The results of these measurements were used by Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions to determine the subcriticality of MURR fuel elements isolated by absorbing materials. The measurements were interpreted using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code to obtain the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k(sub eff), and the bias in K(sub eff) that are used in criticality safety analyses.

  14. New challenges in transportation of used fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allimann, N.; Otton, C.

    2011-07-01

    For more than 45 years TN International has demonstrated its ability to face the many challenges of used fuel transportation. Whether travelling by rail, by road or by sea, TN International has built a comprehensive organization, covering ah aspects such as design, licensing, global acceptance, emergency response systems, effective fleet management and transport organization.

  15. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  17. Study of fuel element characteristic of SM and SMP (SM-PRIMA) fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinov, A.V.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Makhin, V.M.; Tuchnin, L.M.; Tsykanov, V.A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the techniques and results of reactor tests and post-reactor investigations of the SM reactor fuel elements and fuel elements developed in the process of designing the specialized PRIMA test reactor with the SM reactor fuel elements used as a prototype and which are referred to as the SMP fuel elements. The behavior of fuel elements under normal operating conditions and under deviation from normal operating conditions was studied to verify the calculation techniques, to check the calculation results during preparation of the SM reactor safety substantiation report and to estimate the possibility of using such fuel elements in other projects. During tests of fuel rods under deviation from normal operating conditions their advantages were shown over fuel elements, the components of which were produced using the Al-based alloys. (author)

  18. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University (Sweden); Andersson, E.; Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  20. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  1. 77 FR 28406 - Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2125, ``Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (SFTRA...): You may access publicly-available documents online in the NRC Library at...

  2. Fuel cell elements with improved water handling capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Lee, Albany (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell components for use in liquid feed fuel cell systems are provided. The components include biplates and endplates, having a hydrophilic surface and allow high efficiency operation. Conductive elements and a wicking device also form a part of the fuel cell components of the invention.

  3. Thermal analysis of IRT-T reactor fuel elements

    OpenAIRE

    Naymushin, Artem Georgievich; Chertkov, Yuri Borisovich; Lebedev, Ivan Igorevich; Anikin, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the method and results of thermo-physical calculations of IRT-T reactor core. Heat fluxes, temperatures of cladding, fuel meat and coolant were calculated for height of core, azimuth directions of FA and each fuel elements in FA. Average calculated values of uniformity factor of energy release distribution for height of fuel assemblies were shown in this research. Onset nucleate boiling temperature and ONB-ratio were calculated. Shows that temperature regimes of fuel ele...

  4. A Primer on Alternative Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    United States. Current annual corn production in the United States is about 1010 bushels. Most of that is used to feed livestock, poultry , fish, and...rechargeable Li- Air battery (SP = 1000 W/kg, SE = 1700 Wh/kg) were realized and found to be economical, durable and safe enough for manned vehicular use, it...Li-Air battery were realized and found to be economical, durable , and safe, 70% of the need for conventional transportation fuel could be eliminated

  5. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  6. CHF Enhancement of Advanced 37-Element Fuel Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hwan Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard 37-element fuel bundle (37S fuel bundle has been used in commercial CANDU reactors for over 40 years as a reference fuel bundle. Most CHF of a 37S fuel bundle have occurred at the elements arranged in the inner pitch circle for high flows and at the elements arranged in the outer pitch circle for low flows. It should be noted that a 37S fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the peripheral subchannels of its center element compared to the other subchannels. The configuration of a fuel bundle is one of the important factors affecting the local CHF occurrence. Considering the CHF characteristics of a 37S fuel bundle in terms of CHF enhancement, there can be two approaches to enlarge the flow areas of the peripheral subchannels of a center element in order to enhance CHF of a 37S fuel bundle. To increase the center subchannel areas, one approach is the reduction of the diameter of a center element, and the other is an increase of the inner pitch circle. The former can increase the total flow area of a fuel bundle and redistributes the power density of all fuel elements as well as the CHF. On the other hand, the latter can reduce the gap between the elements located in the middle and inner pitch circles owing to the increasing inner pitch circle. This can also affect the enthalpy redistribution of the fuel bundle and finally enhance CHF or dry-out power. In this study, the above two approaches, which are proposed to enlarge the flow areas of the center subchannels, were considered to investigate the impact of the flow area changes of the center subchannels on the CHF enhancement as well as the thermal characteristics by applying a subchannel analysis method.

  7. IN-CELL visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.; Pyecha, T.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Nine outer fuel elements were recovered from the K East Basin and transferred to a hot cell for examination. Extensive testing planned for these elements will support the process design for the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS), with emphasis on drying and conditioning behavior. Visual examinations of the fuel elements confirmed that they are appropriate to meet testing objectives to provide design guidance for IPS processing parameters.

  8. Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-24

    The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be

  9. Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. A suitable place to start studying a fuel is at the production stage, and bioethanol has been found to have a potential to mitigate greenhouse gases, depending on the production method. This and a potential for replacing fossil fuel-based oil (and being renewable) are the main reasons why ethanol is considered and implemented. Therefore, we must focus on two central questions related to ethanol implementation: how much carbon dioxide (CO2) can be mitigated and how much fossil fuel can be replaced? A number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to provide estimates. These assessments have generally shown that bioethanol has very good potential and can mitigate CO2 emissions very effectively, but It has also been shown that the potential for both fossil fuel replacement and CO2 mitigation is totally dependent on the method used to produce the fuel. Bioethanol can be made from a wide range of biomass resources, not all equally effective at mitigating CO2 emissions and replacing fossil fuel. The Brazilian ethanol experience has in many ways shown the way for the rest of the world, not least in the production stage. Brazil was the first and biggest producer of bioethanol, but the United States, China, India, and European Union have since then increased their production dramatically. Overall, bioethanol represents the

  10. Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. A suitable place to start studying a fuel is at the production stage, and bioethanol has been found to have a potential to mitigate greenhouse gases, depending on the production method. This and a potential for replacing fossil fuel-based oil (and being renewable) are the main reasons why ethanol is considered and implemented. Therefore, we must focus on two central questions related to ethanol implementation: how much carbon dioxide (CO2) can be mitigated and how much fossil fuel can be replaced? A number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to provide estimates. These assessments have generally shown that bioethanol has very good potential and can mitigate CO2 emissions very effectively, but It has also been shown that the potential for both fossil fuel replacement and CO2 mitigation is totally dependent on the method used to produce the fuel. Bioethanol can be made from a wide range of biomass resources, not all equally effective at mitigating CO2 emissions and replacing fossil fuel. The Brazilian ethanol experience has in many ways shown the way for the rest of the world, not least in the production stage. Brazil was the first and biggest producer of bioethanol, but the United States, China, India, and European Union have since then increased their production dramatically. Overall, bioethanol represents the

  11. Repurposing an irradiated instrumented TRIGA fuel element for regular use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo F.; Souza, Luiz C.A., E-mail: pfo@cdtn.br, E-mail: lcas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    TRIGA IPR-R1 is a research reactor also used for training and radioisotope production, located at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Centre, Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CDTN/CNEN). Its first criticality occurred in November 1960. All original fuel elements were aluminum-clad. In 1971 nine new fuel elements, stainless steel-clad were acquired. One of them was an instrumented fuel element (IFE), equipped with 3 thermocouples. The IFE was introduced into the core only on August 2004, and remained there until July 2007. It was removed from the core after the severing of contacts between the thermocouples and their extension cables. After an unsuccessful attempt to recover electrical access to the thermocouples the IFE was transferred from the reactor pool to an auxiliary spent fuel storage well, with water, in the reactor room. In December 2011 the IFE was transferred to an identical well, dry, where it remains so far. This work is a proposal for recovery of this instrumented fuel element, by removing the cable guide rod and adaptation of a superior terminal plug similar to conventional fuel elements. This will enable its handling through the same tool used for regular fuel elements and its return to the reactor core. This is a delicate intervention in terms of radiological protection, and will require special care to minimize the exposure of operators. (author)

  12. Inspection of state of spent fuel elements stored in RA reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Yu.; Sokolov, A.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has recently been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. Based on the results of this inspection, a procedure will be proposed for transferring spent fuel to a more reliable storage facility. (author)

  13. INTERACTION OF AIR TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL-SUPPLY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zheleznaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of aviation fuel in the life of air transport. Fueling industry worldwide solves two main tasks - ensuring the safety and economy of air traffic. In Russia, there is one more task of airlines fuel supply. The article deals with fuel pricing taking into consideration today's realities.

  14. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  15. Research on Measuring Technology for In-pile Fuel Element Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The tested fuel assembly for In-pile test for PWR fuel element with instrumentation consisted of 4instrumented fuel elements and total 12 sets of transducers. Double claddings are adopted to raise fueltemperature. Two fuel elements each have 2 thermocouples for measuring separately the fuel centerlinetemperature and the cladding surface temperature. The other two elements have membrane type oressure

  16. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  17. Thermalhydraulics of advanced 37-element fuel bundle in crept pressure tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Joo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A CANDU-6 reactor, which has 380 fuel channels of a pressure tube type, is suffering from aging or creep of the pressure tubes. Most of the aging effects for the CANDU primary heat transport system were originated from the horizontal crept pressure tubes. As the operating years of a CANDU reactor proceed, a pressure tube experiences high neutron irradiation damage under high temperature and pressure. The crept pressure tube can deteriorate the Critical Heat Flux (CHF of a fuel channel and finally worsen the reactor operating performance and thermal margin. Recently, the modification of the central subchannel area with increasing inner pitch length of a standard 37-element fuel bundle was proposed and studied in terms of the dryout power enhancement for the uncrept pressure tube since a standard 37-element fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the central region. This study introduced a subchannel analysis for the crept pressure tubes loaded with the inner pitch length modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle. In addition, the subchannel characteristics were investigated according to the flow area change of the center subchannels for the crept pressure tubes. Also, it was discussed how much the crept pressure tubes affected the thermalhydraulic characteristics of the fuel channel as well as the dryout power for the modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle.

  18. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  19. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz, E-mail: azizM@uniten.edu.my; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul [Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Jalan Ikram-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Pauzi, Anas Muhamad, E-mail: anas@uniten.edu.my; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 ({sup 233}U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  20. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  1. Weld Joint Design for SFR Metallic Fuel Element Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) system is among the six systems selected for Gen-IV promising systems and expected to become available for commercial introduction around 2030. In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the joint designs for endplug welding were investigated. For the irradiation test of SFR metallic fuel element, the TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed based on the welding conditions and parameters established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the weld joint design was developed based on the TIG welding technique.

  2. A method for limitation of probability of accumulation of fuel elements claddings damage in WWER

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey N. Pelykh; Mark V. Nikolsky; S. D. Ryabchikov

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to reduce the probability of accumulation of fuel elements claddings damage by developing a method to control the properties of the fuel elements on stages of design and operation of WWER. An averaged over the fuel assembly WWER-1000 fuel element is considered. The probability of depressurization of fuel elements claddings is found. The ability to predict the reliability of claddings by controlling the factors that determine the properties of the fuel elements is proved. The expedi...

  3. Use of silicide fuel in the Ford Nuclear Reactor - to lengthen fuel element lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burn, R.R.; Lee, J.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Phoenix Memorial Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Based on economic considerations, it has been proposed to increase the lifetime of LEU fuel elements in the Ford Nuclear Reactor by raising the {sup 235}U plate loading from 9.3 grams in aluminide (UAl{sub x}) fuel to 12.5 grams in silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) fuel. For a representative core configuration, preliminary neutronic depletion and steady state thermal hydraulic calculations have been performed to investigate core characteristics during the transition from an all-aluminide to an all-silicide core. This paper discusses motivations for this fuel element upgrade, results from the calculations, and conclusions.

  4. Chemical element transport in stellar evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassisi, Santi

    2017-01-01

    Stellar evolution computations provide the foundation of several methods applied to study the evolutionary properties of stars and stellar populations, both Galactic and extragalactic. The accuracy of the results obtained with these techniques is linked to the accuracy of the stellar models, and in this context the correct treatment of the transport of chemical elements is crucial. Unfortunately, in many respects calculations of the evolution of the chemical abundance profiles in stars are still affected by sometimes sizable uncertainties. Here, we review the various mechanisms of element transport included in the current generation of stellar evolution calculations, how they are implemented, the free parameters and uncertainties involved, the impact on the models and the observational constraints.

  5. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Highest average burnups achieved by MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damy, Margaret A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN)]. E-mail: madamy@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Different nuclear fuels were employed in the manufacture of plate type at IPEN , usually designated as Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements. These fuel elements were used at the IEA-R1 research reactor. This work describes the main characteristics of these nuclear fuels, emphasizing the highest average burn up achieved by these fuel elements. (author)

  7. Ecological aspects of water coal fuel transportation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SHVORNIKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of influence of transportation process and burning of water coal fuel on an ecological condition of environment. Also mathematical dependences between coal ash level and power consumption for transportation are presented.

  8. High fuel price: Will Indonesian shift to public transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Pamungkas, Adhiguna Ramadhani

    2016-06-01

    Public transportation has been declining over years, while on the other hand, private vehicles are dramatically increasing. The share of public transportation was 38.3% in 2002 and slowly decreasing to 12.9% in 2010. Cheap fuel price has been alleged to be the main cause for the increased private vehicles. The declining trend of public transportation needs further investigation whether higher fuel price indeed influences the choice of transportation mode. The present study therefore aims at exploring the preference of using public transportation compared to motorcycle and private car for various fuel price and identifying barriers toward public transportation. A survey was conducted in 2013 to capture the preference of each transportation mode given different fuel price. A questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was distributed using random sampling in ten cities in Sumatra and Java islands, Indonesia. Results indicate that the increased fuel price would not lead to significant increase of public transportation users. Motorcycle seems continuously being the dominating transportation mode in the future. On the other hand, issues resulted from limited public transportation capacity such as long travel time, security and safety issues, limited route, poor schedule appear to be the most barriers of using public transportation. It is implied that in order to promote public transportation, interventions should be introduced simultaneously at both supply (i.e., increasing public transportation capacity) and demand (i.e., high fuel price) sides. Limitations of the study are also discussed.

  9. Attempt to produce silicide fuel elements in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)); Suripto, A. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia))

    1991-01-01

    After the successful experiment to produce U[sub 3]Si[sub 2] powder and U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel plates using depleted U and Si of semiconductor quality, silicide fuel was synthesized using <20% enriched U metal and silicon chips employing production train of UAl[sub x]-Al available at the Fuel Element Production Installation (FEPI) at Serpong, Indonesia. Two full-size U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel elements, having similar specifications to the ones of U[sub 3]O[sub 8]-Al for the RSG-GAS (formerly known as MPR-30), have been produced at the FEPI. All quality controls required have been imposed to the feeds, intermediate, as well as final products throughout the production processes of the two fuel elements. The current results show that these fuel elements are qualified from fabrication point of view, therefore it is expected that they will be permitted to be tested in the RSG-GAS, sometime by the end of 1989, for normal ([proportional to]50%) and above normal burn-up. (orig.)

  10. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  11. The manufacture of LEU fuel elements at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    Two LEU test elements are being manufactured at Dounreay for test irradiation in the HFR at Petten, The Netherlands. This paper describes the installation of equipment and the development of the fabrication and inspection techniques necessary for the manufacture of LEU fuel plates. The author`s experience in overcoming the technical problems of stray fuel particles, dog-boning, uranium homogeneity and the measurement of uranium distribution is also described.

  12. Research Progress About Gas-Exhaust-Device for Fuel Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wu-ye

    2012-01-01

    <正>UO2-x stack applied in the fuel element has a form of a cylinder with a central hole, where temperature field characterized by high temperature and high gradient is formed due to irradiation. Then nearly all of the gaseous fission products (GFPs) can release into central cavity. However, uranium oxide will evaporate form the fuel stack’s inner surface because of its high temperature (about 1 800-2 000 ℃),

  13. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  14. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewab...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  15. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  16. The OSU Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility: Standard Fuel Element Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade R. Marcum; Brian G. Woods; Ann Marie Phillips; Richard G. Ambrosek; James D. Wiest; Daniel M. Wachs

    2001-10-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or standard fuel element (SFE), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates due to hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the fuel development program and will take place at OSU in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Discussion of a preliminary test matrix, SFE design, measurement and instrumentation techniques, and facility description are detailed in this paper.

  17. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Bentley, J.; Barnett, B.

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R&D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice, operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under 150/kW in stationary applications and 30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories.

  18. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  19. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  20. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  1. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  2. Component Cost of Fuel Oil of Waste Transportation Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhamtoro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of the transportation system can be measured based on four things, namely the efficiency of time, energy and fuel efficiency, environmental impact, and safety. Efficiency of energy and fuel is often stated as part of vehicle operating costs (VOC. So need to know the amount of the percentage of the fuel cost component of vehicle operating costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of the fuel cost component of the total cost of transportation. Research object is a dump truck or on the SCS transport system that serves the city of Malang. Stages of research begins with getting the data needed to analyze the cost of transporting waste. Furthermore, the analysis performed to determine the percentage of each component of transport costs. Results of the analysis showed that the greatest percentage of the cost of each component of the cost of transporting waste is a component of the fuel, while the smallest percentage of the cost of the mechanical components. For the percentage of fuel costs by 28.90% of the variable cost per kilometer, while the percentage of fuel costs by 27.45% of the total cost of transporting waste on his m3each.

  3. Development of nuclear spent fuel Maritime transportation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Spent fuel transportation of South Korea is to be conducted through near sea because it is able to ship a large amount of the spent fuel far from the public comparing to overland transportation. The maritime transportation is expected to be increased and its risk has to be assessed. For the risk assessment, this study utilizes the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method and the notions of the combined event. Risk assessment of maritime transportation of spent fuel is not well developed in comparison with overland transportation. For the assessment, first, the transportation scenario should be developed and categorized. Categories are assorted into the locations, release aspects and exposure aspects. This study deals with accident that happens on voyage and concentrated on ship-ship collision. The collision accident scenario is generated with event tree analysis. The scenario will be exploited for the maritime transportation risk model which includes consequence and accident probability.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  5. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  6. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia; Transport de combustible use en provenance d'Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  7. A methodology for the evaluation of fuel rod failures under transportation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, J.Y.R.; Machiels, A.J. [ANATECH, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[EPRI, Palo Alto (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies on long-term behavior of high-burnup spent fuel have shown that under normal conditions of stor-age, challenges to cladding integrity from various postulated damage mechanisms, such as delayed hydride crack-ing, stress-corrosion cracking and long-term creep, would not lead to any significant safety concerns during dry storage, and regulatory rules have subsequently been established to ensure that a compatible level of safety is maintained. However, similar safety assurances for spent fuel transportation have not yet been developed, and further studies are currently being conducted to evaluate the conditions under which transportation-related safety issues can be resolved. One of the issues presently under evaluation is the ability and the extent of the fuel as-semblies to maintain non-reconfigured geometry during transportation accidents. This evaluation may determine whether, or not, the shielding, confinement, and criticality safety evaluations can be performed assuming initial fuel assembly geometries. The degree to which spent fuel re-configuration could occur during a transportation accident would depend to a large degree on the number of fuel rod failures and the type and geometry of the failure modes. Such information can only be developed analytically, as there is no direct experimental data that can provide guidance on the level of damage that can be expected. To this end, the paper focuses on the development of a modeling and analysis methodology that deals with this general problem on a generic basis. First consideration is given to defining acci-dent loading that is equivalent to the bounding, although analytically intractable, hypothetical transportation acci-dent of a 9-meter drop onto essentially unyielding surface, which is effectively a condition for impact-limiters de-sign. Second, an analytically robust material constitutive model, an essential element in a successful structural analysis, is required. A material behavior model

  8. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  9. Some parametric flow analyses of a particle bed fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1993-05-01

    Parametric calculations are performed, using the SAFSIM computer program, to investigate the fluid mechanics and heat transfer performance of a particle bed fuel element. Both steady-state and transient calculations are included, addressing such issues as flow stability, reduced thrust operation, transpiration drag, coolant conductivity enhancement, flow maldistributions, decay heat removal, flow perturbations, and pulse cooling. The calculations demonstrate the dependence of the predicted results on the modeling assumptions and thus provide guidance as to where further experimental and computational investigations are needed. The calculations also demonstrate that both flow instability and flow maldistribution in the fuel element are important phenomena. Furthermore, results are encouraging that geometric design changes to the element can significantly reduce problems related to these phenomena, allowing improved performance over a wide range of element power densities and flow rates. Such design changes will help to maximize the operational efficiency of space propulsion reactors employing particle bed fuel element technology. Finally, the results demonstrate that SAFSIM is a valuable engineering tool for performing quick and inexpensive parametric simulations addressing complex flow problems.

  10. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  12. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, s

  13. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  14. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  15. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfield, S.

    1996-04-01

    Research on direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is discussed. Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. The use of platinum/ruthenium anode electrocatalysts and platinum cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in significant performance enhancements.

  16. Contamination transfers during fuel transport cask loading. A concrete situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, B.; Turchet, J.P.; Faure, S.; Allinei, P.G. [DEN/DED Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Briquet, L. [EDF GENV, 93 - Saint Denis (France); Baubet, D. [SGS Qualitest Industrie, 30 - Pont Saint Esprit (France)

    2002-07-01

    In 1998, a number of contamination cases detected during fuel shipments have been pointed out by the french nuclear safety authority. Wagon and casks external surfaces were partly contaminated upon arrival in Valognes railway terminal. Since then, measures taken by nuclear power plants operators in France and abroad solved the problem. In Germany, a report analyzing the situation in depth has been published in which correctives actions have been listed. In France, EDF launched a large cleanliness program (projet proprete radiologique) in order to better understand contamination transfers mechanisms during power plants exploitation and to list remediation actions to avoid further problems. In this context, CEA Department for Wastes Studies at Cadarache (CEA/DEN/DED) was in charge of a study about contamination transfers during fuel elements loading operations. It was decided to lead experiments for a concrete case. The loading of a transport cask at Tricastin-PWR-1 was followed in november 2000 and different analysis comprising water analysis and smear tests analysis were carried out and are detailed in this paper. Results are discussed and qualitatively compared to those obtained in Philippsburg-BWR, Germany for a similar set of tests. (authors)

  17. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  18. Environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Hörmandinger, Günter

    The potential environmental benefits of using fuel cells in cars, buses and stationary combined heat and power (CHP) plants of different sizes have not been well-researched. This environmental analysis was conducted for the UK on a `full fuel cycle' basis, encompassing all greenhouse gas and regulated pollutant emissions for the supply chain and end-use technology under consideration. Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) with methanol or natural gas reformers were analysed for cars, SPFCs and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) with on-board hydrogen for buses. CHP plants were PAFCs or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each option was compared with one or more conventional technologies. In all cases fuel cell technologies have substantially reduced emissions in comparison with conventional technologies. Regulated emissions are lowest, by up to two orders of magnitude, and those that do occur are primarily in the fuel supply chain. The fuel cell technologies are more efficient in all cases, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reduced broadly in line with energy savings. Methane emissions increase due to fuel switching, e.g. from petrol to natural gas powered buses, but from a very low base. The study pinpoints some areas in which alternative approaches could be made - the methods for generating and transporting hydrogen have a significant bearing on energy consumption and emissions. However, it is clear that from an overall emissions perspective the use of fuel cells in transport and power generation is highly beneficial.

  19. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  20. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated.

  1. Licos, a fuel performance code for innovative fuel elements or experimental devices design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.helfer@cea.fr; Bejaoui, Syriac, E-mail: syriac.bejaoui@cea.fr; Michel, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.michel@cea.fr

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The Licos fuel performance code is introduced. • Advanced features, such as dependency algorithm and kriging are described. • First results on three dimensional modelling of the SFR fuel pin are given. • Application to the DIAMINO design computations is discussed. - Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the Licos fuel performance code which has been developed for several years within the platform pleiades, co-developed by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and its industrial partners Électricité de France (EDF) and AREVA. CEA engineers have been using Licos to back multidimensional thermo-mechanical studies on innovative fuel elements design and experimental device pre-and post-irradiation computations. Studies made with Licos thus encompass a wide range of situations, including most nuclear systems used or studied in France in recent years (PWR, SFR or GFR), normal and off-normal operating conditions, and a large selection of materials (either for fuel, absorber, coolant and cladding). The aim of this paper is to give some insights about some innovative features in the design of Licos (dependency management, kriging, mfront, etc.). We also present two studies that demonstrate the flexibility of this code. The first one shows how Licos can be combined with the Germinal monodimensional fuel performance code to demonstrate the interest of a three dimensional modelling of the fuel relocation phenomenon in the Sodium Fast Reactor fuel pin. The second one describes how Licos was used to model the DIAMINO experiment.

  2. Volatile Elements Retention During Injection Casting of Metallic Fuel Slug for a Recycling Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kuk, Seoung-Woo; Keum, Chang-Woon; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The as-cast fuels prepared by injection casting were sound and the internal integrities were found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. U and Zr were uniform throughout the matrix of the slug, and the impurities, i.e., oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, satisfied the specification of the total impurities of less than 2000 ppm. The losses of the volatile Mn were effectively controlled using argon over pressures, and dynamic pumping for a period of time before injection showed no detrimental effect on the Mn loss by vaporization. This result suggests that volatile minor actinide-bearing fuels for SFRs can be prepared by improved injection methods. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, several injection casting methods were applied in order to prepare metallic fuel for an fast reactor that control the transport of volatile elements during fuel melting and casting. Mn was selected as a surrogate alloy since it possesses a total vapor pressure equivalent to that of a volatile minor actinide-bearing fuel. U.10Zr and U.10Zr.5Mn (wt%) metallic fuels were injection cast under various casting conditions and their soundness was characterized.

  3. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  4. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley, NJ

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  5. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EXAMINING FUEL ELEMENTS FOR LEAKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.R.; Echo, M.W.; Doe, C.B.

    1963-12-31

    A process and a device for the continuous monitoring of fuel elements while in use in a liquid-metal-cooled, argonblanketed nuclear reactor are presented. A fraction of the argon gas is withdrawn, contacted with a negative electrical charge for attraction of any alkali metal formed from argon by neutron reaction, and recycled into the reactor. The electrical charge is introduced into water, and the water is examined for radioactive alkali metals. (AEC)

  6. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...

  7. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  8. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  9. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  10. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Improvements in the fabrication of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braehler, Georg, E-mail: georg.braehler@nukemtechnologies.de [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Hartung, Markus [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Fachinger, Johannes; Grosse, Karl-Heinz [FNAG Furnaces Nuclear Applications Grenoble S.A.S., Wilhelm-Rohn Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany); Seemann, Richard [ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, Wilhelm-Rohn Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The application of High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Technology in the course of the continuously increasing world wide demand on energy is taken more and more under serious consideration in the power supply strategy of various countries. Especially for the emerging nations the HTR Technology has become of special interest because of its inherent safety feature and due to the alternative possibilities of applications, e.g. in the production of liquid hydrocarbons or the alternative application in H{sub 2} generation. The HTR fuel in its various forms (spheres or prismatic fuel blocks) is based on small fuel kernels of about 500 {mu}m in diameter. Each of these uranium oxide or carbide kernels are coated with several layers of pyrocarbon (PyC) as well as an additional silicon carbide (SiC) layer. While the inner pyrocarbon layer is porous and capable to absorb gaseous fission products, the dense outer PyC layer forms the barrier against fission product release. The SiC layer improves the mechanical strengths of this barrier and considerably increases the retention capacity for solid fission products that tent to diffuse at these temperatures. Especially the high quality German LEU TRISO spherical fuel based on the NUKEM design, has demonstrated the best fission product release rate, particular at high temperatures. The {approx}10% enriched uranium triple-coated particles are embedded in a moulded graphite sphere. A fuel sphere consists of approximately 9 g of uranium (some 15,000 particles) and has a diameter of 60 mm. As the unique safety features, especially the inherent safety of the HTR is based on the fuel design, this paper shall reflect the complexity but also developments and economical aspects of the fabrication processes for HTR fuel elements.

  12. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Toguri, D. [Transnuclear, LTD. (AREVA group), Tokyo (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Muramatsu, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport.

  13. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  14. A novel microbial fuel cell sensor with biocathode sensing element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Wang, Donglin; Miao, Bo; Huang, Xia

    2017-03-02

    The traditional microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor with bioanode as sensing element delivers limited sensitivity to toxicity monitoring, restricted application to only anaerobic and organic rich water body, and increased potential fault warning to the combined shock of organic matter/toxicity. In this study, the biocathode for oxygen reduction reaction was employed for the first time as the sensing element in MFC sensor for toxicity monitoring. The results shown that the sensitivity of MFC sensor with biocathode sensing element (7.4±2.0 to 67.5±4.0mA%(-1)cm(-2)) was much greater than that showed by bioanode sensing element (3.4±1.5 to 5.5±0.7mA%(-1)cm(-2)). The biocathode sensing element achieved the lowest detection limit reported to date using MFC sensor for formaldehyde detection (0.0005%), while the bioanode was more applicable for higher concentration (>0.0025%). There was a quicker response of biocathode sensing element with the increase of conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The biocathode sensing element made the MFC sensor directly applied to clean water body monitoring, e.g., drinking water and reclaimed water, without the amending of background organic matter, and it also decreased the warning failure when challenged by a combined shock of organic matter/toxicity.

  15. Molybdenum-99-producing 37-element fuel bundle neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to a standard CANDU fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.Nichita@uoit.ca; Haroon, J., E-mail: Jawad.Haroon@uoit.ca

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A 37-element fuel bundle modified for {sup 99}Mo production in CANDU reactors is presented. • The modified bundle is neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard bundle. • The modified bundle satisfies all safety criteria satisfied by the standard bundle. - Abstract: {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine, results from the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo which is currently being produced at various research reactors around the globe. In this study, the potential use of CANDU power reactors for the production of {sup 99}Mo is investigated. A modified 37-element fuel bundle, suitable for the production of {sup 99}Mo in existing CANDU-type reactors is proposed. The new bundle is specifically designed to be neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard 37-element CANDU fuel bundle in normal, steady-state operation and, at the same time, be able to produce significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo when irradiated in a CANDU reactor. The proposed bundle design uses fuel pins consisting of a depleted-uranium centre surrounded by a thin layer of low-enriched uranium. The new molybdenum-producing bundle is analyzed using the lattice transport code DRAGON and the diffusion code DONJON. The proposed design is shown to produce 4081 six-day Curies of {sup 99}Mo activity per bundle when irradiated in the peak-power channel of a CANDU core, while maintaining the necessary reactivity and power rating limits. The calculated {sup 99}Mo yield corresponds to approximately one third of the world weekly demand. A production rate of ∼3 bundles per week can meet the global demand of {sup 99}Mo.

  16. Modeling elements of energy systems for thermal energy transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurygin A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating industrial facilities and the residential sector in recent years is the economic and technical challenge. It has been noted that the efficiency of the heat generating equipment depends not only on its sophistication, fuel type, but also on work of the distributing network taking into account the thermal, hydraulic losses, characteristics and modes of use of heating objects – buildings and technological processes. Possibility of supplying maximum heat flow from the heating system considering mismatch of highs and types of resources consumed from individual consumers should be provided by the right choice of energy equipment set, as well as bandwidth of transport systems and possibility of its regulation. It is important not just to configure the system to work effectively in the current mode (usually at the maximum load, but in the entire load range, as the calculated mode often takes a relatively small portion of the operating time. Thus, the efficiency of heating systems is largely determined by the method used for its control, including the possibility of regulating the main units and elements of the system. The paper considers the factors affecting the system efficiency. Mathematical models of the system elements allowing adjust the amount of released heat energy for consumers have been presented. Separately the mathematical model of the control system of electric drive vehicles used in the system has been considered and implemented.

  17. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  18. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  19. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A. E-mail: laaterre@net.ipen.br; Zeituni, C.A.; Perrotta, J.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2000-08-11

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits.

  20. Conventional bio-transportation fuels : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uil, den H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weismann, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now renewable energy sources are primarily used in the Netherlands for electricity production. At the end of the past decade the GAVE programme started to facilitate the introduction of gaseous and liquid fuels in the post-Kyoto period (after 2010), with the potential to realize more than 80%

  1. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  2. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  3. Recapturing Graphite-Based Fuel Element Technology for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    ORNL is currently recapturing graphite based fuel forms for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). This effort involves research and development on materials selection, extrusion, and coating processes to produce fuel elements representative of historical ROVER and NERVA fuel. Initially, lab scale specimens were fabricated using surrogate oxides to develop processing parameters that could be applied to full length NTP fuel elements. Progress toward understanding the effect of these processing parameters on surrogate fuel microstructure is presented.

  4. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  5. Neutron shielding evaluation for a small fuel transport case

    CERN Document Server

    Coeck, M; Vanhavere, F

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a small neutron shield configuration for the transportation of fresh MOX fuel rods in an experimental facility, this in order to reduce the dose received by the personnel. Monte Carlo simulations using the Tripoli and MCNP4B code were applied. Different configurations were studied, starting from the bare fuel rod positioned on an iron plate up to a fuel rod covered by a box-shaped shield made of different materials such as polyethylene, polyethylene with boron and polyethylene with a cadmium layer. We compared the neutron spectra for the different cases and calculated the corresponding ambient equivalent dose rate H*(10).

  6. A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

    1995-04-14

    The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

  7. Railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooden, D.G.

    1986-03-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of rail operations that are important for assessing the risk of transporting high-level nuclear waste. The major emphasis of the discussion is towards ''general freight'' shipments of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for selecting models and parameters that are appropriate for assessing the risk of rail transportation of nuclear waste.

  8. Fuel Containment Concepts - Transport Category Airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    inhihi ting adhesive prim.r i’- app 1 d )rlor to bondin1 and they receive, an additional coat at ter bonding. Dense core is provided for stabi I itv in...installation of heat reticulated foam or expanded metal foil have the advantage of being passive systems. They prevent excessive overpressures from...Applicability of Reticulated Foams for the Suppression of Fuel Tank Explosions," AGARD-CP-166, Aircraft Fire Safety, Rome, Italy, April 1975. 45. MacDonald, J

  9. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategies...... and technologies to reduce liquid fuel consumption known as a dominant source of energy in transport sector in Iran. Since, the road subsector has the major share in consuming liquid fuel amongst others, more attention is given to the methods for reducing consumption in this subsector. The relating policies...... and actions were classified by optimization measures according to four separate categories as follows; “Optimization of Supply of Transportation Services”, “Optimization of Transport Demand”, “Optimization of Energy Consumption” and “Optimization of Car Manufacturing”....

  10. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  11. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore

  12. Corrosion studies in fuel element reprocessing environments containing nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, J A; White, R R; Berry, W E; Griess, J C

    1982-04-01

    Nitric acid is universally used in aqueous fuel element reprocessing plants; however, in the processing scheme being developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, some of the equipment will be exposed to nitric acid under conditions not previously encountered in fuel element reprocessing plants. A previous report presented corrosion data obtained in hyperazeotropic nitric acid and in concentrated magnesium nitrate solutions used in its preparation. The results presented in this report are concerned with the following: (1) corrosion of titanium in nitric acid; (2) corrosion of nickel-base alloys in a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution; (3) the formation of Cr(VI), which enhances corrosion, in nitric acid solutions; and (4) corrosion of mechanical pipe connectors in nitric acid. The results show that the corrosion rate of titanium increased with the refreshment rate of boiling nitric acid, but the effect diminished rapidly as the temperature decreased. The addition of iodic acid inhibited attack. Also, up to 200 ppM of fluoride in 70% HNO/sub 3/ had no major effect on the corrosion of either titanium or tantalum. In boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/-0.05 M HF, Inconel 671 was more resistant than Inconel 690, but both alloys experienced end-grain attack. In the case of Inconel 671, heat treatment was very important; annealed and quenched material was much more resistant than furnace-cooled material.The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) increased significantly as the nitric acid concentration increased, and certain forms of ruthenium in the solution seemed to accelerate the rate of formation. Mechanical connectors of T-304L stainless steel experienced end-grain attack on the exposed pipe ends, and seal rings of both stainless steel and a titanium alloy (6% Al-4% V) underwent heavy attack in boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/.

  13. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  14. Multiphase transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Eric D.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) enable efficient conversion of fuels to electricity. They have enormous potential due to the high energy density of the fuels they utilize (hydrogen or alcohols). Power density is a major limitation to wide-scale introduction of PEMFCs. Power density in hydrogen fuel cells is limited by accumulation of water in what is termed fuel cell `flooding.' Flooding may occur in either the gas diffusion layer (GDL) or within the flow channels of the bipolar plate. These components comprise the electrodes of the fuel cell and balance transport of reactants/products with electrical conductivity. This thesis explores the role of electrode materials in the fuel cell and examines the fundamental connection between material properties and multiphase transport processes. Water is generated at the cathode catalyst layer. As liquid water accumulates it will utilize the largest pores in the GDL to go from the catalyst layer to the flow channels. Water collects to large pores via lateral transport at the interface between the GDL and catalyst layer. We have shown that water may be collected in these large pores from several centimeters away, suggesting that we could engineer the GDL to control flooding with careful placement and distribution of large flow-directing pores. Once liquid water is in the flow channels it forms slugs that block gas flow. The slugs are pushed along the channel by a pressure gradient that is dependent on the material wettability. The permeable nature of the GDL also plays a major role in slug growth and allowing bypass of gas between adjacent channels. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have analogous multiphase flow issues where carbon dioxide bubbles accumulate, `blinding' regions of the fuel cell. This problem is fundamentally similar to water management in hydrogen fuel cells but with a gas/liquid phase inversion. Gas bubbles move laterally through the porous GDL and emerge to form large bubbles within the

  15. Design and in-core fuel management of reload fuel elements for reactors made by other manufacturers. Auslegung und Einsatzplanung von Nachlade-Brennelementen fuer Reaktoren anderer Hersteller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufert, A.; Urban, P.

    1990-12-01

    By the end of 1990 Siemens had performed fuel element designs and in-core fuel management for 94 operating cycles in 27 pressurized and boiling water reactors of other manufacturers. Together with the client different fuel element designs are developed and proof is furnished of the reactor physics compatibility of different fuel elements from various producers, and of plant safety. (DG).

  16. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H

    2001-05-01

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project ''The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor''. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,.

  17. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2012-07-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity and the associated energy penalty. To utilize this technology more effectively, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fundamental processes of oxygen transport and fuel conversion in the immediate vicinity of the membrane. In this paper, a numerical model that spatially resolves the gas flow, transport and reactions is presented. The model incorporates detailed gas phase chemistry and transport. The model is used to express the oxygen permeation flux in terms of the oxygen concentrations at the membrane surface given data on the bulk concentration, which is necessary for cases when mass transfer limitations on the permeate side are important and for reactive flow modeling. The simulation results show the dependence of oxygen transport and fuel conversion on the geometry and flow parameters including the membrane temperature, feed and sweep gas flow, oxygen concentration in the feed and fuel concentration in the sweep gas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    To satisfy the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) testing milestone, a graphite composite fuel element using a uranium simulant was received from the Oakridge National Lab and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) at various operating conditions. The nominal operating conditions required to satisfy the milestone consisted of running the fuel element for a few minutes at a temperature of at least 2000 K with flowing hydrogen. This milestone test was successfully accomplished without incident.

  19. SPECTRAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR A UNSTEADY TRANSPORT EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeiLiquan

    1999-01-01

    In this paper,a new numerical method,the coupling method of spherical harmonic function spectral and finite elements,for a unsteady transport equation is dlscussed,and the error analysis of this scheme is proved.

  20. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current

  1. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Xu, Hui [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Brawn, Shelly [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States)

    2014-07-30

    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  2. Safety assessment for the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles with respect to the 37-element fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, H. C.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The KAERI and AECL have jointly developed an advanced CANDU fuel, called CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. CANFLEX 43-element bundle has some improved features of increased operating margin and enhanced safety compared to the existing 37-element bundle. Since CANFLEX fuel bundle is designed to be compatible with the CANDU-6 reactor design, the behaviour in the thermalhydraulic system will be nearly identical with 37-element bundle. But due to different element design and linear element power distribution between the two bundles, it is expected that CANFLEX fuel behaviour would be different from the behaviour of the 37-element fuel. Therefore, safety assessments on the design basis accidents which result if fuel failures are performed. For all accidents selected, it is observed that the loading of CANFLEX bundle in an existing CANDU-6 reactor would not worsen the reactor safety. It is also predicted that fission product release for CANFLEX fuel bundle generally is lower than that for 37-element bundle. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  3. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China’s road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-price elasticities for different vehicle categories range from −1.215 to −0.459 (by AIDS) and from −1.399 to −0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses. PMID:28257076

  4. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F.; Lundtang paulsen, Jette

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project 'Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology' The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal and accident (collision) conditions, safety of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of other existing or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle - Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system - Road transport of ammonia to refuelling stations in refrigerated form - Sufficient safety zones between refuelling stations and residential or otherwise public areas. When these measures are applied, the use of ammonia as a transport fuel wouldnt cause more risks than currently used fuels (using current practice). (au)

  5. Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D. [Energy-Environment Policy Group, TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) offer significant environmental benefits over competing technologies and hence the environment is a strong driving force behind the development of FC systems for transport and stationary applications. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of FC and competing systems, and points out strengths and weaknesses of the different FC systems, suggesting areas for improvement. The results presented build on earlier work [D. Hart, G. Hoermandinger, Initial assessment of the environmental characteristics of fuel cells and competing technologies, ETSU F/02/00111/REP/1, ETSU, Harwell, UK, 1997.] and provide a detailed analysis of a wider range of systems, The analysis takes the form of a model, which compares system emissions (global, regional and local pollutants) and energy consumption on a full fuel cycle basis. It considers a variety of primary energy sources, intermediate fuel supply steps and FC systems for transport and stationary end-uses. These are compared with alternative systems for transport and stationary applications. Energy and pollutant emission reductions of FC systems compared to alternative vehicle technology vary considerably, though all FC technologies show reduction in energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions of at least 20%; as well as reductions of several orders of magnitude in regulated pollutants compared to the base-case vehicle. The location of emissions is also of importance, with most emissions in the case of FC vehicles occurring in the fuel supply stage. The energy, CO{sub 2} and regulated emissions advantages of FC systems for distributed and baseload electricity are more consistent than for transport applications, with reductions in regulated pollutants generally larger than one order of magnitude compared to competing technologies. For CHP applications, the advantages of FC systems with regard to regulated pollutants remain large. However, energy and CO{sub 2} emission advantages are reduced, depending largely on the

  6. Making alcohol fuels for transportation via biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: ilkka.hannula@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project was to examine and identify process configurations that prove most promising for the largescale production of transportation fuels via biomass gasification. Special attention was given to the production of alcohol fuels. Other objectives of the project included: reviewing the status of biomass-to-syngas technology in the US, strengthening of networks between Finland and the US in the area of biomass gasification, deepening VTT's process evaluation know-how in the biomass-to-liquids area, and investigation of availability and gasification properties of selected North American agricultural residues and energy crops.

  7. Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.

  8. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan; Transport de combustible mox d' Europe vers le Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  9. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  10. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  11. Water footprint of U.S. transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    In the modern global economy, water and energy are fundamentally connected. Water already plays a major role in electricity generation and, with biofuels and electricity poised to gain a significant share of the transportation fuel market, water will become significantly more important for transportation energy as well. This research provides insight into the potential changes in water use resulting from increased biofuel or electricity production for transportation energy, as well as the greenhouse gas and freshwater implications. It is shown that when characterizing the water impact of transportation energy, incorporating indirect water use and defensible allocation techniques have a major impact on the final results, with anywhere between an 82% increase and a 250% decrease in the water footprint if evaporative losses from hydroelectric power are excluded. The greenhouse gas impact results indicate that placing cellulosic biorefineries in areas where water must be supplied using alternative means, such as desalination, wastewater recycling, or importation can increase the fuel's total greenhouse gas footprint by up to 47%. The results also show that the production of ethanol and petroleum fuels burden already overpumped aquifers, whereas electricity production is far less dependent on groundwater.

  12. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  13. Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen A Moore

    2007-04-01

    Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management

  14. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  16. Economic Evaluation Guide for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Percin, D.; Werner, J.F. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The production of this Economic Evaluation Guide is one activity of AVFCAP. The guide is intended for use by project managers and fleet operators in the public sector. Public fleets have been identified as one of the most likely areas where ATFs will first gain widespread use, because of existing and impending state and federal legislative mandates, as well as for practical reasons such as centralized servicing and refueling. The purpose of this guide is to provide balanced decision-support information to project managers who are considering conducting, or currently managing, ATF demonstration programs. Information for this guide was gathered as part of a related AVFCAP activity, the development of an Information Resource Database. Economic issues related to the development and implementation of ATF programs at the local government level are extremely complex, and require an analysis of federal policies and national and international economics that is generally beyond the scope of local government project managers. The intent of this guide is to examine the information available on the economic evaluation of ATFs, and identify key elements that will help local governments realistically assess the potential costs and savings of an ATF program. The guide also discusses how these various economic factors are related, and how local government priorities affect how different factors are weighed.

  17. Economic Evaluation Guide for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Percin, D.; Werner, J.F. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    The production of this Economic Evaluation Guide is one activity of AVFCAP. The guide is intended for use by project managers and fleet operators in the public sector. Public fleets have been identified as one of the most likely areas where ATFs will first gain widespread use, because of existing and impending state and federal legislative mandates, as well as for practical reasons such as centralized servicing and refueling. The purpose of this guide is to provide balanced decision-support information to project managers who are considering conducting, or currently managing, ATF demonstration programs. Information for this guide was gathered as part of a related AVFCAP activity, the development of an Information Resource Database. Economic issues related to the development and implementation of ATF programs at the local government level are extremely complex, and require an analysis of federal policies and national and international economics that is generally beyond the scope of local government project managers. The intent of this guide is to examine the information available on the economic evaluation of ATFs, and identify key elements that will help local governments realistically assess the potential costs and savings of an ATF program. The guide also discusses how these various economic factors are related, and how local government priorities affect how different factors are weighed.

  18. Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)

  19. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  20. Fuel consumption in the transport of technical broadleaf roundwood in lowland areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of fuel consumption in the transport of technical roundwood of soft broadleaves from the felling site to a roadside landing using forwarders and tractor assemblies. The research was performed in various operating conditions in the area of FE "Banat" Pančevo. On the basis of the results of the analysis of variance, the data recorded in a variety of conditions were grouped. In addition, the dependence of fuel consumption on the average volume of tour was estimated. The results of the conducted analysis indicate that operating conditions significantly affect fuel consumption of the investigated vehicles. The elements of statistical analysis of the dependence of fuel consumption on the volume of load indicate that an increase in load causes increased fuel consumption per unit of production. Having in mind the results of the analysis of variance, unique norms of fuel consumption were adopted for practical purposes. The highest average consumption (1.21 L/m3 was achieved by a tractor assembly (Same Laser 130 tractor and Imako TP12 trailer with a Loglift 61F hydraulic crane, while significantly lower consumption was achieved by a John Deere 1210E forwarder (1.06 L/m3. In favourable operating conditions, consumption of the forwarder was about 0.9 L/m3.

  1. Direct methanol-air fuel cells for road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, B.D. [The Beeches, Kelsall (United Kingdom); Rand, D.A.J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Williams, K.R. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1999-10-01

    The direct methanol-air fuel cell is reviewed with special attention to its use in road transportation applications. The history of the technology is discussed and the various problems associated with its commercial development are assessed, in particular the mechanisms of the electrode reactions, the development of effective catalysts, and the possible electrolytes which can be used. The barriers to successful commercialization are reviewed and suggestions for future work are given. (orig.)

  2. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Adams, J.A.; Kinnelly, A.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    In partial fulfillment of the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-ACO2-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this conceptual vehicle design report addresses the design and packaging of battery augmented fuel cell powertrain vehicles. This report supplements the {open_quotes}Conceptual Vehicle Design Report - Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes} and includes a cost study of the fuel cell power system. The three classes of vehicles considered in this design and packaging exercise are the same vehicle classes that were studied in the previous report: the Aspire, representing the small vehicle class; the AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, representing the mid-size vehicle; and the E-150 Econoline, representing the van-size class. A preliminary PEM fuel cell power system manufacturing cost study is also presented. As in the case of the previous report concerning the {open_quotes}Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes}, the same assumptions are made for the fuel cell power system. These assumptions are fuel cell system power densities of 0.33 kW/ka and 0.33 kW/l, platinum catalyst loading of less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total, and hydrogen tanks containing compressed gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The batteries considered for power augmentation of the fuel cell vehicle are based on the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program. These are state-of-the-art high power lead acid batteries with power densities ranging from 0.8 kW/kg to 2 kW/kg. The results reported here show that battery augmentation provides the fuel cell vehicle with a power source to meet instant high power demand for acceleration and start-up. Based on the assumptions made in this report, the packaging of the battery augmented fuel cell vehicle appears to be as feasible as the packaging of the pure fuel cell powered vehicle.

  3. ZrC COATING ON FUEL ELEMENT CLADDING ZIRCALOY-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Mutiara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ZrC COATING ON FUEL ELEMENT ZIRCALOY-2 CLADDING. The intensive researchs on high discharge burn-up of Light Water Reactor (LWR fuel element were performed due to the extension of fuel element’s utility life. One of these researches was allowing for alteration of the existing zirconium-based clad system through coating. This technique is supposed to improve the corrosion resistance of cladding without changing the dimension of fuel cladding. In current research, the ZrC film was coated on the zircaloy-2 cladding surface by dipping process of zircaloy-2 specimens in colloidal graphite at room temperature. The dip-coated specimens then undergone heating process at 700oC, 900oC and 1100oC respectively in Argon gas atmosphere for 1 hour. The microstructure and crystal structure of the coated cladding were characterized by optical microscope and XRD respectively. The optical microscope showed the growth of the grains with increasing temperature. XRD examination on the specimens revealed that the ZrC crystal structure on the cladding surface occurred only at 1100oC, but it did not appear at 700oC and 900oC. It can be concluded that dipping process of specimen in colloidal graphite with subsequent heating at 1100oC provided ZrC film coated on zircaloy-2 cladding. The heating process at this temperature allowed carbon atoms to diffuse into zircaloy surface to form ZrC film. PELAPISAN ZrC PADA KELONGSONG ELEMEN BAKAR NUKLIR ZIRKALOI-2. Riset yang intensif pada elemen bakar reaktor berpendingin air dengan fraksi bakar tinggi terus dilakukan dalam rangka memperpanjang umur operasi elemen bakar. Salah satu riset tersebut berupa proses untuk mengubah kelongsong berbasis zirkonium yang ada saat ini dengan cara pelapisan. Cara ini diharapkan akan memperbaiki ketahanan korosi kelongsong tanpa mengubah dimensi kelongsong tersebut. Pada riset ini, lapisan tipis ZrC dilapiskan pada permukaan kelongsong zirkaloi-2 melalui proses pencelupan (dipping spesimen

  4. A Review on Sabotage against Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungyeol; Lim, Jihwan [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This report assesses the risk of routine transportation including cask response to an impact or fire accidents. In addition, we have still found the non-negligible difference among the studies for scenarios, approaches, and data. In order to evaluate attack cases on the same basis and reflect more realistic situations, at this moment, it is worthwhile to thoroughly review and analyze the existing studies and to suggest further development directions. In Section 2, we compare scenarios of terror attacks against spent fuel storage and transportation. Section 3 compares target scenarios, capabilities, and limitations of assessment methods. In addition, we collect and compare modeling data used for previous studies to analyze gaps and uncertainties in the existing studies. According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility. The government should not be the only ones contributing to this dialogue. This dialogue that needs to happen should work both ways, with the government presenting their information and statistics and the public relaying their concerns for the government to review.

  5. The petroleum, natural gas and bio fuel transportation; O transporte de petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Diego Varela; Campos, Carlos Hebert

    2011-01-15

    The paper expose on the activity of petroleum, natural gas and bio fuels transportation, outlining the transportation means used by the petroleum industry. After that, analyses the importance and the economic relevance of the Transpetro. Yet, proceeds an examination of the transportation activity under a constitutional optics, based on the EC 9/95; a legal optic, from the Petroleum Law (Law 9478/97) and some other legal documents related to the theme. Finally, presents the importance that the Law of Natural Gas (Law 11909/09) brought for that activity, by making possible that the natural gas transportation can also be effectuated through the Concession.

  6. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  7. Post-irradiation data on fuel elements from KER Loop 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.C.

    1963-01-10

    Fourteen NAE1 fuel elements were discharged from KER Loop-4, after irradiation to an average exposure of 1250 MWD, at prototype N-Reactor coolant temperature and pressure. The elements were disassembled and measured in the KE fuel examination facility. This report includes all measurements, except the profilometer data.

  8. Advancements in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements and related structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C.; Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.; Head, J.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (USA); Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich (UK))

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactors is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system. By understanding the thermomechanical behavior of the different materials which constitute a nuclear fuel element, analysis and predictions can be made regarding the integrity and reliability of fuel element designs. The SMiRT conference series, through the division on fuel elements and the post-conference seminars on fuel element modeling, provided technical forums for the international participation in the exchange of knowledge concerning the thermomechanical modeling of fuel elements. This paper discusses the technical advances in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements presented at the SMiRT conference series since its inception in 1971. Progress in the areas of material properties and constitutive relationships, modeling methodologies, and integral modeling approaches was reviewed and is summarized in light of their impact on the thermomechanical modeling of nuclear fuel elements. 34 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. C.; Beck, D. F.; Harmon, C. D.; Shipers, L. R.

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program.

  10. Fatigue analysis of CANFLEX-NU fuel elements subjected to power-cyclic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the fatigue analysis of the CANDU advanced fuel, so-called CANFLEX-NU, subjected to power-cyclic loads more than 1,000. The CANFLEX-NU bundle is composed of 43 elements with natural uranium fuel. As a result, the CANFLEX-NU fuel elements will maintain good integrity under the condition of 1,500 power-cycles. (author). 4 refs., 19 figs.

  11. Transport systems - solid indigenous fuels. [Identification of fuel transport problems in Sweden]. Transportsystem foer fasta inhemska braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colliander, J.

    1985-12-01

    The following problems have been indentified: - A rational structure of transporting requires an established and relatively open market. - The necessary rolling stock for fuel conveyance by rail is not available. - Roads have to be improved and new roads have to be built. Railways with low load now might get a motivation for reinforcement. - Because of the irregular spread of consumption storing and terminals problems will arise and increase the cost of transport. - Terminals and stores are situated at a convenient place for one single enterprice. On a far-away aim this will not be rational.

  12. Preliminary Studies of New Water Removal Element in Purification Applications of Diesel Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively and efficiently remove water contamination dispersed in petrodiesel fuels, a new water removal element with both coalescence and separation features is studied in this paper. The unique droplet coalescence and separation mechanism occurring in the new water removal element is proposed. The conceptual design of this filter element is presented and the basic features of FCP filtration systems are briefly introduced. A laboratory test stand and fuel analysis procedure are described. The results from preliminary water removal tests with number 2 petrodiesel fuel demonstrate the filtration performance of the new water removal element. For example, within one single fuel flow pass through FCP filtration system equipped with the new water removal element and running at 2 GPM flow rate, the water content in 80°F, number 2 petrodiesel fuel stream can be reduced from up to 40,000 ppm upstream to 64.8 ppm or less downstream.

  13. Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.

  14. Nonuniform Oxidation on the Surface of Fuel Element in HTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The graphite oxidation of fuel element has obtained high attention in air ingress accident analysis of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR. The shape function, defined as the relationship between the maximum and the average of the oxidation, is an important factor to estimate the consequence of the accident. There are no detailed studies on the shape function currently except two experiments several decades ago. With the development of computer technology, CFD method is used in the numerical experiment about graphite oxidation in pebble bed of HTR in this paper. Structured packed beds are used in the calculation instead of random packed beds. The result shows the nonuniform distribution of oxidation on the sphere surface and the shape function in the condition of air ingress accident. Furthermore, the sensitive factors of shape function, such as temperature and Re number, are discussed in detail and the relationship between the shape function and sensitive factors is explained. According to the results in this paper, the shape function ranges from 1.05 to 4.7 under the condition of temperature varying from 600°C to 1200°C and Re varying from 16 to 1600.

  15. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). [For storage or transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townes, III, George A.

    1980-10-01

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration

  17. Determining the Permeable Efficiency of Elements in Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Svoboda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport network is simulated by a directed graph. Its edges are evaluated by length (in linear units or time units, by permeability and by the cost of driving through in a transport unit. Its peaks (nodes are evaluated in terms of permeability, the time of driving through the node in time units and the cost of driving a transport unit (set through this node.For such a conception of the transport network a role of optimisation and disintegration of transport flow was formulated, defined by a number of transport units (transport sets. These units enter the network at the initial node and exit the network (or vanish at the defined node. The aim of optimization was to disintegrate the transport flow so that the permeability was not exceeded in any element of the network (edge, nod, so that the relocation of the defined transport flow was completed in a prearranged time and so that the cost of driving through the transport net between the entry and exit knots was minimal.

  18. Understanding of ammonia transport in PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myunghee

    This dissertation investigates ammonia (NH3) as a fuel contaminant to the anode in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). Since NH 3 is fed to the anode in a gas phase and transferred to the cathode, the effect of a contaminant is distributed through MEA and quite complicated. This study is focused on the investigation of mechanism of NH3 transport and the isolation of multiple effects to degrade the performance of fuel cell. An External Reference Electrode (ERE) was employed to decouple the effect of individual electrode and explain the mechanism of NH3 contamination. A mechanism of NH3 transport is proposed and supported by data for various inlet conditions in a N2/N2 laboratory-scale fuel cell at Open Circuit Conditions (OCC). With a commercialized GORE(TM) PRIMEA RTM 5631 MEAs at 70°C, data were obtained utilizing a material balance technique, which uses an ion selective electrode (ISE) to determine the concentration of ammonium ion in the process streams. The results indicate that ammonia is not transported across the membrane when the feeds to both electrodes are dry. However, with humidified feeds ammonia was transported from the anode to the cathode. The data also indicate the water content of in the MEA is the critical factor that causes NH3 crossover in the MEA. Diffusion coefficients of NH3 in MEA are also calculated at different relative humilities. An ERE was developed for PEM fuel cell by using a NafionRTM strip which was used to understand contamination mechanism. The voltage of anode electrode relative to ERE was measured during a polarization curve. The data showed the measurement of individual electrode potential was extremely affected by the misalignment between two electrodes. We compare the overpotential measured from the reference electrode and the calculated overpotential from subtracting the cell voltages between neat hydrogen and a 25 ppm CO in H 2 stream at same current. The studies indicated that the overpotentials obtained from

  19. Numerical investigation of Prandtl number effect on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a nuclear fuel element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Abdul Razak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of liquid metal coolants (such as Sodium, Sodium potassium, Bismuth, Lead, and Lead–bismuth flowing over a nuclear fuel element having non-uniform internal energy generation numerically using finite difference method. The Full Navier Stokes Equations governing the flow were converted into stream function-Vorticity form and solved simultaneously along with energy equation using central finite difference scheme. For the two dimensional steady state heat conduction and Stream-Function Equation, the discretization was done in the form suitable to solve using ‘Line-by-Line Gauss-Seidel’ solution technique whereas the discretization of Vorticity transport and energy equations were done using Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI scheme. After discretization the systems of equations were solved using ‘Thomas Algorithm’. The complete task was done by writing a computer code. The results were obtained in the form of variation of Maximum temperature in the fuel element (hot spots and its location, mean coolant temperature at the exit .The parameters considered for the study were  aspect ratio of fuel element, Ar, conduction-convection parameter Ncc, total energy generation parameter Qt, and flow Reynolds number ReH. The results obtained can be used to minimize the Maximum temperature in the fuel element (hot spots.

  20. Atmospheric transport of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Chance, R.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews atmospheric inputs of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans in the context of the GEOTRACES programme and provides new data from two Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises. We consider the deposition of nitrogen to the oceans, which is now dominated by anthropogenic emissions, the deposition of mineral dust and related trace elements, and the deposition of other trace elements which have a mixture of anthropogenic and dust sources. We then consider the solubility (as a surrogate for bioavailability) of the various elements. We consider briefly the sources, atmospheric transport and transformations of these elements and how this results in strong spatial deposition gradients. Solubility of the trace elements also varies systematically between elements, reflecting their sources and cycling, and for some trace elements there are also systematic gradients in solubility related to dust loading. Together, these effects create strong spatial gradients in the inputs of bioavailable trace elements to the oceans, and we are only just beginning to understand how these affect ocean biogeochemistry. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  1. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, Frank; Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    2005-01-01

    of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of otherexisting or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need......This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project “Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology” The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal andaccident (collision) conditions, safety...... to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle -Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system. - Road...

  2. Atomistic Simulations of Mass and Thermal Transport in Oxide Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Du, Shiyu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nerikar, Pankaj [IBM; Stanek, Christopher R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory; Millet, Paul [Idaho National Laboratory; Biner, Bulent [Idaho National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    boundaries derived from separate atomistic calculations, we simulate Xe redistribution for a few simple microstructures using finite element methods (FEM), as implemented in the MOOSE framework from Idaho National Laboratory. Thermal transport together with the power distribution determines the temperature distribution in the fuel rod and it is thus one of the most influential properties on nuclear fuel performance. The fuel thermal conductivity changes as function of time due to microstructure evolution (e.g. fission gas redistribution) and compositional changes. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have studied the impact of different types of grain boundaries and fission gas bubbles on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity.

  3. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.

  4. the influence of the urban transport system in java on city fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nick

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... population size has low correlation with fuel consumption/capita. Higher population size does not ... Bureau of Statistics and fuel consumption data obtained from the ..... Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 7,. 1250-1265. 2.

  5. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  6. Single-element coaxial injector for rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Improved injector for oxygen difluoride and diborane has better mixing characteristics and is able to project fuel onto the wall of the combustion chamber for better cooling. It produces an essentially conical, diverging, continuous sheet of propellant mixture formed by similarly shaped and continuously impinging sheets of fuel and oxidant.

  7. Intermediate review on the transportation of spent fuel assemblies; Zwischenbilanz ueber die Transporte abgebrannter Brennelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-15

    The transportation of spent fuel from the Swiss nuclear power plants to the reprocessing facilities in France and England was interrupted in May 1998 because of contamination that occurred. These measures were presented in the March 1999 statement made by the Office for the Safety of Nuclear Plants (HSK). The transport of spent fuel has been once more permitted and carried out under new conditions since August 1999. In its interim report of October 2000, HSK analyses and evaluates the experience gained since the resumption of transports. For each measure required, it compares the advantages and drawbacks and makes decisions on the maintenance or reduction of the measures to be taken. Between August 1999 and July 2000, 12 spent fuel transports were carried out between the Swiss nuclear power plants and the COGEMA reprocessing facility in France (7 from Goesgen, 4 from Beznau and 1 from Leibstadt). Neither noticeable disagreement with nor exceeding of contamination limits were noted during those 12 transports. This satisfactory result demonstrates that the measures required to be taken are effective. HSK expected from the measures a reduction of the frequency of exceeding contamination limits to less than 5% and also a marked reduction in their frequency. The present results correspond to this expectation; however, the statistical basis is not yet sufficient to be able to draw definitive conclusions. Nevertheless it is noticed that the situation in France, where similar measures have been taken, was very clearly improved. The frequency of exceeding contamination limits was reduced to 2% during the first semester of the year 2000, while it amounted to more than 30% before April 1998. It is the comprehensiveness of the measures required by HSK which allows the avoidance of contamination. The analysis shows that just a small number of measures only contribute insignificantly to the goal sought after. Therefore, two measures will be suppressed (packing of the empty

  8. Experience of IEA-R1 research reactor spent fuel transportation back to United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frajndlich, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Operacao do Reator IEAR-R1m]. E-mail: frajndli@net.ipen.br; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div.de Engenharia do Nucleo]. E-mail: perrotta@net.ipen.br; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Reatores]. E-mail: maiorino@net.ipen.br; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores]. E-mail: ajsoares@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)

  9. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  10. 77 FR 16868 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors,'' is temporarily identified... verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs...

  11. 78 FR 33132 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test... Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide... plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs). ADDRESSES: Please...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant... Appendix O to Part 110—Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority Note: Nuclear fuel elements are manufactured from source or...

  13. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makmal, T.; Aviv, O.; Gilad, E.

    2016-10-01

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections.

  14. Which is a better transportation fuel – butanol or ethanol ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines butanol and ethanol as transportation fuels for gasoline-powered engines. This paper examines two aspects. First, the fuel properties of butanol and ethanol are examined and compared to each other. Consequently, butanol overcomes three deficiencies of ethanol. Butanol has a higher energy content, butanol-gasoline blends do not separate in the presence of water, and butanol can be blended with gasoline in any percentage, all the way up to 100%. Second, a review of the fermentation technology is examined for both butanol and ethanol production. Both butanol and ethanol can be fermented from the same feedstocks, which include the sugar and starch crops and lignocellulosic fermentation from wood and crop residues, and fast-growing energy crops like hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and willow. Furthermore, the capital and facilities used to produce ethanol can be switched to butanol fermentation with minimal costs. Thus, society is able to transition away from ethanol and begin to produce butanol with minimal capital and infrastructure costs. Unfortunately, the main drawback to butanol fermentation is its low chemical yield. Until researchers discover or engineer new microorganisms that handle higher butanol concentrations, butanol may not be adapted as an alternative fuel.

  15. Transport properties of C and O in UN fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Thomas; Lopes, Denise Adorno; Claisse, Antoine; Olsson, Pär

    2017-03-01

    Uranium nitride fuel is considered for fast reactors (GEN-IV generation and space reactors) and for light water reactors as a high-density fuel option. Despite this large interest, there is a lack of information about its behavior for in-pile and out-of-pile conditions. From the present literature, it is known that C and O impurities have significant influence on the fuel performance. Here we perform a systematic study of these impurities in the UN matrix using electronic-structure calculations of solute-defect interactions and microscopic jump frequencies. These quantities were calculated in the DFT +U approximation combined with the occupation matrix control scheme, to avoid convergence to metastable states for the 5 f levels. The transport coefficients of the system were evaluated with the self-consistent mean-field theory. It is demonstrated that carbon and oxygen impurities have different diffusion properties in the UN matrix, with O atoms having a higher mobility, and C atoms showing a strong flux coupling anisotropy. The kinetic interplay between solutes and vacancies is expected to be the main cause for surface segregation, as incorporation energies show no strong thermodynamic segregation preference for (001) surfaces compared with the bulk.

  16. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  17. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  18. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  19. Importance of OH(-) transport from cathodes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Sudeep C; Ki, Dongwon; Rittmann, Bruce E; Torres, César I

    2012-06-01

    Cathodic limitation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is considered an important hurdle towards practical application as a bioenergy technology. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) needs to occur in MFCs under significantly different conditions compared to chemical fuel cells, including a neutral pH. The common reason cited for cathodic limitation is the difficulty in providing protons to the catalyst sites. Here, we show that it is not the availability of protons, but the transport of OH(-) from the catalyst layer to the bulk liquid that largely governs cathodic potential losses. OH(-) is a product of an ORR mechanism that has not been considered dominant before. The accumulation of OH(-) at the catalyst sites results in an increase in the local cathode pH, resulting in Nernstian concentration losses. For Pt-based gas-diffusion cathodes, using polarization curves developed in unbuffered and buffered solutions, we quantified this loss to be >0.3 V at a current density of 10 Am(-2) . We show that this loss can be partially overcome by replacing the Nafion binder used in the cathode catalyst layer with an anion-conducting binder and by providing additional buffer to the cathode catalyst directly in the form of CO(2) , which results in enhanced OH(-) transport. Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of cathodic limitations in MFCs and should allow researchers to develop and select materials for the construction of MFC cathodes and identify operational conditions that will help minimize Nernstian concentration losses due to pH gradients.

  20. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  1. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  2. Mass transportation in diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsushima, Shigenori, E-mail: mitsushi@ynu.ac.j [Chemical Energy Laboratory, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Shinohara, Yoshitsugu; Matsuzawa, Koichi; Ota, Ken-ichiro [Chemical Energy Laboratory, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    To use the protonic mesothermal fuel cell without humidification, mass transportation in diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), trifluoromethanesulfuric acid (TfOH)-added [dema][TfO], and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4})-added [dema][TfO] was investigated by electrochemical measurements. The diffusion coefficient and the solubility of oxygen were ca. 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and ca. 10{sup -3} M (=mol dm{sup -3}), respectively. Those of hydrogen were a factor of 10 and one-tenth compared to oxygen, respectively. The permeability, which is a product of the diffusion coefficient and solubility, of oxygen and hydrogen were almost the same for the perfluoroethylenesulfuric acid membrane and the sulfuric acid solution; therefore, these values are suitable for fuel cell applications. On the other hand, a diffusion limiting current was observed for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The current corresponded to ca. 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -1} s{sup -1} of the permeability, and the diffusion limiting species was the hydrogen carrier species. The TfOH addition enhanced the diffusion limiting current of [dema][TfO], and the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} addition eliminated the diffusion limit. The hydrogen bonds of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} or water-added H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} might significantly enhance the transport of the hydrogen carrier species. Therefore, [dema][TfO] based materials are candidates for non-humidified mesothermal fuel cell electrolytes.

  3. Finite element simulation of food transport through the esophageal body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yang; Tat Ching Fung; Kerm Sim Chian; Chuh Khiun Chong

    2007-01-01

    The peristaltic transport of swallowed material in the esophagus is a neuro-muscular function involving the nerve control, bolus-structure interaction, and structuremechanics relationship of the tissue. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was developed to simulate food transport through the esophagus. The FEM consists of three components, i.e., tissue, food bolus and peristaltic wave, as well as the interactions between them. The transport process was simulated as three stages, i.e., the filling of fluid, contraction of circular muscle and traveling of peristaltic wave. It was found that the maximal passive intraluminal pressure due to bolus expansion was in the range of 0.8-10 kPa and it increased with bolus volume and fluid viscosity. It was found that the highest normal and shear stresses were at the inner surface of muscle layer. In addition, the peak pressure required for the fluid flow was predicted to be 1-15 kPa at the bolus tail. The diseases of systemic sclerosis or osteogenesis imperfecta, with the remodeled microstructures and mechanical properties, might induce the malfunction of esophageal transport. In conclusion, the current simulation was demonstrated to be able to capture the main characteristics in the intraluminal pressure and bolus geometry as measured experimentally. Therefore,the finite element model established in this study could be used to further explore the mechanism of esophageal transport in various clinical applications.

  4. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  5. Douglas United Nuclear, Inc. report to the Working Committee of the Fuel Element Development Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, J.T.

    1966-05-04

    This document provides the report to the working committee of the fuel element development committee for small and K reactor production fuels. Topics discussed are: Uranium core production data; uranium specification; future planning -- five year R&D program; thoria development; heat treating; UO{sub 2} irradiation; and alternate process development.

  6. On effective transport coefficients in PEM fuel cell electrodes: Anisotropy of the porous transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, J. G.; Karan, K.; Sun, W.

    This paper reviews the approach taken in the literature to model the effective transport coefficients - mass diffusivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and hydraulic permeability - of carbon-fibre based porous electrode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). It is concluded that current PEMFC model do not account for the inherent anisotropic microstructure of the fibrous electrodes. Simulations using a 2-D PEMFC cathode model show that neglecting the anisotropic nature and associated transport coefficients of the porous electrodes significantly influences both the nature and the magnitude of the model predictions. This emphasizes the need to appropriately characterize the relevant anisotropic properties of the fibrous electrode.

  7. Irisbus plan: urban transport with fuel cell; Projet Irisbus de transport urbain a pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourachot, J.; Corgier, D.; Durelli, E. [Iribus, 92 - Suresnes (France); Badin, F.; Trigui, R. [Institut National de Recherche sur les transports et leur Securite, INRETS LTE, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    In this article is described the Irisbus development plan of urban transport vehicles containing a fuel cell. The aim of this research program is the demonstration and the analysis of this technology for a future development and industrialization of this type of vehicle. The partnership involves electric traction experts, research centers, energy suppliers as well as exploitation systems. The first vehicle, being at the present time carried out, will be operational at the first quarter 2001. (O.M.)

  8. Experimental investigation of fuel evaporation in the vaporizing elements of combustion chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezhba, I.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of the experimental apparatus and the methods used in the investigation of the degree of fuel (kerosene) evaporation in two types of vaporizing elements in combustion chambers. The results are presented as dependences of the degree of fuel evaporation on the factors which characterize the functioning of the vaporizing elements: the air surplus coefficient, the velocity of flow and temperature of the air at the entrance to the vaporizing element and the temperature of the wall of the vaporizing element.

  9. Non-destructive control of cladding thickness of fuel elements for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, Y.; Zhukov, Y.; Chashchin, S

    1997-07-01

    The control method of fuel elements for research reactors by means of measuring beta particles back scattering made it possible to perform complete automatic non-destructive control of internal and external claddings at our plant. This control gives high guarantees of the fuel element correspondence to the requirements. The method can be used to control the three-layer items of different geometry, including plates. (author)

  10. Multiphysics Modeling of a Single Channel in a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Grooved Ring Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J., Jr.; Barkett, Laura A.; Mathias, Adam D.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    In the past, fuel rods have been used in nuclear propulsion applications. A new fuel element concept that reduces weight and increases efficiency uses a stack of grooved discs. Each fuel element is a flat disc with a hole on the interior and grooves across the top. Many grooved ring fuel elements for use in nuclear thermal propulsion systems have been modeled, and a single flow channel for each design has been analyzed. For increased efficiency, a fuel element with a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio is ideal. When grooves are shallower, i.e., they have a lower surface area, the results show that the exit temperature is higher. By coupling the physics of turbulence with those of heat transfer, the effects on the cooler gas flowing through the grooves of the thermally excited solid can be predicted. Parametric studies were done to show how a pressure drop across the axial length of the channels will affect the exit temperatures of the gas. Geometric optimization was done to show the behaviors that result from the manipulation of various parameters. Temperature profiles of the solid and gas showed that more structural optimization is needed to produce the desired results. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Fuel Element, Heat Transfer, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Coupled Physics Computations, Finite Element Analysis

  11. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E11-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Bate, L.C.

    1977-04-01

    This is the second in a projected series of six post-irradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements. Element E11-07, the subject of this report, received an equivalent of 701 full-power days of irradiation prior to scheduled withdrawal. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a /sup 137/Cs inventory of 17 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.3 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides /sup 134/Cs, /sup 110m/Ag, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 154/Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the distribution of the beta emitters /sup 3/H, /sup 14/C, and /sup 90/Sr were obtained at six axial locations, four within the fueled region and one each above and below. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. These profiles reveal an increased degree of penetration of /sup 134/Cs, relative to /sup 137/Cs, evidently due to a longer time spent as xenon precursor. In addition to fission product distribution, the appearance of the element components was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed.

  12. Manufacturing of 37-element fuel bundles for PHWR 540 - new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, U.K.; Sastry, V.S.; Banerjee, P.K.; Rao, G.V.S.H.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. Atomic Energy, Government of India, Hyderabad (India)

    2003-07-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early seventies, is a major industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy. NFC is responsible for the supply of fuel bundles to all the 220 MWe PHWRs presently in operation. For supplying fuel bundles for the forthcoming 540 MWe PHWRs, NEC is dovetailing 37-element fuel bundle manufacturing facilities in the existing plants. In tune with the philosophy of self-reliance, emphasis is given to technology upgradation, higher customer satisfaction and application of modern quality control techniques. With the experience gained over the years in manufacturing 19-element fuel bundles, NEC has introduced resistance welding of appendages on fuel tubes prior to loading of UO{sub 2} pellets, use of bio-degradable cleaning agents, simple diagnostic tools for checking the equipment condition, on line monitoring of variables, built-in process control methods and total productive maintenance concepts in the new manufacturing facility. Simple material handling systems have been contemplated for handling of the fuel bundles. This paper highlights the flow-sheet adopted for the process, design features of critical equipment and the methodology for fabricating the 37-element fuel bundles, 'RIGHT FIRST TIME'. (author)

  13. Enhanced Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Element for the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, M. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, M. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Morrell, S. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jamison, R. K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nef, E. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nigg, D. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Under the current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy and planning scenario, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its associated critical facility (ATRC) will be reconfigured to operate on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This effort has produced a conceptual design for an Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) element. This fuel features monolithic U-10Mo fuel foils and aluminum cladding separated by a thin zirconium barrier. As with previous iterations of the ELF design, radial power peaking is managed using different U-10Mo foil thicknesses in different plates of the element. The lead fuel element design, ELF Mk1A, features only three fuel meat thicknesses, a reduction from the previous iterations meant to simplify manufacturing. Evaluation of the ELF Mk1A fuel design against reactor performance requirements is ongoing, as are investigations of the impact of manufacturing uncertainty on safety margins. The element design has been evaluated in what are expected to be the most demanding design basis accident scenarios and has met all initial thermal-hydraulic criteria.

  14. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  15. BEAM 1.7: development for modelling fuel element and bundle buckling strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Xu, S.; Xu, Z.; Paul, U.K. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes BEAM, an AECL developed computer program, used to assess mechanical integrity of CANDU fuel bundles. The BEAM code has been developed to satisfy the need for buckling strength analysis of fuel bundles. Buckling refers to the phenomenon where a compressive axial load is large enough that a small lateral load can cause large lateral deflections. The buckling strength refers to the critical compressive axial load at which lateral instability is reached. The buckling strength analysis has practical significance for the design of fuel bundles, where the buckling strength of a fuel element/bundle is assessed so that the conditions leading to bundle jamming in the pressure tube are excluded. This paper presents the development and qualification of the BEAM code, with emphasis on the theoretical background and code implementation of the newly developed fuel element/bundle buckling strength model. (author)

  16. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government.

  17. Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki

    1996-11-01

    In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)

  18. 球床反应堆燃料元件成组串列管路气力提升方法研究%Research on a method for grouped tandem pneumatic lifting a pebble-bed reactor's fuel element transportation in pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹏; 刘洪冰; 都东; 王鑫; 张海泉

    2013-01-01

    为了满足球床高温气冷堆利用气力输送方法实现球形燃料元件多次通过堆芯的循环运行方式的运行经济性和控制可靠性要求,提出了一种成组串列气力提升燃料元件的方法,并从动力学特性、提升效率及压降等方面研究了其具体实现方法.该方法可使燃料元件短暂时间间隔地顺次进入提升管路,并由气力提升至堆芯,在同一时刻,燃料元件组成队列共同占用提升管路.研究结果表明,在燃料元件成组串列气力提升过程中,组内各元件运行平稳,间距可控,可以避免因碰撞导致元件破损.与燃料元件逐一完成气力提升方法相比,采用成组串列气力提升方式有利于在必要时实现反应堆燃料快速循环,而且在维持正常循环时,可以降低提升气体流速和每个燃料元件的运行速度,进而减小元件对堆芯的冲击,并且可以减小系统压降,使球床反应堆更加经济可靠地运行.%To meet the requirements of operational economy and control reliability of a pebble-bed high-temperature gascooled reactor characterized by its fuel elements' repeated pneumatic moving through the reactor core,a scheme for grouped tandem pneumatic lifting (GTPL) of fuel elements in pipelines was proposed,and its corresponding implementation was researched in the aspects of dynamic characteristics,lifting efficiency and pressure drop.By this method,fuel elements are sequentially added to the lifting pipelines with short time interval,and then pneumatically lifted to the reactor core,so the lifting pipelines are occupied by a quene of fuel elements at the same time.The results of the simulation and the experiment show that the new method can make fuel elements move steadily with the controllable spacing between each two fuel elements in GTPL,so the breakage of the elements caused by elementselement collision can be avoided.Compared with the method of lifting the elements one by one,the GTPL scheme has

  19. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rajagopal; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We compare two types of fuel market regulations - a renewable fuel mandate and a fuel emission standard - that could be employed to simultaneously achieve multiple outcomes such as reduction in fuel prices, fuel imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare these two types of regulations in a global context taking into account heterogeneity in carbon content of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels. We find that although neither the ethanol mandate nor the emissi...

  20. Non-destructive-Testing of Nuclear Fuel Element by Means of Neutron Imaging Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel element is the key component of nuclear reactor. People have to make strictly testing of the element to make sure the reactor operating safely. Neutron imaging is one of Non-destructive-Testing (NDT) techniques, which are very important techniques for

  1. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector; Teknologivurdering af altgernative drivmidler til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of the alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. (BA)

  2. Burn-up and Operation Time of Fuel Elements Produced in IPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the developed work along the operational and reliability tests of fuel elements produced in the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, IPEN-CNEN/SP, from the 1980's. The study analyzed the U-235 burn evolution and the element remain in the research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel elements are of the type MTR (Material Testing Reactor), the standard with 18 plates and a 12-plate control, with a nominal mean enrichment of 20%.

  3. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: rrr@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: edson@cdtn.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  4. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  5. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... ``dedicated [alternative fuel] or dual fueled vehicle,'' and sections 501 (42 U.S.C. 13251) and 507 (42 U.S.C... example, B20 (a 20 percent blend of biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel) is not an alternative fuel... that operate solely on alternative fuel, or ``dual fueled vehicles,'' which have some capability for...

  6. Analytical Solution of Fick's Law of the TRISO-Coated Fuel Particles and Fuel Elements in Pebble-Bed High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jian-Zhu; FANG Chao; SUN Li-Feng

    2011-01-01

    T wo kinds of approaches are built to solve the fission products diffusion models (Fick's equation) based on sphere fuel particles and sphere fuel elements exactly. Two models for homogenous TRISO-coated fuel particles and fuel elements used in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors are presented, respectively. The analytica,solution of Fick's equation for fission products diffusion in fuel particles is derived by variables separation.In the fuel element system, a modification of the diffusion coefficient from D to D/r is made to characterize the difference of diffusion rates in distinct areas and it is shown that the Laplace and Hankel transformations are effective as the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equation is dependant on the radius of the fuel element. Both the solutions are useful for the prediction of the fission product behaviors and could be programmed in the corresponding engineering calculations.%@@ Two kinds of approaches are built to solve the fission products diffusion models(Fick's equation) based on sphere fuel particles and sphere fuel elements exactly.Two models for homogenous TRISO-coated fuel particles and fuel elements used in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors are presented,respectively.The analytical solution of Fick's equation for fission products diffusion in fuel particles is derived by variables separation.In the fuel element system,a modification of the diffusion coefficient from D to D/r is made to characterize the difference of diffusion rates in distinct areas and it is shown that the Laplace and Hankel transformations are effective as the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equation is dependant on the radius of the fuel element.Both the solutions are useful for the prediction of the fission product behaviors and could be programmed in the corresponding engineering calculations.

  7. Chemical Gradients in Crud on Boiling Water Reactor Fuel Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Porter; D. E. Janney

    2007-04-01

    Crud (radioactive corrosion products formed inside nuclear reactors is a major problem in commercial power-producing nuclear reactors. Although there are numerous studies of simulated (non-radioactive) crud, characteristics of crud from actual reactors are rarely studied. This study reports scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of fragments of crud from a commercially operating boiling water reactor. Chemical analyses in the SEM indicated that the crud closest to the outer surfaces of the fuel pins in some areas had Fe:Zn ratios close to 2:1, which decreased away from the fuel pin in some of the fragments. In combination with transmission electron microsope analyses (published elsewhere), these results suggest that the innermost layer of crud in some areas may consist of franklinite (ZnFe2O4, also called zinc spinel), while outer layers in these areas may be predominantly iron oxides.

  8. Wind-Aided Firespread Across Arrays of Discrete Fuel Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Ph.D. thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering. Fredericton , Canada: University of New Brunswick. Fang, J. B., and Steward, F. R. 1969 Flame spread... Fredericton , Canada: University of New Brunswick. Steward, F. R., and Tennankore, K. N. 1981 The measurement of the burning rate of an individual dowel in a...1973 Flame spread through uniform fuel matrices. Report, Fire Science Center. Fredericton , Canada: University of New Brunswick. Steward, F. R

  9. Gas fuels for the transport sector; Denmark; Gas til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses suggest that especially biogas, but also natural gas in macroeconomic terms will be attractive propellants, including for heavy transport. To implement a Danish expansion of gas infrastructure for transportation, the report recommends the following essential elements: 1) A Danish rollout should be closely linked to contracts with fleet owners with heavy vehicles / taxis / vans and the like, thus ensuring high utilization of filling stations; 2) About 10 larger, flexible CNG filling stations set up at major fleet owners is estimated as sufficient for an initial deployment phase, strategically distributed in and around Copenhagen, the major cities and along the main road network from Sweden to Germany; 3) A certain time-limited funding for the construction of infrastructure is likely to cause a rapid spread, if desired, and if other business conditions are in place; 4) There is a need for adjustment of tax terms - the rules for green taxes should be adjusted, and it should be considered to lower the taxes on CNG and biogas; 5) Natural gas mixed with biogas should be an integral element of a comprehensive strategy to ensure maximum CO{sub 2} displacement. (LN)

  10. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  11. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley Heights, NJ; Heinz, Robert [Ludwigshafen, DE

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  12. Standard laboratory hydraulic pressure drop characteristics of various solid and I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.; Horn, G.R.

    1958-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of standard pressure-drop curves for various fuel elements in process tubes of Hanford reactors. The flow and pressures within a process tube assembly under normal conditions are dependent to a large extent on the magnitude of the pressure drop across the fuel elements. The knowledge of this pressure drop is important in determination of existing thermal conditions within the process tubes and in predicting conditions for new fuel element designs or changes in operating conditions. The pressure-flow relations for the different Hanford fuel element-process tube assemblies have all been determined at one time or another in the 189-D Hydraulics Laboratory but the data had never been collected into a single report. Such a report is presented now in the interest of establishing a set of ``standard curves`` as determined by laboratory investigations. It must be recognized that the pressure drops of fuel elements in actual process tubes in the reactors may be slightly different than those reported here. The data presented here were obtained in new process tubes while reactor process tubes are usually either corroded or filmed, depending on their past history.

  13. GEH-4-63, 64: Proposal for irradiation of production brazed Zircaloy-2 clad fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1961-05-18

    A brazed end closure is currently being used on prototypical NPR fuel elements. The production closure will use a braze alloy composed of 5% Be + 95% Zry-2 to braze the Zircaloy-2 cap to the jacket and to the metallic uranium core. A similar MTR test, a GEH-4-57, 58, used a braze alloy of the composition 4% Be + 12% Fe + 84% Zry-2 which melts at a lower temperature. In this previous test, element GEH-4-57 failed through a cladding defect located at the base of the braze heat affected zone. Because of this failure it would be desirable to subject a fuel element, which had been subjected to more severe brazing conditions, to the same conditions as GEH-4-57, 58. For this reason the thermal conditions of this test essentially match those of GEH-4-57, 58. This irradiation test consists of two identical fuel elements. The fuel material is normal metallic uranium, Zircaloy-2 clad of the tubular geometry, NPR inner size. The fuel was coextruded at Hanford by General Electric`s Fuels Preparation Department. Each element is 10.8 inches in length with flat Zircaloy-2 end caps brazed to the jacket and uranium core with the 5 Be + 95 Zry-2 brazing alloy, then TIG welded to further insure closure integrity. The elements ar 1.254 inches OD and 0.439 inches ID. For hydraulic purposes a 0.343 inch diamater flow restrictor has been fitted into the central flow channel of both elements.

  14. Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2010-04-01

    Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.

  15. A Microfluidic Pore Network Approach to Investigate Water Transport in Fuel Cell Porous Transport Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bazylak, A; Markicevic, B; Sinton, D; Djilali, N

    2008-01-01

    Pore network modelling has traditionally been used to study displacement processes in idealized porous media related to geological flows, with applications ranging from groundwater hydrology to enhanced oil recovery. Very recently, pore network modelling has been applied to model the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Discrete pore network models have the potential to elucidate transport phenomena in the GDL with high computational efficiency, in contrast to continuum or molecular dynamics modelling that require extensive computational resources. However, the challenge in studying the GDL with pore network modelling lies in defining the network parameters that accurately describe the porous media as well as the conditions of fluid invasion that represent realistic transport processes. In this work, we discuss the first stage of developing and validating a GDL-representative pore network model. We begin with a two-dimensional pore network model with a single mobile pha...

  16. Oxide fuel element and blanket element development programs. Quarterly progress report, January-February-March, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin profilometry of some 9% burnup F20-F5 pins showed small diameter increases at the fuel-insulator interface at the top of the core. Neither these secondary peaks nor the larger diameter increases near the core midplane exhibited any relationship to the local presence of once-molten fuel in any F20 fuel pin. Augmented safety analysis computations for experiment AB-1 (additional transients suggested by HEDL) showed that cumulative damage fractions from the additional transients were in every case less than 10/sup -4/. Mechanical tests have been performed that confirm previous computations for the removal end plugs to be used in a characterizer subassembly for AB-1. The resulting pin removal forces are well within the design envelope.

  17. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  18. Metal-Element Compounds of Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium as Pyrotechnic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    1-11 1 METAL-ELEMENT COMPOUNDS OF TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM , AND HAFNIUM AS PYROTECHNIC FUELS Anthony P. Shaw,* Rajendra K. Sadangi, Jay C...have started to explore the pyrotechnic properties of other inorganic compounds, particularly those of titanium, zirconium , and hafnium. The...The group 4 metals—titanium, zirconium , and hafnium—are potent pyrotechnic fuels. However, the metals themselves are often pyrophoric as fine

  19. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  20. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  1. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  2. Review: Circulation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of Alternative Fuels in Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, which traditionally has been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the use of alternative fuels, i.e., selected waste, biomass, and byproducts with recoverable calorific value, is constantly increasing. Combustion of these fuels is more challenging......, compared to fossil fuels, because of a lack of experience and different chemical and physical properties. When complete oxidation Of fuels in the calciner and main burner is not achieved, they burn in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln, causing local reducing conditions and increasing...... the internal circulation of S, Cl, Na, and K. Compounds containing these elements, such as alkali salts, evaporate when exposed to high temperatures and subsequently condense in colder parts of the plant. The transformation of the volatile inorganic species at different locations in the cement plant...

  3. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.

    2017-09-01

    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  4. Characterizing high-temperature deformation of internally heated nuclear fuel element simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, A.I.; Fong, R.W.L.; Leitch, B.W.; Nitheanandan, T.; Williams, A., E-mail: alexander.belov@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The sag behaviour of a simulated nuclear fuel element during high-temperature transients has been investigated in an experiment utilizing an internal indirect heating method. The major motivation of the experiment was to improve understanding of the dominant mechanisms underlying the element thermo-mechanical response under loss-of-coolant accident conditions and to obtain accurate experimental data to support development of 3-D computational fuel element models. The experiment was conducted using an electrically heated CANDU fuel element simulator. Three consecutive thermal cycles with peak temperatures up to ≈1000 {sup o}C were applied to the element. The element sag deflections and sheath temperatures were measured. On heating up to 600 {sup o}C, only minor lateral deflections of the element were observed. Further heating to above 700 {sup o}C resulted in an element multi-rate creep and significant permanent bow. Post-test visual and X-ray examinations revealed a pronounced necking of the sheath at the pellet-to-pellet interface locations. A wall thickness reduction was detected in the necked region that is interpreted as a sheath longitudinal strain localization effect. The sheath cross-sectioning showed signs of a 'hard' pellet-cladding interaction due to the applied cycles. A 3-D model of the experiment was generated using the ANSYS finite element code. As a fully coupled thermal mechanical simulation is computationally expensive, it was deemed sufficient to use the measured sheath temperatures as a boundary condition, and thus an uncoupled mechanical simulation only was conducted. The ANSYS simulation results match the experiment sag observations well up to the point at which the fuel element started cooling down. (author)

  5. Comparison of Material Behavior of Matrix Graphite for HTGR Fuel Elements upon Irradiation: A literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The fuel elements for the HTGRs (i.e., spherical fuel element in pebble-bed type core design and fuel compact in prismatic core design) consists of coated fuel particles dispersed and bonded in a closely packed array within a carbonaceous matrix. This matrix is generally made by mixing fully graphitized natural and needle- or pitchcoke originated powders admixed with a binder material (pitch or phenolic resin), The resulting resinated graphite powder mixture, when compacted, may influence a number of material properties as well as its behavior under neutron irradiation during reactor operation. In the fabrication routes of these two different fuel element forms, different consolidation methods are employed; a quasi-isostatic pressing method is generally adopted to make pebbles while fuel compacts are fabricated by uni-axial pressing mode. The result showed that the hardness values obtained from the two directions showed an anisotropic behavior: The values obtained from the perpendicular section showed much higher micro hardness (176.6±10.5MPa in average) than from the parallel section ((125.6±MPa in average). This anisotropic behavior was concluded to be related to the microstructure of the matrix graphite. This may imply that the uni-axial pressing method to make compacts influence the microstructure of the matrix and hence the material properties of the matrix graphite.

  6. Countercurrent flow limited (CCFL) heat flux in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles, A.E.

    1990-10-12

    The countercurrent flow (CCF) performance in the fuel element region of the HFIR is examined experimentally and theoretically. The fuel element consists of two concentric annuli filled with aluminum clad fuel plates of 1.27 mm thickness separated by 1.27 mm flow channels. The plates are curved as they go radially outward to accomplish constant flow channel width and constant metal-to-coolant ratio. A full-scale HFIR fuel element mock-up is studied in an adiabatic air-water CCF experiment. A review of CCF models for narrow channels is presented along with the treatment of CCFs in system of parallel channels. The experimental results are related to the existing models and a mechanistic model for the annular'' CCF in a narrow channel is developed that captures the data trends well. The results of the experiment are used to calculate the CCFL heat flux of the HFIR fuel assembly. It was determined that the HFIR fuel assembly can reject 0.62 Mw of thermal power in the CCFL situation. 31 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Vibration behavior of fuel-element vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. W.; Fiero, I. B.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary shock and vibration tests were performed on vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor for space application. These suppressors position the fuel pellets in a pin type fuel element. The test determined the effect of varying axial clearance on the behavior of the suppressors when subjected to shock and vibratory loading. The full-size suppressor was tested in a mockup model of fuel and clad which required scaling of test conditions. The test data were correlated with theoretical predictions for suppressor failure. Good agreement was obtained. The maximum difference with damping neglected was about 30 percent. Neglecting damping would result in a conservative design.

  8. Clad thickness variation N-Reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.A.

    1966-05-12

    The current specifications for the cladding on {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} fuels were established early in the course of process development and were predicted on several basic considerations. Among these were: (a) a desire to provide an adequate safety factor in cladding thickness to insure against corrosion penetration and rupture from uranium swelling stresses; (b) an apprehension that the striations in the zircaloy cladding of the U/zircaloy interface and on the exterior surface might serve as stress-raisers, leading to untimely failures of the jacket; and (c) then existing process capability - the need to maintain a specified ratio between zircaloy and uranium in the billet assembly to effect satisfactory coextrusion. It now appears appropriate to review these specifications in an effort to determine whether some of them may be revised, with attendant gains in economy and/or operating smoothness.

  9. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  10. Burnup measurements on spent fuel elements of the RP-10 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela Mora, Mariano; Gallardo Padilla, Alberto; Palomino, Jose Luis Castro, E-mail: mvela@ipen.gob.p [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN/Peru), Lima (Peru). Grupo de Calculo, Analisis y Seguridad de Reactores; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac, E-mail: laaterre@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the measurement, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, of the average burnup attained by Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the RP-10 research reactor. Measurements were performed at the reactor storage pool area using {sup 137}Cs as the only burnup monitor, even for spent fuel elements with cooling times much shorter than two years. The experimental apparatus was previously calibrated in efficiency to obtain absolute average burnup values, which were compared against corresponding ones furnished by reactor physics calculations. The mean deviation between both values amounts to 6%. (author)

  11. Nerva Fuel Element Development Program Summary Report - July 1966 through June 1972 Extrusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, J. M.

    1973-09-21

    This part of the completion report pertaining to the NERVA graphite fuel element program covers data collected during the extrusion studies. The physical properties of the fuel element reached the following values: coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) - 7.0 x 10-6/o C (25 - l,OOOo C); modulus of elasticity - 1.5 x lo6 psi; flexural strength - - 8,000 psi; ultimate strain to failure - 5,500 pidin; good thermal stress resistance. Matrices were produced which could be vapor coated with crack-free films of zirconium carbide. The CTE of the matrix was almost equal to the CTE of the zirconium carbide coating.

  12. FY 2012 USED FUEL DISPOSITION CAMPAIGN TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON INL EFFORTS SUPPORTING THE MODERATOR EXCLUSION CONCEPT AND STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. Morton

    2012-08-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for a longer time period than initially assumed. Previous transportation task work in FY 2011, under the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, proposed an alternative for safely transporting used fuel regardless of the structural integrity of the used fuel, baskets, poisons, or storage canisters after an extended period of storage. This alternative assures criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). By relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal or hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. This Transportation Task report addresses the assigned FY 2012 work that supports the proposed moderator exclusion concept as well as a standardized transportation system. The two tasks assigned were to (1) promote the proposed moderator exclusion concept to both regulatory and nuclear industry audiences and (2) advance specific technical issues in order to improve American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 3 rules for storage and transportation containments. The common point behind both of the assigned tasks is to provide more options that can be used to resolve current issues being debated regarding the future transportation of used fuel after extended storage.

  13. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  14. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  16. Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  17. OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND SOFTWARE FOR FUEL COST REDUCTION IN CASE OF ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain and the fuel cost is the highest cost among the cost components of transportation. The goal of the research is to optimize the transport costs in case of a given transport task both by the selecting the optimal petrol station and by determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel. Recently, in practice, these two decisions have not been made centrally at the forwarding company, but they depend on the individual decision of the driver. The aim of this study is to elaborate a precise and reliable mathematical method for selecting the optimal refuelling stations and determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel to fulfil the transport demands. Based on the elaborated model, new decision-supporting software is developed for the economical fulfilment of transport trips.

  18. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry.

  19. An Expert System to Analyze Homogeneity in Fuel Element Plates for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolosa, S.C.; Marajofsky, A.

    2004-10-06

    In the manufacturing control of Fuel Element Plates for Research Reactors, one of the problems to be addressed is how to determine the U-density homogeneity in a fuel plate and how to obtain qualitative and quantitative information in order to establish acceptance or rejection criteria for such, as well as carrying out the quality follow-up. This paper is aimed at developing computing software which implements an Unsupervised Competitive Learning Neural Network for the acknowledgment of regions belonging to a digitalized gray scale image. This program is applied to x-ray images. These images are generated when the x-ray beams go through a fuel plate of approximately 60 cm x 8 cm x 0.1 cm thick. A Nuclear Fuel Element for Research Reactors usually consists of 18 to 22 of these plates, positioned in parallel, in an arrangement of 8 x 7 cm. Carrying out the inspection of the digitalized x-ray image, the neural network detects regions with different luminous densities corresponding to U-densities in the fuel plate. This is used in quality control to detect failures and verify acceptance criteria depending on the homogeneity of the plate. This modality of inspection is important as it allows the performance of non-destructive measurements and the automatic generation of the map of U-relative densities of the fuel plate.

  20. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Applied for Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is investigated. PEMFC may be the most promising technology for fuel cell automotive systems, which is operating at quite low temperatures, (between 60 to 80℃). In this study the fuel cell motive power part of a lift truck has...... investigated. In addition, different stack design schemes have been proposed and their effect on system efficiency has been investigated....

  1. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  2. Transposable elements and small RNAs: Genomic fuel for species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Federico G; McGuire, Liam P; Counterman, Brian A; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    While transposable elements (TE) have long been suspected of involvement in species diversification, identifying specific roles has been difficult. We recently found evidence of TE-derived regulatory RNAs in a species-rich family of bats. The TE-derived small RNAs are temporally associated with the burst of species diversification, suggesting that they may have been involved in the processes that led to the diversification. In this commentary, we expand on the ideas that were briefly touched upon in that manuscript. Specifically, we suggest avenues of research that may help to identify the roles that TEs may play in perturbing regulatory pathways. Such research endeavors may serve to inform evolutionary biologists of the ways that TEs have influenced the genomic and taxonomic diversity around us.

  3. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  4. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-30

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage.

  5. Transportation impact analysis for shipment of irradiated N-reactor fuel and associated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Harris, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    An analysis of the radiological and nonradiological impacts of highway transportation of N-Reactor irradiated fuel (N-fuel) and associated materials is described in this report. N-fuel is proposed to be transported from its present locations in the 105-KE and 105-KW Basins, and possibly the PUREX Facility, to the 327 Building for characterization and testing. Each of these facilities is located on the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. The projected annual shipping quantity is 500 kgU/yr for 5 years for a total of 2500 kgU. It was assumed the irradiated fuel would be returned to the K- Basins following characterization, so the total amount of fuel shipped was assumed to be 5000 kgU. The shipping campaign may also include the transport and characterization of liquids, gases, and sludges from the storage basins, including fuel assembly and/or canister parts that may also be present in the basins. The impacts of transporting these other materials are bounded by the impacts of transporting 5000 kgU of N-fuel. This report was prepared to support an environmental assessment of the N-fuel characterization program. The RADTRAN 4 and GENII computer codes were used to evaluate the radiological impacts of the proposed shipping campaign. RADTRAN 4 was used to calculate the routine exposures and accident risks to workers and the general public from the N-fuel shipments. The GENII computer code was used to calculate the consequences of the maximum credible accident. The results indicate that the transportation of N-fuel in support of the characterization program should not cause excess radiological-induced latent cancer fatalities or traffic-related nonradiological accident fatalities. The consequences of the maximum credible accident are projected to be small and result in no excess latent cancer fatalities.

  6. A finite element model for protein transport in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montas Hubert J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological mass transport processes determine the behavior and function of cells, regulate interactions between synthetic agents and recipient targets, and are key elements in the design and use of biosensors. Accurately predicting the outcomes of such processes is crucial to both enhancing our understanding of how these systems function, enabling the design of effective strategies to control their function, and verifying that engineered solutions perform according to plan. Methods A Galerkin-based finite element model was developed and implemented to solve a system of two coupled partial differential equations governing biomolecule transport and reaction in live cells. The simulator was coupled, in the framework of an inverse modeling strategy, with an optimization algorithm and an experimental time series, obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP technique, to estimate biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters. In the inverse algorithm, an adaptive method was implemented to calculate sensitivity matrix. A multi-criteria termination rule was developed to stop the inverse code at the solution. The applicability of the model was illustrated by simulating the mobility and binding of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor in the nucleoplasm of mouse adenocarcinoma. Results The numerical simulator shows excellent agreement with the analytic solutions and experimental FRAP data. Detailed residual analysis indicates that residuals have zero mean and constant variance and are normally distributed and uncorrelated. Therefore, the necessary and sufficient criteria for least square parameter optimization, which was used in this study, were met. Conclusion The developed strategy is an efficient approach to extract as much physiochemical information from the FRAP protocol as possible. Well-posedness analysis of the inverse problem, however, indicates that the FRAP protocol provides insufficient

  7. Fuel-element failures in Hanford single-pass reactors 1944--1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. To estimate the doses, the staff of the Source Terms Task use operating information from historical documents to approximate the radioactive emissions. One source of radioactive emissions to the Columbia River came from leaks in the aluminum cladding of the uranium metal fuel elements in single-pass reactors. The purpose of this letter report is to provide photocopies of the documents that recorded these failures. The data from these documents will be used by the Source Terms Task to determine the contribution of single-pass reactor fuel-element failures to the radioactivity of the reactor effluent from 1944 through 1971. Each referenced fuel-element failure occurring in the Hanford single-pass reactors is addressed. The first recorded failure was in 1948, the last in 1970. No records of fuel-element failures were found in documents prior to 1948. Data on the approximately 2000 failures which occurred during the 28 years (1944--1971) of Hanford single-pass reactor operations are provided in this report.

  8. Aerothermal modeling program, Phase 2, Element C: Fuel injector-air swirl characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonnel, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of the NASA sponsored Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2, Element C, are to collect benchmark quality data to quantify the fuel spray interaction with the turbulent swirling flows and to validate current and advanced two phase flow models. The technical tasks involved in this effort are discussed.

  9. Review of Rover fuel element protective coating development at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terry C.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) entered the nuclear propulsion field in 1955 and began work on all aspects of a nuclear propulsion program with a target exhaust temperature of about 2750 K. A very extensive chemical vapor deposition coating technology for preventing catastrophic corrosion of reactor core components by the high temperature, high pressure hydrogen propellant gas was developed. Over the 17-year term of the program, more than 50,000 fuel elements were coated and evaluated. Advances in performance were achieved only through closely coupled interaction between the developing fuel element fabrication and protective coating technologies. The endurance of fuel elements in high temperature, high pressure hydrogen environment increased from several minutes at 2000 K exit gas temperature to 2 hours at 2440 K exit gas temperature in a reactor test and 10 hours at 2350 K exit gas temperature in a hot gas test. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the rationale for selection of coating materials used (NbC and ZrC), identify critical fuel element-coat interactions that had to be modified to increase system performance, and review the evolution of protective coating technology.

  10. ESTEEM - Encouraging School Transportation Effective Energy Management - Fuel Economy Management Handbook for Directors of Pupil Transportation, School District Administrators, Transportation Department Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRI Systems, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

    This publication is a guide for school districts to reduce pupil transportation costs and save energy. The information presented is based upon: (1) energy saving programs implemented by school districts; (2) government and industry research efforts in fuel economy; (3) the successful experiences of commercial trucking fleets to save fuel; and (4)…

  11. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-09-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive.

  12. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  13. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  14. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  15. Burnup determination of a fuel element concerning different cooling times; Seguimiento del quemado de un elemento combustible, para diferentes tiempos de enfriamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez, C.; Navarro, G.; Pereda, C.; Mutis, O. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares. Unidad de Reactores; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In this work we report a complete set of measurements and some relevant results regarding the burnup process of a fuel element containing low enriched nuclear fuel. This fuel element was fabricated at the Plant of Fuel Elements of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). Measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy and the absolute burnup of the fuel element was determined. (author)

  16. Transport and degradation of fuel compounds in the vadose zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for groundwater...

  17. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...

  18. Development of TUF-ELOCA - a software tool for integrated single-channel thermal-hydraulic and fuel element analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, A.I.; Wu, E.; Yousef, W.W.; Pascoe, J. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Parlatan, Y. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kwee, M. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The TUF-ELOCA tool couples the TUF and ELOCA codes to enable an integrated thermal-hydraulic and fuel element analysis for a single channel during transient conditions. The coupled architecture is based on TUF as the parent process controlling multiple ELOCA executions that simulate the fuel elements behaviour and is scalable to different fuel channel designs. The coupling ensures a proper feedback between the coolant conditions and fuel elements response, eliminates model duplications, and constitutes an improvement from the prediction accuracy point of view. The communication interfaces are based on PVM and allow parallelization of the fuel element simulations. Developmental testing results are presented showing realistic predictions for the fuel channel behaviour during a transient. (author)

  19. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  20. Curved finite elements and acceleration for the neutron transport; Elements finis courbes et acceleration pour le transport de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, J.Y.

    2012-01-10

    To model the nuclear reactors, the stationary linear Boltzmann equation is solved. After discretizing the energy and the angular variables, the hyperbolic equation is numerically solved with the discontinuous finite element method. The MINARET code uses this method on a triangular unstructured mesh in order to deal with complex geometries (like containing arcs of circle). However, the meshes with straight edges only approximate such geometries. With curved edges, the mesh fits exactly to the geometry, and in some cases, the number of triangles decreases. The main task of this work is the study of finite elements on curved triangles with one or several curved edges. The choice of the basis functions is one of the main points for this kind of finite elements. We obtained a convergence result under the assumption that the curved triangles are not too deformed in comparison with the associated straight triangles. Furthermore, a code has been written to treat triangles with one, two or three curved edges. Another part of this work deals with the acceleration of transport calculations. Indeed, the problem is solved iteratively, and, in some cases, can converge really slowly. A DSA (Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration) method has been implemented using a technique from interior penalty methods. A Fourier analysis in 1D and 2D allows to estimate the acceleration for infinite periodical media, and to check the stability of the numerical scheme when strong heterogeneities exist. (author) [French] La modelisation des reacteurs nucleaires repose sur la resolution de l'equation de Boltzmann lineaire. Nous nous sommes interesses a la resolution spatiale de la forme stationnaire de cette equation. Apres discretisation en energie et en angle, l'equation hyperbolique est resolue numeriquement par la methode des elements finis discontinus. Le solveur MINARET utilise cette methode sur un maillage triangulaire non structure afin de pouvoir traiter des geometries complexes

  1. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  2. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  3. Discontinuous finite element and characteristics methods for neutrons transport equation solution in heterogeneous grids; Resolution de l'equation du transport des neutrons par les methodes des elements finis discontinus et des caracteristiques structurees appliquees a des maillages heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, E

    2006-07-01

    The principal goal of this manuscript is devoted to the investigation of a new type of heterogeneous mesh adapted to the shape of the fuel pins (fuel-clad-moderator). The new heterogeneous mesh guarantees the spatial modelling of the pin-cell with a minimum of regions. Two methods are investigated for the spatial discretization of the transport equation: the discontinuous finite element method and the method of characteristics for structured cells. These methods together with the new representation of the pin-cell result in an appreciable reduction of calculation points. They allow an exact modelling of the fuel pin-cell without spatial homogenization. A new synthetic acceleration technique based on an angular multigrid is also presented for the speed up of the inner iterations. These methods are good candidates for transport calculations for a nuclear reactor core. A second objective of this work is the application of method of characteristics for non-structured geometries to the study of double heterogeneity problem. The letters is characterized by fuel material with a stochastic dispersion of heterogeneous grains, and until now was solved with a model based on collision probabilities. We propose a new statistical model based on renewal-Markovian theory, which makes possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the problem and to avoid the approximations of the collision probability model. The numerical solution of this model is guaranteed by the method of characteristics. (author)

  4. The sustainable development of transports: the motors and the fuels; Le developpement durable des transports: quels moteurs, quels carburants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This panorama 2005 between politicians, industrialists and scientists discussed the following topics: exploration-production activities and markets, refining and petrochemistry, the future world gas market, the petroleum supply and demand, the new petroleum and gas reserves, the today and tomorrow alternative fuels, the biofuels in the world, the hybrid vehicles future, the energy consumption in the transport sector, the road fuels in europe and the increase of diesel fuel, the de-pollution techniques of industrial vehicles. The slides of the interventions are provided. The sheets ''le point sur'' of the year 2005 are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Original Experimental Approach for Assessing Transport Fuel Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Kenza; Ben Amara, Arij; Alves Fortunato, Maira; Wund, Perrine; Veyrat, Benjamin; Hayrault, Pascal; Vannier, Axel; Nardin, Michel; Starck, Laurie

    2016-10-21

    The study of fuel oxidation stability is an important issue for the development of future fuels. Diesel and kerosene fuel systems have undergone several technological changes to fulfill environmental and economic requirements. These developments have resulted in increasingly severe operating conditions whose suitability for conventional and alternative fuels needs to be addressed. For example, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) introduced as biodiesel are more prone to oxidation and may lead to deposit formation. Although several methods exist to evaluate fuel stability (induction period, peroxides, acids, and insolubles), no technique allows one to monitor the real-time oxidation mechanism and to measure the formation of oxidation intermediates that may lead to deposit formation. In this article, we developed an advanced oxidation procedure (AOP) based on two existing reactors. This procedure allows the simulation of different oxidation conditions and the monitoring of the oxidation progress by the means of macroscopic parameters, such as total acid number (TAN) and advanced analytical methods like gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR). We successfully applied AOP to gain an in-depth understanding of the oxidation kinetics of a model molecule (methyl oleate) and commercial diesel and biodiesel fuels. These developments represent a key strategy for fuel quality monitoring during logistics and on-board utilization.

  6. Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wismer, L.

    1996-04-01

    Environmental concerns with air quality and global warming have triggered strict federal ambient ozone air quality standards. Areas on non-attainment of these standards exist across the United States. Because it contains several of the most difficult attainment areas, the State of California has adopted low emission standards including a zero emission vehicle mandate that has given rise to development of hybrid electric vehicles, both battery-powered and fuel-cell powered. Fuel cell powered vehicles, using on-board hydrogen as a fuel, share the non-polluting advantage of the battery electric vehicle while offering at least three times the range today`s battery technology.

  7. Test design description Volume 2, Part 1. IFR-1 metal fuel irradiation test (AK-181) element as-built data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, N. E.

    1986-06-01

    The IFR-1 Test, designated as the AK-181 Test Assembly, will be the first irradiation test of wire wrapped, sodium-bonded metallic fuel elements in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The test is part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuels program conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in support of the Innovative Reactor Concepts Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). One subassembly, containing 169 fuel elements, will be irradiated for 600 full power days to achieve 10 at.% burnup. Three metal fuel alloys (U-10Zr, U-8Pu-10Zr) will be irradiated in D9 cladding tubes. The metal fuel elements have a fuel-smeared density of 75% and each contains five slugs. The enriched zone contains three slugs and is 36-in. long. One 6.5-in. long depleted uranium axial blanket slug (DU-10Zr) was loaded at each end of the enriched zone. the fuel elements were fabricated at ANL-W and delivered to Westinghouse-Hanford for wirewrapping and assembly into the test article. This Test Design Description contains relevant data on compositions, densities, dimensions and weights for the cast fuel slugs and completed fuel elements. The elements conform to the requirements in MG-22, "Users` Guide for the Irradiation of Experiments in the FTR."

  8. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  9. Metal cask RT-5000 for the dry storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyov, A.I.; Kazeev, V.G.; Krayev, V.S.; Shcherbina, A.N.; Churikov, Y.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    Presentation of new-type cask, developed at RFNC-VNIITF, is in the article. The prototype model of the shipping cask was subjected to tests imitating normal shipment conditions (free fall, pressing, and impact) and to tests imitating emergency situation during shipment (a drop from the 9-m height onto a pin is replaced by acceleration of the shipping cask at a guide rail of the rocket-catapult installation (RCI), a 1-m drop onto a pin, heat tests a 30-minutes fire at the temperature of for 8500 C, submergence to the depth of 15 and 200 meters). After each test the hermeticity preservation is examined. Parallel with the real testing, a mathematical simulation of physical processes induced by the corresponding tests was conducted at the RFNC-VNIITF. The required parameters obtained from the tests are used to calibrate the calculation methods. As a result it has been possible to obtain a good agreement between the results of calculations and experiments; this will allow the mathematic simulation to be used wider. The advantage of the RT-5000 metal cask in comparison with metal-concrete analogs are as follows: SFA are placed into the RT-5000 entirely without cutting into two bunches of fuel elements; the expensive hot doom is not required for automatic cutting the SFA and for loading the bunches of fuel elements into intermediate cases; the possibility remains to transport the RT-5000 without reloading SFA after 50-year storage, although this is a problem for the metal-concrete casks.

  10. Fuel composition optimization in a 78-element fuel bundle for use in a pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A 78-element fuel bundle containing a plutonium-thorium fuel mixture has been proposed for a Generation IV pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor. In this work, using a lattice cell model created with the code DRAGON,the lattice pitch, fuel composition (fraction of PuO{sub 2} in ThO{sub 2}) and radial enrichment profile of the 78-element bundle is optimized using a merit function and a metaheuristic search algorithm.The merit function is designed such that the optimal fuel maximizes fuel utilization while minimizing peak element ratings and coolant void reactivity. A radial enrichment profile of 10 wt%, 11 wt% and 20 wt% PuO{sub 2} (inner to outer ring) with a lattice pitch of 25.0 cm was found to provide the optimal merit score based on the aforementioned criteria. (author)

  11. Case Study: Transportation Initiative Incorporates Alternative Fuels and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced greenhouse gases by incorporating electric vehicles and alternative fuels into fleet operations. Lovell FHCC increased its electric fleet by 200 in one year.

  12. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  13. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  14. FEMA: a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the construction, verification, and demonstration of a Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The particular features of FEMA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Mechanisms included in FEMA are: carrier fluid advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion, radioactive decay, sorption, source/sinks, and degradation due to biological, chemical as well as physical processes. Three optional sorption models are embodied in FEMA. These are linear isotherm and Freundlich and Langmuir nonlinear isotherms. Point as well as distributed source/sinks are included to represent artificial injection/withdrawals and natural infiltration of precipitation. All source/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed concentration on the Dirichlet boundary, given gradient on the Neumann boundary segment, and flux at each Cauchy boundary segment can vary independently of each other. The aquifer may consist of as many formations as desired. Either completely confined or completely unconfined or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. FEMA also includes transient leakage to or from the aquifer of interest through confining beds from or to aquifers lying below and/or above.

  15. The use of methanol as a fuel for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Walsh, M.P. [Arlington, VA (United States); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the project was to collect and report international experiences concerning the use of methanol as an automotive fuel. The method has been to study the literature which covers the subject and most of the information has been collected that way. The project started with a participation in a conference and a visit to people who have been involved in activities concerning the use of automotive alcohols. Car manufacturers, environmental authorities and users of alcohol fuels i.e. representatives of bus companies, were interviewed. The different applications for the use of methanol as an automotive fuel has been described in the report as well as the production of methanol. Some results, mostly in form of emission data and other experiences derived from the use of alcohol fuels, have also been presented. The use of ethanol and methanol has been compared and based on information from engine manufacturers and users of alcohol fueled vehicles there seems to be a preference for the use of ethanol. However, the question `methanol or ethanol` has not been answered as the decision which of the two is to be used seems to depend more on economic factors, such as cost of the production of the fuel etc., than on other factors. 165 refs, 15 figs, 14 tabs

  16. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  17. Prediction of the thermal behavior of a particle spherical fuel element using GITT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, C.V. [Brazilian Army, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Science and Technology. Technological Center of the Army]. E-mail: pessoapen@gmail.com; Oliveira, Claudio L. de [Engineering Military Institute, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Science and Technology]. E-mail: d7luiz@ime.eb.br; Jian, Su [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: sujian@con.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the transient and steady state heat conduction in a spherical fuel element of a pebble-bed high temperature were studied. This pebble element is composed by a particulate region with spherical inclusions, the fuel UO{sub 2} particles, dispersed in a graphite matrix. A convective heat transfer by helium occurs on the outer surface of the fuel element. The two-energy equation model for the case of pure conduction was applied to this particulate spherical element, generating two macroscopic temperatures, respectively, of the inclusions and of the matrix. The transient analysis was carried out by using the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) that requires low computational efforts and allows a fast evaluation of the two macroscopic transient temperatures of the particulate region. The solution by GITT leads to a system of ordinary differential equations with the unknown transformed potentials. The mechanical properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat) of the materials were supposed not to depend on the temperature and to be uniform in each region. (author)

  18. Transport dynamics of a high-power-density matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Hagedorn, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental transport dynamics tests were made on a space power fuel cell of current design. Various operating transients were introduced and transport-related response data were recorded with fluidic humidity sensing instruments. Also, sampled data techniques were developed for measuring the cathode-side electrolyte concentration during transient operation.

  19. Sorption of prioritized elements on montmorillonite colloids and their potential to transport radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Susanna (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry)

    2010-04-15

    Due to colloids potential to bind radionuclides (RN) and even mobilise sorbed RN, colloid transport of RN should be taken into account when modeling radionuclide transport in the scenario of a leaking canister in a deep bedrock repository of spent nuclear fuel. Colloids are always present in natural waters and the concentrations are controlled by the groundwater chemistry where specifically the ionic strength is of major importance. In many deep bedrock groundwaters, the ionic strength is fairly high (above the Critical Coagulation Concentration) and therefore colloids are not likely to be stable. In these types of groundwaters colloid concentrations up to 100 mug/l could be expected, and clay colloids organic degradation products and bacteria and viruses represent can be found. In a long time perspective cycles of glaciations can be expected in Sweden as in other Nordic countries. It can not be excluded that glacial melt water can intrude to repository depth with high flows. In this scenario the groundwater conditions may drastically change. In contact with dilute groundwater the bentonite barrier can start to propagate a bentonite gel and further release montmorillonite colloids into water bearing fractures. The concentration of colloids in vicinity of the bentonite barrier can then increase drastically. In contact with Grimsel groundwater types with [Na] and [Ca] of 0.001 and 0.0001 M respectively a montmorillonite concentration of a maximum of 20 mg/l is expected. Further, the groundwater chemistry of Grimsel seems to be representative for glacial meltwater when comparing with the water chemistry data on meltwaters from existing glaciers. A key to be able to model colloid transport of radionuclides is the sorption strength and the sorption reversibility. To facilitate this, a compilation of literature K{sub d}-values and an inventory of available sorption kinetic data has been composed for the prioritized elements Pu, Th, Am, Pb, Pa, Ra, Np, Cm, Ac, Tc, Cs, Nb

  20. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of out-of-plane residual shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, R.; Kohli, D.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-02-01

    Bond strength and microstructural developments were investigated during fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. The study involved roll bonding of aluminum-aluminum (case A) and aluminum-aluminum + yttria (Y2O3) dispersion (case B). Case B approximated aluminum-uranium silicide (U3Si2) 'fuel-meat' in an actual plate fuel. Samples after different stages of fabrication, hot and cold rolling, were investigated through peel and pull tests, micro-hardness, residual stresses, electron and micro-focus X-ray diffraction. Measurements revealed a clear drop in bond strength during cold rolling: an observation unique to case B. This was related to significant increase in 'out-of-plane' residual shear stresses near the clad/dispersion interface, and not from visible signatures of microstructural heterogeneities.

  1. Demonstration tests for HTGR fuel elements and core components with test sections in HENDEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1995-03-01

    In the fuel stack test section (T{sub 1}) of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL), thermal and hydraulic performances of helium gas flows through a fuel rod channel and a fuel stack have been investigated for the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) core thermal design. The test data showed that the turbulent characteristics appearing in the Reynolds number above 2000: no typical behavior in the transition zone, and friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in the fuel channel were found to be higher than those in a smooth annular channel. Heat transfer behavior of gas flow in a fuel element channel with blockage and cross-flow through a gap between upper and lower fuel elements stacked was revealed using the mock-up models. On the other hand, demonstration tests have been performed to verify thermal and hydraulic characteristics and structural integrity related to the core bottom structure using a full-scale test facility named as the in-core structure test section (T{sub 2}). The sealing performance test revealed that the leakage of low-temperature helium gas through gaps between the permanent reflector blocks to the core was very low level compared with the HTTR design value and no change of the leakage flow rate were observed after a long term operation. The heat transfer tests including thermal transient at shutdown of gas circulators verified good insulating performance of core insulation structures in the core bottom structure and the hot gas duct; the temperature of the metal portion of these structure was below the design value. Examination of the thermal mixing characteristics indicated that the mixing of the hot helium gas started at a hot plenum and finished completely at downstream of the outlet hot gas duct. The present results obtained from these demonstration tests have been practically applied to the detailed design works and licensing procedures of the HTTR. (J.P.N.) 92 refs.

  2. Characterization of transport phenomena in small polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In small fuel cell systems, energy consumption and size of auxiliary devices should be minimized. One option is to use passive controlling methods that rely on material and structural solutions. Therefore it is important to understand transport phenomena occurring in the cells. In this thesis, charge, mass, and heat transport phenomena related to small PEMFCs were studied experimentally and by modeling. A new method was developed for the characterization of water transport properties of p...

  3. Fusion option to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-02-10

    The fusion option is examined to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. The analysis of this report shows that the top rated solution, the elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products, can be achieved in a fusion reactor. A 167 MW of fusion power from a D-T plasma for sixty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can transmute all the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products of the 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. The operating time can be reduced to thirty years with use of 334 MW of fusion power, a system study is needed to define the optimum time. In addition, the fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future. Fusion blankets with a liquid carrier for the transuranic elements can achieve a transmutation rate for the transuranic elements up to 80 kg/MW.y of fusion power with k{sub eff} of 0.98. In addition, the liquid blankets have several advantages relative to the other blanket options. The energy from this transmutation is utilized to produce revenue for the system. Molten salt (Flibe) and lithium-lead eutectic are identified as the most promising liquids for this application, both materials are under development for future fusion blanket concepts. The Flibe molten salt with transuranic elements was developed and used successfully as nuclear fuel for the molten salt breeder reactor in the 1960's.

  4. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of stress relief annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, D.; Rakesh, R.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-04-01

    This study involved fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. Uranium silicide of actual fuel elements was replaced with yttria. The fabrication stages were otherwise identical. The final cold rolled and/or straightened plates, without stress relief, showed an inverse relationship between bond strength and out of plane residual shear stress (τ13). Stress relief of τ13 was conducted over a range of temperatures/times (200-500 °C and 15-240 min) and led to corresponding improvements in bond strength. Fastest τ13 relief was obtained through 300 °C annealing. Elimination of microscopic shear bands, through recovery and partial recrystallization, was clearly the most effective mechanism of relieving τ13.

  5. Analytical assessment for stress corrosion fatigue of CANDU fuel elements under load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Ionescu, Drags; Pauna, Eduard [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). Nuclear Fuel Engineering Lab.

    2012-03-15

    When nuclear power reactors are operated in a load following (LF) mode, the nuclear fuel may be subjected to step changes in power on weekly, daily, or even hourly basis, depending on the grid's needs. Two load following tests performed in TRIGA Research Reactor of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti were simulated with finite elements computer codes in order to evaluate Stress Corrosion Fatigue (SCF) of the sheath arising from expansion and contraction of the pellets in the corrosive environment. The 3D finite element analyses show that the cyclic strains give highly multiaxial stresses in the sheath at ridge region. This paper summarizes the results of the analytical assessment for SCF and their relation to CANDU fuel performance in LF tests conditions. (orig.)

  6. Research on the interfacial behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Yan, Xiaoqing; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional constitutive relations are constructed, respectively, for the fuel particles, the metal matrix and the cladding of dispersion nuclear fuel elements, allowing for the effects of large deformation and thermal-elastoplasticity. According to the constitutive relations, the method of modeling their irradiation behaviors in ABAQUS is developed and validated. Numerical simulations of the interfacial performances between the fuel meat and the cladding are implemented with the developed finite element models for different micro-structures of the fuel meat. The research results indicate that: (1) the interfacial tensile stresses and shear stresses for some cases will increase with burnup, but the relative stresses will decrease with burnup for some micro-structures; (2) at the lower burnups, the interfacial stresses increase with the particle sizes and the particle volume fractions; however, it is not the case at the higher burnups; (3) the particle distribution characteristics distinctly affect the interfacial stresses, and the face-centered cubic case has the best interfacial performance of the three considered cases.

  7. Atrium and HTP fuel elements for the U. S. market. Atrium- und HTP-Brennelemente fuer den US-Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, J.N. (Siemens Power Corp. Nuclear Div., Engineering and Manufacturing Facility, Richland, WA (United States)); Krebs, W.D. (Technik Brennelemente und Reaktorkern, Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    The international acitivities of Siemens in the nuclear fuel sector are the responsibility of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Unit of the Power Generation Division (KWU) in Germany, the Nuclear Dividion of Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the Unites States, and the German Siemens subsidiaries, ANF GmbH (fuel element fabrication) in Lingen and NRG - Nuklearrohr Gesellschaft mbH (cladding tube production) in Duisburg. The requirements of the U.S. market for light water reactor fuel elements are met by products from the European market. (orig.)

  8. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine, reusable thrust chamber program. Task 6: Data dump hot fuel element investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of reusable thrust chambers for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine was conducted. Tests were conducted using subscale injector hot-fire procedures for the injector configurations designed for a regenerative cooled engine. The effect of operating conditions and fuel temperature on combustion chamber performance was determined. Specific objectives of the evaluation were to examine the optimum like-doublet element geometry for operation at conditions consistent with a fuel regeneratively cooled engine (hot fuel, 200 to 250 F) and the sensitivity of the triplet injector element to hot fuels.

  9. Hydrogen as a near-term transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Rambach, G.D.

    1995-06-29

    The health costs associated with urban air pollution are a growing problem faced by all societies. Automobiles burning gasoline and diesel contribute a great deal to this problem. The cost to the United States of imported oil is more than US$50 billion annually. Economic alternatives are being actively sought. Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range (>480 km) with emissions well below the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being required in California. These vehicles can also be manufactured without excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining engine and other component efficiencies, the overall vehicle efficiency should be about 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to what US vehicle operators pay today. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing low-cost, large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus can be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  10. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  11. Transport and degradation of fuel compounds in the vadose zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for groundwater...... contamination. Field data and calculations of mass in the pore air indicate a large loss within a short period of time. Laboratory experiments and isotopic analysis proves that biodegradation is occurring. The results indicate that for most compounds degradation is significant reducing the concentrations...

  12. Plan and safety analysis on the high power irradiation test program of full length fuel element for Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, C.K.; Park, H.D.; Kim, K.H.; Park, J.M.; Lee, D.B.; Kim, J.D.; Ko, Y.M.; Jang, S.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Woo, Y.M.; Kim, E.S.; Kim, H.R.; Chae, H.T.; Lee, C.S

    1999-06-01

    The advanced research reactor fuel development project has been carried out for a localization of HANARO nuclear fuels. The design and fabrication technologies of the localized fuel are almost developed, and the quality assurance procedure and assessment criteria were established. The characteristics of the fuel fabricated in KAERI were investigated through out-pile test. In order to verify the localized fuel performance, irradiation test plan of the developed fuel has been worked out. It consists of 3 stages. The 1st stage is normal power irradiation test and the final burn-up of the test fuel was supposed to be 85 at%. The fuel has been successfully irradiated until now and will be unloaded in June. The 2nd irradiation test will be done to confirm the fuel performance and to get the in-pile data under the high neutron flux level. This test fuel is identical with the 36-element fuel assembly. After the 1st and 2nd irradiation tests are completed with acceptable results, the 3rd irradiation test of final stage will be carried out as a demonstration. In this report, the results of the 1st irradiation test is introduced. Then the objectives, schedule and test condition, the design documents of fuel elements and bundle, the methods of fabrication, out-pile test results, post-irradiation examination scheme, calculation of linear power distribution, and safety analysis results for the 2nd irradiation test bundle are described. (author). 2 refs., 14 tabs., 12 figs.

  13. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  14. Modeling of the heat transfer performance of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Yan, XiaoQing

    2009-08-01

    Considering the mutual actions between fuel particles and the metal matrix, the three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the heat transfer behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel plates. The research results indicate that the temperatures of the fuel plate might rise more distinctly with considering the particle swelling and the degraded surface heat transfer coefficients with increasing burnup; the local heating phenomenon within the particles appears when their thermal conductivities are too low. With rise of the surface heat transfer coefficients, the temperatures within the fuel plate decrease; the temperatures of the fuel plate are sensitive to the variations of the heat transfer coefficients whose values are lower, but their effects are weakened and slight when the heat transfer coefficients increase and reach a certain extent. Increasing the heat generation rate leads to elevating the internal temperatures. The temperatures and the maximum temperature differences within the plate increase along with the particle volume fractions. The surface thermal flux goes up along with particle volume fractions and heat generation rates, but the effects of surface heat transfer coefficients are not evident.

  15. Assessment of health risks brought about by transportation of spent fuel; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen kuljetusten terveysriskien arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suolanen, V.; Lautkaski, R.; Rossi, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In the study health risks caused by transportation of spent fuel from Olkiluoto and from Loviisa NPP`s to the planned disposal site have been evaluated. The Olkiluoto NPP is owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and the Loviisa NPP, situated at Haestholmen, by Fortum Power and Heat Oy. According to the base scenario of 40 years use of the current NPP`s the total amount of spent fuel will be 1840 tU (TVO) and 860 tU (Fortum). Annually, 110 tU on the average and at most 250 tU will be transported to the disposal site. The considered transportation routes are from Olkiluoto to Haestholmen, from Olkiluoto to Kivetty, from Olkiluoto to Romuvaara, from Haestholmen to Olkiluoto, from Haestholmen to Kivetty and from Haestholmen to Romuvaara. The considered transportation modes are truck, rail or ship, or combinations of these modes. Each transportation route has been divided into homogenised sequences with respect to population density and/or route type. Total amount of analysed route options were 40, some route sequences are overlapping. Radiation exposures to the population along the routes have been calculated in normal, incident and accident situations during transportation. Occupational radiation doses to the personnel have been estimated for normal transportation only. The consequences of normal transportation have been evaluated based on RADTRAN-model, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories. As incidents, stopping of spent fuel transportation for an exceptionally long period of time, and in another case contamination of outer surface of spent fuel cask have been considered. Expected collective doses and health risks of transportation accidents connected to the routes have been calculated with RADTRAN-model. Single hypothetical transport accidents with pessimistic release assumptions have been further analysed in more detail with the ARANO-model, developed by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). (orig.) 9 refs.

  16. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    The incitement for decreasing the modern society's dependency on fossil based fuel and energy is both environmentally and politically driven. Development of biofuels could be part of the future solution. The combination of ash pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of the produced bio-oil has been ide...

  17. Component Development - Advanced Fuel Cells for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William

    2000-06-19

    Report summarizes results of second phase of development of Vairex air compressor/expander for automotive fuel cell power systems. Project included optimizing key system performance parameters, as well as reducing number of components and the project cost, size and weight of the air system. Objectives were attained. Advanced prototypes are in commercial test environments.

  18. Overview of transportation in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-05-01

    This document presents a review of current transportation regulations, a description of transportation systems currently in use, a discussion of systems that are anticipated to be developed in the future and a projection of shipments and shipping distances through the year 2000. (LK)

  19. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  20. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R. [ANATECH Research Corp., La Jolla, CA (United States); Malinauskas, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Einziger, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, H. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Reardon, P.C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs.

  1. Simulation of the Internal Transport Phenomena for PEM Fuel Cells with Different Modes of Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鸣若; 朱新坚; 顾安忠

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is developed, which can simulate such basic transport phenomena as gas-liquid two-phase flow in a working fuel cell. Boundary conditions for both the conventional and the interdigitated modes of flow are presented on a three-dimensional basis. Numerical techniques for this model are discussed in detail. Validation shows good agreement between simulating results and experimental data. Furthermore, internal transport phenomena are discussed and compared for PEM fuel cells with conventional and interdigitated flows. It is found that the dead-ended structure of an interdigitated flow does increase the oxygen mass fraction and decrease the liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer as compared to the conventional mode of flow. However, the cathode humidification is important for an interdigitated flow to acquire better performance than a conventional flow fuel cell.

  2. Fuel-rich, catalytic reaction experimental results. [fuel development for high-speed civil transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine combustion requirements call for operating at very high inlet temperatures, pressures, and large temperature rises. At the same time, the combustion process is to have minimum pollution effects on the environment. Aircraft gas turbine engines utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels which are difficult to uniformly atomize and mix with combustion air. An approach for minimizing fuel related problems is to transform the liquid fuel into gaseous form prior to the completion of the combustion process. Experimentally obtained results are presented for vaporizing and partially oxidizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into burnable gaseous components. The presented experimental data show that 1200 to 1300 K reaction product gas, rich in hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and light-end hydrocarbons, is formed when flowing 0.3 to 0.6 fuel to air mixes through a catalyst reactor. The reaction temperatures are kept low enough that nitrogen oxides and carbon particles (soot) do not form. Results are reported for tests using different catalyst types and configurations, mass flowrates, input temperatures, and fuel to air ratios.

  3. Morphologically controlled fuel cell transport layers enabled via electrospun carbon nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Devin; Mérida, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and performance of carbon nanofibre substrates for PEM fuel cell transport layer applications. Electrospinning is used for fabrication; by manipulation of spinning properties, morphological control is demonstrated in the product. Our application of the technology and it's manipulability to PEMFC transport layers constitutes a novel approach to the manufacture of such layers. Ex-situ morphology, electrical resistance and water contact angles are reported in additional to in-situ hydrogen/air fuel cell performance. Electrospun transport layers are compared directly to established commercial products in a cathode PTL role. The electrospun transport layers demonstrate approximately 85% of the commercial limiting current density, swifter water transport characteristics, and markedly more stable operating points.

  4. Fuel cells for transportation program: FY1997 national laboratory annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cells for Transportation Program is structured to effectively implement the research and development (R and D) required for highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems to be a viable replacement for the internal combustion engine in automobiles. The Program is part of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a government-industry initiative aimed at development of an 80 mile-per-gallon vehicle. This Annual Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of the laboratories during 1997. Participants include: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). During 1997, the laboratory R and D included one project on solid oxide fuel cells; this project has since been terminated to focus Department resources on PEM fuel cells. The technical component of this report is divided into five key areas: fuel cell stack research and development; fuel processing; fuel cell modeling, testing, and evaluation; direct methanol PEM fuel cells; and solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. A Historical Review of the Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Kevin J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pope, Ronald [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report is a revision to M3 milestone M3FT-16OR090402028 for the former Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST), “Safety Record of SNF Shipments.” The US Department of Energy (DOE) has since established the Office of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), which builds on the work begun by NFST, to develop an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), including the developm

  6. Water Transport Analysis in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Tsushima; S.Hirai

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have beenintensively developedfor future vehicle applications andon-site power generation owing to its high energy efficiency and high power density.In PEFCs ,appropriatewater management to maintain polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydratedis of great i mportance ,becausethe ion conductivity of membraneislower at lower water content .Consequently,it is of great interest to watercontent and water transport process in PEMs during fuel cell operation.

  7. Development of the manufacture and process for DUPIC fuel elements; development of the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Choi, Myong Seon; Yang, Hyun Tae; Kim, Dong Gyun; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Jin Ho [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this research is to set up the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel element. High temperature corrosion test and the SCC test for Zircaloy-4 were performed, and also the possibility of the ultrasonic test technique was verified for the quality evaluation and control of the laser welds in the DUPIC fuel rod end cap. From the evaluation of corrosion properties with measuring the weight gain and observing oxide film of the specimen that had been in the circumstance of steam(400 .deg. C, 1,500 psi) by max. 70 days later, the weight gain of the welded specimens was larger than original tube and the weight increasing rate increased with the exposed days. For the Development of techniques for ultrasonic test, semi-auto ultrasonic test system has been made based on immersion pulse-echo technique using spherically concentrated ultrasonic beam. Subsequently, developed ultrasonic test technique is quite sensible to shape of welds in the inside and outside of tube as well as crack, undercut and expulsion, and also this ultrasonic test, together with metallurgical fracture test, has good reliance as enough to be used for control method of welding process. 43 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  8. Information on the evolution of severe LWR fuel element damage obtained in the CORA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, G.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1992-06-01

    In the CORA program a series of out-of-pile experiments on LWR severe accidental situations is being performed, in which test bundles of LWR typical components and arrangements (PWR, BWR) are exposed to temperature transients up to about 2400°C under flowing steam. The individual features of the facility, the test conduct, and the evaluation will be presented. In the frame of the international cooperation in severe fuel damage (SFD) programs the CORA tests are contributing confirmatory and complementary informations to the results from the limited number of in-pile tests. The identification of basic phenomena of the fuel element destruction, observed as a function of temperature, is supported by separate-effects test results. Most important mechanisms are the steam oxidation of the Zircaloy cladding, which determines the temperature escalation, the chemical interaction between UO 2 fuel and cladding, which dominates fuel liquefaction, relocation and resulting blockage formation, as well as chemical interactions with Inconel spacer grids and absorber units ((Ag, In, Cd) alloy or B 4C), which are leading to extensive low-temperature melt formation around 1200°C. Interrelations between those basic phenomena, resulting for example in cladding deformation ("flowering") and the dramatic hydrogen formation in response to the fast cooling of a hot bundle by cold water ("quenching") are determining the evolution paths of fuel element destruction, which are to be identified. A further important task is the abstraction from mechanistic and microstructural details in order to get a rough classification of damage regimes (temperature and extent), a practicable analytical treatment of the materials behaviour, and a basis for decisions in accident mitigation and management procedures.

  9. Non-isothermal two-phase transport in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell microporous layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Nan

    This thesis investigates the water transport mechanisms in the crack-free microporous layer (MPL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Synchrotron X-ray radiography was used to visualize and quantify the in situ liquid water in the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) of an operating fuel cell. A methodology was developed to correct the artefact of imaging sample movement. Furthermore, to address inaccuracies due to the scattering effect and higher harmonics at the synchrotron beamline, a calibration technique was introduced in order to experimentally determine the liquid water X-ray attenuation coefficient. Through in situ radiography, liquid water breakthrough events were observed in the MPL, and measured water thicknesses were used as inputs into a one-dimensional (1D) heat and mass transport model. The 1D model was used to describe the coupled relationship between liquid and vapour transport through the cathode MPL and the temperature distributions in the operating fuel cell.

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  11. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome A. Ramirez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can be modified towards meeting fuel standards using strategies such as solvent extraction, distillation, hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking. This article presents a review of the upgrading technologies available, and how they might be used to make HTL bio-crude into a transportation fuel that meets current fuel property standards.

  12. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  13. Studies on disintegrating spherical fuel elements of high temperature gas-cooled reactor by a electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lifang; Wen, Mingfen; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Spherical fuel elements of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor were disintegrated through a electrochemical method with NaNO3 as electrolyte. The X-ray diffraction spectra and total carbon contents of the graphite fragments were determined, and the results agreed with those from simulated fuel elements. After conducting the characterization analysis and the leaching experiment of coated fuel particles, the uranium concentrations of leaching solutions and spent electrolyte were found to be at background levels. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved electrochemical method with NaNO3 as electrolyte in disintegrating the unirradiated fuel elements without any damage to the coated fuel particles. Moreover, the method avoided unexpected radioactivity contamination to the graphite matrix and spent electrolyte.

  14. Role of membranes and membrane reactors in the hydrogen supply of fuel cells for transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julbe, A.; Guizard, Ch. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMII, Lab. des Materiaux et des Procedes Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5635, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2000-07-01

    Production, storage and supply of high-purity hydrogen as a clean and efficient fuel is central to fuel cells technology, in particular in vehicle traction. Actually, technologies for handling liquefied or gaseous hydrogen in transports are not available so that a number of alternative fuels are considered with the aim of in-situ generation of hydrogen through catalytic processes. The integrated concept of membrane reactors (MRs) can greatly benefit to these technologies. Particular emphasis is put on inorganic membranes and their role in MRs performance for H{sub 2} production.

  15. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy

  16. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  17. Direct methanol fuel cells for transportation applications. Quarterly technical report, June 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T.F.; Kunz, H.R.; Moore, R.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research and development effort is to advance the performance and viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology for light-duty transportation applications. For fuel cells to be an attractive alternative to conventional automotive power plants, the fuel cell stack combined with the fuel processor and ancillary systems must be competitive in terms of both performance and costs. A major advantage for the direct methanol fuel cell is that a fuel processor is not required. A direct methanol fuel cell has the potential of satisfying the demanding requirements for transportation applications, such as rapid start-up and rapid refueling. The preliminary goals of this effort are: (1) 310 W/l, (2) 445 W/kg, and (3) potential manufacturing costs of $48/kW. In the twelve month period for phase 1, the following critical areas will be investigated: (1) an improved proton-exchange membrane that is more impermeable to methanol, (2) improved cathode catalysts, and (3) advanced anode catalysts. In addition, these components will be combined to form membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA`s) and evaluated in subscale tests. Finally a conceptual design and program plan will be developed for the construction of a 5 kW direct methanol stack in phase II of the program.

  18. Electrolyser and fuel cells, key elements for energy and life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstahler, Klaus; Funke, Helmut; Lucas, Joachim

    Both, Electrolyser and Fuel Cells are key elements for regenerative energy and life support systems. Electrolyser technology is originally intended for oxygen production in manned space habitats and in submarines, through splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells serve for energy production through the reaction, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte, between a fuel and an oxidant. Now combining both technologies i.e. electrolyser and fuel cell makes it a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS). In charge mode, i.e. with energy supplied e.g. by solar cells, the electrolyser splits water into hydrogen and oxygen being stored in tanks. In discharge mode, when power is needed but no energy is available, the stored gases are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under the formation of water that is stored in tanks. Rerouting the water to the electrolyser makes it a closed-loop i.e. regenerative process. Different electrolyser and fuel cell technologies are being evolved. At Astrium emphasis is put on the development of an RFCS comprised of Fixed Alkaline Electrolyser (FAE) and Fuel Cell (AFC) as such technology offers a high electrical efficiency and thus reduced system weight, which is important in space applications. With increasing power demand and increasing discharge time an RFCS proves to be superior to batteries. Since the early technology development multiple design refinements were done at Astrium, funded by the European Space Agency ESA and the German National Agency DLR as well as based on company internal R and T funding. Today a complete RFCS energy system breadboard is established and the operational behavior of the system is being tested. In parallel the electrolyser itself is subject to design refinement and testing in terms of oxygen production in manned space habitats. In addition essential features and components for process monitoring and control are being developed. The present results and achievements and the dedicated

  19. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  20. Application and Development of Biomass Fuels for Transportation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianxin; SHUAI Shijin; CHEN Hu

    2007-01-01

    Biomass fuels have become a big concern due to the large increase in green house gases and the rapid rise of petroleum prices around the world. This paper reviews recent developments in biomass fuels,such as ethanol and biodiesel, in China. Ethanol-gasoline mixture (E10) for vehicles is currently distributed in nine provinces while biodiesel is under development. One way to extend the application of ethanol is to burn it in diesel engines to lower soot emissions. The effects of the different methods blending ethanol with fossil diesel, and blending biodiesel with fossil diesel and ethanol-diesel on the combustion and emissions are investigated. The test results show that ethanol and biodiesel can be mixed with fossil diesel to greatly reduce particulate matter and soot emissions from diesel engines. But the application of ethanol blending with fossil diesel is more difficult than that of ethanol blending with gasoline, and biodiesel blending with fossil diesel. The dual-fuel injection of ethanol and diesel systems has the highest smoke reduction effect for a high ethanol fraction.

  1. Ethanol as a fuel for road transportation. Main report; Contribution to IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. In discussions of the advantages and drawbacks of ethanol, the type of application is important. Generalization is not possible, because ethanol can be used in many forms. Furthermore, a wide range of ethanol/gasoline blends has not yet been investigated sufficiently. The most favorable type of application is determined by infrastructural factors, especially vehicle fleet configuration. From a technical point of view, optimal usage involves a high degree of water content in the ethanol, and this excludes low-percentage-ethanol fuels. The benefits seem strongly related to the amount of ethanol in a given blend, that is, the more the better. Both engine efficiencies and emissions improve with more ethanol in the fuel. Wet ethanol constitutes an even cleaner fuel in both the production and application phases. In summary, ethanol application has many possibilities, but with each type of application comes a set of challenges. Nevertheless, technical solutions for each challenge are available. (ln)

  2. ACR fuel storage analysis: finite element heat transfer analysis of dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khair, K.; Baset, S.; Millard, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decade Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has designed and licensed air-cooled concrete structures used as above ground dry storage containers (MACSTOR) to store irradiated nuclear fuel from CANDU plants. A typical MACSTOR 200 module is designed to store 12,000 bundles in 20 storage cylinders. MACSTOR 200 modules are in operation at Gentilly-2 in Canada and at Cernavoda in Romania. The MACSTOR module is cooled passively by natural convection and by conduction through the concrete walls and roof. Currently AECL is designing the Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) with CANFLEX slightly enriched uranium fuel to be used. AECL has initiated a study to explore the possibility of storing the irradiated nuclear fuel from ACR in MACSTOR modules. This included work to consider ways of minimizing footprint both in the spent fuel storage bay and in the dry storage area. The commercial finite element code ANSYS has been used in this study. The FE model is used to complete simulations with the higher heat source using the same concrete structural dimensions to assess the feasibility of using the MACSTOR design for storing the ACR irradiated fuel. This paper presents the results of the analysis. The results are used to confirm the possibility of using, with minimal changes to the design of the storage baskets and the structure, the proven design of the MACSTOR 200 containment to store the ACR fuel bundles with higher enrichment and burnup. This has thus allowed us to confirm conceptual feasibility and move on to investigation of optimization. (author)

  3. A bubble-driven microfluidic transport element for bioengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmottant, P.G.M.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2004-01-01

    Microfluidics typically uses channels to transport small objects by actuation forces such as an applied pressure difference or thermocapillarity. We propose that acoustic streaming is an alternative means of directional transport at small scales. Microbubbles on a substrate establish well controlled

  4. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  5. Calibration of the Failed-Fuel-Element Detection Systems in the Aagesta Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O.

    1966-06-15

    Results from a calibration of the systems for detection of fuel element ruptures in the Aagesta reactor are presented. The calibration was carried out by means of foils of zirconium-uranium alloy which were placed in a special fuel assembly. The release of fission products from these foils is due mainly to recoil and can be accurately calculated. Before the foils were used in the reactor their corrosion behaviour in high temperature water was investigated. The results obtained with the precipitator systems for bulk detection and localization are in good agreement with the expected performance. The sensitivity of these systems was found to be high enough for detection and localization of small defects of pin-hole type ({nu} = 10{sup -8}/s ). The general performance of the systems was satisfactory during the calibration tests, although a few adjustments are desirable. A bulk detecting system for monitoring of activities in the moderator, in which the {gamma}-radiation from coolant samples is measured directly after an ion exchanger, showed lower sensitivity than expected from calculations. It seems that the sensitivity of the latter system has to be improved to admit the detection of small defects. In the ion exchanger system, and to some extent in the precipitator systems, the background from A{sup 41} in the coolant limits the sensitivity. The calibration technique utilized seems to be of great advantage when investigating the performance of failed-fuel-element detection systems.

  6. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  7. Study of minimum-weight highway transporters for spent nuclear fuel casks: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, J.A.; Drago, V.J.

    1989-05-01

    There are federal and state limits on the maximum tractor-trailer- payload combination and individual axle loads permissible on US highways. These can generally be considered as two sets, i.e., legal-weight and overweight limits. The number of individual shipments required will decrease as the capacity of the spent nuclear fuel cask increases. Thus, there is an incentive for identifying readily available minimum-weight tractors and trailers capable of safely and reliably transporting as large a cask as possible without exceeding the legal gross combination weight (GCW) of 80,000 lb or selected overweight GCW limit of 110,000 lb. This study identifies options for commercially available heavy-duty on-highway tractors and trailers for transporting proposed future loaded spent nuclear fuel casks. Loaded cask weights of 56,000 and 80,000 lb were selected as reference design points for the legal-weight and overweight transporters, respectively. The technical data on tractor and trailer characteristics obtained indicate that it is possible to develop a tractor-trailer combination, tailored for spent nuclear fuel transportation service, utilizing existing technology and commercially available components, capable of safely and reliably transporting 56,000 and 80,000-lb spent nuclear fuel casks without exceeding GCWs of 80,000 and 10,000 lb, respectively. 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: mlnegro@ipen.br, E-mail: saliba@ipen.br, E-mail: mdurazzo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  9. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-05-12

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can

  10. Alternative transportation fuels: Infrastructure requirements and environmental impacts for ethanol and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Heather L.

    Alternative fuels could replace a significant portion of the 140 billion gallons of annual US gasoline use. Considerable attention is being paid to processes and technologies for producing alternative fuels, but an enormous investment in new infrastructure will be needed to have substantial impact on the demand for petroleum. The economics of production, distribution, and use, along with environmental impacts of these fuels, will determine the success or failure of a transition away from US petroleum dependence. This dissertation evaluates infrastructure requirements for ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels. It begins with an economic case study for ethanol and hydrogen in Iowa. A large-scale linear optimization model is developed to estimate average transportation distances and costs for nationwide ethanol production and distribution systems. Environmental impacts of transportation in the ethanol life cycle are calculated using the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. An EIO-LCA Hybrid method is developed to evaluate impacts of future fuel production technologies. This method is used to estimate emissions for hydrogen production and distribution pathways. Results from the ethanol analyses indicate that the ethanol transportation cost component is significant and is the most variable. Costs for ethanol sold in the Midwest, near primary production centers, are estimated to be comparable to or lower than gasoline costs. Along with a wide range of transportation costs, environmental impacts for ethanol range over three orders of magnitude, depending on the transport required. As a result, intensive ethanol use should be encouraged near ethanol production areas. Fossil fuels are likely to remain the primary feedstock sources for hydrogen production in the near- and mid-term. Costs and environmental impacts of hydrogen produced from natural gas and transported by pipeline are comparable to gasoline. However, capital costs are prohibitive and

  11. Applying Advanced Neutron Transport Calculations for Improving Fuel Performance Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botazzoli, P.; Luzzi, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Division - CeSNEF, Milano (Italy); Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haeck, W. [Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-06-15

    TRANSURANUS is a computer code for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods in nuclear reactors. As part of the code, the TUBRNP model calculates the local concentration of the actinides (U, Pu, Am, Cm), the main fission products (Xe, Kr, Cs and Nd) and {sup 4}He produced during the irradiation as a function of the radial position across a fuel pellet (radial profiles). These local quantities are required for the determination of the local power density, the local burn-up, and the source term of fission products and other inert gases. In previous works the neutronic code ALEPH has been used to validate the models for the actinides and fission products concentrations in UO{sub 2} fuels. A similar approach has been adopted in the present work for verifying the Helium production. The present paper focuses on the modelling of the Helium production in PWR oxide fuels (MOX and UO{sub 2}). A reliable prediction of the Helium production and release in LWR oxide fuels is of great interest in case of increasing burn-up, linear heat generation rates and Plutonium content. The contribution of the Helium released plays a fundamental role in the gap pressure and subsequently in the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod, in particular during the storage of the high burn-up spent fuel. Helium is produced in oxide fuels by three main paths: (i) alpha decay of the actinides (the main contribution is due to {sup 242}Cm, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 244}Cm); (ii) (n,{alpha}) reactions; and (iii) ternary fission. In the present work, the contributions due to ternary fission and the (n,{alpha}) reaction on {sup 16}O as well as some refinements in the {sup 241}Am burn-up chain have been included in TUBRNP. The VESTA neutronic code has been used for the validation of the He production model. The generic VESTA Monte Carlo depletion interface developed at IRSN allows us to couple different Monte Carlo codes with a depletion module. It currently allows for combining the ORIGEN 2.2 isotope

  12. Experimental evaluation of thermal ratcheting behavior in UO2 fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of thermal cycling of UO2 at high temperatures has been experimentally evaluated to determine the rates of distortion of UO2/clad fuel elements. Two capsules were rested in the 1500 C range, one with a 50 C thermal cycle, the other with a 100 C thermal cycle. It was observed that eight hours at the lower cycle temperature produced sufficient UO2 redistribution to cause clad distortion. The amount of distortion produced by the 100 C cycle was less than double that produced by the 50 C, indicating smaller thermal cycles would result in clad distortion. An incubation period was observed to occur before the onset of distortion with cycling similar to fuel swelling observed in-pile at these temperatures.

  13. Fuel element failure detection experiments, evaluation of the experiments at KNK II/1 (Intermediate Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bruetsch, D

    1983-01-01

    In the frame of the fuel element failure detection experiments at KNK II with its first core the measurement devices of INTERATOM were taken into operation in August 1981 and were in operation almost continuously. Since the start-up until the end of the first KNK II core operation plugs with different fuel test areas were inserted in order to test the efficiency of the different measuring devices. The experimental results determined during this test phase and the gained experiences are described in this report and valuated. All three measuring techniques (Xenon adsorption line XAS, gas-chromatograph GC and precipitator PIT) could fulfil the expectations concerning their susceptibility. For XAS and GC the nuclide specific sensitivities as determined during the preliminary tests could be confirmed. For PIT the influences of different parameters on the signal yield could be determined. The sensitivity of the device could not be measured due to a missing reference measuring point.

  14. Study for the optimization of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency. Volume 1: Methodology, criteria, aeroelastic model definition and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovcich, N. A.; Dreim, D.; Okeefe, D. A.; Linner, L.; Pathak, S. K.; Reaser, J. S.; Richardson, D.; Sweers, J.; Conner, F.

    1985-01-01

    Work performed in the design of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency is documented with emphasis on design criteria, design methodology, and three design configurations. The design database includes complete finite element model description, sizing data, geometry data, loads data, and inertial data. A design process which satisfies the economics and practical aspects of a real design is illustrated. The cooperative study relationship between the contractor and NASA during the course of the contract is also discussed.

  15. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, Satish G. [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Lu, Zijie [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rao, Navalgund [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Sergi, Jacqueline [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rath, Cody [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); McDade, Christopher [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Trabold, Thomas [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Owejan, Jon [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Gagliardo, Jeffrey [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Allen, Jeffrey [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Yassar, Reza S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medici, Ezequiel [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Herescu, Alexandru [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions.

  16. Fusion solution to dispose of spent nuclear fuel, transuranic elements, and highly enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Yousry E-mail: gohar@anl.gov

    2001-11-01

    The disposal of the nuclear spent fuel, the transuranic elements, and the highly enriched uranium represents a major problem under investigation by the international scientific community to identify the most promising solutions. The investigation of this paper focused on achieving the top rated solution for the problem, the elimination goal, which requires complete elimination for the transuranic elements or the highly enriched uranium, and the long-lived fission products. To achieve this goal, fusion blankets with liquid carrier, molten salts or liquid metal eutectics, for the transuranic elements and the uranium isotopes are utilized. The generated energy from the fusion blankets is used to provide revenue for the system. The long-lived fission products are fabricated into fission product targets for transmutation utilizing the neutron leakage from the fusion blankets. This paper investigated the fusion blanket designs for small fusion devices and the system requirements for such application. The results show that 334 MW of fusion power from D-T plasma for 30 years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of the 70,000 tons of the U.S. inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, this fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future.

  17. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  18. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategi...

  19. Biogas as a fuel source for the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ; and there is an urgent need to develop clean, low-carbon mass transport options that are accessible and affordable A legacy of mining has resulted in mine-dumps, with air-, water- and soil- contamination and degraded land. These lands are unutilised or underutilised...

  20. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  1. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of natural gas based fuel chains for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-04-15

    This research compares the use of natural gas, methanol, and hydrogen as transportation fuels. These three fuel chains start with the extraction and processing of natural gas in the Norwegian North Sea and end with final use in Central Europe. The end use is passenger transportation with a sub-compact car that has an internal combustion engine for the natural gas case and a fuel cell for the methanol and hydrogen cases. The life cycle assessment is performed by combining a process based life-cycle inventory with economic input-output data. The analysis shows that the potential climate impacts are lowest for the hydrogen fuel scenario with CO2 deposition. The hydrogen fuel chain scenario has no significant environmental disadvantage compared to the other fuel chains. Detailed analysis shows that the construction of the car contributes significantly to most impact categories. Finally, it is shown how the application of a hybrid inventory model ensures a more complete inventory description compared to standard process-based life-cycle assessment. This is particularly significant for car construction which would have been significantly underestimated in this study using standard process life-cycle assessment alone.

  2. Used Fuel Logistics: Decades of Experience with transportation and Interim storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, G.; Shelton, C.

    2015-07-01

    Used fuel inventories are growing worldwide. While some countries have opted for a closed cycle with recycling, numerous countries must expand their interim storage solutions as implementation of permanent repositories is taking more time than foreseen. In both cases transportation capabilities will have to be developed. AREVA TN has an unparalleled expertise with transportation of used fuel. For more than 50 years AREVA TN has safely shipped more than 7,000 used fuel transport casks. The transportation model that was initially developed in the 1970s has been adapted and enhanced over the years to meet more restrictive regulatory requirements and evolving customer needs, and to address public concerns. The numerous “lessons learned” have offered data and guidance that have allowed for also efficient and consistent improvement over the decades. AREVA TN has also an extensive experience with interim dry storage solutions in many countries on-site but also is working with partners to developed consolidated interim storage facility. Both expertise with storage and transportation contribute to safe, secure and smooth continuity of the operations. This paper will describe decades of experience with a very successful transportation program as well as interim storage solutions. (Author)

  3. Simulation of irradiation hardening of Zircaloy within plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijie; Wang, Qiming; Cui, Yi; Huo, Yongzhong; Ding, Shurong

    2011-06-01

    Within plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the metal matrix and cladding attacked continuously by fast neutrons undergo irradiation hardening, which might have remarkable effects upon the mechanical behaviors within fuel elements. In this paper, with the irradiation hardening effect of metal materials mainly considered together with irradiation growth effect of the cladding, the three-dimensional large-deformation constitutive relations for the metal matrix and cladding are developed. The method of virtual temperature increase in the previous studies is further developed to model the irradiation swelling of fuel particles; the method of anisotropic thermal expansion is introduced to model irradiation growth of the cladding; and a method of multi-step-temperature loading is proposed to simulate the coupling features of irradiation-induced swelling of the fuel particles together with irradiation growth of the cladding. Above all, based on the developed relationship between irradiation growth at certain burnup and the loaded virtual temperatures, with considering that certain burnup corresponds to certain fast neutron fluence, the time-dependent constitutive relation due to irradiation hardening effect is replaced by the virtual-temperature-dependent one which is introduced into the commercial software to simulate the irradiation hardening effects of the matrix and cladding. Numerical simulations of the irradiation-induced mechanical behaviors are implemented with the finite element method in consideration of the micro-structure of the fuel meat. The obtained results indicate that when the irradiation hardening effects are introduced into the constitutive relations of the metal matrix and cladding: (1) higher maximum Mises stresses for certain burnup at the matrix exist with the equivalent plastic strains remaining almost the same at lower burnups; (2) the maximum Mises stresses for certain burnup at the cladding are enhanced while the maximum equivalent

  4. Sipping test on a failed MTR fuel element; Teste de sipping em um elemento combustivel tipo placa falhado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to determinate which one failed in the core during a routine operation of the reactor. radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131} I and {sup 133} I, employed as failure indicators, were detected in samples corresponding to the fuel element IEA-156. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137} Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3} O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137} Cs. (author)

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  6. MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions

  7. Characterization of spent fuel elements stored at IEA-R1 research reactor based on visual inspections and sipping tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Castanheira, Myrthes; Lucki, Georgi; Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jersilva@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Aluminum spent nuclear fuels are susceptible to corrosion attack, or mechanical damage from improper handling, while in pool reactor storage. Storage practices have been modified to reduce the potential for damage, based on recommendations presented at second WS on Spent Fuel Characterization, promoted by IAEA. In this work, we present the inspection program proposed to the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel elements, in order to provide information on the physical condition during the interim storage time under wet condition at the reactor pool. The inspection program is based on non-destructive tests results (visual inspection and sipping tests) already periodically performed to exam the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel and fuel elements from the core reactor. To record the available information and examination results it was elaborated a document in the format of a catalogue containing the proposed inspection program for the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel, the description of the visual inspection and sipping tests systems, a compilation of information and images result from the tests performed for all stored standard spent fuel element and, in annexes, copies of the reference documents. That document constitutes an important step of the effective implementation of the referred IEA-R1 spent fuel inspection program and can be used to address regulatory and operational needs for the demonstration, for example, of safe storage throughout the pool storage period. (author)

  8. Usage of Production Functions in the Comparative Analysis of Transport Related Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torok Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

  9. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  10. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  11. A software tool for integrated risk assessment of spent fuel transportation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Yun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When temporary spent fuel storage pools at nuclear power plants reach their capacity limit, the spent fuel must be moved to an alternative storage facility. However, radioactive materials must be handled and stored carefully to avoid severe consequences to the environment. In this study, the risks of three potential accident scenarios (i.e., maritime transportation, an aircraft crashing into an interim storage facility, and on-site transportation associated with the spent fuel transportation process were analyzed using a probabilistic approach. For each scenario, the probabilities and the consequences were calculated separately to assess the risks: the probabilities were calculated using existing data and statistical models, and the consequences were calculated using computation models. Risk assessment software was developed to conveniently integrate the three scenarios. The risks were analyzed using the developed software according to the shipment route, building characteristics, and spent fuel handling environment. As a result of the risk analysis with varying accident conditions, transportation and storage strategies with relatively low risk were developed for regulators and licensees. The focus of this study was the risk assessment methodology; however, the applied model and input data have some uncertainties. Further research to reduce these uncertainties will improve the accuracy of this model.

  12. 75 FR 9452 - Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing Conference AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a... Commission (NRC) is soliciting input on topics for discussion at a proposed June 23-24, 2010, public meeting...

  13. Thermal evaluation facility for LMFBR spent fuel transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, D.A.

    1980-04-01

    A full-scale mock-up of a 217 pin breeder reactor fuel assembly in a cylindrical pipe was initially designed and constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It was transferred to Sandia where it was extensively redesigned and modified. The 217 pin hexagonal core assembly was installed in a smaller diameter stainless steel pipe which more closely represents the diameter of a shipping canister or shipping cask basket wall. Two-hundred four of the tubes are electrically heated over an active length of 4-feet and the remaining thirteen are instrumented with multiple junction thermocouples which can be traversed axially. Thermocouples and heat-flux gauges are located on the hex core and canister perimeters at several axial locations.

  14. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEM Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan S.

    2009-01-01

    The response of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells to a step change in load is investigated experimentally in this work. Voltage undershoot, a characteristic feature of transient response following a step increase in current, is due to transients of water distribution in the membrane and ionomers occurring at subsecond time scales. The use of humidified reactants as a means to control the magnitude of voltage undershoot is demonstrated. Further, the response under a step decrease in current density is explored to determine the existence of hysteresis. Under sufficiently humidified conditions, the responses under forward and reverse step changes are symmetric, but under low relative humidity conditions, voltage undershoot is twice as large as the overshoot. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society.

  15. Computational modeling of transport and electrochemical reactions in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Sukkee

    A comprehensive, multi-physics computational fuel cell dynamics (CFCD) model integrating electrochemical kinetics, charge transport, mass transport (particularly water transport), and flow dynamics is developed in this thesis. The numerical model is validated against published experimental data and utilized to generate results that reveal the internal operation of a PEM fuel cell. A number of model applications are demonstrated in the present work. First, the CFCD model is applied to explore hydrogen dilution effects in the anode feed. Detailed two-dimensional electrochemical and flow/transport simulations are provided to examine substantial anode concentration polarization due to hydrogen depletion at the reaction sites. A transient simulation of the cell current response to a step change in cell voltage is also attempted to elucidate characteristics of the dynamic response of a fuel cell for the first time. After the two-dimensional computational study, the CFCD model is applied to illustrate three-dimensional interactions between mass transfer and electrochemical kinetics. Emphasis is placed on obtaining a fundamental understanding of fully three-dimensional flow in the air cathode with interdigitated flowfield design and how it impacts the transport and electrochemical reaction processes. The innovative design concept for enhanced oxygen transport to, and effective water removal from the cathode, is explored numerically. Next, an analytical study of water transport is performed to investigate various water transport regimes of practical interest. The axial locations characteristic of anode water loss and cathode flooding are predicted theoretically and compared with numerical results. A continuous stirred fuel cell reactor (CSFCR) model is also proposed for the limiting situation where the anode and cathode sides reach equilibrium in water concentration with a thin ionomer membrane in between. In addition to the analytical solutions, a detailed water transport

  16. Spatially resolved modelling of the fission product behaviour in a HTR-core with spherical or prismatic fuel elements; Raeumlich hoch aufgeloeste Modellierung des Spaltproduktverhaltens in einem HTR-Core mit kugelfoermigen oder prismatischen Brennelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xhonneux, Andre

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important aspects during the licensing procedure of nuclear facilities is the release of radioactive isotopes. The transport from the origin to the environment is called release chain. In the scope of this work, the spatially distributed fission product release from both spherical and prismatic fuel elements, the transport with the coolant as well as the deposition on reactor internals are simulated in detail. The fission product release codes which were developed at Forschungszentrum Juelich are analyzed, shortcomings are identified and resolved. On this basis, a consistent simulation module, named STACY, was developed, which contains all capabilities of the stand-alone codes and at the same time exceeds the methodology towards new aspects. The physics models were extended, for example to take the radial temperature profile within the fuel element and the realistic time-depending nuclide inventory into account. A central part of this work is the automated treatment of the release behavior of a representative number of fuel elements. This allows for a spatially resolved release calculation, where an individual release rate is calculated for each space region. The coupling with the depletion code Topological Nuclide Transmutation (TNT) allows for conducting an individual depletion calculation for each considered fuel element. It is shown, that the released inventory is representative for a certain number of fuel elements. By using this model, the fission product release is being studied for a reference plant (HTR-Modul). Both the releases from the equilibrium core as well as the release during a core heat-up after a fast depressurization accident are being studied. In comparison to former studies, the cumulative release of long-lived nuclides during the core heat-up phase is lower and the release of short-lived nuclides is about two times higher. The release calculation can also be conducted for prismatic fuel elements (e.g. those of the Japanese

  17. WRF fire simulation coupled with a fuel moisture model and smoke transport by WRF-Chem

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Kim, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    We describe two recent additions to WRF coupled with a fire spread model. Fire propagation is strongly dependent on fuel moisture, which in turn depends on the history of the atmosphere. We have implemented a equilibrium time-lag model of fuel moisture driven by WRF variables. The code allows the user to specify fuel parameters, with the defaults calibrated to the Canadian fire danger rating system for 10-hour fuel. The moisture model can run coupled with the atmosphere-fire model, or offline from WRF output to equilibrate the moisture over a period of time and to provide initial moisture conditions for a coupled atmosphere-fire-moisture simulation. The fire model also inserts smoke tracers into WRF-Chem to model the transport of fire emissions. The coupled model is available from OpenWFM.org. An earlier version of the fire model coupled with atmosphere is a part of WRF release.

  18. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1978-11-01

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 10/sup 11/ of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year. (DLC)

  19. Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

    2001-07-01

    There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

  20. 49 CFR 175.310 - Transportation of flammable liquid fuel; aircraft only means of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impracticable. The stowage requirements of § 175.75(a) do not apply to a person operating an aircraft under the... racks or slings. (c) Flammable liquid fuels may be carried on a cargo aircraft, subject to the...

  1. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  2. Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning: Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turn, S. Q.; Jenkins, B. M.; Chow, J. C.; Pritchett, L. C.; Campbell, D.; Cahill, T.; Whalen, S. A.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter emitted from wind tunnel simulations of biomass burning for five herbaceous crop residues (rice, wheat and barley straws, corn stover, and sugar cane trash) and four wood fuels (walnut and almond prunings and ponderosa pine and Douglas fir slash) was collected and analyzed for major elements and water soluble species. Primary constituents of the particulate matter were C, K, Cl, and S. Carbon accounted for roughly 50% of the herbaceous fuel PM and about 70% for the wood fuels. For the herbaceous fuels, particulate matter from rice straw in the size range below 10 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) had the highest concentrations of both K (24%) and Cl, (17%) and barley straw PM10 contained the highest sulfur content (4%). K, Cl, and S were present in the PM of the wood fuels at reduced levels with maximum concentrations of 6.5% (almond prunings), 3% (walnut prunings), and 2% (almond prunings), respectively. Analysis of water soluble species indicated that ionic forms of K, Cl, and S made up the majority of these elements from all fuels. Element balances showed K, Cl, S, and N to have the highest recovery factors (fraction of fuel element found in the particulate matter) in the PM of the elements analyzed. In general, chlorine was the most efficiently recovered element for the herbaceous fuels (10 to 35%), whereas sulfur recovery was greatest for the wood fuels (25 to 45%). Unique potassium to elemental carbon ratios of 0.20 and 0.95 were computed for particulate matter (PM10 K/C(e)) from herbaceous and wood fuels, respectively. Similarly, in the size class below 2.5 μm, high-temperature elemental carbon to bromine (PM2.5 C(eht)/Br) ratios of ˜7.5, 43, and 150 were found for the herbaceous fuels, orchard prunings, and forest slash, respectively. The molar ratios of particulate phase bromine to gas phase CO2 (PM10 Br/CO2) are of the same order of magnitude as gas phase CH3Br/CO2 reported by others.

  3. Environmental and financial implications of ethanol as a bioethylene feedstock versus as a transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk chemicals production from biomass may compete with biofuels for low-cost and sustainable biomass sources. Understanding how alternative uses of biomass compare in terms of financial and environmental parameters is therefore necessary to help ensure that efficient uses of resources are encouraged by policy and undertaken by industry. In this paper, we compare the environmental and financial performance of using ethanol as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel in the US life cycle-based models are developed to isolate the relative impacts of these two ethanol uses and generate results that are applicable irrespective of ethanol production pathway. Ethanol use as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel leads to comparable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption reductions relative to their counterparts produced from fossil sources. By displacing gasoline use in vehicles, use of ethanol as a transport fuel is six times more effective in reducing petroleum energy use on a life cycle basis. In contrast, bioethylene predominately avoids consumption of natural gas. Considering 2013 US ethanol and ethylene market prices, our analysis shows that bioethylene is financially viable only if significant price premiums are realized over conventional ethylene, from 35% to 65% depending on the scale of bioethylene production considered (80 000 t yr-1 to 240 000 t yr-1). Ethanol use as a transportation fuel is therefore the preferred pathway considering financial, GHG emissions, and petroleum energy use metrics, although bioethylene production could have strategic value if demand-side limitations of ethanol transport fuel markets are reached.

  4. STAT, GAPS, STRAIN, DRWDIM: a system of computer codes for analyzing HTGR fuel test element metrology data. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.

    1977-08-01

    A system of computer codes has been developed to statistically reduce Peach Bottom fuel test element metrology data and to compare the material strains and fuel rod-fuel hole gaps computed from these data with HTGR design code predictions. The codes included in this system are STAT, STRAIN, GAPS, and DRWDIM. STAT statistically evaluates test element metrology data yielding fuel rod, fuel body, and sleeve irradiation-induced strains; fuel rod anisotropy; and additional data characterizing each analyzed fuel element. STRAIN compares test element fuel rod and fuel body irradiation-induced strains computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. GAPS compares test element fuel rod, fuel hole heat transfer gaps computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. DRWDIM plots the measured and predicted gaps and strains. Although specifically developed to expedite the analysis of Peach Bottom fuel test elements, this system can be applied, without extensive modification, to the analysis of Fort St. Vrain or other HTGR-type fuel test elements.

  5. PETER loop. Multifunctional test facility for thermal hydraulic investigations of PWR fuel elements; PETER Loop. Multifunktionsversuchstand zur thermohydraulischen Untersuchung von DWR Brennelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzmann, I.; Hille, D.; Staude, U. [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany). Materials, Fluid-Structure Interaction, Plant Life Management NTCM-G

    2009-07-01

    The reliable fuel element behavior during the complete fuel cycle is one of the fundamental prerequisites of a safe and efficient nuclear power plant operation. The fuel element behavior with respect to pressure drop and vibration impact cannot be simulated by means of fluid-structure interaction codes. Therefore it is necessary to perform tests using fuel element mock-ups (1:1). AREVA NP has constructed the test facility PETER (PWR fuel element tests in Erlangen) loop. The modular construction allows maximum flexibility for any type of fuel elements. Modern measuring instrumentation for flow, pressure and vibration characterization allows the analysis of cause and consequences of thermal hydraulic phenomena. PETER loop is the standard test facility for the qualification of dynamic fuel element behavior in flowing fluid and is used for failure mode analysis.

  6. Modeling and Diagnostics of Fuel Cell Porous Media for Improving Water Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Jeff; M' edici, Ezequiel

    2011-07-01

    When a fuel cell is operating at high current density, water accumulation is a significant cause of performance and component degradation. Investigating the water transport inside the fuel cell is a challenging task due to opacity of the components, the randomness of the porous materials, and the difficulty in gain access to the interior for measurement due to the small dimensions of components. Numerical simulation can provide a good insight of the evolution of the water transport under different working condition. However, the validation of those simulations is remains an issue due the same experimental obstacles associated with in-situ measurements. The discussion herein will focus on pore-network modeling of the water transport on the PTL and the insights gained from simulations as well as in the validation technique. The implications of a recently published criterion to characterize PTL, based on percolation theory, and validate numerical simulation are discussed.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  8. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Richard Treglio; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

    2004-07-26

    During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates as high as 423 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was investigated by comparison to composite alloy membranes. Permeation of alloyed membranes showed a strong dependence on the alloying element. Impedance analysis was used to investigate bulk and grain boundary conductivity in cermets. Thin film cermet deposition procedures were developed, hydrogen dissociation catalysts were evaluated, and hydrogen separation unit scale-up issues were addressed.

  9. Study on the effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Cho, Moon Sung; Jeon, Ji Su

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux is reviewed and analyzed, which is requested by KINS as the Government design licensing condition for the use of the fuel bundles in CANDU power reactors. The effect of the gap between two adjacent fuel elements on the critical heat flux and onset-of-dryout power is studied. The reduction of the width of a single inter-rod gap from its nominal size to the minimum manufacture allowance of 1 mm has a negligible effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the bundle for the given set of boundary conditions applied to the CANFLEX-43 element bundle in an uncrept channel. As expected, the in-reactor irradiation test results show that there are no evidence of the element bow problems on the bundle performance.

  10. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  11. The reliability of untempered end plug welds on HT9-clad IFR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D C; Porter, D L

    1987-02-01

    Welding generally leaves residual stresses in transformed weld zones, which can initiate cracks from flaws already present in the weld zones. When HT9 cools from welding temperatures, a martensite phase forms in the weld fusion zone and heat-affected zone. Because this martensite phase is hard and brittle, it is particularly susceptible to cracking aggravated by residual stresses. This causes concern over the use of untempered welds on HT9-clad fuel elements. To determine if residual stresses present in end-plug weld zones would affect fuel pin performance, HT9 capsules with prototypic TIG- and CD-welded end plugs (in the tempered and as-welded conditions) were pressurized to failure at room temperature, 550{sup 0}C, and 600{sup 0}C. None of the capsules failed in a weld zone. To determine the effects of reactor operating temperatures on untempered welds, prototypic TIG welds were tempered at reactor bulk sodium temperature and an expected sodium outlet temperature for various lengths of time. Subsequent tensile and burst tests of these specimens proved that any embrittling effects that may have been induced in these welds were of no consequence. Hardness tests on longitudinal sections of welds indicated the amount of tempering a weld will receive inreactor after relatively short lengths of time. The pressure burst tests proved that untemperted welds on HT9-clad fuel elements are as reliable as tempered welds; any residual stresses in untempered weld zones were of no consequence. The tempering test showed that welds used in the as-welded condition will sufficiently temper in 7 days at 550{sup 0}C, but will not, sufficiently temper in 7 days at bulk sodium temperature. A comparison of the structure of laser welds to those of CD and TIG welds indicated that untempered laser welds will perform and temper in a manner similar to the TIG welds tested in this effort.

  12. Fetoplacental transport of various trace elements in pregnant rat using the multitracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Shuichi; Hirunuma, Rieko [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The placenta functions as the barrier between fetus and mother, providing means of regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. In this paper, the multitracer technique was applied to study the maternal transport of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus. In this experiment, the multitracer solution used contained the following nuclides: {sup 7}Be, {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 48}V, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 56}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 74}As, {sup 75}Se, {sup 84}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 87}Y, {sup 88}Zr, {sup 96}Tc, {sup 101m}Rh, and {sup 103}Ru. We examined the time dependence of the uptake amounts about various elements. From these results, we observed a large difference in the time dependencies between elements and the elements were classified into three groups. Group I elements, such as Be, Sc, V, As, Y, Zr, Tc, Rh, and Ru, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and only accumulates in the placenta. Group II elements, such as Na, Co, Ga, Rb, and Sr, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and accumulate in the placenta, fetus, and amniotic fluid. Group III elements, such as Mn, Fe, Zn, and Se, are transported to the placenta from the maternal blood and mainly accumulate in the fetus. From these results, it was considered that the placenta is a highly selective filters because essential elements such as Group III elements are readily transported from the placental membrane to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals such as Group I elements have difficulty penetrating the placental barrier that protects the fetus from the toxic effects of these elements. (author)

  13. Selective Removal of Nitrogen-Containing Heterocyclic Compounds from Transportation Diesel Fuels with Reactive Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; WANG Shengqiang; WANG Ruicong; YU Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new selective adsorbent to remove nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds from model and commercial transportation diesel fuels based on characteristic reaction designed to occur in the pores of substrate.This reactive adsorbent is composed of formaldehyde,phosphotungstic acid and Santa Barbara USA (SBA)-15.The experiment was based on assumed hydroxymethylation reaction of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds with formaldehyde using phosphotungstic acid as catalyst in batch and fixed-bed systems.The nitrogen concentration in the model fuel was 237.33 ng·μl-1,carbazole and toluene were used as model nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound and solvent,respectively.The effectiveness of reactive adsorbent for removal of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds from commercial 0# diesel fuel containing 224.86 ng· μl-1 nitrogen was examined in a fixed-bed reactor at 70 ℃.The results showed that nitro1gen in the model fuel was very low and the nitrogen concentration in the commercial diesel reduced to 2.44 ng· μl-1.The demand for transportation fuel with ultra-low nitrogen is satisfied.

  14. Design of Production Test IP-262-A-11-FP -- Evaluation of projection fuel elements for use in ribbed process tubes -- Demonstration loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, W.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1959-06-29

    For several years, a major category of fuel element failures has been the side corrosion type, characterized by localized accelerated fuel element jacket corrosion. Since it has been demonstrated {sup 1} that misalignment of fuel elements in a process tube will produce flow patterns and accelerated corrosion, termed ``hot spots``, failure to align the fuel elements in process tubes is considered a contributing factor in the production of side corrosion failures. Preliminary testing of both self-supporting and ``bumper`` fuel elements is underway. Data on the self-supporting fuel elements have demonstrated that the bridge-rail projections have sufficient support strength, do not of themselves create a corrosion problem and in actuality probably eliminate any hot-spot areas. Although one tube of bumper fuel elements in KW Reactor {sup 3} has been discharged, data are not as yet available. Potentially, the most sever corrosion conditions exist during the summer months when reactor inlet temperatures are high. It is desirable then, provided bumper fuel elements limit hot- spot corrosion, to evaluate the bumper concept for large scale use possibly by the summer of 1960. To accomplish this, a demonstration loading of the bumper type fuel elements must be underway by about July, 1959. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a test to evaluate the fabrication process and irradiation performance of fuel elements having projections, which may prevent misalignment in ribbed process tubes and meet the aforementioned goals.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  16. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  17. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  18. Predictive model of transport properties of fuel cell membrane : from microscopic to macroscopic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colinart, T.; Lottin, O.; Maranzana, G.; Didierjean, S.; Moyne, C. [Nancy-Univ., Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee

    2007-07-01

    Because of their attractiveness as efficient and clean energy producers, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) can be used in automotive and small stationary applications. The electrochemical reaction takes place on two electrodes separated by a ionomer membrane. An important component of fuel cell water management and a problem for fuel cell performances involves the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode as its' transport properties are highly water dependent. Nafion membranes are widely used as an electrolyte for PEMFC. This paper presented a model to predict transport properties of polymer membranes such as Nafion used as electrolytes in a low temperature fuel cell. The paper discussed the electrical double layer that was used to determine surface charge density. The paper then discussed the analytical solution to the physical problem in the diffuse part of a cylindrical pore which involved solving the Poisson-Boltzmann, the Navier-Stokes and the Nernst-Planck equations. The properties of the electrolytic solution were equal to those of water and they were considered to be constant within the pore. A literature comparison with other models was also presented. It was concluded that in order to supplement the model, it is necessary to investigate the mechanics of the membrane, particularly the swelling behaviour, and the adsorption phenomena of the ions in the stern layer. 15 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  19. Analysis of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1981-09-01

    This report uses risk analyses to analyze the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel for commercial rail shipping systems. The rail systems analyzed are those expected to be used in the United States when the total electricity-generating capacity by nuclear reactors is 100 GW in the late 1980s. Risk as used in this report is the product of the probability of a release of material to the environment and the consequences resulting from the release. The analysis includes risks in terms of expected fatalities from release of radioactive materials due to transportation accidents involving PWR spent fuel shipped in rail casks. The expected total risk from such shipments is 1.3 x 10/sup -4/ fatalities per year. Risk spectrums are developed for shipments of spent fuel that are 180 days and 4 years out-of-reactor. The risk from transporting spent fuel by train is much less (by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude) than the risk to society from other man-caused events such as dam failure.

  20. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  1. Hydrogen as a fuel for the transportation sector: possibilities and views for future applications in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Osta, W.; Zeghlam, J. [Center for Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli (Libya)

    2000-04-01

    World-wide energy consumption in the transportation sector accounts for about one quarter of the total energy consumption. This implies that thousands of tons of pollutants are emitted each year. The total pollutants include CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and soot particles. In Libya, the transportation sector counts for a big share of the total energy demand. So if this sector would be changed to clean fuel, the pollution will be reduced dramatically. Hydrogen is proposed (hypothetically) to be used for the transportation sector in Libya. This paper will review the advancement of this technology world wide, in a sense of hydrogen production, storage, transportation and refuelling systems. The possibilities of using hydrogen in the transportation sector in Libya and the expected advantages, obstacles and constraints associate with its application and public acceptance. (Author)

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  3. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-07-18

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel

  4. Element transport in aquatic ecosystems – Modelling general and element-specific mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalenko, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides are widely used in energy production and medical, military and industrial applications. Thus, understanding the behaviour of radionuclides which have been or may be released into ecosystems is important for human and environmental risk assessment. Modelling of radionuclides or their stable element analogues is the only tool that can predict the consequences of accidental release. In this thesis, two dynamic stochastic compartment models for radionuclide/element transfer in a mar...

  5. Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Threat to Fuel Tank Wiring of a Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    National Transportation Safety Board investigators have questioned whether an electrical discharge in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) may have initiated the TWA-800 center wing tank explosion. Because the FQIS was designed to be incapable of producing such a discharge on its own, attention has been directed to mechanisms of outside electromagnetic influence. To support the investigation, the NASA Langley Research Center was tasked to study the potential for radiated electromagnetic fields from external radio frequency (RF) transmitters and passenger carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to excite the FQIS enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within the fuel tank.

  6. Improved lumped models for transient combined convective and radiative cooling of a two-layer spherical fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alice Cunha da; Su, Jian, E-mail: alicecs@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a fourth generation thermal nuclear reactor, graphite-moderated and helium cooled. The HTGRs have important characteristics making essential the study of these reactors, as well as its fuel element. Examples of these are: high thermal efficiency,low operating costs and construction, passive safety attributes that allow implication of the respective plants. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a HTGR with spherical fuel elements that named the reactor. This fuel element is composed by a particulate region with spherical inclusions, the fuel UO2 particles, dispersed in a graphite matrix and a convective heat transfer by Helium happens on the outer surface of the fuel element. In this work, the transient heat conduction in a spherical fuel element of a pebble-bed high temperature reactor was studied in a transient situation of combined convective and radiative cooling. Improved lumped parameter model was developed for the transient heat conduction in the two-layer composite sphere subjected to combined convective and radiative cooling. The improved lumped model was obtained through two-point Hermite approximations for integrals. Transient combined convective and radiative cooling of the two-layer spherical fuel element was analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed lumped model, with respect to die rent values of the Biot number, the radiation-conduction parameter, the dimensionless thermal contact resistance, the dimensionless inner diameter and coating thickness, and the dimensionless thermal conductivity. It was shown by comparison with numerical solution of the original distributed parameter model that the improved lumped model, with H2,1/H1,1/H0,0 approximation yielded significant improvement of average temperature prediction over the classical lumped model. (author)

  7. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. As world demand increases, oil reserves may become rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO{sub 2} emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. In the U.S. alone, transportation consumes >13.8 million barrels of oil per day and generates 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year. This release of greenhouse gases has spurred research into alternative, nonfossil energy sources. Among the options (nuclear, concentrated solar thermal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass), only biomass has the potential to provide a high-energy-content transportation fuel. Biomass is a renewable resource that can be converted into carbon-neutral transporation fuels. Currently, biofuels such as ethanol are produced largely from grains, but there is a large, untapped resource (estimated at more than a billion tons per year) of plant biomass that could be utilized as a renewable, domestic source of liquid fuels. Well-established processes convert the starch content of the grain into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. The energy efficiency of starch-based biofuels is however not optimal, while plant cell walls (lignocellulose) represent a huge untapped source of energy. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is more difficult to convert to sugars; hemicellulose, which contains a diversity of carbohydrates that have to be efficiently degraded by microorganisms to fuels; and lignin, which is recalcitrant to degradation and prevents cost-effective fermentation. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform lignocellulosic biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, low

  8. Effect of fuel concentration on cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Mishra, Nirvantosh; Kulkarni, Aditi; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2017-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells employ specialized proteins called molecular motors for transporting organelles and vesicles from one location to another in a regulated and directed manner. These molecular motors often work collectively in a team while transporting cargos. Molecular motors use cytoplasmic ATP as fuel, which is hydrolyzed to generate mechanical force. While the effect of ATP concentration on cargo transport by single Kinesin motor function is well understood, it is still unexplored, both theoretically and experimentally, how ATP concentration would affect cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. For instance, how does fuel concentration affect the travel distances and travel velocities of cargo? How cooperativity of Kinesin motors engaged on a cargo is affected by ATP concentration? To answer these questions, here we develop mechano-chemical models of cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. To develop these models we use experimentally-constrained mechano-chemical model of a single Kinesin motor as well as earlier developed mean-field and stochastic models of load sharing for cargo transport. Thus, our new models for cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors include fuel concentration explicitly, which was not considered in earlier models. We make several interesting predictions which can be tested experimentally. For instance, the travel distances of cargos are very large at limited ATP concentrations in spite of very small travel velocity. Velocities of cargos driven by multiple Kinesin have a Michaelis-Menten dependence on ATP concentration. Similarly, cooperativity among the engaged Kinesin motors on the cargo shows a Michaelis-Menten type dependence, which attains a maximum value near physiological ATP concentrations. Our new results can be potentially useful in controlling artificial nano-molecular shuttles precisely for targeted delivery in various nano-technological applications.

  9. Development of Collision Accident Scenario during Nuclear Spent Fuel Maritime Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Population density of South Korea is much higher than the other countries, and it is peninsula. Therefore, it is expected that major means of transportation of the spent fuel will be maritime transportation rather than overland transportation. Korea Maritime safety Tribunal (KMST) categorized various maritime accident, see table I. Among them, collision accident is one of the most important and complicated accident from Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) point of view. We will show what will happen if the transportation ship is struck by other ship, how to calculate collision energy and probability of the branches on ship-ship collision with Event Tree Analysis (ETA) method. We selected and re-categorized maritime accident that KMST categorized for ship-ship collision analysis of spent fuel transportation ship. Event tree is constructed and collision energy distribution is derived from statistics and equation. And outer and inner hull fracture probabilities are calculated. If outer hull is broken but inner hull is fine, water will be flooded into the space between outer and inner hull. It will decrease mobility of the ship. If inner hull is fractured, water will be flooded into the ship inside. The ship has compartment structure to resist from foundering. Loss of mobility and compartment damage (ultimately it ends with sink) mechanism need to be analyzed to complete transportation ship collision event tree.

  10. Model improvements for tritium transport in DEMO fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • T inventory and permeation of DEMO blankets have been assessed under pulsed operation. • 1-D model for T transport has been developed for the HCLL DEMO blanket. • The 1-D model evaluated T partial pressure and T permeation rate radial profiles. - Abstract: DEMO operation requires a large amount of tritium, which is directly produced inside the reactor by means of Li-based breeders. During its production, recovering and purification, tritium comes in contact with large surfaces of hot metallic walls, therefore it can permeate through the blanket cooling structure, reach the steam generator and finally the environment. The development of dedicated simulation tools able to predict tritium losses and inventories is necessary to verify the accomplishment of the accepted tritium environmental releases as well as to guarantee a correct machine operation. In this work, the FUS-TPC code is improved by including the possibility to operate in pulsed regime: results in terms of tritium inventory and losses for three pulsed scenarios are shown. Moreover, the development of a 1-D model considering the radial profile of the tritium generation is described. By referring to the inboard segment on the equatorial axis of the helium-cooled lithium–lead (HCLL) blanket, preliminary results of the 1-D model are illustrated: tritium partial pressure in Li–Pb and tritium permeation in the cooling and stiffening plates by assuming several permeation reduction factor (PRF) values. Future improvements will consider the application of the model to all segments of different blanket concepts.

  11. A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Identifying renewable energy alternatives in transport is particularly complicated, since the end-user can vary from a single-person car to a cargo ship. The aim of this paper is to aid this process by comparing 7 different methods for producing transport fuels in terms of the resources required...... for these fuels. Based on the assumptions in this study, some of the renewable fuels proposed here would be cheaper than oil in the year 2050. However, this is based on fuel production costs only and does do not consider other key costs, such as the infrastructure costs, which will be considered in the future...

  12. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Part 2: Influence of Fuel Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Combustion of wood for heat and power production may cause problems such as ash deposition, corrosion, and harmful emissions of gases and particulate matter. These problems are all directly related to the release of inorganic elements (in particular Cl, S, K, Na, Zn, and Pb) from the fuel...... to the gas phase. The aims of this study are to obtain quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements during wood combustion and to investigate the influence of fuel composition. Quantitative release data were obtained by pyrolyzing and subsequently combusting small samples of wood (~30 g) at various...... temperatures in the range of 500–1150 °C in a laboratory-scale tube reactor and by performing mass balance calculations based on the weight measurements and chemical analyses of the wood fuels and the residual ash samples. Four wood fuels with different ash contents and inorganic compositions were investigated...

  13. Integrated process for the catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas into transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Smith, Colin; Flake, Matthew; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  14. Heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells; Thermique et phenomenes de transport dans les piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, P.M.; Boillot, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bonnet, C.; Didieerjean, S.; Lapicque, F.; Deseure, J.; Lottin, O.; Maillet, D.; Oseen-Senda, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Alexandre, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, ENSMA, 86 Poitiers (France); Topin, F.; Occelli, R.; Daurelle, J.V. [IUSTI / Polytech' Marseille, Institut universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels Ecole, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauchet, J.; Feidt, M. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la recherche sur les echangeurs thermiques (Greth), 38 (France); Voarino, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Morel, B.; Laurentin, J.; Bultel, Y.; Lefebvre-Joud, F. [CEA Grenoble, LEPMI, 38 (France); Auvity, B.; Lasbet, Y.; Castelain, C.; Peerohossaini, H. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (LTN), 44 - Nantes (France)

    2005-07-01

    In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lectures presented at the conference 'heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells'. The different lectures have dealt with 1)the gas distribution in the bipolar plates of a fuel cell: experimental studies and computerized simulations 2)two-phase heat distributors in the PEMFC 3)a numerical study of the flow properties of the backing layers on the transfers in a PEMFC 4)modelling of the heat and mass transfers in a PEMFC 5)two-phase cooling of the PEMFC with pentane 6)stationary thermodynamic model of the SOFC in the GECOPAC system 7)modelling of the internal reforming at the anode of the SOFC 8)towards a new thermal design of the PEMFC bipolar plates. (O.M.)

  15. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  16. Evaluation of FSV-1 cask for the transport of LWR irradiated fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Model FSV-1 spent fuel shipping cask was designed by General Atomic Company (GA) to service the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) nuclear generating station, a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). This report presents an evaluation of the suitability of the FSV-1 cask for the transport of irradiated Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies from both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The FSV-1 cask evaluation parameters covered a wide spectrum of LWR fuel assemblies, based on burnup in Megawatt Days/Metric Ton of Heavy Metal (MWD/MTHM) and years of decay since irradiation. The criteria for suitability included allowable radiation dose rates, cask surface and interior temperatures and the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of the complete shipping system.

  17. Deep removal of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene from model transportation diesel fuels over reactive adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqiang Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reactive adsorbent used to effectively remove 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT from model transportation diesel fuels. This reactive adsorbent was composed of formaldehyde, phosphotungstic acid and mesoporous silica gel. The experiment was based on an assumed condensation reaction of 4,6-DMDBT with formaldehyde using phosphotungstic acid as catalyst in pore spaces. The effect of temperature and the amount of formaldehyde and phosphotungstic acid loaded on the substrate were investigated in a batch system. In the breakthrough experiment, three different model diesel fuels containing 1000 mg/kg 4,6-DMDBT were pumped through a fixed-bed reactor packed with reactive adsorbent at constant temperature and atmospheric pressure, respectively. The experimental results showed that sulfur-free model fuel was obtained at 80ºC despite the presence of aromatics. The sulfur capacity of regenerated reactive adsorbent was almost totally recovered.

  18. Economic and Social Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukljaš Skočibušić, Mihaela; Jolić, Natalija; Bukljaš, Zdravko

    The world trend in automotive industry represents the improvement of the existing vehicle power plants and their further development as well as the use of various alternative fuels. Such tendencies should not be considered only from an entirely technical aspect, but also from the economic, social and strategic aspects of the modern society. In this sense it is necessary to give priority to biodiesel fuel. The production of biodiesel fuel has to be developed in compliance with the increasingly severe exhaust emission standards in designing and realization of road transport means. From the economic aspect at macro-economic level, the development of biodiesel will reflect on the condition of industrial production, employment, additional inflow of financial means into agriculture and the economic development of rural areas, as well as the foreign currency reserves of a country along with the reduction in the dependence of macroeconomic parameters on the external factors.

  19. using fuzzy-robust approach for minimizing transportation and fuel costs in location problem under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan hosseini nasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Operations research is a commonly used method in many subjects nowadays. One applicable domain of operation research is the problem of facility layout and location. In this paper, a new mathematical programing model is developed for an optimal facility location and assignment. The model includes two objective functions. The first one minimizes the total material handling and fixed costs of facility location. Because of the importance of energy and the main role of fossil fuel in transportation, the second objective function, minimizes the total cost of fuel consumption. To consider the real condition in the proposed model, the cost of fuel, is considered to increase stepwise gradually. In the proposed model the coefficients of objective function are considered to be probabilistic and some of constraints to be fuzzy variables. Using a new approach, this model can be changed to a robust model. To prove the applicability of the model, it is examined for a real condition of facility location.

  20. Modeling of molecular and particulate transport in dry spent nuclear fuel canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Andrew M.

    2007-09-01

    The transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel is one of the prominent issues facing the commercial nuclear industry today, as there is still no general consensus regarding the near- and long-term strategy for managing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The debate continues over whether the fuel cycle should remain open, in which case spent fuel will be stored at on-site reactor facilities, interim facilities, or a geologic repository; or if the fuel cycle should be closed, in which case spent fuel will be recycled. Currently, commercial spent nuclear fuel is stored at on-site reactor facilities either in pools or in dry storage containers. Increasingly, spent fuel is being moved to dry storage containers due to decreased costs relative to pools. As the number of dry spent fuel containers increases and the roles they play in the nuclear fuel cycle increase, more regulations will be enacted to ensure that they function properly. Accordingly, they will have to be carefully analyzed for normal conditions, as well as any off-normal conditions of concern. This thesis addresses the phenomena associated with one such concern; the formation of a microscopic through-wall breach in a dry storage container. Particular emphasis is placed on the depressurization of the canister, release of radioactivity, and plugging of the breach due to deposition of suspended particulates. The depressurization of a dry storage container upon the formation of a breach depends on the temperature and quantity of the fill gas, the pressure differential across the breach, and the size of the breach. The first model constructed in this thesis is capable of determining the depressurization time for a breached container as long as the associated parameters just identified allow for laminar flow through the breach. The parameters can be manipulated to quantitatively determine their effect on depressurization. This model is expanded to account for the presence of suspended particles. If

  1. Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.

    2007-03-15

    This well-illustrated, comprehensive dissertation by Dr. Ing. Denis Kramer takes an in-depth look at polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and the possibilities for their application. First of all, the operating principles of polymer electrolyte fuel cells are described and discussed, whereby thermodynamics aspects and loss mechanisms are examined. The mass transport diagnostics made with respect to the function of the cells are discussed. Field flow geometry, gas diffusion layers and, amongst other things, liquid distribution, the influence of flow direction and the low-frequency behaviour of air-fed PEFCs are discussed. Direct methanol fuel cells are examined, as are the materials chosen. The documentation includes comprehensive mathematical and graphical representations of the mechanisms involved.

  2. Preparation for shipment of spent TRIGA fuel elements from the research reactor of the Medical University of Hannover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Gabriele; Cordes, Harro [Medical University of Hannover, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Ebbinghaus, Kurt; Haferkamp, Dirk [NOELL-KRC, D-97064 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    In the early seventies a research reactor of type TRIGA Mark I was installed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH) for the production of isotopes with short decay times for medical use. Since new production methods have been developed, the reactor has become obsolete and the MHH decided to decommission it. Probably in the second quarter of 1999 all 76 spent TRIGA fuel elements will be shipped to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), USA, in one cask of type GNS 16. Due to technical reasons within the MHH a special Mobile Transfer System, which is being developed by the company Noell-KRC, will be used for reloading the fuel elements and transferring them from the reactor to the cask GNS 16. A description of the main components of this system as well as the process for transferring the fuel elements follows. (author)

  3. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  4. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 2. Biomass and strategic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.; Browne, M.; Cook, A.; Wicks, N.; Palmer, H.; Hunter, A.; Boyd, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document forms part of the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry project ''Transport and Logistics of Biomass Fuels'', which aimed to describe the distribution of existing and potential biomass resources in terms of their supply potential for power stations. Fixed areas of supply, or catchments, have been identified on colour maps of Britain showing the distribution of forest fuel, short rotation coppices, and various types of straw and animal slurry, using a specially written strategic modelling program. Adequate supplies of biomass resources are shown to exist in Britain, but siting of power stations to exploit these resources, will depend on transport and economic considerations appropriate at the time of construction. Biomass power stations in the megawatt capacity range could be resourced. (UK)

  5. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  6. Minority and poor households: patterns of travel and transportation fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M.; Morrison, R.; Vyas, A.

    1986-05-01

    This report documents the travel behavior and transportation fuel use of minority and poor households in the US, using information from numerous national-level sources. The resulting data base reveals distinctive patterns of household vehicle availability and use, travel, and fuel use and enables us to relate observed differences between population groups to differences in their demographic characteristics and in the attributes of their household vehicles. When income and residence location are controlled, black (and to a lesser extent, Hispanic and poor) households have fewer vehicles regularly available than do comparable white or nonpoor households; moreover, these vehicles are older and larger and thus have significantly lower fuel economy. The net result is that average black, Hispanic, and poor households travel fewer miles per year but use more fuel than do average white and nonpoor households. Certain other findings - notably, that of significant racial differences in vehicle availability and use by low-income households - challenge the conventional wisdom that such racial variations arise solely because of differences in income and residence location. Results of the study suggest important differences - primarily in the yearly fluctuation of income - between black and white low-income households even when residence location is controlled. These variables are not captured by cross-sectional data sets (either the national surveys used in our analysis or the local data sets that are widely used for urban transportation planning).

  7. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  8. The effect of inhomogeneous compression on water transport in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional, multi-component, two-fluid model developed in the commercial CFD package CFX 13 (ANSYS inc.), is used to investigate the effect of porous media compression on transport phenomenon of a PEM Fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model only consist of the cathode channel, gas diffusion...... layer, micro-porous layer and catalyst layer, excluding the membrane and anode. In the porous media liquid water transport is described by the capillary pressure gradient, momentum loss via the Darcy-Forchheimer equation and mass transfer between phases by a non-equilibrium phase change model...

  9. Internal flow measurements of the SSME fuel preburner injector element using real time neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, John T.; Elam, Sandy; Koblish, Ted; Lee, Phil; Mcauliffe, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Due to observations of unsteady flow in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner injector element, several flow studies have been performed. Real time neutron radiography tests were recently completed. This technique provided real time images of MiL-c-7024 and Freon-22 flow through an aluminum liquid oxygen post model at three back pressures (0, 150, and 545 psig) and pressure drops up to 1000 psid. Separated flow appeared only while operating at back pressures of 0 and 150 psig. The behavior of separated flow was similar to that observed for water in a 3x acrylic model of the LOX post. On the average, separated flow appeared to reattach near the exit of the post when the ratio of pressure drop to supply pressure was about 0.75.

  10. Research on graphite powders used for HTR-PM fuel elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hongsheng; LIANG Tongxiang; ZHANG Jie; LI Ziqiang; TANG Chunhe

    2006-01-01

    Different batches of natural graphite powders and electrographite powders were characterized by impurity, degree of graphitization, particle size distribution, specific surface area, and shape characteristics. The graphite balls consist of proper mix-ratio of natural graphite, electrographite and phenolic resin were manufactured and characterized by thermal conductivity, anisotropy of thermal expansion, crush strength, and drop strength. Results show that some types of graphite powders possess very high purity, degree of graphitization, and sound size distribution and apparent density, which can serve for matrix graphite of HTR-PM. The graphite balls manufactured with reasonable mix-ratio of graphite powders and process method show very good properties. It is indicated that the properties of graphite balls can meet the design criterion of HTR-PM. We can provide a powerful candidate material for the future manufacture of HTR-PM fuel elements.

  11. Influence of Microstructure and Sintering Routes on Transport Properties of Apatite Materials for Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Chesnaud; C.Estournes; G.Dezannau

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Oxy-apatite materials are thought as zirconia-substitutes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells due to their fast ionic conduction. However, the well known difficulties related to their densification prevent them from being used as such. This study presents strategies to obtain oxy-apatite dense materials and the influence of elaboration route on transport properties. Particular emphasis is put on the microstructure effect on ion conduction. By the combined use of freeze-drying and conventional or spark p...

  12. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  13. Parallel-burn options for dual-fuel single-stage orbital transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A parallel-burn version of a single-stage vehicle for transport from the earth to low-earth orbit using two fuels and rocket propulsion is considered. New engine results were incorporated in vehicle performance and design studies. The results indicate that a hydrogen-cooled gas generator cycle engine provides attractive vehicle performance and that there is little incentive for increasing the chamber pressure beyond 27 MPa.

  14. Anion exchange membranes for fuel cells and flow batteries : transport and stability of model systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric anion exchange materials in membrane form can be key components in emerging energy storage and conversions systems such as the alkaline fuel cell and the RedOx flow battery. For these applications the membrane properties need to include good ionic conductivity and sufficient chemical stability, two aspects, that are not sufficiently understood in terms of materials science. Materials fulfilling both criteria are currently not available. The transport of ions and water in a model...

  15. Oxygen reduction and transportation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Gemmen, Randall; Liu, Xingbo

    In recent years, various models have been developed for describing the reaction mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) especially for the cathode electrode. However, many fundamental issues regarding the transport of oxygen and electrode kinetics have not been fully understood. This review tried to summarize the present status of the SOFC cathode modeling efforts, and associated experimental approaches on this topic. In addition, unsolved problems and possible future research directions for SOFC cathode kinetics had been discussed.

  16. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  17. 76 FR 43355 - Public Comment and Public Meeting on Draft Revisions to the Transportation Element and Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Workplace Element of the Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital: Federal Elements AGENCY: National... Workplace Elements of the ] Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital: Federal Elements. The Comprehensive... as required by law. The Transportation Element articulates policies that guide actions on...

  18. Experimental Investigation of Vibratory Stresses in a Concentric-Ring Direct-Air-Cycle Nuclear Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary tests made by the General Electric Company indicated that aerodynamic loads might cause large enough distortions in the thin sheet-metal rings of a nuclear fuel element to result in structural failure. The magnitude of the distortions in a test fuel element was determined from strains measured with airflow conditions simulating those expected during engine operation. The measured vibratory strains were low enough to indicate the improbability of failure by fatigue. A conservative estimate of the radial deflection that accompanied peak strains in the outer ring was +0.0006 inch.

  19. Transport of high enriched uranium fresh fuel from Yugoslavia to the Russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the relevant data related to the recent shipment (August 2002 of fresh highly enriched uranium fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to the Russian Federation for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gave its contribution to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR Program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist actions against nuclear material potentially usable for the production of nuclear weapons.

  20. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  1. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  2. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Microstructures: Making Sense of the Internal Framework Affecting Gas Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeffrey

    Optimal electrodes for solid-oxide fuel cells will combine high porosity for gas diffusion, high phase connectivity for ion and electron conduction, and high surface area for chemical and electrochemical reactions. Tracer-diffusion simulations are used to gain a better understanding of the interplay between microstructure and transport in porous materials. Results indicate that the coefficient of diffusion through a porous medium is a function of the details of the internal geometry (microscopic) and porosity (macroscopic). I report that current solid-oxide fuel cell electrodes produced from high-temperature sintering of ceramic powders severely hinder gas transport because the resulting structures are highly tortuous, complex three-dimensional networks. In addition, poor phase connectivities will assuredly limit ion and electron transport, as well as the density of active sites for power-producing reactions. With new access to a wide range of technologies, micro- and nano-fabrication capabilities, and high-performance materials, there is a new ability to engineer the fuel cell electrode architecture, optimizing the physical processes within, increasing performance, and greatly reducing cost per kilowatt. Even simple packed-sphere and inverse-opal architectures will increase gas diffusion by an order of magnitude, and provide a higher level of connectivity than traditional powder-based structures.

  3. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Ralph [Sentech, Inc., Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Consulting, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  7. The Fuel Efficiency of Maritime Transport. Potential for improvement and analysis of barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Behrends, B. [Marena Ltd., s.l. (United Kingdom); Lee, D.S. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Machester (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    There is significant potential to improve the fuel efficiency of ships and thus contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport. It has long been recognised that this potential is not being fully exploited, owing to the existence of non-market barriers. This report analyses the barriers to implementing fuel efficiency improvements, and concludes that the most important of these are the split incentive between ship owners and operators, a lack of trusted data on new technologies, and transaction costs associated with evaluating measures. As a result, in practice about a quarter of the cost-effective abatement potential is unavailable. There are several ways to overcome these barriers. The split incentive can - to some extent - be overcome by providing more detailed information on the fuel efficiency of vessels, making due allowance for operational profiles. This would allow fuel consumption to be more accurately projected and a larger share of efficiency benefits to accrue to ship owners, thus increasing the return on investment in fuel-saving technologies. This would also require changes to standard charter parties. The credibility of information on new technologies can be improved through intensive collaboration between suppliers of new technologies and shipping companies. In order to overcome risk, government subsidies could provide an incentive. This could have the additional benefit that governments could require publication of results.

  8. Formation of intermetallic compound at interface between rare earth elements and ferritic-martensitic steel by fuel cladding chemical interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hwan Kim; Byoung Oon Lee; Chan Bock Lee; Seung Hyun Jee; Young Soo Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds formation at interface between rare earth elements and clad material were investigated to demonstrate the effects of rare earth elements on fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) behavior.Mischmetal (70Ce-30La) and Nd were prepared as rare earth elements.Diffusion couple testing was performed on the rare earth elements and cladding (9Cr2W steel) near the operation temperature of(sodium-cooled fast reactor) SFR fuel.The performance of a diffusion barrier consisting of Zr and V metallic foil against the rare earth elements was also evaluated.Our results showed that Ce and Nd in the rare earth elements and Fe in the clad material interdiffused and reacted to form intermetallic species according to the parabolic rate law,describing the migration of the rare earth element.The diffusion of Fe limited the reaction progress such that the entire process was governed by the cubic rate law.Rare earth materials could be used as a surrogate for high burnup metallic fuels,and the performance of the barrier material was demonstrated to be effective.

  9. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  10. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, P.

    2010-06-01

    Among the activities led by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) relative to the future nuclear systems, the improvement of recycling of fuel elements and their components is a major issue. One of the studied systems by the GIF is the graphite-moderated high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The fuel elements are composed of fuel roads half-inch in diameter named compacts. The compacts contain spherical particles made of actinide kernels about 500 m in diameter coated with three layers of carbon and silicon carbide, each about 50 m thick, dispersed in a graphite matrix. Recycling of compacts requires first a separation of triso-particles from the graphite matrix and secondly, the separation of the triso-coating from the kernels. This aim may be achieved by using pulsed currents: the compacts are placed within a cell filled by water and exposed to high voltage between 200 - 500 kV and discharge currents from 10 to 20 kA during short laps of time (about 2 µs) [1-2]. This repeated treatment leads to a progressive fragmentation of the graphite matrix and a disassembly of the compacts. In order to improve understanding of the fragmentation properties of compacts a series of quasi-static and dynamic experiments have been conducted with similar cylindrical samples containing 10% (volume fraction) of SiC particles coated in a graphite matrix. First, quasi-static compression tests have been performed to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material at low strain-rates (Fig.1). The experiments reveal a complex elasto-visco-plastic behaviour before a brittle failure. The mechanical response is characterised by a low yield stress (about 1 MPa), a strong strain-hardening in the loading phase and marked hysteresis-loops during unloading-reloading stages. Brittle failure is observed for axial stress about 13 MPa. In parallel, a series of flexural tests have been performed with the aim to characterise the quasi-static tensile strength of the particulate

  11. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the activities led by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF relative to the future nuclear systems, the improvement of recycling of fuel elements and their components is a major issue. One of the studied systems by the GIF is the graphite-moderated high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR. The fuel elements are composed of fuel roads half-inch in diameter named compacts. The compacts contain spherical particles made of actinide kernels about 500 m in diameter coated with three layers of carbon and silicon carbide, each about 50 m thick, dispersed in a graphite matrix. Recycling of compacts requires first a separation of triso-particles from the graphite matrix and secondly, the separation of the triso-coating from the kernels. This aim may be achieved by using pulsed currents: the compacts are placed within a cell filled by water and exposed to high voltage between 200 – 500 kV and discharge currents from 10 to 20 kA during short laps of time (about 2 µs [1-2]. This repeated treatment leads to a progressive fragmentation of the graphite matrix and a disassembly of the compacts. In order to improve understanding of the fragmentation properties of compacts a series of quasi-static and dynamic experiments have been conducted with similar cylindrical samples containing 10% (volume fraction of SiC particles coated in a graphite matrix. First, quasi-static compression tests have been performed to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material at low strain-rates (Fig.1. The experiments reveal a complex elasto-visco-plastic behaviour before a brittle failure. The mechanical response is characterised by a low yield stress (about 1 MPa, a strong strain-hardening in the loading phase and marked hysteresis-loops during unloading-reloading stages. Brittle failure is observed for axial stress about 13 MPa. In parallel, a series of flexural tests have been performed with the aim to characterise the quasi-static tensile strength of the

  12. Comparative analyses of forest fuels in a life cycle perspective with a focus on transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa Naeslund [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-08-15

    Local, national and international transportation of forest fuels with regard to costs, primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission was analysed. The main issue was the extent to which both mode and distance of transport affect the monetary cost, CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use arising from the use of various types of forest residues for energy purpose. Local applications proved the most efficient options of those studied. Chipping of bundles at a terminal, for transport by rail and sea to national or international end-users, has low costs and produces only modest CO{sub 2} emissions. For the pellet options, the cost is about the same as for chipping, but require more primary energy and emit more CO{sub 2}. The traditional chipping system is more expensive than the other options. The costs of the international options over a transport distance of 1100 km vary between 21 and 28 EUR{sub 2007}/MWh, whereas pellet options cost between 22 and 25 EUR{sub 2007}/MWh. The primary energy required for transport of logging residues vis-a-vis pellets falls in the range 4-7% and 2-4%, respectively, of the bio-energy delivered. The primary energy needed to produce pellets gives them a lower fossil fuel substitution rate per hectare, compared with bundle systems. Similarly, for chip systems vis-a-vis bundle systems, the biomass delivered to the conversion plant is reduced by the greater physical dry-matter losses entailed by chipping systems in the forest-fuel chain. (author)

  13. Fuel element development committee: Annual report from the General Electric Company, Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.; Minor, J.E.; Stringer, J.T.

    1964-08-14

    A summary of HAPO activities is given to include separate sections on the N-Reactor and other current production reactors. Specific programs and fuel performance for current production reactor fuels is discussed. Also, the production status, fuel performance, development program and process technology for N-Reactor fuels is presented.

  14. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas;

    2015-01-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape...... and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h−1 for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h−1 for gymnosperm trees. Similar values...... resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order...

  15. A minimal coupled fluid-discrete element model for bedload transport

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, Raphael; Chareyre, Bruno; Frey, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A minimal Lagragian two-phase model to study turbulent bedload transport focusing on the granular phase is presented, and validated with experiments. The model intends to describe bedload transport of massive particles in fully rough flows at relatively low Shields numbers, for which no suspension occurs. A discrete element method for the granular phase is coupled with a one dimensional volume-averaged two-phase momentum equation for the fluid phase. The coupling between the discrete granular phase and the continuous fluid phase is discussed, and a consistent averaging formulation adapted to bedload transport is introduced. An original simple discrete random walk model is proposed to account for the fluid velocity fluctuations. The model is compared with experiments considering both classical sediment transport rate as a function of the Shields number, and depth profiles of solid velocity, volume fraction, and transport rate density, from existing bedload transport experiments in inclined flume. The results s...

  16. 3D laser inspection of fuel assembly grid spacers for nuclear reactors based on diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finogenov, L. V.; Lemeshko, Yu A.; Zav'yalov, P. S.; Chugui, Yu V.

    2007-06-01

    Ensuring the safety and high operation reliability of nuclear reactors takes 100% inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel assemblies, which include the grid spacers performed as a cellular structure with fuel elements. The required grid spacer geometry of assembly in the transverse and longitudinal cross sections is extremely important for maintaining the necessary heat regime. A universal method for 3D grid spacer inspection using a diffractive optical element (DOE), which generates as the structural illumination a multiple-ring pattern on the inner surface of a grid spacer cell, is investigated. Using some DOEs one can inspect the nomenclature of all produced grids. A special objective has been developed for forming the inner surface cell image. The problems of diffractive elements synthesis, projecting optics calculation, adjusting methods as well as calibration of the experimental measuring system are considered. The algorithms for image processing for different constructive elements of grids (cell, channel hole, outer grid spacer rim) and the experimental results are presented.

  17. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chaoliu [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, 18 Shuangqin Rd., Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Kang Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@itpcas.ac.c [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, 18 Shuangqin Rd., Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Qianggong [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, 18 Shuangqin Rd., Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical 'pollution' elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles <20 mum are transportable as long distances, elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP. - High concentrations of some elements of the Tibetan soils can cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements during aerosol related study.

  18. Life cycle assessment of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from corn stover via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-06-01

    This life cycle assessment evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model database and a US Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input. The net global warming potential (GWP) is 0.037 kg CO2eq and 0.015 kg CO2eq per km traveled for a vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Vehicle operations contribute up to 33% of the total positive GWP, which is the largest greenhouse gas footprint of all the unit processes. The net GWPs in this study are 88% and 94% lower than for petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel (2005 baseline), respectively. Biomass transportation has the largest impact on ozone depletion among all of the unit processes. Sensitivity analysis shows that fuel economy, transportation fuel yield, bio-oil yield, and electricity consumption are the key factors that influence greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell with nature inspired flow field design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell with nature inspired flow field designs has been developed. The design inspired from the existed biological fluid flow patterns in the leaf. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally.

  20. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally.

  1. 10 CFR 51.52 - Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste-Table S-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... encapsulated in zircaloy rods; (3) The average level of irradiation of the irradiated fuel from the reactor...-water-cooled nuclear power reactor, and submitted after February 4, 1975, shall contain a statement concerning transportation of fuel and radioactive wastes to and from the reactor. That statement...

  2. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Cask Drop Accident during On-site Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Jae Hyun; Christian, Robby; Momani, Belal Al; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are two ways to transfer the SNF from a site to other site, one is land transportation and the other is maritime transportation. Maritime transportation might be used because this way uses more safe route which is far from populated area. The whole transportation process can be divided in two parts: transferring the SNF between SNP and wharf in-Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site by truck, and transferring the SNF from the wharf to the other wharf by ship. In this research, on-site SNF transportation between SNP and wharf was considered. Two kinds of single accident can occur during this type of SNF transportation, impact and fire, caused by internal events and external events. In this research, PRA of cask drop accident during onsite SNF transportation was done, risk to a person (mSv/person) from a case with specific conditions was calculated. In every 11 FEM simulation drop cases, FDR is 1 even the fuel assemblies are located inside of the cask. It is a quite larger value for all cases than the results with similar drop condition from the reports which covers the PRA on cask storage system. Because different from previous reports, subsequent impact was considered. Like in figure 8, accelerations which are used to calculate the FDR has extremely higher values in subsequent impact than the first impact for all SNF assemblies.

  3. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  4. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  5. Liquid water transport characteristics of porous diffusion media in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunliang; Peng, Fangyuan; Lou, Guofeng; Wen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of liquid water transport in gas diffusion media (GDM) is important to improve the material and structure design of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Continuum methods of two-phase flow modeling facilitate to give more details of relevant information. The proper empirical correlations of liquid water transport properties, such as capillary characteristics, water relative permeability and effective contact angle, are crucial to two phase flow modeling and cell performance prediction. In this work, researches on these properties in the last decade are reviewed. Various efforts have been devoted to determine the water transport properties for GDMs. However, most of the experimental studies are ex-situ measurements. In-situ measurements for GDMs and extending techniques available to study the catalyst layer and the microporous layer will be further challenges. Using the Leverett-Udell correlation is not recommended for quantitative modeling. The reliable Leverett-type correlation for GDMs, with the inclusion of the cosine of effective contact angle, is desirable but hard to be established for modeling two-phase flow in GDMs. A comprehensive data set of liquid water transport properties is needed for various GDM materials under different PEM fuel cell operating conditions.

  6. Transport and micro-instability analysis of JET H-mode plasma during pellet fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaywittaphat, P.; Onjun, T.

    2017-02-01

    Transport and micro-instability analysis in a JET H-mode plasma discharge 53212 during the pellet fueling operation is carried out using the BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code with a combination of the NCLASS neoclassical transport model and an anomalous core transport model (either Mixed B/gB or MMM95 model). In this work, the evolution of plasma current, plasma density and temperature profiles is carried out and, consequently, the plasma’s behaviors during the pellet operation can be observed. The NGS pellet model with the Grad-B drift effect included is used to describe pellet ablation and its behaviors when a pellet is launched into hot plasma. The simulation shows that after each pellet enters the plasma, there is a strong perturbation on the plasma causing a sudden change of both thermal and particle profiles, as well as the thermal and particle transports. For the simulation using MMM95 transport model, the change of both thermal and particle transports during pellet injection are found to be dominated by the transport due to the resistive ballooning modes due to the increase of collisionality and resistivity near the plasma edge. For the simulation based on mixed B/gB transport model, it is found that the change of transport during the pellet injection is dominated by the Bohm term. Micro-instability analysis of the plasma during the time of pellet operation is also carried out for the simulations based on MMM95 transport model. It is found that the ion temperature gradient mode is destabilized due to an increase of temperature gradient in the pellet effective region, while the trapped electron mode is stabilized due to an increase of collisionality in that region.

  7. Spatially- explicit Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Inventories for Transportation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M.; Gurney, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest source of Fossil Fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions, and is unique in that federal, state, and municipal levels of government are all able to enact transportation policy. However, since data related to transportation activities are reported by multiple different government agencies, the data are not always consistent. As a result, the methods and data used to inventory and account for transportation related FFCO2 emissions have important implications for both science and policy. Aggregate estimates of transportation related FFCO2 emissions can be spatially distributed using traffic data, such as the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT). There are currently two datasets that estimate the spatial distribution of transportation related FFCO2 in the United States- Vulcan 3.0 and the Database of Road Transportation Emissions (DARTE). Both datasets are at 1 km resolution, for the year 2011, and utilize HPMS AADT traffic data. However, Vulcan 3.0 and DARTE spatially distribute emissions using different methods and inputs, resulting in a number of differences. Vulcan 3.0 and DARTE estimate national transportation related FFCO2 emissions within 2.5% of each other, with more significant differences at the county and state level. The differences are most notable in urban versus rural regions, and for specific road classes. The origin of these differences are explored in depth to understand the implication of using specific data sources, such as the National Emissions Inventory and other aggregate transportation statistics from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). In addition to comparing Vulcan 3.0 and DARTE to each other, the results from both data sets are compared to independent traffic volume measurements acquired from the FHWA Continuous Count Station (CCS) network. The CCS records hourly traffic counts at fixed locations in space throughout the U.S. We calculate transportation

  8. Optimal discontinuous finite element methods for the Boltzmann transport equation with arbitrary discretisation in angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merton, S.R. [Computational Physics Group, AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.merton@awe.co.uk; Pain, C.C. [Computational Physics and Geophysics Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2A7 (United Kingdom); Smedley-Stevenson, R.P. [Computational Physics Group, AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Buchan, A.G.; Eaton, M.D. [Computational Physics and Geophysics Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2A7 (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    This paper describes the development of two optimal discontinuous finite element (FE) Riemann methods and their application to the one-speed Boltzmann transport equation in the steady-state. The proposed methods optimise the amount of dissipation applied in the streamline direction. This dissipation is applied within an element using a novel Riemann FE method, which is based on an analogy between control volume discretisation methods and finite element methods when integration by parts is applied to the transport terms. In one-dimension the optimal finite element solutions match the analytical solution exactly at each outlet node. Both schemes couple elements in space via a Riemann approach. The first of the two schemes is a Petrov-Galerkin (PG) method which introduces dissipation via the equation residual. The second scheme uses a streamline diffusion stabilisation term in the discretisation. These two methods provide a discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) scheme that can stabilise an element across the full range of radiation regimes, obtaining robust solutions with suppressed oscillation. Three basis functions in angle of particle travel have been implemented in an optimal DPG Riemann solver, which include the P{sub N} (spherical harmonic), S{sub N} (discrete ordinate) and LW{sub N} (linear octahedral wavelet) angular expansions. These methods are applied to a series of demanding two-dimensional radiation transport problems.

  9. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  10. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  11. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yajuan; Zhang, Junpeng; Lin, Jun; Xu, Liujun; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Guo, Quangui

    2017-07-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10-6 K-1 (α∥) and 6.15 × 10-6 K-1 (α⊥) at the temperature range of 25-700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  12. Experimental study of water flow in nuclear fuel elements; Estudo experimental do escoamento de agua em elementos combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Lorena Escriche, E-mail: ler@cdtn.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rezende, Hugo Cesar; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de; Barros Filho, Jose Afonso; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: jrmattos@cdtn.br, E-mail: jabf@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to develop an experimental methodology for investigating the water flow through rod bundles after spacer grids of nuclear fuel elements of PWR type reactors. Speed profiles, with the device LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), and the pressure drop between two sockets located before and after the spacer grid, using pressure transducers were measured.

  13. Supplemental specifications of laboratory hot press process -- For CV size self-supported I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.A.; Schweikhardt, G.M.

    1964-06-01

    Some refinements have been introduced into the hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements. This report outlines the specifications for the process including these refinements. Specifications cover components, dies, and punches, furnace condition, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection.

  14. Specifications: Laboratory hot press process for {open_quotes}C{close_quotes}size I & E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1959-09-25

    Hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements has been developed to a point where the process is feasible. Complete specifications have been written for the process covering component, dies and punches, furnace construction, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection. Drawings covering each major item are included.

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  16. Finite-element procedure for calculating the three-dimensional inelastic bowing of fuel rods (AWBA development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S E

    1982-05-01

    An incremental finite element procedure is developed for calculating the in-pile lateral bowing of nuclear fuel rods. The fuel rod is modeled as a viscoelastic beam whose material properties are derived as perturbations of the results of an axisymmetric stress analysis of the fuel rod. The effects which are taken into account in calculating the rod's lateral bowing include: (a) lateral, axial, and rotational motions and forces at the rod supports, (b) transverse gradients of temperature, fast-neutron flux, and fissioning rate, and (c) cladding circumferential wall thickness variation. The procedure developed in this report could be used to form the basis for a computer program to calculate the time-dependent bowing as a function of the fuel rod's operational and environmental history.

  17. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  18. Fuel cells for future transportation: The Department of Energy OTT/OUT partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.G.; Milliken, J.; Gronich, S.; Rossmeissl, N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies; Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems

    1997-12-31

    The DOE Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is currently engaged in the development and integration R and D activities which will make it possible to reduce oil imports, and move toward a sustainable transportation future. Within OTT, the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies is supporting development of highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems as an alternative to internal combustion engines. The objectives of the program are: By 2000, develop and validate fuel cell stack system technologies that are greater than 51% energy efficient at 40 kW (maximum net power); more than 100 times cleaner than EPA Tier II emissions; and capable of operating on gasoline, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and hydrogen gas or liquid. By 2004, develop and validate fuel cell power system technologies that meet vehicle requirements in terms of: cost--competitive with internal combustion engines; and performance, range, safety and reliability. The research, development, and validation of fuel cell technology is integrally linked to the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) and other major US policy objectives, such as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Established in 1993, PNGV is a research and development initiative involving seven Federal agencies and the three US automobile manufacturers to strengthen US competitiveness. The PNGV will develop technologies for vehicles with a fuel efficiency of 80 miles per gallon, while maintaining such attributes as size, performance, safety, and cost. To help address the critical issue of fuel and fuel infrastructure development for advanced vehicles, the DOE Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) has directed the Hydrogen Program to provide national leadership in the research, development, and validation of advanced technologies to produce, store, and use hydrogen. An objective of the Program is to work in partnership with industry to advance hydrogen systems to the point where they are cost effective and

  19. Laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flame supported by an oxygen-permeable-ion-transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-03-01

    A numerical model with detailed gas-phase chemistry and transport was used to predict homogeneous fuel conversion processes and to capture the important features (e.g., the location, temperature, thickness and structure of a flame) of laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flames stabilized on the sweep side of an oxygen permeable ion transport membrane (ITM). We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. It has been demonstrated that an ITM can be used for hydrocarbon conversion with enhanced reaction selectivity such as oxy-fuel combustion for carbon capture technologies and syngas production. Within an ITM unit, the oxidizer flow rate, i.e., the oxygen permeation flux, is not a pre-determined quantity, since it depends on the oxygen partial pressures on the feed and sweep sides and the membrane temperature. Instead, it is influenced by the oxidation reactions that are also dependent on the oxygen permeation rate, the initial conditions of the sweep gas, i.e., the fuel concentration, flow rate and temperature, and the diluent. In oxy-fuel combustion applications, the sweep side is fuel-diluted with CO2, and the entire unit is preheated to achieve a high oxygen permeation flux. This study focuses on the flame structure under these conditions and specifically on the chemical effect of CO2 dilution. Results show that, when the fuel diluent is CO2, a diffusion flame with a lower temperature and a larger thickness is established in the vicinity of the membrane, in comparison with the case in which N2 is used as a diluent. Enhanced OH-driven reactions and suppressed H radical chemistry result in the formation of products with larger CO and H2O and smaller H2 concentrations. Moreover, radical concentrations are reduced due to the high CO2 fraction in the sweep gas. CO2 dilution reduces CH3 formation and slows down the formation of soot precursors, C2H2 and C2H4. The flame location impacts the species diffusion and heat transfer from the

  20. Accumulation of Elements in Salix and Other Species Used in Vegetation Filters with Focus on Wood Fuel Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli

    2007-07-01

    Woody or herbaceous perennials used as vegetation filters for treatment of different types of wastes can be suitable for production of solid biofuels when their above ground harvestable biomass yield is sufficiently high and when biomass contains appropriate concentrations of minerals with regard to fuel combustion processes. The concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and heavy metals (especially Zn and Cd) in fuel should be low and calcium (Ca) concentrations high to avoid technical problems and environmentally harmful emissions during combustion. Since soil supplementation with essential elements improves biomass yield, a conflict might arise between yield and quality aims. There are various possibilities to influence fuel quality during the growing phase of the life cycle of perennial biomass crops. This study assessed the suitability of two deciduous woody perennials (Salix and Populus) and two summer green herbaceous perennials (Phragmites and Urtica) for phytoremediation in terms of growth and nutrient allocation patterns. Salix and Populus proved suitable as vegetation filters when nutrients were available to plants in near-optimal proportions, but when unbalanced nutrient solutions (wastewater) were applied, stem biomass fraction was strongly reduced. Phragmites was more tolerant to wastewater treatment in terms of plant biomass production and nutrient allocation patterns, so if the N:P ratio of the wastewater is suboptimal, a vegetation filter using Phragmites could be considered. In further studies, a method was developed to determine the proportions of nutrient-rich bark in coppiced Salix, while heavy metal phytoextraction capacity was assessed in two Salix vegetation filters. The relevance of proportion of bark on wood fuel quality and element removal from vegetation filters was also investigated. The concentrations of the elements studied in harvestable Salix shoot biomass were higher, meaning lower wood fuel quality, in plantations where