WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel economy final

  1. Instrumentation of cars for fuel economy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J E

    1982-04-01

    The development of an electronic system to control the air-fuel ratio (A/F) and ignition timing of an internal combustion engine to optimize fuel economy is described. Dynamometer and drive cycle testing of the system was performed. The results showed that a significant improvement in fuel economy can be achieved by a control system of the type developed. It is clear, however, that considerably more work needs to be done. One area mentioned is the need for more systematic fuel economy testing against speed and load as control parameters are varied for optimization, and a more economic air bypass system must be developed. (LCL)

  2. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  3. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  4. Fuel economy handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the UK's energy situation from 1950 to 2020 is presented. Problems are discussed and recommendations are made. A strong argument is presented for energy conservation, greater use of nuclear energy, and restrained production of North Sea oil. Specific recommendations are made for financial and operational considerations of (1) new or replacement boiler plants; (2) space heating of factories, offices and similar buildings; and (3) possible use of various fuels including duel-fuel economics and use of wastes. Tariffs and charges are discussed as well as services (e.g. compressed air, cooling water, sources of waste, etc.). Standby considerations (peak load lopping, turbines-engines, parallel or sectioned operation, etc.) and heat distribution (steam, condensate return and uses) are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on fuel economy. Savings in process such as recovering waste heat and the storage of heat are considered. For small industrial furnaces, intermittent heating, heat recovery, and the importance of furnace loading are discussed. (MJJ)

  5. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  6. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  7. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty...

  8. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-12-07

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...... and traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....

  20. Car buyers and fuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrentine, Thomas S.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    This research is designed to help researchers and policy makers ground their work in the reality of how US consumers are thinking and behaving with respect to automotive fuel economy. Our data are from semi-structured interviews with 57 households across nine lifestyle 'sectors.' We found no household that analyzed their fuel costs in a systematic way in their automobile or gasoline purchases. Almost none of these households track gasoline costs over time or consider them explicitly in household budgets. These households may know the cost of their last tank of gasoline and the unit price of gasoline on that day, but this accurate information is rapidly forgotten and replaced by typical information. One effect of this lack of knowledge and information is that when consumers buy a vehicle, they do not have the basic building blocks of knowledge assumed by the model of economically rational decision-making, and they make large errors estimating gasoline costs and savings over time. Moreover, we find that consumer value for fuel economy is not only about private cost savings. Fuel economy can be a symbolic value as well, for example among drivers who view resource conservation or thrift as important values to communicate. Consumers also assign non-monetary meaning to fuel prices, for example seeing rising prices as evidence of conspiracy. This research suggests that consumer responses to fuel economy technology and changes in fuel prices are more complex than economic assumptions suggest. The US Department of Energy and the Energy Foundation supported this research. The authors are solely responsible for the content and conclusions presented

  1. 40 CFR 85.1510 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. 85.1510 Section 85.1510 Protection of Environment..., warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. The provisions of this section are applicable to... for final admission. (d) Fuel economy labeling. (1) The certificate holder shall affix a fuel economy...

  2. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty vehicles. Data is collected by EPA to certify compliance with the applicable fuel economy provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007

  3. Several remarks on the fuel cycle economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman Kubin; Rudolf Vespalec

    2007-01-01

    Present paper deals with some aspects influencing significantly cost of nuclear fuel and possibilities of its usage in optimal fuel cycle technology. Our discussion is focused on the phase of fuel procurement that means financial parts of the contract as well as its technical Appendices. Typically the fuel fabrication price is taken as the main economy indicator; nevertheless also many other financial and technical features of the contract must be taken into account in order to reach the best price of electricity sold into public energy grid. Our experience from several international tenders shows that the consistent complex of commercial and technical parameters of the contract is necessary to achieve optimal economic results and prepare proper conditions for advanced fuel cycle technology. Among those essential characteristics are payment conditions and schedule and extent of vendor's services and assistance to the operator. Very important role play also technical parameters, as safety and operational limits, influencing loading pattern quality and operating flexibility. Obviously also a level of operator's fuel cycle technology is a crucial point that is necessary for usage of technical quality of the fuel at the power plant. The final electricity price, produced by the plant, and uranium consumption are the only objective criteria to evaluate economic level of the fuel contract and the fuel cycle at all (Authors)

  4. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

  5. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities

  6. The effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on regional economy; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituslaitoksen aluetaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, S. [Seppo Laakso Urban Research (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The study deals with the economic effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on the alternative location municipalities - Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski - and their neighbouring areas (in Finland). The economic influence of the facility on industrials, employment, population, property markets, community structure and local public economics are analysed applying the approach of regional economics. The evaluation of the facility`s effects on employment is based on the input-output analysis. Both the direct and indirect effects of the construction and the functioning of the facility are taken into account in the analysis. According to the results the total increase in employment caused by the construction of the facility is about 350 persons annually, at national level. Some 150 persons of this are estimated to live in the wider region and 100-150 persons in the facility`s influence area consisting of the location municipality and neighbouring municipalities. This amount is reached at the top stage of construction (around the year 2018). At the production stage - after the year 2020 - the facility`s effects on employment will be concentrated significantly more on the location municipality and the rest of the influence area than on the rest of the country, compared with the construction stage. The estimated employment growth in the production stage is approximately 160 persons at national level of which 100-120 persons live in the candidate municipality and in the rest of the influence area. There is a direct link between local employment and population development. The growth of jobs attracts immigrants affecting the development of both the number and the structure of population. The facility`s effects on population development in the alternative location municipalities are analysed using comparative population forecasts based on demographic population projection methods. According to the results the job growth caused by the facility will

  7. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  8. Comparing flexibility mechanisms for fuel economy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program has been the main policy tool in the US for coping with the problems of increasing fuel consumption and dependence on imported oil. The program mandates average fuel economy requirements for the new vehicle sales of each manufacturer's fleet, with separate standards for cars and light trucks. The fact that each manufacturer must on its own meet the standards means that the incentives to improve fuel economy are different across manufacturers and vehicle types, although the problems associated with fuel consumption do not make such distinctions. This paper evaluates different mechanisms to offer automakers the flexibility of joint compliance with nationwide fuel economy goals: tradable CAFE credits, feebates, output-rebated fees, and tradable credits with banking. The policies are compared according to the short- and long-run economic incentives, as well as to issues of transparency, implementation, administrative and transaction costs, and uncertainty

  9. 75 FR 25323 - Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway... reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint Final Rule is consistent with the...

  10. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  11. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  12. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  13. 40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  14. Consumer Views: Importance of Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on the importance of fuel economy amongst other vehicle attributes and views on which alternative fuel types would be the best and worst replacements for gasoline.

  15. Haptic seat for fuel economy feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, III, John Thomas

    2016-08-30

    A process of providing driver fuel economy feedback is disclosed in which vehicle sensors provide for haptic feedback on fuel usage. Such sensors may include one or more of a speed sensors, global position satellite units, vehicle pitch/roll angle sensors, suspension displacement sensors, longitudinal accelerometer sensors, throttle position in sensors, steering angle sensors, break pressure sensors, and lateral accelerometer sensors. Sensors used singlely or collectively can provide enhanced feedback as to various environmental conditions and operating conditions such that a more accurate assessment of fuel economy information can be provided to the driver.

  16. Economy and the fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear fuel manufacturing constitutes a considerable venture for the competitiveness of the nuclear power sector although it represents a relatively modest fraction (around 4%) of the nuclear kWh cost. The COGEMA group is participating through its branches in the control of the most part (32%) of the world manufacturing capacity of fuel for PWR. Amounting up to 242 operating installations this reactor type is the most widespread in the world. The paper discusses the costs, the fuel clients and the fuel suppliers. Data concerning the boiling water and fast neutron reactors, geographical localization of the PWR and VVER reactors all over the world, the PWR and fuel for PWR manufacturers are also presented

  17. The effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on regional and municipal economy assessment of socio economical impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, S.; Kuisma, H.; Kilpelaeinen, P.; Kostiainen, E.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study is to give an up-to-date assessment of the effects the construction of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Eurajoki, based on latest knowledge. The disposal facility's effects on employment, population, housing construction, community structure and economy are estimated in the municipality of Eurajoki and in the wider region under the influence of the facility. The time-span of the report reaches from 2001 to the early 2020's when the facility will be in operation. The investment in research and construction of the disposal facility during the years 2004-2020 will be all together approximately 290 million euros. The estimation for the overall effect on national employment during the years 2001-2020 is circa 6 800 manyears, of which 4 200 man-years are from direct effects and 2 600 from indirect effects. The direct employment effects of the project will be at its highest approximately 325 man-year per year in 2020. The direct effect on employment during the operational period is estimated to be circa 130 man-years per year, of which the share of regular employees of Posiva is slightly over 100 man-years. At its highest, about 45 man-years per year of the total effect on employment (direct + indirect effects) will be directed to Eurajoki municipality. During the operational phase the share of Eurajoki is estimated to be circa 30 man-years per year. For the whole region, the effect of the disposal facility on employment will be significant, at its height in 2020, approximately 220 man-years per year. The disposal facility will also have an effect on the size and the structure of the population due to changes in employment and jobs. The estimation for the cumulative effect on the growth of the population caused by the facility is 80 more inhabitants in Eurajoki by 2020, which corresponds to 1,4 % of the municipality's current population. The growth of the population brought about by the facility in the whole region is estimated

  18. The System Dynamics of U.S. Automobile Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics of U.S. automobile gasoline consumption since 1975. Using background literature on the history of domestic fuel economy and energy policy, I establish a conceptual model that explains historical trends in adoption of increased fuel economy. I then create a system dynamics simulation model to understand the relationship between increased fuel economy standards and potential changes to gas tax policies. The model suggests that when increases in mandated fuel economy are not conducted in an environment with rising fuel costs, fuel economy improvements may be directly counteracted by shifting tastes of consumers towards larger automobiles with lower fuel economy.

  19. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  20. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets on CO 2 (a greenhouse gas emission standard) are to be achieved. Trends show diesel car sales have accelerated rapidly and that the advantage of new car fuel economy of diesel cars over gasoline ones is narrowing posing a new challenge. We estimate the demand for new car fuel economy in the UK. In the long-run consumers buy fuel economy, but not in the short-run. We found that long-term income and price changes were the main drivers to achieve improvements particularly for diesel cars and that there is no break in the trend of fuel economy induced by the agreement adopted in the 1990s. Policy should target more closely both consumer choice of, and use of, diesel cars.

  1. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  2. Automobile Buyer Decisions about Fuel Economy and Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Much prior research into consumer automotive and fuel purchase behaviors and fuel economy has been shaped by the normative assumptions of economics. Among these assumptions are that consumers should pay attention to costs of fuel and that they are aware of their options to save on fuel over long periods of time, i.e., the life of a vehicle or at least their period of ownership. For example, researchers have analyzed in some depth consumer choices for more fuel economical vehicles in the 1980s...

  3. Increased fuel economy in transportation systems by use of energy management. Third year's program. Final report, May 1, 1976--July 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachley, N.H.; Frank, A.A.

    1976-07-01

    A report is given of the results accomplished during the third year of a three-year research program, the overall goal of which has been to conceive and evaluate practical ways to increase automobile fuel economy by energy management within the engine-transmission-vehicle system. The third year was devoted primarily to the detailed design, construction, and preliminary evaluation of a Flywheel Energy Management Powerplant (FEMP) installed in a Pinto. The vehicle has been built to experimentally verify performance simulations and to allow the practical aspects of a real flywheel vehicle to be studied. The FEMP consists basically of an internal combustion engine, a high-speed energy-storage flywheel, and a hydrostatic power-split continuously-variable transmission (CVT) system. The flywheel drives the car, and the engine comes on to ''recharge'' it (with efficient wide-open throttle operation) only when the flywheel speed drops below a predetermined value. The concept also permits effective and efficient regenerative braking. Computer simulations have indicated an improvement in city fuel mileage of about 50%, with improvements of 100% appearing feasible with further research. Preliminary testing of the car shows favorable performance.

  4. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method, or...

  5. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of passenger...

  6. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  8. Fueling Wisconsin's economy with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, S.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic macroeconomic model of the Wisconsin economy is used to estimate the economic impacts of displacing a portion of future investment in fossil fuel power plants (coal and natural gas) with renewable energy resources (biomass, wind, solar and hydro). The results show that renewable energy investments produce over three times more jobs, income and economic activity than the same amount of electricity generated from coal and natural gas power plants. Between 1995 and 2020, a 75% increase in renewable energy use generates approximately 65,000 more job-years of employment, $1.6 billion in higher disposable income and a $3.1 billion increase in gross regional product than conventional power plant investments. This includes the effects of a 0.3% average annual increase in electricity prices from renewable energy investments

  9. Final disposition of MTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonnson, Erik B.

    1996-01-01

    The final disposition of power reactor fuel has been investigated for a long time and some promising solutions to the problem have been shown. The research reactor fuels are normally not compatible with the zirkonium clad power reactor fuel and can thus not rely on the same disposal methods. The MTR fuels are typically Al-clad UAl x or U 3 Si 2 , HEU resp. LEU with essentially higher remaining enrichment than the corresponding power reactor fuel after full utilization of the uranium. The problems arising when evaluating the conditions at the final repository are the high corrosion rate of aluminum and uranium metal and the risk for secondary criticality due to the high content on fissionable material in the fully burnt MTR fuel. The newly adopted US policy to take back Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel of US origin for a period of ten years have given the research reactor society a reasonable time to evaluate different possibilities to solve the back end of the fuel cycle. The problem is, however, complicated and requires a solid engagement from the research reactor community. The task would be a suitable continuation of the RERTR program as it involves both the development of new fuel types and collecting data for the safe long-term disposal of the spent MTR fuel. (author)

  10. Determinants of consumer interest in fuel economy: Lessons for strengthening the conservation argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Michael; Vickery, Gina; Dixon, Bruce; Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    With an outlook for higher global energy prices and concomitant increase of agricultural resources for the pursuit of fuel, consumers are expected to seek more fuel-economic transportation alternatives. This paper examines factors that influence the importance consumers place on fuel economy, with attention given to differences between American and European consumers. In a survey conducted simultaneously in the United States (U.S.) and Belgium in the fall of 2006, respondents in both countries ranked fuel economy high among characteristics considered when purchasing a new vehicle. Overall, respondents in the U.S. placed greater emphasis on fuel economy as a new-vehicle characteristic. Respondents' budgetary concerns carried a large weight when purchasing a new vehicle as reflected in their consideration of a fuel's relative price (e.g. gasoline vs. diesel vs. biofuel) and associated car repair and maintenance costs. On the other hand, high-income Americans displayed a lack of concern over fuel economy. Concern over the environment also played a role since consumers who felt empowered to affect the environment with their purchasing decisions (buying low and clean emission technology and fuels) placed greater importance on fuel economy. No statistically significant effects on fuel economy rankings were found related to vehicle performance, socio-demographic parameters of age, gender or education. Importantly, the tradeoff between using agricultural inputs for energy rather than for food, feed and fiber had no impact on concerns over fuel economy. Finally, contrary to expectations, U.S. respondents who valued domestically produced renewable fuels did not tend to value fuel economy. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... fuel economy calculations. This section applies to data used for fuel economy labeling under Subpart D...

  12. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... the Fuel Economy Guide \\1\\ in 1975 to prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles... Economy Guide. That rulemaking will increase the coverage of EPA's new fuel economy labels to include... issue to new vehicle advertisers in the FTC's Fuel Economy Guide. Therefore, the Commission has...

  13. Policy Pathways: Improving the Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles - A policy package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately one-fifth of global final energy consumption and will account for nearly all future growth in oil use, particularly for road vehicles. The right policy mix can allow countries to improve the fuel economy of road vehicles, which in turn can enhance energy security and reduce CO2 emissions. Improving the Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles highlights lessons learned and examples of good practices from countries with experience in implementing fuel economy policies for vehicles. The report, part of the IEA’s Policy Pathway series, outlines key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. It complements the IEA Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy for Road Vehicles, which outlines technical options, potentials, and costs towards improvement in the near, medium and long term.

  14. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  15. Light-Duty Vehicle CO2 and Fuel Economy Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides data on the fuel economy, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and technology trends of new light-duty vehicles (cars, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and pickup trucks) for model years 1975 to present in the United States.

  16. 40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy...

  17. 40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.209... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for...

  18. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.209... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  20. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle is...

  1. 77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ...-0059] Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports AGENCY... Transportation on whether a manufacturer will comply with an applicable average fuel economy standard for the... R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs...

  2. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  3. The economy of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, W [Alpha Chemie und Metallurgie G.m.b.H. (ALKEM), Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-07-01

    Heat extracted from nuclear fuel costs by a factor of 3 to 7 less than heat from conventional fossile fuel. So, nuclear fuel per se has an economical advantage, decreased however partly by higher nuclear plant investment costs. The standard LWR design does not allow all the fission energy stored in the fuel during on cycle to be used. It is therefore the most natural approach to separate fissionable species from fission products and consume them by fissioning. Whether this is economically justified as opposed by storing them indefinitely with spent fuel has widely been debated. The paper outlines the different approaches taken by nuclear communities worldwide and their perceived or proven rational arguments. It will balance economic and other factors for the near and distant future including advanced reactor concepts. The specific solution within the German nuclear programme will be explained, including foreseeable future trends. (orig.).

  4. Light-duty vehicle fuel economy improvements, 1979--1998: A consumer purchase model of corporate average fuel economy, fuel price, and income effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, David Michael

    2000-10-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have

  5. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy; Ekonomija izgaranja nuklearnog goriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matausek, M [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 600.307-08 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...

  7. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... including, but not limited to battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...

  8. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controller, battery configuration, or other components performed within 2,000 miles prior to fuel economy... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-08 Section 600.006-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  9. Benefits of recent improvements in vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    For the past several years, we have calculated (on a monthly basis) the average, sales-weighted fuel economy of all light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, vans, and SUVs) sold in : the U.S. The results indicate that, from October 2007 to September...

  10. Solid fuels. Coal. Economy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautin, F.; Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The share of coal in the world energy mix (25%) and its possible increase during the next decades is due to its specific use in steelmaking industry and to its excellent competitiveness in fossil-fuel power plants with respect to other energy sources. Its inferior energy efficiency is compensated by lower and more stable prices on international markets. This situation is explained by a strong competition and abundant reserves. However, coal is a strong emitter of greenhouse gases and would be temporarily penalized by the implementation of emission tax or trading systems before the development of carbon sequestration systems. This article presents: the main world markets (consumption per sector of activity, power generation market, coke market, start-up of a synthetic fuels market), the main international coal producers and traders (overview and typology, international trades, transport), the reserves and resources, and the worldwide perspectives (2050 scenarios, climatic risks, CO 2 prices and technological changes). (J.S.)

  11. 76 FR 39477 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are issuing a joint final rule establishing new requirements for the fuel economy and environment label that will be posted on the window sticker of all new automobiles sold in the U.S. The labeling requirements apply for model year 2013 and later vehicles with a voluntary manufacturer option for model year 2012. The labeling requirements apply to passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium duty passenger vehicles such as larger sport-utility vehicles and vans. The redesigned label provides expanded information to American consumers about new vehicle fuel economy and fuel consumption, greenhouse gas and smog-forming emissions, and projected fuel costs and savings, and also includes a smartphone interactive code that permits direct access to additional Web resources. Specific label designs are provided for gasoline, diesel, ethanol flexible fuel, compressed natural gas, electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This rulemaking is in response to provisions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that imposed several new labeling requirements and new advanced-technology vehicles entering the market. NHTSA and EPA believe that these changes will help consumers to make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, particularly as the future automotive marketplace provides more diverse vehicle technologies from which consumers may choose. These new label requirements do not affect the methodologies that EPA uses to generate consumer fuel economy estimates, or the automaker compliance values for NHTSA's corporate average fuel economy and EPA's greenhouse gas emissions standards. This action also finalizes a number of technical corrections to EPA's light-duty greenhouse gas emission standards program.

  12. SRE fuel decladding. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the task of decladding the SRE fuel assemblies, and shipment of the fuel to Savannah River for eventual reprocessing. The disposition of 16 unidentified RMDF storage canisters is also covered

  13. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... regarding labeling of cars and trucks with fuel economy and environmental information in the Federal...

  14. Automobile fuel; Economy and CO2 emissions in industrialized countries : troubling trends through 2005/6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A review of recently available data on both on-road fuel economy and new car test fuel economy : shows that while US on-road fuel economy has been flat for almost 15 years, major European countries and Japan have shown modest improvements in response...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called Mizer...

  16. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-08 Section 600.510-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978 Passenger Automobiles...

  17. 40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-93 Section 600.510-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978 Passenger Automobiles...

  18. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy. 600.510-86 Section 600.510-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978 Passenger Automobiles...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle is...

  20. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section 600.006-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-86 Data and...

  1. 75 FR 59673 - Public Hearing Locations for the Proposed Fuel Economy Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...] RIN 2060-AQ09; RIN 2127-AK73 Public Hearing Locations for the Proposed Fuel Economy Labels AGENCY... Vehicle Fuel Economy Label,'' published in the Federal Register on September 23, 2010. The goal of a... testimony or comment on the Agency's proposed revisions and additions to the motor vehicle fuel economy...

  2. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year does...

  3. 40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section 600.006-89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-89 Data and...

  4. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures... equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual...

  5. Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzner, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

  6. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  7. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., motor controller, battery configuration, or other components performed within 2,000 miles prior to fuel... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section 600.006-87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  8. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  9. The Role of Synthetic Fuels for a Carbon Neutral Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Namorado Rosa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels depletion and increasing environmental impacts arising from their use call for seeking growing supplies from renewable and nuclear primary energy sources. However, it is necessary to simultaneously attend to both the electrical power needs and the specificities of the transport and industrial sector requirements. A major question posed by the shift away from traditional fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources lies in matching the power demand with the daily and seasonal oscillation and the intermittency of these natural energy fluxes. Huge energy storage requirements become necessary or otherwise the decline of the power factor of both the renewable and conventional generation would mean loss of resources. On the other hand, liquid and gaseous fuels, for which there is vast storage and distribution capacity available, appear essential to supply the transport sector for a very long time ahead, besides their domestic and industrial roles. Within this context, the present assessment suggests that proven technologies and sound tested principles are available to develop an integrated energy system, relying on synthetic fuels. These would incorporate carbon capture and utilization in a closed carbon cycle, progressively relying mostly on solar and/or nuclear primary sources, providing both electric power and gaseous/liquid hydrocarbon fuels, having ample storage capacity, and able to timely satisfy all forms of energy demand. The principles and means are already available to develop a carbon-neutral synthetic fuel economy.

  10. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2006-01-01

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO 2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  11. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  12. Fuel economy and traffic fatalities: multivariate analysis of international data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    In the US motor vehicle fuel economy standards were imposed in the late 1970s, in response to the oil crises of that decade. Since then, efforts to increase the standards have not occurred, one reason being the argument that smaller vehicles (which are generally more efficient) are considered less safe. Recent analyses (Energy J.( 2004)) suggests that variance in vehicle weights may be more important than the absolute weights of vehicles in making the highway network less safe. In Europe and other countries, which generally have smaller more efficient vehicle fleets, due to relatively high gasoline taxes, this debate has not occurred. In particular, countries such as Great Britain and Sweden have far safer road transport systems than the US but also have much more efficient vehicle fleets. This suggests that either vehicle weight and size are unimportant or if they have an effect it is small compared to other factors. This paper uses international data to build econometric models that examine whether average vehicle fuel economy has any association with road traffic fatalities, while controlling for other factors that are associated with fatalities. The effect on pedestrian fatalities is also analyzed. Cross-sectional time-series data on traffic fatalities from OECD countries is used and negative binomial regression models are developed using panel data to determine whether any associations are present. Results find that changes in vehicle efficiency are not associated with changes in traffic fatalities, suggesting either that size and weight changes over time have not had a strong effect or are not associated with fuel economy improvements

  13. 40 CFR 600.307-95 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. (a)(1) Fuel economy labels must be: (i) Rectangular in shape with a minimum height of 4.5 inches... equivalent fuel economy. To convert these values into units of miles per 100 cubic feet of natural gas... per 100 cubic feet of natural gas, multiply by 0.823.” may be replaced by the statement “The fuel...

  14. Household cooking fuels and technologies in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, Wesley; Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    A major energy challenge of the 21st century is the health and welfare of 2.7 billion people worldwide, who currently rely on burning biomass in traditional household cooking systems. This Special Issue on Clean Cooking Fuels and Technologies in Developing Economies builds upon an IAEE workshop on this subject, held in Istanbul in 2008. It includes several papers from that workshop plus papers commissioned afterwards. The major themes of that workshop and this Special Issue are: •Analytical and decision frameworks for analysis and policy development for clean cooking fuels. •Making energy provisioning a central component of development strategies. •Strategies/business models of suppliers of modern fuels and technologies. •Analysis of successes/failures of past policies and programs to improve access to clean cooking. This introductory paper serves as a preamble to the 11 papers in this Special Issue. It provides a brief background on household cooking fuels and technologies, including: (1) their implications for sustainable development, health and welfare, gender impacts, and environment/climate issues; (2) options and scenarios for improved household cooling systems; and (3) discussions of institutions, programs and markets. It closes with “Research and Action Agendas”, initially developed during the 2008 workshop.

  15. Fuel cell commercialization: The key to a hydrogen economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, P.

    With the current level of global oil production, oil reserves will be sufficient for 40 years. However, due to the fact that the global GDP will have increased by a factor seven in 2050, oil reserves are likely to be exhausted in a much shorter time period. The EU and car industry aim at a reduction of the consumption of oil, at energy savings (with a key role for fuel cells) and an increased use of hydrogen from natural gas and, possibly, coal, in the medium term. The discovery of huge methane resources as methane hydrates (20 times those of oil, gas and coal together) in oceans at 1000-3000 m depth could be of major importance. In the long term, the EU aims at a renewable energy-based energy supply. The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform is expected to play a major role in bringing about a hydrogen economy. The availability of commercial fuel cells is here a prerequisite. However, after many years of research, fuel cells have not yet been commercialized. If they will not succeed to enter the market within 5 years there is a real danger that activities aiming at a hydrogen society will peter out. In a hydrogen strategy, high priority should therefore be given to actions which will bring about fuel cell commercialization within 5 years. They should include the identification of fuel cell types and (niche) markets which are most favorable for a rapid market introduction. These actions should include focused short-term RTD aiming at cost reduction and increased reliability.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Formats VIII... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Formats EC01MY92.117 EC01MY92.118 EC01MY92.119 EC01MY92.120...

  17. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; He Kebin; Wang, Michael; Yao Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  18. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Dr Janet L [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Greene, David [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gibson, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  19. New vehicle fuel economy in the UK: Impact of the recession and recent policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia

    2014-01-01

    Interests in vehicle fuel economy have increased in the past few years with the implementations of more stringent CAFE standard in USA and mandatory carbon emission standard in the EU. We seek to understand the effects of recent policies such as restructuring of Vehicle Excise Duties and EU standard on new vehicle fuel economy in the UK. In the past few years there have been substantial fluctuations in income and fuel prices, offering an interesting testing ground to understand their impact on the demand for fuel economy in vehicles. We use a monthly dataset to find that the emission standard is the largest driver for fuel economy improvements in recent years. Also, contrary to some recent findings in Europe and in UK, we find that income has an effect and that the recession had some role in improving the fuel economy. The effects of fuel prices were relatively small. Restructuring of the VED also improved new vehicle fuel economy in the UK, but the scrappage scheme had no significant effect. Results indicate that both supply and demand side policies are effective in improving fuel economy, although quantitatively the emission standard appears more effective due to its stringency. It is also important to consider the effects of income while devising demand side policies. - Highlights: • Econometric modelling and simulation of new vehicle fuel economy in UK. • EU carbon standard is the largest reason behind improving fuel economy. • Recession and associated reduction in income also had a role. • Fuel price has some impact on new car fuel economy, but small. • VED restructuring had an impact, but scrappage scheme's impact was insignificant

  20. HEU to LEU fuel conversion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.U.

    1994-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a ruling, effective March 27, 1986, that all U.S. non-power reactors convert from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. A Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program was conducted by the Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory to coordinate the development of the high density LEU fuel and assist in the development of Safety Analysis Reports for the smaller non-power reactors. Several meetings were held at Argonne in 1987 with the non-power reactor community to discuss the conversion and to set up a conversion schedule for university reactors. EG&G at Idaho was assigned the coordination of the fuel element redesigns. The fuel elements were manufactured by the Babcock & Wilcox Company in Lynchburg, Virginia. The University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the DOE Idaho Operations Office in 1988 to perform safety analysis studies for the LEU conversion for its 2 MW UVAR and 100 Watt CAVALIER reactors. The University subsequently decided to shut down the CAVALIER reactor. A preliminary SAR on the UVAR, along with Technical Specification changes, was submitted to the NRC in November, 1990. An updated SAR was approved by the NRC in January, 1991. In September, 1992, representatives from the fuel manufacturer (B&W) and the fuel designer (EG&G, Idaho) came to the UVAR facility to observe trial fittings of new 22 plate LEU mock fuel elements. B&W fabricated two non-fuel bearing elements, a regular 22 plate element and a control rod element. The elements were checked against the drawings and test fitted in the UVAR grid plate. The dimensions were acceptable and the elements fit in the grid plate with no problems. The staff made several suggestions for minor construction changes to the end pieces on the elements, which were incorporated into the final design of the actual fuel elements. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. HEU to LEU fuel conversion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.U.

    1994-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a ruling, effective March 27, 1986, that all U.S. non-power reactors convert from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. A Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program was conducted by the Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory to coordinate the development of the high density LEU fuel and assist in the development of Safety Analysis Reports for the smaller non-power reactors. Several meetings were held at Argonne in 1987 with the non-power reactor community to discuss the conversion and to set up a conversion schedule for university reactors. EG ampersand G at Idaho was assigned the coordination of the fuel element redesigns. The fuel elements were manufactured by the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company in Lynchburg, Virginia. The University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the DOE Idaho Operations Office in 1988 to perform safety analysis studies for the LEU conversion for its 2 MW UVAR and 100 Watt CAVALIER reactors. The University subsequently decided to shut down the CAVALIER reactor. A preliminary SAR on the UVAR, along with Technical Specification changes, was submitted to the NRC in November, 1990. An updated SAR was approved by the NRC in January, 1991. In September, 1992, representatives from the fuel manufacturer (B ampersand W) and the fuel designer (EG ampersand G, Idaho) came to the UVAR facility to observe trial fittings of new 22 plate LEU mock fuel elements. B ampersand W fabricated two non-fuel bearing elements, a regular 22 plate element and a control rod element. The elements were checked against the drawings and test fitted in the UVAR grid plate. The dimensions were acceptable and the elements fit in the grid plate with no problems. The staff made several suggestions for minor construction changes to the end pieces on the elements, which were incorporated into the final design of the actual fuel elements. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology

  2. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  3. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  4. Feebates, rebates and gas-guzzler taxes: a study of incentives for increased fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.; Patterson, P.D.; Singh, Margaret; Li Jia

    2005-01-01

    US fuel economy standards have not been changed significantly in 20 years. Feebates are a market-based alternative in which vehicles with fuel consumption rates above a 'pivot point' are charged fees while vehicles below receive rebates. By choice of pivot points, feebate systems can be made revenue neutral. Feebates have been analyzed before. This study re-examines feebates using recent data, assesses how the undervaluing of fuel economy by consumers might affect their efficacy, tests sensitivity to the cost of fuel economy technology and price elasticities of vehicle demand, and adds assessments of gas-guzzler taxes or rebates alone. A feebate rate of $500 per 0.01 gallon per mile (GPM) produces a 16 percent increase in fuel economy, while a $1000 per 0.01 GPM results in a 29 percent increase, even if consumers count only the first 3 years of fuel savings. Unit sales decline by about 0.5 percent but sales revenues increase because the added value of fuel economy technologies outweighs the decrease in sales. In all cases, the vast majority of fuel economy increase is due to adoption of fuel economy technologies rather than shifts in sales

  5. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  6. Fuel economy of new passenger cars in Mexico: Trends from 1988 to 2008 and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Chávez-Baeza, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in fuel economy (kilometers per liter) of new passenger vehicles in Mexico over a period of 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Results show that in this period, fuel economy of the new passenger vehicle fleet, including multipurpose vehicles (a category similar to sport utility vehicles, SUVs), increased by only 6.3%. A simple Laspeyres index analysis was developed to evaluate both the impact of changes in vehicle sales structure by category and the changes in fuel economy. Results show that increased sales of heavier, multipurpose vehicles in place of subcompact and compact vehicles, impacted negatively on the fleet average fuel economy. If the structure of sales had continued in the same proportions across all categories as in 1988, fuel economy would have increased by 11.0%, instead of the actual 6.3%. This result coincides with trends in other countries. The paper also presents different scenarios of passenger car fuel economy for the year 2020, and its implications for gasoline consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results may influence the new passenger vehicle fuel economy standard that is currently under discussion in Mexico.

  7. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for...

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.65 - How may we request an exemption from the fuel economy standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption from the fuel economy standards? 102-34.65 Section 102-34.65 Public Contracts and Property... an exemption from the fuel economy standards? You must submit a written request for an exemption from the fuel economy standards to: Administrator, General Services Administration, ATTN: Deputy Associate...

  9. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions. (letter)

  10. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  11. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  12. Circular economy opportunity in the wind industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how the circular economy can be an opportunity for the French wind industry. A broad review of circular economy issues for the wind industry value chain has been conducted in order to be used as a decision making tool for ADEME and the wind industry stakeholders. First of all, a 'flow analysis' (including material, logistic and services related to wind power) has been carried out in order to highlight the specific challenges of circular economy for the wind sector. The strategic opportunities that meet these issues have then been identified. A selection of six opportunities has been further investigated to assess the benefits, to analyze the barriers and to identify actions that ADEME could initiate to foster these opportunities. These investigated opportunities are the following: - To structure a recycling chain for wind blades; - To promote the business model of the extension of wind turbine's lifetime; - To promote skills improvement of local providers for reconditioning and maintenance services; - To adapt the offshore hubs to integrate dismantling activity of onshore equipments; - To increase the manufacturing capacity of wind towers in France to increase local sourcing; - To encourage the creation of a leading French manufacturer to optimize the supply chain. In the light of this analysis, it can be concluded that circular economy represents a strategic opportunity for the French wind energy sector. The opportunities we focused on make up a consistent set of initiatives that improve the environmental, economic and social performance of the wind energy sector by strengthening industrial activities and services throughout all the life cycle: manufacturing stage (optimization of logistics flows and local manufacturing), use phase (maintenance, repair) and end-of-life phase of wind turbine (dismantling, recycling). While the sector has so far been focused on better solving technological challenges and

  13. Substitutability of Electricity and Renewable Materials for Fossil Fuels in a Post-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feasible way to avoid the risk of energy decline and combat climate change is to build a 100% renewable global energy mix. However, a globally electrified economy cannot grow much above 12 electric terawatts without putting pressure on the limits of finite mineral reserves. Here we analyze whether 12 TW of electricity and 1 TW of biomass (final power will be able to fuel a future post-carbon economy that can provide similar services to those of a contemporary economy. Contrarily to some pessimistic expectations, this analysis shows that the principle economic processes can be replaced with sustainable alternatives based on electricity, charcoal, biogas and hydrogen. Furthermore, those services that cannot be replaced are not as crucial so as to cause a return to a pre-industrial society. Even so, land transport and aviation are at the limit of what is sustainable, outdoor work should be reorganized, metal primary production should be based on hydrogen reduction when possible, mineral production should be increasingly based on recycling, the petrochemical industry should shrink to a size of 40%–43% of the 2012 petrochemical sector, i.e., a size similar to that the sector had in 1985–1986, and agriculture may require organic farming methods to be sustainable.

  14. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  15. Unemployment rate and price of gasoline predict the fuel economy of purchased new vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between two economic indicatorsthe : unemployment rate and the price of gasolineand the fuel economy of purchased new : vehicles. A regression analysis was performed on U.S. monthly data from October 2007 : ...

  16. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  17. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  18. Eco-driving : strategic, tactical, and operational decisions of the driver that improve vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "This report presents information about the effects of decisions that a driver can make to : influence on-road fuel economy of light-duty vehicles. These include strategic decisions : (vehicle selection and maintenance), tactical decisions (route sel...

  19. Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Present the implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson engine and use steady state fuel consumption maps to estimate the technologies’ potential fuel economy improvements over the FTP and Highway tests. In addition to use fuel weighted modes to determine possible fuel economy...

  20. Is self-repayment of the nuclear fuel cycle plants profitable for national economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelev, Ya.V.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) plants should not be repaying in the optimal plan of nuclear economy development. Their losses are overlapped by superprofits of energy consumers. The loss in the national economy resulting from compulsory conversion of the NFC plants to self-repayment is estimated. 12 refs

  1. Reduction of CO/sub 2/ emissions through fuel economy standards for diesel cars in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, L.A.; Mehlia, T.M.I.; Hassan, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In Pakistan, like many developing countries, the increasing prosperity and population growth are resulting in accelerated growth in vehicle population and vehicle kilometers traveled. This causes air pollution due to huge CO/sub 2/ emissions. Automobile fuel economy standards have proven to be one of the most effective tools to control oil demand thereby reducing the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions like CO/sub 2/, This study presents the investigation to apply fuel economy standards in Pakistan, in order to predict the potential reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions and saving in fuel demand. The study is focused on only diesel cars and the data of diesel car owners for previous fifteen years is obtained from the related sources in Pakistan. A growth trend of diesel car owners was analyzed and the number of diesel car owners in future was predicted by applying database computer software. Calculations were made to study the effect of fuel economy standards in terms of saving in fuel demand and the reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions. The results reveal the potential application of fuel economy standards and it was found that a cumulative amount of fuel 39266775 liters can be saved and CO/sub 2/ emissions can be reduced by 106021 tons at the end of 2011-2012, if fuel economy standards are implemented in 2008-2009. (author)

  2. 40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. 600.206-86 Section 600.206-86...-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values...

  3. Experiment and Simulation of Medium-Duty Tactical Truck for Fuel Economy Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen M. Quail

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuel economy improvement on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The focus of this study is the investigation of Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT and mild hybridization powertrain that have potential to improve the fuel economy of the 2.5-ton cargo trucks. The current platform uses a seven-speed automatic transmission. This study utilized a combination of on-road experimental vehicle data and analytical vehicle modeling and simulation. This paper presents the results of (1 establishment of a validated, high fidelity baseline analytical vehicle model, (2 modeling and simulation of two AMTs and their control strategy, (3 optimization of transmissions shift schedules, and (4 modeling and simulation of engine idle stop/start and Belt-Integrated-Starter-Generator (B-ISG systems to improve the fuel economy. The fuel economy discrepancy between experimental average and the baseline simulation result was 2.87%. The simulation results indicated a 14.5% and 12.2% fuel economy improvement for the 10-speed and 12-speed AMT respectively. A stop/start system followed by a B-ISG mild hybrid system incorporating regenerative braking was estimated to improve fuel economy 3.39% and 10.2% respectively.

  4. Meeting U.S. passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in 2016 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, Lynette; Heywood, John

    2011-01-01

    New fuel economy standards require new U.S. passenger vehicles to achieve at least 34.1 miles per gallon (MPG) on average by model year 2016, up from 28.8 MPG today. In this paper, the magnitude, combinations and timings of the changes required in U.S. vehicles that are necessary in order to meet the new standards, as well as a target of doubling the fuel economy within the next two decades are explored. Scenarios of future vehicle characteristics and sales mix indicate that the 2016 mandate is aggressive, requiring significant changes starting from today. New vehicles must forgo horsepower improvements, become lighter, and a greater number will use advanced, more fuel-efficient powertrains, such as smaller turbocharged engines, hybrid-electric drives. Achieving a factor-of-two increase in fuel economy by 2030 is also challenging, but more feasible since the auto industry will have more lead time to respond. A discussion on the feasibility of meeting the new fuel economy mandate is included, considering vehicle production planning realities and challenges in deploying new vehicle technologies into the market. - Research Highlights: → The new 2016 fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles in the U.S. can be met, but are aggressive. → Future vehicles must forgo horsepower improvements, become lighter, and a greater number will use advanced, more fuel efficient powertrains. → The challenge of meeting the fuel economy targets is defined by both the magnitude and the timing of these requirements. → Doubling the fuel economy by 2030 is also challenging, but more feasible since the auto industry will have more lead time to respond.

  5. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, Valerie J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Babiker, Mustafa; Reilly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use and (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the cost and effectiveness of fuel economy standards, alone and in combination with economy-wide policies that constrain GHG emissions, is essential to inform coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. We use a computable general equilibrium model, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, to investigate the effect of combining a fuel economy standard with an economy-wide GHG emissions constraint in the United States. First, a fuel economy standard is shown to be at least six to fourteen times less cost effective than a price instrument (fuel tax) when targeting an identical reduction in cumulative gasoline use. Second, when combined with a cap-and-trade (CAT) policy, a binding fuel economy standard increases the cost of meeting the GHG emissions constraint by forcing expensive reductions in passenger vehicle gasoline use, displacing more cost-effective abatement opportunities. Third, the impact of adding a fuel economy standard to the CAT policy depends on the availability and cost of abatement opportunities in transport—if advanced biofuels provide a cost-competitive, low carbon alternative to gasoline, the fuel economy standard does not bind and the use of low carbon fuels in passenger vehicles makes a significantly larger contribution to GHG emissions abatement relative to the case when biofuels are not available. This analysis underscores the potentially large costs of a fuel economy standard relative to alternative policies aimed at reducing petroleum use and GHG emissions. It further emphasizes the need to consider sensitivity to vehicle technology and alternative fuel availability and costs as well as economy-wide responses when forecasting the energy, environmental, and economic outcomes of

  6. Development of fuel economy 5W-20 gasoline engine oil; Teinenpi 5W-20 gasoline engine yu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, K; Ueda, F; Kurono, K; Kawai, H; Sugiyama, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A 5W-20 gasoline engine oil which improves vehicle fuel efficiency by more than 1.5% relative to a conventional 5W-30 gasoline engine oil was newly developed. Its high fuel economy performance lasts 10,000 km. The viscosity was optimized to satisfy both fuel economy and antiwear performances. Thiadiazole was used to retain the initial fuel economy performance provided by MoDTC. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Renewable Fuel Pathways II Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways under Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels derived from biogas fuel pathways under the RFS program and other minor amendments related to survey requirements associated with ULSD program and misfueling mitigation regulations for E15.

  8. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. (a) Fuel...

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  10. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  11. Mathematic model of regional economy development by the final result of labor resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Irina; Malafeev, Oleg; Strekopytov, Sergei; Bondarenko, Galina; Lovyannikov, Denis

    2018-04-01

    This article presents the mathematic model of regional economy development based on the result of labor resources. The solution of a region development-planning problem is considered for the period of long-lasting planning taking into account the beginning and the end of the planned period. The challenge is to find the distribution of investments in the main and additional branches of the regional economy, which will provide simultaneous transaction of all major sectors of the regional economy from the given condition to the predetermined final state.

  12. Power to gas. The final breakthrough for the hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Goldstein, Raphael [Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), Paris (France); Rastetter, Aline [Alphea Hydrogene, Forbach (France)

    2013-04-01

    In Germany more than 20% of the energy mix is made up of renewable energy and its share is rapidly increasing. The federal government expects renewables to account for 35% of Germany's electricity consumption by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050. According to the German Energy Agency, multi-billion euro investments in energy storage are expected by 2020 in order to reach these goals. The growth of this fluctuating energy supply has created demand for innovative storage options in Germany and it is accelerating the development of technologies in this field. Along with batteries and smart grids, hydrogen is expected to be one of the lead technologies. 2010 a commercialization roadmap for wind hydrogen was set up by the two northern federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein with the goal of utilizing surplus wind power for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. With the creation of the 'performing energy initiative', 2011, Brandenburg and Lower Saxony joined this undertaking. The aim of this initiative is to set up demonstration projects in order to develop and optimize wind-hydrogen hybrid systems and prepare their commercialization for the time after 2020. Beside the conversion of hydrogen into electricity and fuel for cars, further markets like raw material for the chemical, petrochemical, metallurgy and food industry are going to be addressed. Considering the fact there are over 40 caves currently used for natural gas storage with a total volume of 23.5 billion cubic meters and 400 000 km gas grid available in Germany, the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water sees opportunities for hydrogen to be fed into the existing natural gas grid network. The name of this concept is power-to-gas. According to the current DVGW-Standards natural gas in Germany can contain up to 5% hydrogen. The GERG, European Group on the Gas Research sees potential to increase this amount up to 6% to 20%. Power-to-gas could serve both for fuel and for the

  13. The cost of fuel economy in the Indian passenger vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Randy; Cropper, Maureen; Narain, Urvashi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how fuel economy is valued in the Indian car market, we compute the cost to Indian consumers of purchasing a more fuel-efficient vehicle and compare it to the benefit of lower fuel costs over the life of the vehicle. We estimate hedonic price functions for four market segments (petrol hatchbacks, diesel hatchbacks, petrol sedans, and diesel sedans) to compute 95% confidence intervals for the marginal cost to the consumer for an increase in fuel economy. We find that the associated present value of fuel savings falls within the 95% confidence interval for most specifications, in all market segments, for the years 2002 through 2006. Thus, we fail to consistently reject the hypothesis that consumers appropriately value fuel economy. - Highlights: → We examine the tradeoffs faced by new vehicle consumers in India. → We use hedonic price functions and instrumental variables. → We find no support for the hypothesis that consumers undervalue fuel economy. → Some consumers are willing to forgo substantial potential savings to own their preferred vehicle.

  14. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  15. Are standards effective in improving automobile fuel economy? An international panel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerides, Sofronis; Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2007-01-01

    Although the adoption of fuel economy standards has induced fuel savings in new motor vehicles, there are arguments against standards and in favour of fuel tax increases because the latter may have lower welfare costs. We therefore attempted to analyze the impact of standards and fuel prices in the fuel consumption of new cars with the aid of cross-section time series analysis of data from 18 countries. To our knowledge, this study is the first one that attempts to explore econometrically this issue at an international level. We built an unbalanced panel comprising 384 observations from the US, Canada, Australia, Japan, Switzerland and 13 EU countries spanning a period between 1975 and 2003. We specified a dynamic panel model of fuel economy and estimated the model for the whole sample and also for North America and Europe separately. Based on these estimates, we derived three important policy conclusions. Firstly, it seems that if there were no FE standards or voluntary targets in force, transportation energy use would increase more rapidly. Secondly, if CO 2 targets are not to be tightened in Europe, retail fuel prices might have to double in order to attain the currently discussed target of 120 g CO 2 /km in the future. Thirdly, without higher fuel prices and/or tighter FE standards, one should not expect any marked improvements in fuel economy under 'business as usual' conditions. European policy makers might need to consider this issue carefully because some recent European studies tend to be optimistic in this respect

  16. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  17. Reforming fossil fuel prices in India: Dilemma of a developing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Over the period between 1990–1 and 2012–3, fossil fuel use on farms has risen and its indirect use in farming, particularly for non-energy purposes, is also growing. Consequently, both energy intensity and fossil fuel intensity are rising for Indian agriculture. But, these are declining for the aggregate Indian economy. Thus, revision of fossil fuel prices acquires greater significance for Indian agriculture than for rest of the economy. There are significant differences across crops. The crop-level analysis is supplemented by an alternative approach that utilizes a three-sector input–output (I–O) model for the Indian economy representing farming, fossil fuels, and rest of economy. Fossil fuels sector is assessed to portray, in general, strong forward linkages. The increase in total cost of farming, for a given change in fossil fuel prices, is estimated as a multiple of increase in direct input cost of fossil fuels in farming. From the three-sector aggregated economy this multiple was estimated at 3.99 for 1998–9. But it grew to 6.7 in 2007–8. The findings have stronger ramifications than commonly recognized, for inflation and cost of implementing the policy on food security. - Highlights: •Fossil fuels’ contribution in primary energy supply has risen from 55 to 75 per cent. •Energy intensity halved for aggregate GDP, but doubled for agricultural GDP. •Impact of fossil fuel price increase on farming costs mimics a widening spiral. •Total cost of farming may increase 6.7 times the increase in direct fuel input cost.

  18. MaxiFuels. Final report; Maxi-Fuels. Afslutningsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The MaxiFuel pilot plant opened September 2006 with a view to testing and developing a competitive integrated concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass such as straw. This makes the raw material cheaper than crops cultivated for energy production purposes only, and the bioethanol production will not compete with production of food. The MaxiFuels concept is a patented technology which has proven in lab-scale to have the potential of producing bioethanol from residual biomass for a lower price than other existing 2nd generation bioethanol concepts. Lately a suitable pre-treatment process, Wet Explosion, has been developed, and enzymes and C6 fermentation based on yeast have been tested and further developed on pre-treated straw. Furthermore a special micro organism has been isolated, genetically engineered and tested on the pre-treated biomass. The micro organism converts C5 sugars to ethanol. Finally an attempt has been made to produce biogas from the remaining organic material, which can't be fermented to ethanol. All the abovementioned processes have been developed in lab-scale. The operation of these processes at the same time in one concept in pilot scale makes it possible to evaluate the concept's productivity in full-scale. The data of the pilot plant operation have been used for the set-up of an economical model of the whole concept. Based on this model a full-scale plant has been designed and a business plan for the implementation of this step has been elaborated. (BA)

  19. Montana fuel tax refunds : draft final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "The primary source of funding for transportation infrastructure is the taxes that are imposed on motor fuels. One aspect of fuel tax collections is the process that requires consumers to apply for refunds of taxes paid on fuels used for tax-exempt p...

  20. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  1. Survey evidence on the willingness of U.S. consumers to pay for automotive fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Evans, David H.; Hiestand, John

    2013-01-01

    Prospect theory holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from questions added to four commercial, multi-client surveys of 1000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are generally consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. The calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on respondents’ stated uncertainty illustrates how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value. - Highlights: • Payback periods were calculated from stated willingness to pay for fuel savings in 4 US surveys. • US car buyers expect payback in 3 years in order to pay more for increased fuel economy. • Respondents’ payback periods are uncorrelated with their socio-economic attributes. • Survey respondents consider fuel economy ratings and future fuel prices highly uncertain. • The survey results are consistent with the behavioral economic principle of loss aversion

  2. Demand for road-fuel in a small developing economy: The case of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the demand for road fuel (petrol and auto-diesel) in the context of a small developing economy-Sri Lanka. The data set covers a period of 39 years from 1964 to 2002 representing both close economy and open economy policy regimes. The estimation procedure is based on seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) methodology mainly to capture substitutability of petrol and diesel in road transportation. The effect of auto-fuel prices on vehicle demand is also analyzed as a part of the analysis. In addition to confirming existing evidence on road-fuel demand, the findings reveal some interesting evidence with respect to own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, lag effects, income and vehicle mix variables

  3. Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethig, Ruediger; Wittlich, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

  4. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  5. METHODS TO MEASURE, PREDICT AND RELATE FRICTION, WEAR AND FUEL ECONOMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravante, Steve [Ricardo, Inc.; Fenske, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Demas, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Erck, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2018-03-19

    High-fidelity measurements of the coefficient of friction and the parasitic friction power of the power cylinder components have been made for the Isuzu 5.2L 4H on-highway engine. In particular, measurements of the asperity friction coefficient were made with test coupons using Argonne National Lab’s (ANL) reciprocating test rig for the ring-on-liner and skirt-on-liner component pairs. These measurements correlated well with independent measurements made by Electro-Mechanical Associates (EMA). In addition, surface roughness measurements of the Isuzu components were made using white light interferometer (WLI). The asperity friction and surface characterization are key inputs to advanced CAE simulation tools such as RINGPAK and PISDYN which are used to predict the friction power and wear rates of power cylinder components. Finally, motored friction tests were successfully performed to quantify the friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) of the power cylinder components for various oils (High viscosity 15W40, low viscosity 5W20 with friction modifier (FM) and specially blended oil containing consisting of PAO/ZDDP/MoDTC) at 25, 50, and 110 °C. Ricardo's objective is to use this data along with advanced CAE methods to develop empirical characterizations of friction and wear mechanisms in internal combustion engines such that the impact of such mechanisms of engine fuel consumption and/or vehicle fuel economy can be estimated. The value of such predictive schemes is that if one knows how a particular friction reduction technology changes oil viscosity and/or the friction coefficient then the fuel consumption or fuel economy impacts can be estimated without the excessive cost of motored or fired engine tests by utilizing cost effective lab scale tests and in combination with advanced analytical methods. One accomplishment made during this work was the development and validation of a novel technique for quantifying wear using data from WLI through the use of

  6. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Forecasts : Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Federal and state fuel taxes account for the largest share of the Texas State Highway Fund at 48 percent and 29 percent, respectively, in Fiscal Year 2015. These taxes are levied on a per-gallon basis, meaning that as vehicles get more fuel efficient...

  7. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation; Norris, Sarah [Eaton Corporation; Cochran, Robert [Eaton Corporation

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  8. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  9. 40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculation of the original base level fuel economy values), and (iii) All subconfigurations within the new... a new base level. The new base level is identical to the existing base level except that it shall be considered, for the purposes of this paragraph, as containing a new basic engine. The manufacturer will be...

  10. 40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculation of the original base level fuel economy values); and (iii) All subconfigurations within the new... a new base level. The new base level is identical to the existing base level except that it shall be considered, for the purposes of this paragraph, as containing a new basic engine. The manufacturer will be...

  11. Impact of Friction Reduction Technologies on Fuel Economy for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-13

    UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release IMPACT OF FRICTION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES ON FUEL ECONOMY FOR GROUND VEHICLES G. R. Fenske , R. A. Erck...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) G.R. Fenske ; R.A. Erck; O.O. Ajayi; A. Masoner’ A.S. Confort 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  12. Vehicle energy management for on/off controlled auxiliaries : fuel economy vs. switching frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Weiland, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for designing energy management strategies concerning vehicle auxiliaries with on/off control is proposed. This approach provides the possibility of making different trade-offs between fuel economy and switching frequency. In this paper, we demonstrate the

  13. 40 CFR 600.307-86 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... metering system, including number of carburetor barrels, if applicable; (7) Transmission class; (8... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-86 Fuel economy label format... the city and highway estimates by 0.85, then rounding to the next lower integer value. (2) The upper...

  14. Forest fuel - economy and models for cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Anders.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop guidelines for the R and D work within Skogskraft with the aim of improving the efficiency of the investigatory work. The report mainly concerns logging waste. The contents are as follows; Terminology - definitions: This section includes a brief description of wood fuels with regard to terminology, definitions, production and marketing. Units of measurement: Different units of measurement are descrived and their relationship to forestry, sawmills and consumers of wood fuels. An account is also given of effective thermal values and formulas for calculations of the energy content for different wood fuels. Calculation models, analyses: This section discusses different models and standards for calculating machine and manual costs. In addition, views are given on cost analysis and certain guidelines with regard to overhead costs. Actors and systems: There is a risk that technical problems receive a far too dominant role in relation to problems which concern organisation and structure. Consequently, it is important to define the actors and to illustrate the different driving forces and tensions that may occur. Seven different actors/interested parties have been described and analysed with regard to primary and secondary interests in ecological, technical and economic questions. Preparation of reports: Certain recommendations have been given with regard to formal requirements and quality requirements

  15. Carbon-based Fuel Cell. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO 2 , and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO 2 exhaust stream for the direct CO 2 sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts

  16. Fuel Economy Impacts of Manual, Conventional Cruise Control, and Predictive Eco-Cruise Control Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field experiment that was designed to compare manual driving, conventional cruise control (CCC driving, and Eco-cruise control (ECC driving with regard to fuel economy. The field experiment was conducted on five test vehicles along a section of Interstate 81 that was comprised of ±4% uphill and downhill grade sections. Using an Onboard Diagnostic II reader, instantaneous fuel consumption rates and other driving parameters were collected with and without the CCC system enabled. The collected data were compared with regard to fuel economy, throttle control, and travel time. The results demonstrate that CCC enhances vehicle fuel economy by 3.3 percent on average relative to manual driving, however this difference was not found to be statistically significant at a 5 percent significance level. The results demonstrate that CCC driving is more efficient on downhill versus uphill sections. In addition, the study demonstrates that an ECC system can produce fuel savings ranging between 8 and 16 percent with increases in travel times ranging between 3 and 6 percent. These benefits appear to be largest for heavier vehicles (SUVs.

  17. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  18. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  19. Towards a methanol economy: Zeolite catalyzed production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    The main focus of this thesis is zeolite catalyzed conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Furthermore, conversion of ethane to higher hydrocarbons has also been studied. After a brief introduction to the concept of “the methanol economy” in the first chapter, the second...... a commercial H-ZSM-5 zeolite impregnated with gallium and/or molybdenum is described. The object was to investigate if the presence of methanol in the feed could enhance the conversion of ethane, but in all cases the opposite is observed; the presence of methanol actually suppresses the conversion of ethane...... various zeolite catalysts is studied in Chapter 4. When 2-propanol or 1-butanol is converted over H-ZSM-5, the total conversion capacities of the catalyst are more than 25 times higher than for conversion of methanol and ethanol. Furthermore, for conversion of C3+ alcohols, the selectivity shifts during...

  20. Impact of Vehicle Hybridization on Fuel Consumption Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Javad

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution, limited number of knownpetroleum resources and increasing of greenhouse gases have led the governmentsand researchers to have more investigation on Hybrid Electric Vehicles.Considering technical availability and manufacturing facilities with regardingto the final vehicle price, hybridization of conventional vehicles could be abetter choice than designing and manufacturing a new hybrid electric car.Parallel-Series hybrid electric vehicles(power-split) which is used in this study...

  1. Handling of final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In this report the various facilities incorporated in the proposed handling chain for spent fuel from the power stations to the final repository are discribed. Thus the geological conditions which are essential for a final repository is discussed as well as the buffer and canister materials and how they contribute towards a long-term isolation of the spent fuel. Furthermore one chapter deals with leaching of the deposited fuel in the event that the canister is penetrated as well as the transport mechanisms which determine the migration of the radioactive substances through the buffer material. The dispersal processes in the geosphere and the biosphere are also described together with the transfer mechanisms to the ecological systems as well as radiation doses. Finally a summary is given of the safety analysis of the proposed method for the handling and final storage of the spent fuel. (E.R.)

  2. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  3. 75 FR 58077 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are conducting a joint rulemaking to redesign and add information to the current fuel economy label that is posted on the window sticker of all new cars and light- duty trucks sold in the U.S. The redesigned label will provide new information to American consumers about the fuel economy and consumption, fuel costs, and environmental impacts associated with purchasing new vehicles beginning with model year 2012 cars and trucks. This action will also develop new labels for certain advanced technology vehicles, which are poised to enter the U.S. market, in particular plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. NHTSA and EPA are proposing these changes because the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 imposes several new labeling requirements, because the agencies believe that the current labels can be improved to help consumers make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, and because the time is right to develop new labels for advanced technology vehicles that are being commercialized. This proposal is also consistent with the recent joint rulemaking by EPA and NHTSA that established harmonized federal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and pickup trucks for model years 2012-2016.

  4. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  5. Prototypical consolidation demonstration project - Final fuel recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piscitella, R.R.; Paskey, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration (PCD) Project will, in its final phase, conduct a demonstration of the equipment's ability to consolidate actual spent commercial fuel. Since budget and schedule limitations do not allow this demonstration to include all types of fuel assemblies, a selection process was utilized to identify the fuel types that would represent predominate fuel inventories and that would demonstrate the equipment's abilities. The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies that were suggested for use in the PCD Project Hot Demonstration were Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) 15 x 15's, and Westinghouse (WE) 15 x 15's. The Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel suggested was the General Electric (GE) 8 x 8

  6. Fuel economy improvement based on a many-gear shifting strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, B. [School of Automotive Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghaei Lakeh, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Considering the engine operating condition in terms of engine load and engine speed, a fuzzy decision making system has been developed. The objective was to controlling the engine operating point in the engine torque-rpm map, in order to enhance fuel economy. The main idea stems from the approach of tracking the defined target curve in the engine map similar to the CVT control criteria. To provide resemblance between a traditional geared transmission and a CVT, a many-gear transmission concept was introduced. A Fuzzy control was utilized by defining proper membership functions for the inputs and output. The efficient fuel consumption curve in the engine map was taken as the target of controller. The effect of engine output power on fuel consumption has also been taken into consideration. Making use of ADVISOR software, vehicle simulations was performed for the many-gear base case and a very good consistency was found with the CVT case. As a result the fuel consumption was found to become considerably less than existing values. The developed strategy was then applied to other cases including conventional manual and automatic transmissions and improvements in the fuel economy was observed.

  7. Experimental study on fuel economies and emissions of direct-injection premixed combustion engine fueled with gasoline/diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiakun; Sun, Wanchen; Guo, Liang; Xiao, Senlin; Tan, Manzhi; Li, Guoliang; Fan, Luyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A compound combustion concept was proposed and investigated. • Premixed combustion near the top dead center was investigated using blended fuels. • Increasing gasoline blend ratio was found to enhance the mixture preparation. • Too much addition of gasoline decreases indicated thermal efficiency. • Gasoline/diesel blends may be a promising alternative for premixed combustion. - Abstract: The effects of gasoline/diesel blended fuel composed of diesel fuel with gasoline as additives in volume basis, on combustion, fuel economies and exhaust emissions were experimentally investigated. Tests were carried out based on a turbocharged Common-rail Direct Injection engine at a constant engine speed of 1800 r/min and different loads of 3.2 bar, 5.1 bar Indicated Mean Effective Pressure. Additionally, the effect of combustion phasing and Exhaust Gas Recirculation were evaluated experimentally for various fuels. The results indicated that with the fraction of gasoline increasing in blends, the ignition delay was prolonged and the combustion phasing was retarded with the common injection timing. This led to a significant increase of premixed burning phase, which was in favor of smoke reduction; although, too much gasoline might be adverse to fuel consumption. An optimum combustion phasing was identified, leading to a higher thermal efficiency and better premixed combustion with blended fuels. A combined application of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and blended fuel with a high gasoline fraction was confirmed effective in reducing the oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions simultaneously at the optimum combustion phasing without giving significant penalty of fuel consumption. A compound combustion mode with its emission lower than the conventional Compression Ignition engines, and efficiency higher than the typical Spark Ignition engines, could be achieved with a cooperative control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and combustion phasing of the gasoline

  8. US Department of Energy Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The advanced vehicle testing activity (AVTA), part of the US Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modelling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full-size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles powered by hydrogen. Currently, the AVTA is conducting a significant evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) produced by major automotive manufacturers. The results are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the 'real world' performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. The initial fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that determined by the manufacturer and also varies significantly with environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over the life of a given vehicle (160 000 miles).

  9. Forecasting of the incorporated energy in the final demand of the brazilian economy in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Marcelo Pereira da; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the application of a methodology for evaluation of the primary energy incorporated by the productive sectors of a economy at the final demand - using of a income-product mode. A methodology is applied in the evaluation of the energy incorporated to 25 sectors of the brazilian economy, by using the the data available in the national counts (IBGE - 2007), and the National Energy Balance for the year 2005 (EPE - 2007). For each sector, the results are presented in terms of the primary energy incorporated (in petroleum equivalent tons per R$ 1,000), of the participation of renewable energy, and the total primary energy distribution for the offered products by the 25 sectors to be consumption by the final demand. Among some interesting results in terms of final demand, it is highlighted the presence of 96.5% of renewable primary energy for the sector of alcohol, and 5.3% for the sector of petroleum refining products sector. In terms of the total energy distribution,the petroleum refining and coke sector were the most significant contribution to the incorporation of primary energy, presenting 16.1% of the total ahead of foods and beverages which presents 12.1%. Related to the final demand components, families consumption was responsible by the 57.7% of the total, the exports with 25.3%, the gross capital formation (investments and stock variations) with 11.3%, and the govern consumption wit 5.7%

  10. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  11. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoregren, U.

    1983-04-01

    Like many other countries whith similar geological conditions, Sweden plans to dispose of its long-lived radioactive nuclear waste by depositing it in final repositories located deep down in the crystalline bedrock. In order to be able to demonstrate that a given rock formation is suited for waste storage, it is necessary to have knowledge concerning its properties, particularly those that determine groundwater conditions and chemistry within the area. Also of importance are data that shed light on rock mechanics in the area and the occurrence of valuable minerals. The SKBF/KBS programme includes plans to carry out geological studies of 10-15 areas in different parts of the country during the 1980s. A standard programme for these studies is described in the following. The standard programme is inteded to serve as a basis for planning of the work and revisions or modifications that may be found to be appropriate in view of local conditions or experience. (author)

  12. Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Human Exploration Program: Benchmarking with "The Hydrogen Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The theoretically high efficiency and low temperature operation of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells has motivated them to be the subject of much study since their invention in the 19th Century, but their relatively high life cycle costs kept them as a "solution in search of a problem" for many years. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a truly cost effective solution was that of providing a power source for NASA's human spaceflight vehicles in the 1960 s. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. This development program continues to place its highest priorities on requirements for minimum system mass and maximum durability and reliability. These priorities drive fuel cell power plant design decisions at all levels, even that of catalyst support. However, since the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of commercial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but, as these development efforts place their highest priority on requirements for minimum life cycle cost and field safety, these advances are yielding design solutions quite different at almost every level from those needed for spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's Human Exploration Program

  13. The Impact of Drive Cycles and Auxiliary Power on Passenger Car Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grube

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the advancement of zero emission transportation and current discussions on the reliability of nominal passenger car fuel economy, this article considers the procedure for assessing the potential for reducing the fuel consumption of passenger cars by using electric power to operate them. The analysis compares internal combustion engines, hybrid and fully electric concepts utilizing batteries and fuel cells. The starting point for the newly developed, simulation-based fuel consumption analysis is a longitudinal vehicle model. Mechanical power requirements on the drive side incorporate a large variety of standardized drive cycles to simulate typical patterns of car usage. The power requirements of electric heating and air conditioning are also included in the simulation, as these are especially relevant to electric powertrains. Moreover, on-board grid-load profiles are considered in the assessment. Fuel consumption is optimized by applying concept-specific operating strategies. The results show that the combination of low average driving speed and elevated onboard power requirements have severe impacts on the fuel efficiency of all powertrain configurations analyzed. In particular, the operational range of battery-electric vehicles is strongly affected by this due to the limited storage capacity of today’s batteries. The analysis confirms the significance of considering different load patterns of vehicle usage related to driving profiles and onboard electrical and thermal loads.

  14. Structure and impacts of fuel economy standards for passenger cars in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, David Vance; An Feng; Wang Cheng

    2009-01-01

    By the end of 2006, there were about 24 million total passenger cars on the roads in China, nearly three times as many as in 2001. To slow the increase in energy consumption by these cars, China began implementing passenger car fuel economy standards in two phases beginning in 2005. Phase 1 fuel consumption limits resulted in a sales-weighted new passenger car average fuel consumption decrease of about 11%, from just over 9 l/100 km to approximately 8 l/100 km, from 2002 to 2006. However, we project that upon completion of Phase 2 limits in 2009, the average fuel consumption of new passenger cars in China may drop only by an additional 1%, to approximately 7.9 l/100 km. This is due to the fact that a majority of cars sold in 2006 already meets the stricter second phase fuel consumption limits. Simultaneously, other trends in the Chinese vehicle market, including increases in average curb weight and increases in standards-exempt imported vehicles, threaten to offset the efficiency gains achieved from 2002 to 2006. It is clear that additional efforts and policies beyond Phase 2 fuel consumption limits are required to slow and, ultimately, reverse the trend of rapidly rising energy consumption and greenhouse gases from China's transportation sector.

  15. Encapsulation and handling of spent nuclear fuel for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerberg, B.; Larker, H.; Ageskog, L.

    1983-05-01

    The handling and embedding of those metal parts which arrive to the encapsulation station with the fuel is described. For the encapsulation of fuel two alternatives are presented, both with copper canisters but with filling of lead and copper powder respectively. The sealing method in the first case is electron beam welding, in the second case hot isostatic pressing. This has given the headline of the two chapters describing the methods: Welded copper canister and Pressed copper canister. Chapter 1, Welded copper canister, presents the handling of the fuel when it arrives to the encapsulation station, where it is first placed in a buffer pool. From this pool the fuel is transferred to the encapsulation process and thereby separated from fuel boxes and boron glass rod bundles, which are transported together with the fuel. The encapsulation process comprises charging into a copper canister, filling with molten lead, electron beam welding of the lid and final inspection. The transport to and handling in the final repository are described up to the deposition and sealing in the deposition hole. Handling of fuel residues is treated in one of the sections. In chapter 2, Pressed copper canister, only those parts of the handling, which differ from chapter 1 are described. The hot isostatic pressing process is given in the first sections. The handling includes drying, charging into the canister, filling with copper powder, seal lid application and hot isostatic pressing before the final inspection and deposition. In the third chapter, BWR boxes in concrete moulds, the handling of the metal parts, separated from the fuel, are dealt with. After being lifted from the buffer pool they are inserted in a concrete mould, the mould is filled with concrete, covered with a lid and after hardening transferred to its own repository. The deposition in this repository is described. (author)

  16. Development of the fuel and energy complex within the less demanding variant of Czechoslovak economy till 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopac, P.; Blaha, J.; Maly, M.

    1989-01-01

    The character of the fuel and energy complex which has to serve national economy, requires that it be developed according to the needs and possibilities of national economy. A projection of social and economic development of Czechoslovakia till 2000 was set up by the Central Institute of National Economy Research and it was used as the basis of a scenario of the development of the fuel and energy complex. The results are given of modeling the development of the complex. (author). 6 tabs., 3 refs

  17. Modeling and Parameterization of Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjung Oh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper suggests fuel consumption modeling for HDVs based on the code from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Two interpolation models (inversed distance weighted (IDW and Hermite and three types of fuel efficiency maps (coarse, medium, and dense were adopted to determine the most appropriate combination for further studies. Finally, sensitivity analysis studies were conducted to determine which parameters greatly impact the fuel efficiency prediction results for HDVs. While vitiating each parameter at specific percentages (±1%, ±3%, ±5%, ±10%, the change rate of the fuel efficiency results was analyzed, and the main factors affecting fuel efficiency were summarized. As a result, the Japanese transformation algorithm program showed good agreement with slightly increased prediction accuracy for the fuel efficiency test results when applying the Hermite interpolation method compared to IDW interpolation. The prediction accuracy of fuel efficiency remained unchanged regardless of the chosen fuel efficiency map data density. According to the sensitivity analysis study, three parameters (fuel consumption map data, driving force, and gross vehicle weight have the greatest impact on fuel efficiency (±5% to ±10% changes.

  18. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures... economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle configuration are... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of...

  19. The National Center For Hydrogen And Fuel Cells. Jump-starting the hydrogen economy through research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Varlam, Mihai; Carcadea, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The research, design and implementation of hydrogen-based economy must consider each of the segments of the hydrogen energy system - production, supply, storage, conversion. The National Center for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells has the experience, expertise, facilities and instrumentation necessary to have a key role in developing any aspect of hydrogen-based economy, aiming to integrate technologies for producing and using hydrogen as an 'energy vector'. This paper presents a simulation of the applied 'learning curve' concept, NCHFC being the key element of R and D in the field in comparing the costs involved. It also presents the short and medium term research program of NCHFC, the main research and development directions being specified. (authors)

  20. Final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant (TVO-I and TVO-II reactors). According to present estimates, a total of 1840 tU of spent fuel will be accumulated during the 40-year lifetime of the power plant. An interim storage facility for spent fuel (TVO-KPA Store) has operated at Olkiluoto since 1987. The spent fuel will be held in storage for several decades before it is shipped to the repository site. Both train and road transportation are possible. The spent fuel will be encapsulated in composite copper and steel canisters (ACP Canister) in a facility that will be build above the ground on the site where the repository is located. The repository will be constructed at the depth of several hundreds of meters in the bedrock. In 1987 five areas were selected for preliminary site investigations. The safety analysis (TVO-92) that was carried out shows that the proposed safety criteria would be met at each of the candidate sites. In future expected conditions there would never be significant releases of radioactive substances to the biosphere. The site investigations will be continued in the period 1993 to 2000. In parallel, a R and D programme will be devoted to the safety and technology of final disposal. The site for final disposal will be selected in the year 2000 with the aim of having the capability to start the disposal operations in 2020

  1. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2009-01-01

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  2. Methodical Approach to Estimation of Energy Efficiency Parameters of the Economy Under the Structural Changes in the Fuel And Energy Balance (on the Example of Baikal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Grigorievich Saneev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider a methodical approach which allows estimating energy efficiency parameters of the region’s economy using a fuel and energy balance (FEB. This approach was tested on the specific case of Baikal region. During the testing process the authors have developed ex ante and ex post FEBs and estimated energy efficiency parameters such as energy-, electro- and heat capacity of GRP, coefficients of useful utilization of fuel and energy resources and a monetary version of FEB. Forecast estimations are based on assumptions and limitations of technologically-intensive development scenario of the region. Authors show that the main factor of structural changes in the fuel and energy balance will be the large-scale development of hydrocarbon resources in Baikal region. It will cause structural changes in the composition of both the debit and credit of FEB (namely the structure of export and final consumption of fuel and energy resources. Authors assume that the forecast structural changes of the region’s FEB will significantly improve energy efficiency parameters of the economy: energy capacity of GRP will decrease by 1,5 times in 2010– 2030, electro and heat capacity – 1,9 times; coefficients of useful utilization of fuel and energy resources will increase by 3–5 p.p. This will save about 20 million tons of fuel equivalent (about 210 billion rubles in 2011 the prices until 2030

  3. The final management of nuclear fuel. Legal and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2009-01-01

    This article gives a brief summary of the characteristics of spent fuel and the lines of action considered for its management. It describes the legal framework that supports the Radioactive Waste Management Plan (PGRR), which contains the lines applicable to Final Spent Fuel Management, as well as the evolution of this legal framework. The article contains the 2008 updated costs of the various items of the PGRR, with a more detailed description of those related to this type of fuel, as well the source and amount of the financial contributions to the fund for meeting these costs, including how they have evolved over time. finally, it provides some personal reflections on this issue. (Author)

  4. Achilles tests finally nail PWR fuel clad ballooning fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, P.; McMinn, K.

    1992-01-01

    A conclusive series of experiments carried out by AEA Reactor Services at its Achilles rig in the UK has finally allayed fears that fuel clad ballooning is a major safety problem for Sizewell B, Britain's first Pressurized Water Reactor. The experiments are described in this article. (author)

  5. Ontario Select Committee on Alternative Fuel Sources : Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, D.

    2002-06-01

    On June 28, 2001, the Ontario Legislative Assembly appointed the Select Committee an Alternative Fuel Sources, comprised of representatives of all parties, with a broad mandate to investigate, report and offer recommendations with regard to the various options to support the development and application of environmentally sustainable alternatives to the fossil fuel sources already existing. The members of the Committee elected to conduct extensive public hearings, conduct site visits, attend relevant conferences, do some background research to examine a vast number of alternative fuel and energy sources that could be of relevance to the province of Ontario. A discussion paper (interim report) was issued by the Committee in November 2001, and the present document represents the final report, containing 141 recommendations touching 20 topics. The information contained in the report is expected to assist in the development and outline of policy and programs designed to specifically support alternative fuels and energy sources and applicable technologies. Policy issues were discussed in Part A of the report, along with the appropriate recommendations. The recommendations on specific alternative fuels and energy sources were included in Part B of the report. It is believed that the dependence of Ontario on traditional petroleum-based fuels and energy sources can be reduced through aggressive action on alternative fuels and energy. The benefits of such action would be felt in the area of air quality, with social, and economic benefits as well. 3 tabs

  6. The Impact of Analog and Bang-Bang Steering Gear Control on Ship's Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft Thomsen, J. C.; Blanke, Mogens; Reid, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    it is found to be at least equally important regarding steering performance and fuel economy. The paper presents a comprehensive survey of steering gear principles commonly used, including relevant details of three analog steering gear servo principles, which have outperformed conventional designs. Control......The latest years have shown considerable efforts towards improving steering generated propulsion losses of ships by the introduction of various sophisticated control algorithms in the autopilots. However, little previous attention has been given to the steering gear control loop, although...

  7. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme

    2015-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  8. Particle swarm optimization of driving torque demand decision based on fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Peihong; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhan, Xiaowen; Li, Jingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management strategy based on logic threshold is proposed for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle powertrain model is established using MATLAB/Simulink based on experimental tests of the power components, which is validated by the comparison with the verified simulation model which is built in the AVL Cruise. The influence of the driving torque demand decision on the fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is studied using a simulation. The optimization method for the driving torque demand decision, which refers to the relationship between the accelerator pedal opening and driving torque demand, from the perspective of fuel economy is formulated. The dynamically changing inertia weight particle swarm optimization is used to optimize the decision parameters. The simulation results show that the optimized driving torque demand decision can improve the PHEV fuel economy by 15.8% and 14.5% in the fuel economy test driving cycle of new European driving cycle and worldwide harmonized light vehicles test respectively, using the same rule-based energy management strategy. The proposed optimization method provides a theoretical guide for calibrating the parameters of driving torque demand decision to improve the fuel economy of the real plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. - Highlights: • The influence of the driving torque demand decision on the fuel economy is studied. • The optimization method for the driving torque demand decision is formulated. • An improved particle swarm optimization is utilized to optimize the parameters. • Fuel economy is improved by using the optimized driving torque demand decision.

  9. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L H [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  10. Buses retrofitting with diesel particle filters: Real-world fuel economy and roadworthiness test considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Rafael; Amiel, Ran; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2018-05-01

    Retrofitting older vehicles with diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a cost-effective measure to quickly and efficiently reduce particulate matter emissions. This study experimentally analyzes real-world performance of buses retrofitted with CRT DPFs. 18 in-use Euro III technology urban and intercity buses were investigated for a period of 12months. The influence of the DPF and of the vehicle natural aging on buses fuel economy are analyzed and discussed. While the effect of natural deterioration is about 1.2%-1.3%, DPF contribution to fuel economy penalty is found to be 0.6% to 1.8%, depending on the bus type. DPF filtration efficiency is analyzed throughout the study and found to be in average 96% in the size range of 23-560nm. Four different load and non-load engine operating modes are investigated on their appropriateness for roadworthiness tests. High idle is found to be the most suitable regime for PN diagnostics considering particle number filtration efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Determining Off-Cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moniot, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jehlik, Forrest [Argonne National Laboratory; Chevers, Netsanet [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Hirabayshi, Hidekazu [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Song, Yuanpei [DENSO International America Inc.

    2018-04-03

    This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state. These vehicle models were integrated into a database of measured on road testing and coupled with U.S. typical meteorological data to simulate vehicle efficiency across seasonal thermal and operational conditions for hundreds of thousands of drive cycles. Fuel economy benefits utilizing the 2-Layer HVAC technology are presented in addition to goodness of fit statistics of the modeling approach relative to the experimental test data.

  12. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  14. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  15. Innovation in the energy sector – The role of fossil fuels and developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutschin, Elina; Fleig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of fossil fuel rents on R&D expenditures and patent grants in the field of energy-related technology. We argue that an increasing share of fossil fuel rents lessens the innovation of new energy technologies. We consider a sample of countries beyond the common selection of OECD members and investigate innovation efforts in the energy sector of 116 countries from 1980 to 2012. We observe the gradually growing influence of resource-abundant countries on global R&D expenditures and find that increasing fossil fuel rents have a negative effect on patent grants. This study contributes to the ongoing debate concerning the potential effects of resource abundance. More importantly, it increases our understanding of innovation activities within the energy sector and further underscores the need to extend future research to countries that have not been taken into account thus far. - Highlights: • We investigate a sample of 116 countries, a pool beyond the commonly considered OECD members. • We find that high oil prices induce increased R&D expenditures in developed countries. • Fossil rents are associated with decreasing patent grants when developing economies are included. • We use multiple imputation to handle the problem of missing data.

  16. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  17. Fuel economy and torque tracking in camless engines through optimization of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh'd Sami S.

    2008-01-01

    The feed forward controller of a camless internal combustion engine is modeled by inverting a multi-input multi-output feed forward artificial neural network (ANN) model of the engine. The engine outputs, pumping loss and cylinder air charge, are related to the inputs, intake valve lift and closing timing, by the artificial neural network model, which is trained with historical input-output data. The controller selects the intake valve lift and closing timing that will mimimize the pumping loss and achieve engine torque tracking. Lower pumping loss means better fuel economy, whereas engine torque tracking gurantees the driver's torque demand. The inversion of the ANN is performed with the complex method constrained optimization. How the camless engine inverse controller can be augmented with adaptive techniques to maintain accuracy even when the engine parts degrade is discussed. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed camless engine controller

  18. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  19. A Model Predictive Control Approach for Fuel Economy Improvement of a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri-Vien Vu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a model predictive control (MPC framework to solve the cruising control problem of a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle (SHHV. The controller not only regulates vehicle velocity, but also engine torque, engine speed, and accumulator pressure to their corresponding reference values. At each time step, a quadratic programming problem is solved within a predictive horizon to obtain the optimal control inputs. The objective is to minimize the output error. This approach ensures that the components operate at high efficiency thereby improving the total efficiency of the system. The proposed SHHV control system was evaluated under urban and highway driving conditions. By handling constraints and input-output interactions, the MPC-based control system ensures that the system operates safely and efficiently. The fuel economy of the proposed control scheme shows a noticeable improvement in comparison with the PID-based system, in which three Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controllers are used for cruising control.

  20. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  1. Improving of diesel combustion-pollution-fuel economy and performance by gasoline fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahin, Zehra; Durgun, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of gasoline fumigation on the engine performance and NO x emission were investigated in Ford XLD 418 T automotive diesel engine. • Gasoline at approximately (2, 4, 6, 8 10, and 12)% (by vol.) ratios was injected into intake air by a carburetor. • GF enhances effective power and reduces brake specific fuel consumption, cost, and NO x emission. - Abstract: One of the most important objectives of the studies worldwide is to improve combustion of diesel engine to meet growing energy needs and to reduce increasing environmental pollution. To accomplish this goal, especially to reduce pollutant emissions, researchers have focused their interest on the field of alternative fuels and alternative solutions. Gasoline fumigation (GF) is one of these alternative solutions, by which diesel combustion, fuel economy, and engine performance are improved, and environmental pollution is decreased. In the fumigation method, gasoline is injected into intake air, either by a carburetor, which main nozzle section is adjustable or by a simple injection system. In the present experimental study, a simple carburetor was used, and the effects of gasoline fumigation at (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12)% (by vol.) gasoline ratios on the combustion, NO x emission, fuel economy, and engine performance sophisticatedly investigated for a fully instrumented, four-cylinder, water-cooled indirect injection (IDI), Ford XLD 418 T automotive diesel engine. Tests were conducted for each of the above gasoline fumigation ratios at three different speeds and for (1/1, 3/4, and 1/2) fuel delivery ratios (FDRs). GF test results showed that NO x emission is lower than that of neat diesel fuel (NDF). NO x emission decreases approximately 4.20%, 2.50%, and 9.65% for (1/1, 3/4, and 1/2) FDRs, respectively. Effective power increases approximately 2.38% for 1/1 FDR. At (2500 and 3000) rpms, effective power decreases at low gasoline ratios, but it increases at high gasoline ratios for 3/4 and 1

  2. The Transportation Leapfrog: Using Smart Phones to Collect Driving Data and Model Fuel Economy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Schewel, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Saxena, Samveg [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-05-01

    Car ownership in India is expected to skyrocket in the coming decades, strongly driven by rising incomes. This phenomenon provides unprecedented opportunities for automakers and equally unprecedented social and environmental challenges. Policymakers, urban planners and civil society see this car boom leading to an explosion in problems related to congestion, infrastructure, air pollution, safety, higher oil imports and climate change. For all these stakeholders to take effective action, good data on how people use their cars, their demand for mobility and their behavior in mobility is essential. Unfortunately, there is very little data on the Indian transport sector as a whole and virtually none on real-world vehicle performance and use. The rapid development of high quality mobile telecommunications infrastructure provides India with the opportunity to leapfrog the West in cheaply collecting vast amounts of useful data from transportation. In this paper, we describe a pilot project in which we use commercial smart phone apps to collect per second car driving data from the city of Pune, instantly upload it through 3G and prepare it for analysis using advanced noise filtering algorithms for less than $1 per day per car. We then use our data in an Autonomie simulation to show that India’s currently planned fuel economy test procedures will result in over-estimates of fuel economy of approximately 35% for a typical Indian car when it is operated in real world conditions. Supporting better driving cycle development is just one of many applications for smart phone derived data in Indian transportation.

  3. The final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvakova, S.; Necas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Today the most serious problem in the area of nuclear power engineering is the management of spent nuclear fuel. Due to its very high radioactivity the nuclear waste must be isolated from the environment. The perspective solution of nuclear fuel cycle is the final disposal into geological formations. Today there is no disposal facility all over the world. There are only underground research laboratories in the well developed countries like the USA, France, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Belgium. From the economical point of view the most suitable appears to build a few international repositories. According to the political and social aspect each of the country prepare his own project of the deep repository. The status of those programmes in different countries is described. The development of methods for the long-term management of radioactive waste is necessity in all countries that have had nuclear programmes. (authors)

  4. Design incentives to increase vehicle size created from the U.S. footprint-based fuel economy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitefoot, Kate S.; Skerlos, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The recently amended U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards determine fuel-economy targets based on the footprint (wheelbase by track width) of vehicles such that larger vehicles have lower fuel-economy targets. This paper considers whether these standards create an incentive for firms to increase vehicle size by presenting an oligopolistic-equilibrium model in which automotive firms can modify vehicle dimensions, implement fuel-saving technology features, and trade off acceleration performance and fuel economy. Wide ranges of scenarios for consumer preferences are considered. Results suggest that the footprint-based CAFE standards create an incentive to increase vehicle size except when consumer preference for vehicle size is near its lower bound and preference for acceleration is near its upper bound. In all other simulations, the sales-weighted average vehicle size increases by 2–32%, undermining gains in fuel economy by 1–4 mpg (0.6–1.7 km/L). Carbon-dioxide emissions from these vehicles are 5–15% higher as a result (4.69×10 11 –5.17×10 11 kg for one year of produced vehicles compared to 4.47×10 11 kg with no size changes), which is equivalent to adding 3–10 coal-fired power plants to the electricity grid each year. Furthermore, results suggest that the incentive is larger for light trucks than for passenger cars, which could increase traffic safety risks. - Highlights: ► New U.S. fuel-economy standards may create an incentive to increase vehicle size. ► We model firms as choosing vehicle designs and prices in oligopolistic equilibrium. ► Vehicle size increases 2–32% for 20 out of 21 scenarios of consumer preferences. ► Increases in size reduce fuel economy gains from 5–13%, resulting in 5–15% higher CO 2 emissions. ► Incentive is larger for trucks than cars, which may increase traffic safety risks.

  5. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Charge for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The United States Government policy relating to nuclear fuel reprocessing, which was announced by President Carter on April 7, 1977, provides for an indefinite deferral of reprocessing, and thus commits light water reactor (LWR) plants to a once-through fuel cycle during that indefinite period. In a subsequent action implementing that policy, the Department of Energy (DOE) on October 18, 1977 announced a spent fuel policy which would enable domestic, and on a selective basis, foreign utilities to deliver spent fuel to the US Government for interim storage and final geologic disposal, and pay the Government a fee for such services. This volume addresses itself to whether the fee charged for these services, by its level or its structure, would have any effect on the environmental impacts of implementing the Spent Fuel Policy itself. This volume thus analyzes the fee and various alternatives to determine the interaction between the fee and the degree of participation by domestic utilities and foreign countries in the proposed spent fuel program for implementing the Spent Fuel Policy. It also analyzes the effect, if any, of the fee on the growth of nuclear power

  6. Handling final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The present second report from KBS describes how the safe final storage of spent unreprocessed nuclear fuel can be implemented. According to the Swedish Stipulation Law, the owner must specify in which form the waste is to be stored, how final storage is to be effected, how the waste is to be transported and all other aspects of fuel handling and storage which must be taken into consideration in judging whether the proposed final storage method can be considered to be absolutely safe and feasible. Thus, the description must go beyond general plans and sketches. The description is therefore relatively detailed, even concerning those parts which are less essential for evaluating the safety of the waste storage method. For those parts of the handling chain which are the same for both alternatives of the Stipulation Law, the reader is referred in some cases to the first report. Both of the alternatives of the Stipulation Law may be used in the future. Handling equipment and facilities for the two storage methods are so designed that a combination in the desired proportions is practically feasible. In this first part of the report are presented: premises and data, a description of the various steps of the handling procedure, a summary of dispersal processes and a safety analysis. (author)

  7. Fuel Rod Consolidation Project: Phase 2, Final report: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This design report describes the NUS final design of the Prototype Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation System. This summary presents the approach and the subsequent sections describe, in detail, the final design. Detailed data, drawings, and the design Basis Accident Report are provided in Volumes II thru V. The design as presented, represents one cell of a multicell facility for the dry consolidation of any type of PWR and BWR fuel used in the United States LWR industry that will exceed 1% of the fuel inventory at the year 2000. The system contains the automatically-controlled equipment required to consolidate 750MT (heavy metal)/year, at 75% availability. The equipment is designed as replaceable components using state-of-the-art tchnology. The control system utilizes the most advanced commercially available equipment on the market today. Two state-of-the-art advanced servo manipulators are provided for system maintenance. In general the equipment is designed utilizing fabricated and commercial components. For example, the main drive systems use commercially available roller screws. These rollers screws have 60,000 hours of operation in nuclear power plants and have been used extensively in other applications. The motors selected represent the most advanced designed servo motors on the market today for the precision control of machinery. In areas where precise positioning was not required, less expensive TRW Globe motors were selected. These are small compact motors with a long history of operations in radiation environments. The Robotic Bridge Transporters are modified versions of existing bridge cranes for remote automatic operations. Other equipment such as the welder for fuel canister closure operations is a commercially available product with an operating history applicable to this process. In general, this approach was followed throughout the design of all the equipment and will enable the system to be developed without costly development programs

  8. Ethanol and air quality: influence of fuel ethanol content on emissions and fuel economy of flexible fuel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Carolyn P; Anderson, James E; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of NOx, CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane, ethene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, N2O, and NH3 from a 2006 model year Mercury Grand Marquis flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) operating on E0, E10, E20, E30, E40, E55, and E80 on a chassis dynamometer are reported. With increasing ethanol content in the fuel, the tailpipe emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, methane, and ammonia increased; NOx and NMHC decreased; while CO, ethene, and N2O emissions were not discernibly affected. NMOG and THC emissions displayed a pronounced minimum with midlevel (E20-E40) ethanol blends; 25-35% lower than for E0 or E80. Emissions of NOx decreased by approximately 50% as the ethanol content increased from E0 to E30-E40, with no further decrease seen with E55 or E80. We demonstrate that emission trends from FFVs are explained by fuel chemistry and engine calibration effects. Fuel chemistry effects are fundamental in nature; the same trend of increased ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and CH4 emissions and decreased NMHC and benzene emissions are expected for all FFVs. Engine calibration effects are manufacturer and model specific; emission trends for NOx, THC, and NMOG will not be the same for all FFVs. Implications for air quality are discussed.

  9. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for... vehicle under § 600.113(a) and (b) and as approved in § 600.008-08(c), are used to determine FTP-based... value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, that value, rounded to the nearest tenth of a mile...

  10. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year... for each vehicle under § 600.114-08 and as approved in § 600.008-08 (c), are used to determine vehicle... fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle...

  11. Consumer Views: Fuel Economy, Plug-in Electric Vehicle Battery Range, and Willingness to Pay for Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on fuel economy, plug-in electric vehicle battery range, and willingness to pay for advanced vehicle technologies.

  12. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. 600.510-12 Section 600.510-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF... Transportation. (iv) [Reserved] (2) Average carbon-related exhaust emissions will be calculated to the nearest...

  13. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  14. Sustainability of biomass import for the Dutch energy economy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssenbeek, W.; Van der Vleuten, F.; De Winter, J.; Corten, I.

    1996-07-01

    The current study is conducted with the aim of developing a number of general (qualitative) criteria which can be used to judge, from the perspective of sustainable development, the various options of importing biomass for the Dutch energy economy. The methods used during implementation of the desk study include: literature reviews on sustainable development and biomass energy conversion techniques; concept development and elaboration; internal discussions of the project team; international discussions through electronic mail in order to obtain the opinions of people outside The Netherlands, in particular from the potentially biomass exporting countries; an interim discussion meeting with representatives of involved (Dutch) actors; a final discussion meeting with representatives of involved (Dutch) actors; and reporting. The results of the desk study are presented. The context of energy from biomass in The Netherlands, and the Dutch policy concerning renewable energies is described. A selection is given of international comments on the idea of importing biomass for the Dutch electricity sector, to underline that the sustainability of this activity is not obvious without more detailed consideration. An overview of biomass energy technologies is presented in order to illustrate the numerous options of importing biomass for energy purposes. A concrete example of wood import from Estonia and Uruguay shows how a biomass import chain could look like in practice. Attempts to put the concept into practice are discussed. General criteria and framework conditions, that can be used in assessing the sustainability of the various alternatives of biomass import are presented. A method for the full evaluation process is proposed. The most important ideas that have been received through E-mail and Internet news groups discussions are listed along with an overview of biomass chains

  15. Sustainable and safe energy supply with seawater uranium fueled HTGR and its economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Y.; Goto, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We discussed uranium resources with an energy security perspective. • We concluded seawater uranium is preferable for sustainability and energy security. • We evaluated electricity generation cost of seawater uranium fueled HTGR. • We concluded electricity generation with seawater uranium is reasonable. - Abstract: Sustainable and safe energy supply with High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) fueled by uranium from seawater have been investigated and discussed. From the view point of safety feature of self-regulation with thermal reactor of HTGR, the uranium resources should be inexhaustible. The seawater uranium is expected to be alternative resources to conventional resources because it exists so much in seawater as a solute. It is said that 4.5 billion tons of uranium is dissolved in the seawater, which corresponds to a consumption of approximately 72 thousand years. Moreover, a thousand times of the amount of 4.5 trillion tU of uranium, which corresponds to the consumption of 72 million years, also is included in the rock on the surface of the sea floor, and that is also recoverable as seawater uranium because uranium in seawater is in an equilibrium state with that. In other words, the uranium from seawater is almost inexhaustible natural resource. However, the recovery cost with current technology is still expensive compared with that of conventional uranium. Then, we assessed the effect of increase in uranium purchase cost on the entire electricity generation cost. In this study, the economy of electricity generation of cost of a commercial HTGR was evaluated with conventional uranium and seawater uranium. Compared with ordinary LWR using conventional uranium, HTGR can generate electricity cheaply because of small volume of simple direct gas turbine system compared with water and steam systems of LWR, rationalization by modularizing, and high thermal efficiency, even if fueled by seawater uranium. It is concluded that the HTGR

  16. Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Paul J.; Nishitateno, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for 132 countries for the period 1995–2008 to investigate the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport. To address the potential for simultaneity bias, we use both a country's oil reserves and the international crude oil price as instruments for a country's average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price elasticity of gasoline demand of between − 0.2 and − 0.5. Using newly available data for a sub-sample of 43 countries, we also find that higher gasoline prices induce consumers to substitute to vehicles that are more fuel-efficient, with an estimated elasticity of + 0.2. Despite the small size of our elasticity estimates, there is considerable scope for low-price countries to achieve gasoline savings and vehicle fuel economy improvements via reducing gasoline subsidies and/or increasing gasoline taxes. - Highlights: ► We estimate the determinants of gasoline demand and new-vehicle fuel economy. ► Estimates are for a large sample of countries for the period 1995–2008. ► We instrument for gasoline prices using oil reserves and the world crude oil price. ► Gasoline demand and fuel economy are inelastic with respect to the gasoline price. ► Large energy efficiency gains are possible via higher gasoline prices

  17. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  18. Geophysical borehole logging. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhiainen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 meters in the year 1984. The report deals with geophysical borehole logging methods, which could be used for the studies. The aim of geophysical borehole logging methods is to descripe specially hydrogeological and structural features. Only the most essential methods are dealt with in this report. Attention is paid to the information produced with the methods, derscription of the methods, interpretation and limitations. The feasibility and possibilities for the aims are evaluated. The evaluations are based mainly on the results from Sweden, England, Canada and USA as well as experiencies gained in Finland

  19. Final Report on the Fuel Saving Effectiveness of Various Driver Feedback Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2011-03-01

    This final report quantifies the fuel-savings opportunities from specific driving behavior changes, identifies factors that influence drivers' receptiveness to adopting fuel-saving behaviors, and assesses various driver feedback approaches.

  20. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  1. Demonstration of fuel resistant to pellet-cladding interaction. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1979-03-01

    This program has as its ultimate objective the demonstration of an advanced fuel design that is resistant to the failure mechanism known as fuel pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). Two fuel concepts are being developed for possible demonstration within this program: (a) Cu-barrier fuel, and (b) Zr-liner fuel. These advanced fuels (known collectively as barrier fuels) have special fuel cladding designed to protect the Zircaloy cladding tube from the harmful effects of localized stress, and reactive fission products during reactor service. This is the final report for PHASE 1 of this program. Support tests have shown that the barrier fuel resists PCI far better than does the conventional Zircaloy-clad fuel. Power ramp tests thus far have shown good PCI resistance for Cu-barrier fuel at burnup > 12 MWd/kg-U and for Zr-liner fuel > 16 MWd/kg-U. The program calls for continued testing to still higher burnup levels in PHASE 2

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  3. Measuring of Traction and Speed Characteristics as Well as of Fuel Economy of a Car in Road Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Krivtsov, Sergey; Syrbakov, Andrey Pavlovich; Korchuganova, Mariya Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the identification of traction and speed characteristics as well as of fuel economy of motor vehicles in road conditions. Among common variants of measuring of the above stated values, the preference was given to the immediate gaining of factors by means of a computer-aided measuring system. There is a theoretical justification given to the suggested approach as well as methods and results allowing to provide a practically sufficient solution accuracy of the problem.

  4. Measuring of Traction and Speed Characteristics as Well as of Fuel Economy of a Car in Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivtsov, Sergey N.; Syrbakov, Andrey P.; Korchuganova, Marina A.

    2016-08-01

    This article is devoted to the identification of traction and speed characteristics as well as of fuel economy of motor vehicles in road conditions. Among common variants of measuring of the above stated values, the preference was given to the immediate gaining of factors by means of a computer-aided measuring system. There is a theoretical justification given to the suggested approach as well as methods and results allowing to provide a practically sufficient solution accuracy of the problem.

  5. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  6. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the

  7. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  8. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  9. Status of work on the final repository concept concerning direct disposal of spent fuel rods in fuel rod casks (BSK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, W.; Wehrmann, J.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Graf, R.; Fopp, S.

    2008-01-01

    The reference concept in Germany on direct final storage of spent fuel rods is the burial of POLLUX containers in the final repository salt dome. The POLLUX container is self-shielded. The final storage concept also includes un-shielded borehole storage of high-level waste and packages of compacted waste. GNS has developed a spent fuel container (BSK-3) for unshielded borehole storage with a mass of 5.2 tons that can carry the fuel rods of three PWR reactors of 9 BWR reactors. The advantages of BSK storage include space saving, faster storage processes, less requirements concerning technical barriers, cost savings for self-shielded casks.

  10. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - basis for site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.

    1995-05-01

    International organizations, e.g. IAEA, have published several recommendations and guides for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. There are three major groups of issues affecting the site selection process, i.e. geological, environmental and socioeconomic. The first step of the site selection process is an inventory of potential host rock formations. After that, potential study areas are screened to identify sites for detailed investigations, prior to geological conditions and overall suitability for the safe disposal. This kind of stepwise site selection procedure has been used in Finland and in Sweden. A similar approach has been proposed in Canada, too. In accordance with the amendment to the Nuclear Energy Act, that entered into force in the beginning of 1995, Imatran Voima Oy has to make preparations for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Relating to the possible site selection, the following geological factors, as internationally recommended and used in the Nordic countries, should be taken into account: topography, stability of bedrock, brokenness and fracturing of bedrock, size of bedrock block, rock type, predictability and natural resources. The bedrock of the Loviisa NPP site is a part of the Vyborg rapakivi massif. As a whole the rapakivi granite area forms a potential target area, although other rock types or areas cannot be excluded from possible site selection studies. (25 refs., 7 figs.)

  11. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) studies Finnish bedrock for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The study is in accordance with the decision in principle by Finnish government in 1983. The report is the summary of the preliminary site investigations carried out during the years 1987-1992. On the basis of these investigations a few areas will be selected for detailed site investigation. The characterization comprises five areas selected from the shortlist of potential candidate areas resulted in the earlier study during 1983-1985. Areas are located in different parts of Finland and they represent the main formations of the Finnish bedrock. Romuvaara area in Kuhmo and Veitsivaara area in Hyrynsalmi represent the Archean basement. Kivetty area in Konginkangas consists of mainly younger granitic rocks. Syyry in Sievi is located in transition area of Svecofennidic rocks and granitic rocks. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki represents migmatites in southern Finland. For the field investigations area-specific programs were planned and executed. The field investigations have comprised airborne survey by helicopter, geophysical surveys, geological mappings and samplings, deep and shallow core drillings, geophysical and hydrological borehole measurements and groundwater samplings

  12. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  13. Environmental, Economic, and Scalability Considerations and Trends of Selected Fuel Economy-Enhancing Biomass-Derived Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Systems; Biddy, Mary [National; Jones, Susanne [Energy; Cai, Hao [Systems; Benavides, Pahola Thathiana [Systems; Markham, Jennifer [National; Tao, Ling [National; Tan, Eric [National; Kinchin, Christopher [National; Davis, Ryan [National; Dutta, Abhijit [National; Bearden, Mark [Energy; Clayton, Christopher [Energy; Phillips, Steven [Energy; Rappé, Kenneth [Energy; Lamers, Patrick [Bioenergy

    2017-10-30

    24 biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, that could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall, bio-blendstock yields in biochemical processes were lower than in thermochemical processes, in which all biomass, including lignin, is converted to a product. Bio-blendstock yields were a key determinant in overall viability. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock as compared to a chemical. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blendability of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Overall, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost fuel economy can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.

  14. Final report of fuel dynamics Test E7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.C.; Murphy, W.F.; Stanford, G.S.; Froehle, P.H.

    1977-04-01

    Test data from an in-pile failure experiment of high-power LMFBR-type fuel pins in a simulated $3/s transient-overpower (TOP) accident are reported and analyzed. Major conclusions are that (1) a series of cladding ruptures during the 100-ms period preceding fuel release injected small bursts of fission gas into the flow stream; (2) gas release influenced subsequent cladding melting and fuel release [there were no measurable FCI's (fuel-coolant interactions), and all fuel motion observed by the hodoscope was very slow]; (3) the predominant postfailure fuel motion appears to be radial swelling that left a spongy fuel crust on the holder wall; (4) less than 4 to 6 percent of the fuel moved axially out of the original fuel zone, and most of this froze within a 10-cm region above the original top of the fuel zone to form the outlet blockage. An inlet blockage approximately 1 cm long was formed and consisted of large interconnected void regions. Both blockages began just beyond the ends of the fuel pellets

  15. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  16. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  17. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  18. Initial mandate concerning the problem of fluctuating gasoline prices and their effect on the Quebec economy : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, R.; Ford, N. ed.

    2002-06-01

    Over a three-year period covering May 1998 to May 2001, the average price of gasoline in Quebec slowly increased from 57.1 cent per litre to 82.6 cent per litre. This 45 per cent increase in the price of gasoline worried consumers and had an effect on commercial and industrial operations throughout the province. This situation prompted the Commission de l'economie et du travail (Commission on Labour and the Economy) to initiate a mandate to examine the problem. In October 2001, experts representing energy and taxation sectors were consulted and presentations made by 17 people and organizations. The Ministre des Ressources Naturelles (Minister of Natural Resources) and the President de la Regie de l'Energie were heard in a public consultation forum. In the first part of the document, the authors explained the mechanism by which the price of gasoline and its various components are determined, identified the elements responsible for the increases in prices, and compare the prices in the different parts of the province. In part two, the responsibilities and powers of the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Regie de l'Energie with regard to petroleum products were examined. Part three described the opinions expressed and proposed recommendations obtained during the public consultation process and they were grouped under four headings: taxation, competition, consumer information, and energy savings. The final part of the document presented the recommendations of the Commission on Labour and the Economy. 15 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Stainless steel clad for light water reactor fuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.E.; Meyer, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    Proper reactor operation and design guidelines are necessary to assure fuel integrity. The occurrence of fuel rod failures for operation in compliance with existing guidelines suggests the need for more adequate or applicable operation/design criteria. The intent of this study is to develop such criteria for light water reactor fuel rods with stainless steel clad and to indicate the nature of uncertainties in its development. The performance areas investigated herein are: long term creepdown and fuel swelling effects on clad dimensional changes and on proximity to clad failure; and short term clad failure possibilities during up-power ramps

  20. Final safety analysis report for the irradiated fuels storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, G.E.; Evans, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel storage facility has been constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to provide safe storage for spent fuel from two commercial HTGR's, Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom, and from the Rover nuclear rocket program. The new facility was built as an addition to the existing fuel storage basin building to make maximum use of existing facilities and equipment. The completed facility provides dry storage for one core of Peach Bottom fuel (804 elements), 1 1 / 2 cores of Fort St. Vrain fuel (2200 elements), and the irradiated fuel from the 20 reactors in the Rover program. The facility is designed to permit future expansion at a minimum cost should additional storage space for graphite-type fuels be required. A thorough study of the potential hazards associated with the Irradiated Fuels Storage Facility has been completed, indicating that the facility is capable of withstanding all credible combinations of internal accidents and pertinent natural forces, including design basis natural phenomena of a 10,000 year flood, a 175-mph tornado, or an earthquake having a bedrock acceleration of 0.33 g and an amplification factor of 1.3, without a loss of integrity or a significant release of radioactive materials. The design basis accident (DBA) postulated for the facility is a complete loss of cooling air, even though the occurrence of this situation is extremely remote, considering the availability of backup and spare fans and emergency power. The occurrence of the DBA presents neither a radiation nor an activity release hazard. A loss of coolant has no effect upon the fuel or the facility other than resulting in a gradual and constant temperature increase of the stored fuel. The temperature increase is gradual enough that ample time (28 hours minimum) is available for corrective action before an arbitrarily imposed maximum fuel centerline temperature of 1100 0 F is reached

  1. The Miller cycle effects on improvement of fuel economy in a highly boosted, high compression ratio, direct-injection gasoline engine: EIVC vs. LIVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng; Chen, Ziqian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • At high load, LIVC is superior over EIVC in improving fuel economy. • The improvement with LIVC is due to advanced combustion phasing and increased pumping work. • At low load, EIVC is better than LIVC in improving fuel economy. • Pumping loss with EIVC is smaller than with LIVC at low load. • But heat release rate with EIVC is slower than with LIVC. - Abstract: A combination of downsizing, highly boosting and direct injection (DI) is an effective way to improve fuel economy of gasoline engines without the penalties of reduced torque or power output. At high loads, however, knock problem becomes severer when increasing the intake boosting. As a compromise, geometric compression ratio (CR) is usually reduced to mitigate knock, and the improvement of fuel economy is discounted. Application of Miller cycle, which can be realized by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC), has the potential to reduce the effective CR and suppress knock. In this paper, the effects of EIVC and LIVC on the fuel economy of a boosted DI gasoline production engine reformed with a geometric CR of 12.0 are experimentally compared at low and high loads. Compared to the original production engine with CR 9.3, at the high load operation, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is improved by 4.7% with CR12.0 and LIVC, while the effect of EIVC on improving BSFC is negligibly small. At the low load operation, combined with CR12.0, LIVC and EIVC improve the fuel economy by 6.8% and 7.4%, respectively, compared to the production engine. The mechanism behind the effects of LIVC and EIVC on improving the fuel economy is discussed. These results will be a valuable reference for engine designers and researchers

  2. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated

  3. Final Report - Low Temperature Combustion Chemistry And Fuel Component Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Recent research into combustion chemistry has shown that reactions at “low temperatures” (700 – 1100 K) have a dramatic influence on ignition and combustion of fuels in virtually every practical combustion system. A powerful class of laboratory-scale experimental facilities that can focus on fuel chemistry in this temperature range is the rapid compression facility (RCF), which has proven to be a versatile tool to examine the details of fuel chemistry in this important regime. An RCF was used in this project to advance our understanding of low temperature chemistry of important fuel compounds. We show how factors including fuel molecular structure, the presence of unsaturated C=C bonds, and the presence of alkyl ester groups influence fuel auto-ignition and produce variable amounts of negative temperature coefficient behavior of fuel ignition. We report new discoveries of synergistic ignition interactions between alkane and alcohol fuels, with both experimental and kinetic modeling studies of these complex interactions. The results of this project quantify the effects of molecular structure on combustion chemistry including carbon bond saturation, through low temperature experimental studies of esters, alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols.

  4. Fueling the Gig Economy: A Case Study Evaluation of Upwork.com

    OpenAIRE

    Daryl D. Green; Craig Walker; Abdulrahman Alabulththim; Daniel Smith; Michele Phillips

    2018-01-01

    With recent downsizing of talented professionals and the power of globalization to provide opportunities for more underdeveloped countries, the gig economy is a source of influence in today’s generation of professionals. Online outsourcing media have shown to be valuable resources for companies who need a specific set of skills for a limited period. This case study evaluates Upwork.com, one of the leading freelance websites in the gig economy; this article provides insights on how others shou...

  5. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  7. TRIGA high wt -% LEU fuel development program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1980-07-01

    The principal purpose of this work was to investigate the characteristics of TRIGA fuel where the contained U-235 was in a relatively high weight percent (wt %) of LEU (low enriched uranium - enrichment of less than 20%) rather than a relatively low weight percent of HEU (high enriched uranium). Fuel with up to 45 wt % U was fabricated and found to be acceptable after metallurgical examinations, fission product retention tests and physical property examinations. Design and safety analysis studies also indicated acceptable prompt negative temperature coefficient and core lifetime characteristics for these fuels

  8. Low enrichment fuel conversion for Iowa State University. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, D.B.; Wendt, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The UTR-10 research and teaching reactor at Iowa State University (ISU) has been converted from high-enriched fuel (HEU) to low- enriched fuel (LEU) under Grant No. DE-FG702-87ER75360 from the Department of Energy (DOE). The original contract period was August 1, 1987 to July 31, 1989. The contract was extended to February 28, 1991 without additional funding. Because of delays in receiving the LEU fuel and the requirement for disassembly of the HEU assemblies, the contract was renewed first through May 31, 1992, then through May 31, 1993 with additional funding, and then again through July 31, 1994 with no additional funding. In mid-August the BMI cask was delivered to Iowa State. Preparations are underway to ship the HEU fuel when NRC license amendments for the cask are approved

  9. Ongoing evaluation of alternatively fueled buses : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project is to continue collecting and reporting data on the performance and costs of alternatively fueled public transit vehicles in Florida in a consistent manner. Over the course of this project, researchers sent repeated data requ...

  10. Price transparency on the market for automotive fuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindert, L.; Van Schijndel, M.; Volkerink, B.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the main question: which bottlenecks may obstruct the road to up-to-date, reliable and fully market covering price comparison services for the Dutch market for automotive fuels. [nl

  11. OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    It is important for nuclear power plant designers, operators and regulators to effectively use lessons learned from events occurring at nuclear power plants since, in general, it is impossible to reproduce the event using experimental facilities. In particular, evaluation of the event using accident analysis codes is expected to contribute to improving understanding of phenomena during the events and to facilitate the validation of computer codes through simulation analyses. The information presented in this publication will be of use in future revisions of safety guides on accident analysis. During a fuel crud removal operation on the Paks-2 unit of the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary on 10 April 2003, several fuel assemblies were severely damaged. The assemblies were being cleaned in a special tank under deep water in a service pit connected to the spent fuel storage pool. The first sign of fuel failures was the detection of some fission gases released from the cleaning tank. Later, visual inspection revealed that most of the 30 fuel assemblies suffered heavy oxidation and fragmentation. The first evaluation of the event showed that the severe fuel damage had been caused by inadequate cooling. The Paks-2 event was discussed in various committees of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Recommendations were made to undertake actions to improve the understanding of the incident sequence and of the consequence this had on the fuel. It was considered that the Paks-2 event may constitute a useful case for a comparative exercise on safety codes, in particular for models devised to predict fuel damage and potential releases under abnormal cooling conditions and the analyses of the Paks-2 event may provide information which is relevant for in-reactor and spent fuel storage safety evaluations. The OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project was established in 2005 as a joint project between the IAEA and the OECD/NEA. The IAEA

  12. Fueling the Gig Economy: A Case Study Evaluation of Upwork.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Green

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With recent downsizing of talented professionals and the power of globalization to provide opportunities for more underdeveloped countries, the gig economy is a source of influence in today’s generation of professionals. Online outsourcing media have shown to be valuable resources for companies who need a specific set of skills for a limited period. This case study evaluates Upwork.com, one of the leading freelance websites in the gig economy; this article provides insights on how others should evaluate the power of this new economy in terms of opportunities for small businesses, entrepreneurs, and freelancers. Upwork has led the pack by providing a flexible platform for freelancers worldwide, including coders, writers, and web developers, putting businesses in touch with reasonably priced workers. The study begins by exploring the attributes of the gig economy. Data collection is achieved through qualitative analysis. The application of these conclusions could increase the survival rate of new freelancers on Upwork.com and in the gig economy. The study is significant because this research widens contemporary assumptions about strategic thinking for individuals engaged in e-commerce.

  13. A review on idling reduction strategies to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions of transport vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shancita, I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Rashed, M.M.; Rashedul, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduce various idling reduction technologies for transport vehicles. • Exhibit their energy use, advantages, disadvantages to understand their capability. • Conduct critical review to improve fuel economy and exhaust emissions. • Suggest better technology according to their performance ability. - Abstract: To achieve reductions in vehicle idling, strategies and actions must be taken to minimize the time spent by drivers idling their engines. A number of benefits can be obtained in limiting the idling time. These benefits include savings in fuel use and maintenance costs, vehicle life extension, and reduction in exhaust emissions. The main objective of idling reduction (IR) devices is to reduce the amount of energy wasted by idling trucks, rail locomotives, and automobiles. During idling, gasoline vehicles emit a minimum amount of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and negligible particulate matter (PM). However, generally a large amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) are produced from these vehicles. Gasoline vehicles consume far more fuel at an hourly rate than their diesel counterparts during idling. Higher NOx and comparatively larger PM are produced by diesel vehicles than gasoline vehicles on the average during idling. Auxiliary power unit (APU), direct-fired heaters, fuel cells, thermal storage system, truck stop electrification, battery-based systems, engine idle management (shutdown) systems, electrical (shore power) solutions, cab comfort system, and hybridization are some of the available IR technologies whose performances for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been compared. This paper analyzes the availability and capability of most efficient technologies to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles by comparing the findings of previous studies. The analysis reveals that among all the options direct fired heaters, APUs and electrified parking spaces exhibit better

  14. Fuel Economy Improvement of a Heavy-Duty Powertrain by Using Hardware-in-Loop Simulation and Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel economy efficiency is one of the most important parameters for vehicle powertrains, which is of particular interest for heavy-duty powertrain calibration. Conventionally, this work relies heavily on road tests, which cost more and may lead to long duration product development cycles. The paper proposes a novel hardware-in-loop modeling and calibration method to work it out. A dSPACE hardware-based test bench was successfully established and validated, which is valuable for a more efficient and easier shift schedule in calibration. Meanwhile, a real-time dynamic powertrain model, including a diesel engine, torque converter, gear box and driver model was built. Typical driving cycles that both velocity and slope information were constructed for different road conditions. A basic economic shift schedule was initially calculated and then optimal calibrated by the test bench. The results show that there is an optimal relationship between an economic shift schedule and speed regulation. By matching the best economic shift schedule regulation to different road conditions; the fuel economy of vehicles can be improved. In a smooth driving cycle; when the powertrain applies a larger speed regulation such as 12% and the corresponding shift schedule; the fuel consumption is smaller and is reduced by 13%. In a complex driving cycle, when the powertrain applies a smaller speed regulation such as 5% along with the corresponding shift schedule; the fuel consumption is smaller and is reduced by 5%. The method thus can provide guidance for economic calibration experiments of off-road heavy-duty vehicles.

  15. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Preliminary case studies of economy and energy profiles for Ireland during 1979-1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E W

    1981-01-01

    How Irish 1985 Energy Demand Model (EDM) case study results have been optimized on the supply side, by means of the EFOM model and software, are described. The 1985 case study results are for low, likely, and high cases. The Low case represents a 1985 Irish economic profile for real GNP being 54% greater thand the GNP of 1974. The Likely case relates to 1985 real GNP being 70% greater than that of 1974, and the High to real GNP being 92% greater. The 1985 final energy results emerging from the case studies are tabulated, showing quantities of final energy required by each of the 13 sectors of the Irish EDM. In all three case studies, 5 of the 13 demand sectors take in aggregate more than 76% of the total energy; these five sectors, in decreasing size of demand, are: other household uses; other industries; private transport; cement; other services. The preparation for EFOM is described. The optimal final energy flows, with some comparisons with the non-optimal inital flows, are considered. The gross primary energy quantity and cost underlying the optimal final energy flows are examined in detail.

  17. MORAL ECONOMY AND FOREST CERTIFICATION - SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE FINAL CONSUMER PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leonardo Simão

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the perception of the final consumer in relation to forest certification. The research was performed through a systematic analysis by integrative contextualista approach, where were identified information on the recognition of the final consumer in relation to forest certification process in seven different countries. The results showed that only a small fraction in the consumer market is aware of the certification process in the forestry sector even in the economically developed regions. The findings show that one of the possible reasons for the increase of production of forest certified products in the last years is less by a requirement of final consumer and more for to a source of the product warranty along to intermediate actors in the forest value chain. There is also the possibility of requirements of forest certification made by intermediaries agents, in forest supply chain, figure as non-tariff barrier. Moreover, the focus of marketing activities for better efficiency should focus its activities not only in the final consumer, should also focus attention on to intermediaries agents.

  18. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  19. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of methods for measuring fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Hybrid denki jidosha no nenpi sokutei hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has been attracting attention as a clean energy vehicle, because it will potentially show higher fuel economy and release smaller quantities of exhaust emissions than the conventional internal combustion engine, and also will be potentially advantageous over the electric vehicle in that it needs no charging infrastructures and less cost. However, there are many types of hybrid vehicle systems, and, for them to be commercialized on a large scale, it is urgently necessary to establish the fuel economy measurement method. The 1998 R and D efforts were directed to analysis of the effects of the hybrid-characteristic factors (SOC of the propulsion battery and regenerative braking) on fuel economy and exhaust emissions. As a result, it is found that changed SOC before and after the tests must be corrected to determine fuel economy and that it is possible. The method for measuring the effects of regenerative braking should be further developed, because the data collected while the vehicle is running on road and on a two-wheel chassis dynamometer are not clearly distinguished from each other. The exhaust emissions are also sensitive to the changed SOC, correction for which, however, is not as easy as that for fuel economy. (NEDO)

  20. RTR spent fuel treatment and final waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasson, J.

    2000-01-01

    A number of RTR operators have chosen in the past to send their spent fuel to the US in the framework of the US take back program. However, this possibility ends as of May 12th, 2006. 3 different strategies are left for managing RTR spent fuel: extended storage, direct disposal and treatment-conditioning through reprocessing. Whilst former strategies raise a number of uncertainties, the latter already offers a management solution. It features two advantages. It benefits from the long experience of existing flexible industrial facilities from countries like France. Secondly, it offers a dramatic volume reduction of the ultimate waste to be stored under well-characterized, stable and durable forms. RTR spent fuel management through reprocessing-conditioning offers a durable management solution that can be fully integrated in whatever global radioactive waste management policy, including ultimate disposal

  1. Final Technical Report for the MIT Annular Fuel Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-01

    MIT-NFC-PR-082 (January 2006) Abstract This summary provides an overview of the results of the U.S. DOE funded NERI (Nuclear Research Energy Initiative) program on development of the internally and externally cooled annular fuel for high power density PWRs. This new fuel was proposed by MIT to allow a substantial increase in power density (on the order of 30% or higher) while maintaining or improving safety margins. A comprehensive study was performed by a team consisting of MIT (lead organization), Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Gamma Engineering Corporation, Framatome ANP(formerly Duke Engineering) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the world (excluding the centrally planned economies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Information on the existing, under construction and planned fuel cycle facilities in the various countries is presented. Some thirty countries have activities related to different nuclear fuel cycle steps and the information covers the capacity, status, location, and the names of owners of the facilities

  3. Experimental study of defect power reactor fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Jonsson, T.

    1982-01-01

    Two BWR fuel rods, one intact and one defect, with the same manufacturing and irradiation data have been examined in a comparative study. The defect rod has been irradiated in a defect condition during approximately one reactor cycle and has consequently some secondary defects. The defect rod has two penetrating defects at a distance of about 1.5 meters from each other. Comparison with the intact rod shows a large Cs loss from the defect rod, especially between the cladding defects, where the loss is measured to about 30 %. The leachibility in deionized water is higher for Cs, U and Cm for fuel from the defect rod. The leaching results are more complex for Sr-90, Pu and Am. The fuel in the defect rod has undergone a change of structure with gain growth and formation of oriented fuel structure. The cladding of the defect rod is hydrided locally in some parts of the lower part of the rod and furthermore over a more extended region near the end of the rod. (Authors)

  4. The final management of nuclear fuel. Legal and economic aspects; La gestion final del combustible nuclear. Aspectos legales y economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villota, C. de

    2009-07-01

    This article gives a brief summary of the characteristics of spent fuel and the lines of action considered for its management. It describes the legal framework that supports the Radioactive Waste Management Plan (PGRR), which contains the lines applicable to Final Spent Fuel Management, as well as the evolution of this legal framework. The article contains the 2008 updated costs of the various items of the PGRR, with a more detailed description of those related to this type of fuel, as well the source and amount of the financial contributions to the fund for meeting these costs, including how they have evolved over time. finally, it provides some personal reflections on this issue. (Author)

  5. DE-NE0000735 - FINAL REPORT ON THORIUM FUEL CYCLE NEUP PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahn, Steven [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Ault, Timothy [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The report is broken into six chapters, including this executive summary chapter. Following an introduction, this report discusses each of the project’s three major components (Fuel Cycle Data Package (FCDP) Development, Thorium Fuel Cycle Literature Analysis and Database Development, and the Thorium Fuel Cycle Technical Track and Proceedings). A final chapter is devoted to summarization. Various outcomes, publications, etc. originating from this project can be found in the Appendices at the end of the document.

  6. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  7. Alternative Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Transition Program for Alaska Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule will implement the requirements for sulfur, cetane and aromatics for highway, nonroad, locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced in, imported into, and distributed or used in the rural areas of Alaska.

  8. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable

  9. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  10. Growth rates of breeder reactor fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    During the contract period, a consistent formalism for the definition of the growth rates (and thus the doubling time) of breeder reactor fuel has been developed. This formalism was then extended to symbiotic operation of breeder and converter reactors. Further, an estimation prescription for the growth rate has been developed which is based upon the breeding worth factors. The characteristics of this definition have been investigated, which led to an additional integral concept, the breeding bonus

  11. Regional environmental impacts of methanol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belian, T.; Morris, R.E.; Ligocki, M.P.; Whitten, G.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to obtain, through simulation modeling, preliminary estimates of the regional environmental impacts methanol-fueled vehicles and to estimate the sensitivity of the model to important parameters and assumptions that affect the calculation of the impacts. The regional environmental effects of the use of M85 fuel (85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline) and M100 (neat methanol) relative to gasoline (an indoline blend) were estimated using a Lagrangian (trajectory) acid deposition model. The Comprehensive Chemistry Acid Deposition Model (CCADM), contains a detailed treatment of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry and associated mass transfer, but provides for a less comprehensive representation of advection and diffusion. Two different meteorological regimes were analyzed: clear sky conditions and cloudy skies with a rain event. The study also included a review of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, with particular emphasis on methanol. The CCADM chemical mechanism was updated to include state-of-the-science (as of 1990) gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry including methanol chemistry. The CCADM was then used to analyze the regional environmental impacts from the use of methanol fuels. In performing such an analysis it was necessary to make several assumptions. The sensitivity of the analysis was examined through a series of simulations that varied key input parameters within their ranges of uncertainty

  12. Safety criteria for spent-fuel transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, K.; Gekler, W.C.

    1986-10-01

    The focus of this study is on the question, ''Do current regulations provide reasonable assurance of safety for a transport scenario of spent fuel, as presently anticipated by the Department of Energy, under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act.'' This question has been addressed by developing a methodology for identifying the expected frequency of Accidents Which Exceed Regulatory Conditions in Severity (AWERCS) for spent fuel transport casks and then assessing the health effects resulting from that frequency. By applying the methodology to an illustrative case of road transports, it was found that the accidental release of radioactive material from impact AWERCS would make negligible contributions to health effects associated with spent fuel transports by road. It is also concluded that the current regulatory drop test requirements in 10 CFR 71.51 which form the basis for cask design and were used to establish AWERCS screening criteria for this study are adequate, and that no basis was found to conclude that cask performance under expected road accident conditions represents an undue risk to the public

  13. Technical considerations associated with spent fuel acceptance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1996-06-01

    This study was initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to identify technical considerations associated with spent fuel acceptance and implementation of a waste management system that includes the use of transportable storage systems, and to serve as an opening dialogue among Standard Contract Holders and the department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste management (OCRWM) prior to the development of waste acceptance criteria or issuance of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking by OCRWM to amend the Standard Contract. The original purpose of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking was to address changes to the Standard Contract to implement a multi-purpose canister based system and to address other issues that were not adequately addressed in the standard contract. Even if DOE does not develop a multi-purpose canister based system for waste acceptance, it will still be necessary to develop waste acceptance criteria in order to accept spent fuel in transportable storage systems that are being deployed for at-reactor storage. In this study, technical issues associated with spent fuel acceptance will be defined and potential options and alternatives for resolution of technical considerations will be explored

  14. Final environmental statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a Spent Fuel Storage Policy for nuclear power reactors. Under this policy, as approved by the President, US utilities will be given the opportunity to deliver spent fuel to US Government custody in exchange for payment of a fee. The US Government will also be prepared to accept a limited amount of spent fuel from foreign sources when such action would contribute to meeting nonproliferation goals. Under the new policy, spent fuel transferred to the US Government will be delivered - at user expense - to a US Government-approved site. Foreign spent fuel would be stored in Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities with domestic fuel. This volume of the environmental impact statement includes effects associated with implementing or not implementing the Spent Fuel Storage Policy for the foreign fuels. The analyses show that there are no substantial radiological health impacts whether the policy is implemented or not. In no case considered does the population dose commitment exceed 0.000006% of the world population dose commitment from natural radiation sources over the period analyzed. Full implementation of the US offer to accept a limited amount of foreign spent fuel for storage provides the greatest benefits for US nonproliferation policy. Acceptance of lesser quantities of foreign spent fuel in the US or less US support of foreign spent fuel storage abroad provides some nonproliferation benefits, but at a significantly lower level than full implementation of the offer. Not implementing the policy in regard to foreign spent fuel will be least productive in the context of US nonproliferation objectives. The remainder of the summary provides a brief description of the options that are evaluated, the facilities involved in these options, and the environmental impacts, including nonproliferation considerations, associated with each option

  15. From waste to traffic fuel -projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S; Lehtonen, E; Aro-Heinilae, E [and others

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the project was to promote biogas production and its use as traffic fuel. The aims in the four Finnish and two Estonian case regions were to reduce the amount and improve the sustainable use of waste and sludge, to promote biogas production, to start biogas use as traffic fuel and to provide tools for implementing the aims. The results of this study show that achieving the food waste prevention target will decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 415 000 CO{sub 2}-eq tons and result in monetary savings for the waste generators amounting to almost 300 euro/ capita on average in all case regions in 2020. The results show that waste prevention should be the first priority in waste management and the use of waste materials as feedstock for energy production the second priority. In total 3 TWh energy could be produced from available biomass in the studied case regions. This corresponds to the fuel consumption of about 300 000 passenger cars. When a Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to identify suitable biogas plant site locations with particular respect to the spatial distribution of available biomass, it was found that a total of 50 biogas plants with capacity varying from 2.1 to 14.5 MW could be built in the case regions. This corresponds to 2.2 TWh energy and covers from 5 to 40% of the passenger car fuel consumption in these regions. Using all produced biogas (2.2 TWh energy) for vehicle fuel GHG emissions would lead to a 450 000 t CO{sub 2}-eq reduction. The same effect on emissions would be gained if more than 100 000 passenger cars were to be taken off the roads. On average, the energy consumed by biogas plants represents approximately 20% of the produced energy. The results also show that biomethane production from waste materials is profitable. In some cases the biomethane production costs can be covered with the gained gate fees. The cost of biomethane production from agricultural materials is less than 96 euro/MWh{sub th

  16. ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Inventory Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutnik, Steven E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-06-19

    The goal of this project, “ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Depletion Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment" is to create a physics-based reactor depletion and decay module for the Cyclus nuclear fuel cycle simulator in order to assess nuclear fuel inventories over a broad space of reactor operating conditions. The overall goal of this approach is to facilitate evaluations of nuclear fuel inventories for a broad space of scenarios, including extended used nuclear fuel storage and cascading impacts on fuel cycle options such as actinide recovery in used nuclear fuel, particularly for multiple recycle scenarios. The advantages of a physics-based approach (compared to a recipe-based approach which has been typically employed for fuel cycle simulators) is in its inherent flexibility; such an approach can more readily accommodate the broad space of potential isotopic vectors that may be encountered under advanced fuel cycle options. In order to develop this flexible reactor analysis capability, we are leveraging the Origen nuclear fuel depletion and decay module from SCALE to produce a standalone “depletion engine” which will serve as the kernel of a Cyclus-based reactor analysis module. The ORIGEN depletion module is a rigorously benchmarked and extensively validated tool for nuclear fuel analysis and thus its incorporation into the Cyclus framework can bring these capabilities to bear on the problem of evaluating long-term impacts of fuel cycle option choices on relevant metrics of interest, including materials inventories and availability (for multiple recycle scenarios), long-term waste management and repository impacts, etc. Developing this Origen-based analysis capability for Cyclus requires the refinement of the Origen analysis sequence to the point where it can reasonably be compiled as a standalone sequence outside of SCALE; i.e., wherein all of the computational aspects of Origen (including reactor cross-section library processing and interpolation, input and output

  17. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems' Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment

  18. Integration of Forest Fuel Handling in the Ordinary Forestry. Studies on Forestry, Technology and Economy of Forest Fuel Production in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars [Regional Forestry Board of Vaermland-Oerebro, Karlstad (Sweden); Budrys, Renatas [Lithuanian Forest Research Inst. (Lithuania)

    2002-07-01

    During the year 2000, The Swedish Forest Administration and Forest Department, Ministry of Environment in Lithuania, started a bilateral co-operation project, named: 'Swedish Lithuanian Wood Fuel Development Project', financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. The project was divided into 2 phases. The first phase objectives were to make a feasibility study in the eastern part of Lithuania and to identify the present conditions for the utilization of wood fuel within seven state forest enterprises and to define a demonstration and experimental area for the phase 2. The purpose of this work was to find solutions for creating horizontal and vertical integration in the handling of forest fuels in ordinary forestry and supply systems. The aim would be to give specific recommendations on which methods are the most suitable and profitable and on what type of equipment to use for various conditions and by the means of demonstrations to show how to integrate the positive results into the ordinary forestry activities. Different kinds of activities have been carried out to ensure capacity building and development on other levels within the system. 3 activity groups were established and have been working side by side with the appointed team leaders for each activity group from the institutions leading in the specific area within the forest sector in Lithuania. Swedish specialists from the Swedish Forest Administration were involved into the project and the activity groups as well. Lithuanian Forest Research Institute was involved into the project with research support. Additional to the project a mobile drum wood chipper was purchased from Sweden. 3 separate investigations have been conducted, one by Kaunas Univ. of Tech. on the analysis and estimation of material balance in Lithuania saw milling industry, another by Forest Economy Centre on wood fuel produced in industry in Lithuania and the third one by Lithuanian Energy Institute and AF international on Bio fuel

  19. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The main objective in this project has been to develop a generic and dynamic tool for SOFC systems simulation and development. Developing integrated fuel cell systems is very expensive and therefore having the right tools to reduce the development cost and time to market for products becomes an important feature. The tools developed in this project cover a wide range of needs in Dantherm Power, R and D, and can be divided into 3 categories: 1. Component selection modeling; to define component specification requirements and selection of suppliers. 2. Application simulation model built from scratch, which can simulate the interface between customer demand and system output and show operation behavior for different control settings. 3. System operation strategy optimization with respect to operation cost and customer benefits. a. Allows to see how system size, in terms of electricity and heat output, and operation strategy influences a specific business case. b. Gives a clear overview of how a different property, in the system, affects the economics (e.g. lifetime, electrical and thermal efficiency, fuel cost sensitivity, country of deployment etc.). The main idea behind the structure of the tool being separated into 3 layers is to be able to service different requirements, from changing stakeholders. One of the major findings in this project has been related to thermal integration between the existing installation in a private household and the fuel cell system. For a normal family requiring 4500 kWh of electricity a year, along with the possibility of only running the system during the heating season (winter), the heat storage demand is only 210kWh of heat with an approximate value of Dkr 160,- in extra gas consumption. In this case, it would be much more cost effective to dump the heat, in the house, and save the expense of adding heat storage to the system. This operation strategy is only valid in Denmark for the time being, since the feed-In-Tariff allows for a

  1. EPRI fuel performance data base: user's manual. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; Lee, S.; Rumble, E.

    1980-10-01

    This user's manual provides instructions for accessing the data in the EPRI fuel performance data base (FPDB) and manipulating that data to solve specific problems that the user wishes to specify. The user interacts with the FPDB through the Relational Information Management System (RIMS) computer program. The structure and format of the FPDB and the general syntax of the data base commands are described. Instructions follow for the use of each command. Appendixes provide more detailed information about the FPDB and its software. The FPDB currently resides on a PRIME-750 computer

  2. Fuel reprocessing plant - no solution for the economy of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvers, G.

    1986-01-01

    Both for the construction and operation stage, the direct and indirect impact of the fuel reprocessing plant on employment on the whole will be negative. It is not altogether certain either that there will be no adverse effects for the areas of tourism. The top organization of German trade unions (DGB) holds that a different structure-political concept from the one represented by the large-scale project of the fuel reprocessing plant would be more appropriate for the region. Employment in the steel and construction industries must be safeguarded by corresponding programmes, and new employment must be created in small- and medium-size companies. (DG) [de

  3. LMFBR fuel analysis. Task A: Oxide fuel dynamics. Final report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Doshi, J.; Frank, M.; Hauss, B.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Wong, K.

    1977-10-01

    The study presented deals with several areas of uncertainty in the analysis of the unprotected overpower transient for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. These areas of uncertainty include the time, place, and mode of fuel pin failure; pre-failure fuel motion; fuel freezing, plugging, and plate-out following pin failure; and the potential for re-criticality. Internal molten fuel motion prior to pin failure was found to be sensitive to ramp rate and burnup. The strain-limit fuel failure criterion was found to be inappropriate for analysis based on existing data. The coupling of pre-transient- and transient-induced stresses tended to force the failure location towards the core midplane

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet...

  5. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  6. Final report on LDRD project ''proliferation-resistant fuel cycles''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N W; Hassberger, J A.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of LDRD work completed during 1997 and 1998 to develop the ideas and concepts that lead to the Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) program proposals to the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). The STAR program consists of a team of three national laboratories (LLNL, ANL, and LANL), three universities, (UC Berkeley, TAMU, and MIT) and the Westinghouse Research Center. Based on the LLNL work and their own efforts on related work this team prepared and integrated a package of twelve proposals that will carry the LDRD work outlined here into the next phase of development. We are proposing to develop a new nuclear system that meets stringent requirements for a high degree of safety and proliferation resistance, and also deals directly with the related nuclear waste and spent fuel management issues

  7. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel

  8. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  9. Fuel utilization improvements in a once-through PWR fuel cycle. Final report on Task 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabby, D.

    1979-06-01

    In studying the position of the United States Department of Energy, Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program, this report determines the uranium saving associated with various improvement concepts applicable to a once-through fuel cycle of a standard four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. Increased discharged fuel burnup from 33,000 to 45,000 MWD/MTM could achieve a 12% U 3 O 8 saving by 1990. Improved fuel management schemes combined with coastdown to 60% power, could result in U 3 O 8 savings of 6%

  10. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test

  11. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the original base level fuel economy values); and (iii) All subconfigurations within the new base... separating subconfigurations from an existing base level and placing them into a new base level. The new base... this paragraph, as containing a new basic engine. The manufacturer will be permitted to designate such...

  12. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Edward [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States); Gough, Charles [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  13. NRC committee on assessment of technologies for improving fuel economy of light-duty vehicles: Meeting with DOT Volpe Center staff - February 27, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    On February 27, 2013 National Research Council's Committee on Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles, Phase 2 held a meeting at the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center on the Volpe Model and Other CAFE Issues. The meeting objectives wer...

  14. LMFBR fuel analysis. Task A: oxide fuel dynamics. Final report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Frank, M.; Kastenberg, W.E.; McKone, T.E.

    1979-03-01

    Three aspects of LMFBR safety are discussed. The first concerns the potential reactivity effects of whole core fuel motion prior to pin failure in low ramp rate transient overpower accidents. The second concerns the effects of flow blockages following pin failure on the coolability of a core following an unprotected overpower transient. The third aspect concerns the safety related implications of using thorium based fuels in LMFBR's

  15. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO 2 tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study

  16. Final summary report of fuel-dynamics tests H2 and E4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.C.; Rothman, A.B.; De Volpi, A.; Dickerman, C.E.; Deitrich, L.W; Stahl, D.; Murphy, W.F.

    1976-02-01

    Results of two failure experiments using LMFBR-type fuel during simulated unprotected transient overpower accidents are reported and analyzed. In both experiments, a single fresh fuel pin in a Mark-IIA loop was subjected to a temperature-limited, step-reactivity irradiation in the TREAT reactor. Total energy was 490 MJ in Test H2 and 690 MJ in Test E4. Except for their timing, the sequence of events in the failure scenario was the same for both tests. Local coolant boiling began 25-50 msec before failure. Significant upward fuel flow in the center of the pin started as early as 100 msec before cladding failure. Cladding failure was due to melting after contact with molten fuel and occurred at the top of the fuel column. Formation of an outlet flow-channel blockage began about 10 msec after failure and was complete by 50 msec. Inlet blockage began later and was less extensive. No significant amount of fuel sweepout was observed. Fuel remains separated into a small group of 50-1000-μm fragments and a macroscopic group of chunks and clinkers. The final distribution of fuel remains may have resulted from a delayed fuel/steel interaction in the inlet region

  17. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  18. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    efficiency and reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

  19. Micro solid oxide fuel cell on the chip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M.; Hotz, N.; Bieri, N.; Poulikakos, D.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project is the numerical and experimental investigation of hydrocarbon-to-syngas reforming in micro reformers for incorporation into an entire micro fuel cell system. Numerical simulations are used to achieve deeper understanding of several determining aspects in such a micro reformer. These insights are used to optimize the reforming performance by proper choice of operational and geometrical parameters of a reformer. These numerical results are continued by comprehensive experimental studies. In the first chapter, the effect of wall conduction of a tubular methane micro reformer is investigated numerically. Methane is used as the representative hydrocarbon because its detailed surface reaction mechanism is known. It is found that the axial wall conduction can strongly influence the performance of the microreactor and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. In the second chapter, the effect of the catalyst amount and reactor geometry on the reforming process was investigated. It was found that the hydrogen selectivity changes significantly with varying catalyst loading. Thus, the reaction path leading to higher hydrogen production becomes more important by increasing the catalyst surface site density on the active surface. Another unexpected result is the presence of optimum channel geometry and optimum catalyst amount. In the third chapter of this project, the capability of flame-made Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles catalyzing the reforming of butane to H{sub 2}- and CO-rich syngas was investigated experimentally in a packed bed reactor. The main goal of this study was the efficient reforming of butane at temperatures between 500 and 600 {sup o}C for a micro intermediate-temperature SOFC system. Our results showed that Rh/Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} nanoparticles proved to be a very promising material for butane-to-syngas reforming with complete butane conversion and a hydrogen yield of 77

  20. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  1. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  2. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  3. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  4. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative University Fellowship Program. Final Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    2004-2011 Final Report for AFCI University Fellowship Program. The goal of this effort was to be supportive of university students and university programs - particularly those students and programs that will help to strengthen the development of nuclear-related fields. The program also supported the stability of the nuclear infrastructure and developed research partnerships that are helping to enlarge the national nuclear science technology base. In this fellowship program, the U.S. Department of Energy sought master's degree students in nuclear, mechanical, or chemical engineering, engineering/applied physics, physics, chemistry, radiochemistry, or fields of science and engineering applicable to the AFCI/Gen IV/GNEP missions in order to meet future U.S. nuclear program needs. The fellowship program identified candidates and selected full time students of high-caliber who were taking nuclear courses as part of their degree programs. The DOE Academic Program Managers encouraged fellows to pursue summer internships at national laboratories and supported the students with appropriate information so that both the fellows and the nation's nuclear energy objectives were successful.

  5. LMFBR fuel analysis. Task A: oxide fuel dynamics. Final report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Hauss, B.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Saqui, R.; Sun, Y.H.; Wong, K.

    1976-11-01

    The report summarizes the results of studies conducted in support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. In particular it deals with three aspects of the unprotected transient overpower accident. The first aspect is the response of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor to low reactivity insertion rates. Second, the investigation of a new method for computing the time, place and mode of fuel pin failure is studied. Lastly, the question of post-failure, fuel freezing, and plate-out is addressed. Several areas of uncertainty in the analysis of these accidents is also discussed

  6. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  7. Quantify and improve PEM fuel cell durability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahl-Madsen, L.; Odgaard, M.; Munksgaard Nielsen, R. (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Li, Q.; Jensen, Jens Oluf (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Andersen, Shuang Ma; Speder, J.; Skou, E. (Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present project is to systematically quantify and improve the durability of the PEM FC including the following three PEM FC variants: LT PEM FC, DMFC, and HT PEM FC. Different factors influencing dissolution properties of noble metal catalyst platinum and platinum-ruthenium alloy has been studied. The dissolution was found to increase by increasing the CV cycle upper potential limit, number of potential cycles, solution acidity, oxygen partial pressure, involvement of chloride, and temperature. Ruthenium was found to deteriorate ten (10) times faster than platinum catalyst; and carbon supported catalyst (Pt: 20%, Ru: up to 100%) deteriorate ten (10) times faster than non-supported catalyst (Pt: 2%, Ru: 30%) at the same condition. Loss of sulphonic acid groups and fluoride from perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane was confirmed by different techniques, which locally leads to loss of acidity, and consequently enhances dissolution of noble metal catalyst. Degradation of Nafion ionomer in the electrode was enhanced by noble metal catalyst and the thermal decomposition properties has synergetic effect with carbon degradation. Hydrophobicity of GDL and electrode on GDL were found to degrade e.g. radical attack, oxidation, and physical wear out. The very top micro surface structure turned out to be responsible for wetting property after chemical ageing. Optimal catalyst and ionomer ratio is also reflected in contact angle value, which can be understood in terms of catalyst/carbon - ionomer affinity and layered structure. Long-term tested and 'virgin' LT PEM MEAs have been characterised with respect to SEM, TEM, EDS, and XRD. Both failed and well-functioning MEAs have been characterised. The Post Mortem analysis has shown and quantified degradation mechanisms like catalyst growth and carbon corrosion. Furthermore, the effect of fuel starvation was shown by pronounced Ru-catalyst band within the membrane. The catalyst coarsening observed after

  8. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  9. Handling of spent nuclear fuel and final storage of vitrified high level reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The report gives a general summary of the Swedish KBS-project on management and disposal of vitrified reprocessed waste. Its final aim is to demostrate that the means of processing and managing power reactor waste in an absolutely safe way, as stipulated in the Swedish so called Conditions Act, already exist. Chapters on Storage facility for spent fuel, Intermidiate storage of reprocessed waste, Geology, Final repository, Transportation, Protection, and Siting. (L.E.)

  10. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannone, Greg [Novation Analytics; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Reale, Michael [Novation Analytics; Betz, Brian [Novation Analytics

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  11. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  12. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J.; Chauhan, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO 2 equivalent emission rate. Both CO 2 and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO 2 was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO 2 ). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO 2 from fuel consumption

  13. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chauhan, H. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1992-08-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO{sub 2} equivalent emission rate. Both CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO{sub 2} was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO{sub 2}). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO{sub 2} from fuel consumption.

  14. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Chauhan, H. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO{sub 2} equivalent emission rate. Both CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO{sub 2} was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO{sub 2}). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO{sub 2} from fuel consumption.

  15. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The spent fuel management activities described in volume 1 are compared in three areas. The first section summarizes the spent fuel management options being followed in each country and compares those options with regard to cost, environmental impact and public acceptability. Next section reviews and compares national policies on nuclear power, spent fuel management and high-level waste disposal and assesses their impact on the development and licensing of nuclear power plants. The third section compares the regulatory requirements affecting spent fuel managementin terms of their overall spirit and characteristics and in terms of the responsibilities of the utilities and the regulatory authorities. Finally, the last section addresses the applicability to Sweden of the findings from these comparisons, focusing on cost efficiency, health and safety, environmental impact, public acceptance and licensing procedures

  16. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  17. Safeguards for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Methods and technologies for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, O.

    2003-05-01

    The final disposal of the nuclear material shall introduce new safeguards concerns which have not been addressed previously in IAEA safeguards approaches for spent fuel. The encapsulation plant to be built at the site will be the final opportunity for verification of spent fuel assemblies prior to their transfer to the geological repository. Moreover, additional safety and safeguards measures are considered for the underground repository. Integrated safeguards verification systems will also concentrate on environmental monitoring to observe unannounced activities related to possible diversion schemes at the repository site. The final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological formation will begin in Finland within 10 years. After the geological site investigations and according to legal decision made in 2001, the final repository of the spent nuclear fuel shall be located at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The next phase of site investigations contains the construction of an underground facility, called ONKALO, for rock characterisation purposes. The excavation of the ONKALO is scheduled to start in 2004. Later on, the ONKALO may form a part of the final repository. The plans to construct the underground facility for nuclear material signify that the first safeguards measures, e.g. baseline mapping of the site area, need to take prior to the excavation phase. In order to support the development and implementation of the regulatory control of the final disposal programme, STUK established an independent expert group, LOSKA. The group should support the STUK in the development of the technical safeguards requirements, in the implementation of the safeguards and in the evaluation of the plans of the facility operator. This publication includes four background reports produced by this group. The first of these 'NDA verification of spent fuel, monitoring of disposal canisters, interaction of the safeguards and safety issues in the final disposal' describes the new

  18. Spent fuel stability under repository conditions - final report of the european project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Ferry, C.; Kelm, M.; Cavedon, J.M.; Corbel, C.; Jegou, Ch.; Lovera, P.; Miserque, F.; Poulesquen, A.; Grambow, B.; Andriambololona, Z.; Martinez-Esparza, A.; Kelm, M.; Loida, A.; Rondinella, V.; Wegen, D.; Spahiu, K.; Johnson, L.; Cachoir, Ch.; Lemmens, K.; Quinones, J.; Bruno, J.; Christensen, H.; Grambow, B.; Pablo, J. de

    2005-01-01

    This report is the final report of the European Project 'Spent Fuel Stability under Repository Conditions' (FIKW-CT-2001-00192 SFS) funded by the European Commission from Nov.2000 to Oct.2004. Gathering the work performed by 13 partners from 6 countries, it aims to specifically focus on the spent nuclear fuel long term alteration in deep repository and the subsequent radionuclides release rate as a function of time. This report synthesised the wide experimental work performed within this project and enlightens the major outcomes, which can be summarised as follow: - A new model for defining the Instant Release Fraction was developed in order to consider the potential fuel evolution before the water penetrates the canister. Quantitative assessment has been produced and shows a significant contribution to the long term dose; - Based on new experimental data, kinetic radiolytic scheme have been upgraded and are used to determine the amount of oxidants produced at the fuel/water interface; - The existence of a dose threshold below which the water radiolysis does not influence the fuel alteration has been demonstrated and occurs between 3.5 and 33 MBq.g UO21. Above the threshold, the fuel alteration rates is directly related to the dose rate. - Hydrogen was experimentally demonstrated to be an efficient oxidants scavenger preventing therefore the fuel oxidation. Molecular mechanism still need to be understood. - Finally, a new Matrix Alteration Model integrating most of the SFS results (apart of the hydrogen effect) has been developed and used to assess the fuel long tern stability in representative conditions of deep repository in salt, clay-rock and granite. The breadth of the results and the significance of the conclusions testify of the success of the collaboration within the project. (authors)

  19. Assessment of effects of maturity of Japan`s economy and society and improvement in automotive fuel consumption on demand for automotive fuels; Nippon keizai shakai no seijukuka to nenpi kaizen ga jidoshayo nenryo juyo ni ataeru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper evaluates impacts of the maturity of Japan`s economy and society and the improvement in automotive fuel efficiency on the demand for automotive fuels by FY 2010. Standard case and lower order case were examined. When the traffic volume of passenger cars in FY 1995 is assumed to be 100, it become 121 and 119 in standard and lower order cases, respectively. The traffic volume of lorries become 106 and 102 in standard and lower order cases, respectively, which showed a rather small growth. Deterioration rate of the fuel consumption was estimated by considering the difference in fuel consumption of new cars and existing cars. Although the fuel consumption will be lowered by FY 2000 when the cassation rate of ordinary passenger cars will rapidly increase, the impact will be lowered after that. For lorries for commercial use, the running fuel consumption will be gradually lowered due to the increased carrying capacity and vehicle weight a lorry with improving the transportation efficiency. Decreased running speed by traffic jam is also a cause of the deterioration of fuel consumption. When a policy of improvement in the fuel consumption is promoted in a background of CO2 issues, the fuel consumption of each vehicle will be gradually improved. The peak of fuel demand will be in FY 2005 by considering the changes in economical and social structures and the improvement in fuel consumption for the environmental protection. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Investigation of the influence of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel in the fuel economy, energy and environmental performance of motor diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpach А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to exhaustion of world energy reserves and significant environmental pollution by harmful substances, current research aimed at determining the effectiveness of alternative fuels. In the article compare two samples of biodiesel and studied their physical and chemical properties accordance with International Standard. Effect of different samples of biodiesel in fuel economy, energy and environmental performance automotive diesel determined by the bench tests of 4CH11,0/12.5 (D-241 diesel. The difference between physical and chemical properties of two biodiesel samples influenced to the fuel efficiency and environmental performance of the diesel. Operation on biodiesel with higher density and kinematic viscosity provide increases of maximum power and torque and increase fuel consumption. It also increases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases and it opacity. The results allow evaluate how the deviation of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel could affect the operational performance of the engine.

  1. On the hazard accumulation of actinide waste in a Pu-fueled LMFBR power economy with and without by-product actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, L.; Caruso, K.; Hage, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1979-01-01

    The actinide waste arisings in terms of hazard potential for ingestion and inhalation are given for a Pu-fueled LMFBR Power Economy as function of decay time. The data were assessed for two simplified fuel cycles, one considering the recycling of by-product actinides and the other their complete discharge to the high-level waste. Two durations of nuclear power and several loss fractions of actinides to the waste were considered. The major contributors in form of chemical elements or isotopes to the actinide waste hazard built up during the nuclear power duration were identified for various decay intervals

  2. Handling of spent nuclear fuel and final storage of nitrified high level reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following stages of handling and transport of the fuel on its way to final storage are dealt with in the report. 1) The spent nuclear fuel is stored at the power station or in the central fuel storage facility awaiting reprocessing. 2) The fuel is reprocessed, i.e. uranium, plutonium and waste are separated from each other. Reprocessing does not take place in Sweden. The highlevel waste is vitrified and can be sent back to Sweden in the 1990s. 3) Vitrified waste is stored for about 30 years awaiting deposition in the final repository. 4) The waste is encapsulated in highly durable materials to prevent groundwater from coming into contact with the waste glass while the radioactivity of the waste is still high. 5) The canisters are emplaced in a final repository which is built at a depth of 500 m in rock of low permeability. 6) All tunnels and shafts are filled with a mixture of clay and sand of low permeability. A detailed analysis of possible harmful effects resulting from normal acitivties and from conceivable accidents is presented in a special section. (author)

  3. Methods of characterization of salt formations in view of spent fuel final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela; Balan, Valeriu; Mirion, Ilie

    2002-01-01

    Deep disposal in geological formations of salt, granite and clay seems to be at present the most proper and commonly adopted solution for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Disposing such wastes represents the top-priority issue of the European research community in the field of nuclear power. Although seemingly premature for Romanian power system, the interest for final disposal of spent fuel is justified by the long duration implied by the studies targeting this objective. At the same time these studies represent the Romanian nuclear research contribution in the frame of the efforts of integration within the European research field. Although Romania has not made so far a decision favoring a given geological formation for the final disposal of spent fuel resulting from Cernavoda NPP, the most generally taken into consideration appears the salt formation. The final decision will be made following the evaluation of its performances to spent fuel disposal based on the values of the specific parameters of the geological formation. In order to supply the data required as input parameters in the codes of evaluation of the geological formation performances, the INR Pitesti initiated a package of modern and complex methodologies for such determinations. The studies developed so far followed up the special phenomenon of salt convergence, a phenomenon characteristic for only this kind of rock, as well as the radionuclide migration. These studies allow a better understanding of these processes of upmost importance for disposal's safety. The methods and the experimental installation designed and realized at INR Pitesti aimed at determination of thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat, which are all parameters of high specific interest for high level radioactive waste or spent fuel disposal. The paper presents the results of these studies as well as the methodologies, the experimental installations and the findings

  4. Getting ready for final disposal in Finland - Independent verification of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, Matti; Honkamaa, Tapani; Martikka, Elina; Varjoranta, Tero; Hautamaeki, Johanna; Tiitta, Antero

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been known to be the solution for the back-end of the fuel cycle in Finland already for a long time. This has allowed the State system for accounting and control (SSAC) to prepare for the safeguards requirements in time. The Finnish SSAC includes the operator, the State authority STUK and the parties above them e.g. the Ministry for Trade and Industry. Undisputed responsibility of the safe disposal of spent fuel is on the operator. The role of the safety authority STUK. is to set up detailed requirements, to inspect the operator plans and by using different tools of a quality audit approach to verity that the requirements will be complied with in practice. Responsibility on the safeguards issues is similar with the addition of the role of the regional and the international verification organizations represented by Euratom and the IAEA, As the competent safeguards authority, STUK has decided to maintain its active role also in the future. This will be reflected in the future in the increasing cooperation between the SSAC and the IAEA in the new safeguards activities related to the Additional Protocol. The role of Euratom will remain the same concerning the implementation of conventional safeguards. Based on its SSAC role, STUK has continued carrying out safeguards inspections including independent verification measurements on spent fuel also after joining the EU and Euratom safeguards in 1995. Verification of the operator declared data is the key verification element of safeguards. This will remain to be the case also under the Integrated Safeguards (IS) in the future. It is believed that the importance of high quality measurements will rather increase than decrease when the frequency of interim inspections will decrease. Maintaining the continuity of knowledge makes sense only when the knowledge is reliable and independently verified. One of the corner stones of the high quality of the Finnish SSAC activities is

  5. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  6. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO 2 , CeO 2 , plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively supported and

  7. Characterisation and final disposal behaviour of theoria-based fuel kernels in aqueous phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, M.

    2005-08-01

    Two high-temperature reactors (AVR and THTR) operated in Germany have produced about 1 million spent fuel elements. The nuclear fuel in these reactors consists mainly of thorium-uranium mixed oxides, but also pure uranium dioxide and carbide fuels were tested. One of the possible solutions of utilising spent HTR fuel is the direct disposal in deep geological formations. Under such circumstances, the properties of fuel kernels, and especially their leaching behaviour in aqueous phases, have to be investigated for safety assessments of the final repository. In the present work, unirradiated ThO 2 , (Th 0.906 ,U 0.094 )O 2 , (Th 0.834 ,U 0.166 )O 2 and UO 2 fuel kernels were investigated. The composition, crystal structure and surface of the kernels were investigated by traditional methods. Furthermore, a new method was developed for testing the mechanical properties of ceramic kernels. The method was successfully used for the examination of mechanical properties of oxide kernels and for monitoring their evolution during contact with aqueous phases. The leaching behaviour of thoria-based oxide kernels and powders was investigated in repository-relevant salt solutions, as well as in artificial leachates. The influence of different experimental parameters on the kernel leaching stability was investigated. It was shown that thoria-based fuel kernels possess high chemical stability and are indifferent to presence of oxidative and radiolytic species in solution. The dissolution rate of thoria-based materials is typically several orders of magnitude lower than of conventional UO 2 fuel kernels. The life time of a single intact (Th,U)O 2 kernel under aggressive conditions of salt repository was estimated as about hundred thousand years. The importance of grain boundary quality on the leaching stability was demonstrated. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to explain the results of leaching experiments. (orig.)

  8. NUFACTS-nuclear fuel cycle activity simulator: reference manual. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.; Breese, T.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activity Simulator (NUFACTS) is a package of FORTRAN subroutines which facilitate the simulation of a diversity of nuclear power growth scenarios. An approach to modeling the nuclear fuel cycle has been developed that is highly adaptive and capable of addressing a variety of problems. Being a simulation model rather than an optimization model, NUFACTS mimics the events and processes that are characteristic of the nuclear fuel cycle. This approach enables the model user to grasp the modeling approach rather quickly. Within this report descriptions of the model and its components are provided with several emphases. First, a discussion of modeling approach and basic assumptions is provided. Next, instructions are provided for generating data, inputting the data properly, and running the code. Finally, detailed descriptions of individual program element are given as an aid to modifying and extending the present capabilities

  9. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  10. Final disposal of spent fuels and high activity waste: status and trends in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovich de Pahissa, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste from reprocessing, properly conditioned, is described. This issue is a major challenge related to radioactive waste management. Several options are analyzed, such as application of separation and transmutation to high level waste before final disposal; need of multinational repositories; a phased approach to deep geological disposal and long term surface storage. Bearing in mind this information, a future article will report the state of art in the world. (author) [es

  11. Handling of spent nuclear fuel and final storage of vitrified high level reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the planning of transportation and plant design in the Swedish KBS project on management and disposal reprocessed radioactive waste. It describes a transportation system, a central storage facility for used fuel elements, a plant for intermediate storage and encapsulation and a final repository for the vitrified waste. Accounts are given for the reprocessing and vitrification. The safety of the entire system is discussed

  12. Sensitivity of nuclear fuel-cycle cost to uncertainties in nuclear data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M.; Harris, D.R.

    1980-11-01

    An improved capability for assessing the economic implications of uncertainties in nuclear data and methods on the power reactor fuel cycle was developed. This capability is applied to the sensitivity analysis of fuel-cycle cost with respect to changes in nuclear data and related computational methods. Broad group sensitivities for both a typical BWR and a PWR are determined under the assumption of a throwaway fuel cycle as well as for a scenario under which reprocessing is allowed. Particularly large dollar implications are found for the thermal and resonance cross sections of fissile and fertile materials. Sensitivities for the throwaway case are found to be significantly larger than for the recycle case. Constrained sensitivities obtained for cases in which information from critical experiments or other benchmarks is used in the design calculation to adjust a parameter such as anti ν are compared with unconstrained sensitivities. Sensitivities of various alternate fuel cycles were examined. These included the extended-burnup (18-month) LWR cycle, the mixed-oxide (plutonium) cycle, uranium-thorium and denatured uranium-thorium cycles, as well as CANDU-type reactor cycles. The importance of the thermal capture and fission cross sections of 239 Pu is shown to be very large in all cases. Detailed, energy dependent sensitivity profiles are provided for the thermal range (below 1.855 eV). Finally, sensitivity coefficients are combined with data uncertainties to determine the impact of such uncertainties on fuel-cycle cost parameters

  13. Evidence of fueling of the 2000 new economy bubble by foreign capital inflow: implications for the future of the US economy and its stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2004-02-01

    Previous analyses of a large ensemble of stock markets have demonstrated that a log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior of the prices constitutes a qualifying signature of speculative bubbles that often land with a crash. We detect such a LPPL signature in the foreign capital inflow during the bubble on the US markets culminating in March 2000. We detect a weak synchronization and lag with the NASDAQ LPPL pattern. We propose to rationalize these observations by the existence of positive feedback loops between market-appreciation/increased-spending/increased-deficit-of-balance-of-payment/larger-foreign-surplus/increased-foreign-capital-inflows and so on. Our analysis suggests that foreign capital inflow has been following rather than causing the bubble. We then combine a macroeconomic analysis of feedback processes occurring between the economy and the stock market with a technical analysis of more than 200 years of the DJIA to investigate possible scenarios for the future, three years after the end of the bubble and deep into a bearish regime. We conclude that the low interest rates and depreciating dollar are the indispensable ingredients for a lower sustainable burden of the global US debt structure and for allowing the slow rebuilding of an internationally competitive economy. This will probably be accompanied by a weak stock market on the medium term as the growing Federal deficit is consuming a large part of the foreign surplus dollars and the stock market is remaining a very risky and unattractive investment. Notwithstanding strong surge of liquidity in recent months orchestrated by the Federal Reserve, this macroeconomic analysis which incorporates an element of collective behavior is in line with our recent analyses of the bearish market that started in 2000 in terms of a LPPL “anti-bubble”. We project this LPPL anti-bubble to continue at least for another year. On the short term, increased availability of liquidity (M1) and self-fulfilling bullish

  14. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part I. Fuel descriptions and fabrication processes, P.O. 1236909 Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; Miller, C.L.

    1978-12-01

    The report presents information on foreign nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Fuel descriptions and fuel fabrication information for three basic reactor types are presented: The information presented for LWRs assumes that Pu--U Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) will be used as fuel

  15. Site-selection studies for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.; Aeikaes, T.

    1984-02-01

    In the management of waste by the Industrial Power Company Ltd. (TVO) preparations are being made for the final disposal of unprocessed spent fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The site selection program will advance in three phases. The final disposal site must be made at the latest by the end of the year 2000, in accordance with a decision laid down by the Finnish Government. In the first phase, 1983-85, the main object is to find homogeneous stable bedrock blocks surrounded by fracture zones located at a safe distance from the planned disposal area. The work usually starts with a regional structural analysis of mosaics of Landsat-1 winter and summer imagery. Next an assortment of different maps, which cover the whole country, is used. Technical methods for geological and hydrogeological site investigations are being developed during the very first phase of the studies, and a borehole 1000 meters deep will be made in southwestern Finland. Studies for the final disposal of spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste have been made since 1974 in Finland. General suitability studies of the bedrock have been going on since 1977. The present results indicate that suitable investigation areas for the final disposal of highly active waste can be found in Finland

  16. Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The automotive and engine industries are in a period of very rapid change being driven by new emission standards, new types of after treatment, new combustion strategies, the introduction of new fuels, and drive for increased fuel economy and efficiency. The rapid pace of these changes has put more pressure on the need for modeling of engine combustion and performance, in order to shorten product design and introduction cycles. New combustion strategies include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), partial-premixed combustion compression ignition (PCCI), and dilute low temperature combustion which are being developed for lower emissions and improved fuel economy. New fuels include bio-fuels such as ethanol or bio-diesel, drop-in bio-derived fuels and those derived from new crude oil sources such as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, oil sands, oil shale, and wet natural gas. Kinetic modeling of the combustion process for these new combustion regimes and fuels is necessary in order to allow modeling and performance assessment for engine design purposes. In this research covered by this CRADA, ORNL developed and supplied experimental data related to engine performance with new fuels and new combustion strategies along with interpretation and analysis of such data and consulting to Reaction Design, Inc. (RD). RD performed additional analysis of this data in order to extract important parameters and to confirm engine and kinetic models. The data generated was generally published to make it available to the engine and automotive design communities and also to the Reaction Design Model Fuels Consortium (MFC).

  17. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Thom Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors. (author)

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report Annex B-Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1999, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 4, and the CVDF Final Design Report. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and references to the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This manual has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved

  19. Treatment and final storage of radioactive wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-05-01

    Types, amounts and activity concentrations of the radioactive wastes arising from the different sections of the fuel cycle are described as well as the methods of their treatment and final disposal. By conversion to glass products, highly active fission product solutions can be transferred into a form well suited for final disposal. Low and medium level waste waters are purified so far that safe discharge or reuse is possible. The concentrates thus produced are incorporated into concrete or bitumen. Baling lends itself for treatment of non-combustible solid wastes. Combustible wastes can be incinerated, the residues are incorporated into concrete. For final storage of the conditioned wastes, salt formations in the deep underground are chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany. They offer a series of favourable preconditions for this purpose and guarantee the isolation of the radionuclides from the biocycle over secular periods of time.

  20. 75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ..., heating oil or jet fuel). In addition, this rule includes a new regulatory provision establishing a... work would be completed through a supplemental final rulemaking process. This supplemental final rule... the final RFS2 rule, EPA will revisit our lifecycle analyses in the future as new information becomes...

  1. Development of an international safeguards approach to the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphey, W.M.; Moran, B.W.; Fattah, A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently pursuing development of an international safeguards approach for the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories through consultants meetings and through the Program for Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories (SAGOR). The consultants meetings provide policy guidance to IAEA; SAGOR recommends effective approaches that can be efficiently implemented by IAEA. The SAGOR program, which is a collaboration of eight Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), was initiated in July 1994 and has identified 15 activities in each of three areas (i.e. conditioning facilities, active repositories, and closed repositories) that must be performed to ensure an efficient, yet effective safeguards approach. Two consultants meetings have been held: the first in May 1991 and the last in November 1995. For nuclear materials emplaced in a geological repository, the safeguards objectives were defined to be (1) to detect the diversion of spent fuel, whether concealed or unconcealed, from the repository and (2) to detect undeclared activities of safeguards concern (e.g., tunneling, underground reprocessing, or substitution in containers)

  2. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  3. Phase 1A Final Report for the AREVA Team Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrell, Mike E. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-03-19

    In response to the Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to develop and deploy lead fuel assemblies (LFAs) of Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (EATF) into a US reactor within 10 years, AREVA put together a team to develop promising technologies for improved fuel performance during off normal operations. This team consisted of the University of Florida (UF) and the University of Wisconsin (UW), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Duke Energy and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This team brought broad experience and expertise to bear on EATF development. AREVA has been designing; manufacturing and testing nuclear fuel for over 50 years and is one of the 3 large international companies supplying fuel to the nuclear industry. The university and National Laboratory team members brought expertise in nuclear fuel concepts and materials development. Duke and TVA brought practical utility operating experience. This report documents the results from the initial “discovery phase” where the team explored options for EATF concepts that provide enhanced accident tolerance for both Design Basis (DB) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDB). The main driver for the concepts under development were that they could be implemented in a 10 year time frame and be economically viable and acceptable to the nuclear fuel marketplace. The economics of fuel design make this DOE funded project very important to the nuclear industry. Even incremental changes to an existing fuel design can cost in the range of $100M to implement through to LFAs. If this money is invested evenly over 10 years then it can take the fuel vendor several decades after the start of the project to recover their initial investment and reach a breakeven point on the initial investment. Step or radical changes to a fuel assembly design can cost upwards of $500M and will take even longer for the fuel vendor to recover their investment. With the projected lifetimes of the current generation of nuclear power

  4. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  5. Evaluation of the Field Performance of Residential Fuel Cells: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrero, E.; McClelland, R.

    2004-05-01

    Distributed generation has attracted significant interest from rural electric cooperatives and their customers. Cooperatives have a particular nexus because of inherently low customer density, growth patterns at the end of long lines, and an influx of customers and high-tech industries seeking to diversify out of urban environments. Fuel cells are considered a particularly interesting DG candidate for these cooperatives because of their power quality, efficiency, and environmental benefits. The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association Cooperative Research Network residential fuel cell program demonstrated RFC power plants and assessed related technical and application issues. This final subcontract report is an assessment of the program's results. This 3-year program leveraged Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) funding.

  6. Inventory of concepts for mixed diesel fuels containing renewable components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, B. [Inst. for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult, Solna (Sweden); Berg, J. [Svenska Lantmaennen/Agro Oil, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    The present report has involved the assembly of two sub-reports, which have been put together to form this final report. Both of the sub-reports deal with the incorporation of ethanol in diesel fuels. The potential advantages are the decreased net emissions of carbon dioxide, due to the renewable nature of ethanol (if obtained from renewable raw materials), and the decrease of NO{sub x} emissions, due to the decreased combustion temperature. The first sub-report is a compilation of scientific articles and patents/patent applications regarding the possibility to blend ethanol into diesel to form a stable solution in the form of a so called microemulsion, with the aid of surfactants and/or co-solvents. The second sub-report briefly describes the test work, both in the laboratory and in field tests, that is being done in various countries, regarding the blending of ethanol into diesel fuel.

  7. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) undertook this study on behalf of Sweden's National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) from June to October 1986. The purpose of the project was to compare the programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. This final report includes revisions requested by SKN upon review of the draft report dated in September 26, 1986. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I (Section 2.0 of the report) consists of detailed country-specific reports on the policies, regulations and strategies for spent fuel and high-level waste management in each of the eight countries. The information contained in these country-specific reports was used as the basis for comparing the options in each country in terms of cost, environmental impact, and public acceptability, and for comparing the policies and regulatory requirements affecting these activities in each country. These comparisons are provided in Volume II (Section 3.0 of the report). Section 3.0 also includes a discussion of the applicability to Sweden of the strategies and policies in the eight countries studied. Finally, Volume III of the report (Section 4.0) presents the laws, regulations and other documents pertinent to spent fuel and high-level waste management in these countries. Descriptive summaries of the documents are provided in Section 4.0, a comparison guide to the documents themselves (the great majority of them in English) which are provided in 15 volumes of appendices

  8. Full-Length High-Temperature Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 5: Final safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the final safety analysis for the preparation, conduct, and post-test discharge operation for the Full-Length High Temperature Experiment-5 (FLHT-5) to be conducted in the L-24 position of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test is sponsored by an international group organized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test is designed and conducted by staff from Pacific Northwest Laboratory with CRNL staff support. The test will study the consequences of loss-of-coolant and the progression of severe fuel damage

  9. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker; Ebert, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  10. SKB 91. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Importance of the bedrock for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel has been assessed in this report. The spent fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in a copper canister and deposited at a depth of 600 m in the bedrock. The primary purpose has been to shed light on the importance of the geological features of the site for the safety of a final repository. The assessment shows that the encapsulated fuel will, in all likelihood, be kept isolated from the groundwater for millions of years. This is considerably longer than the more than 100 000 years that are required in order for the toxicity of the waste to have declined to a level equivalent to that of rich uranium ores. However, in order to be able to study the role of the rock as a barrier to the dispersal of radioactive materials, calculations have been carried out under the assumption that waste canisters leak. The results show that the safety of a carefully designed repository is only affected to a small extent by the ability of the rock to retain the escaping radionuclides. The primary role of the rock is to provide stable mechanical and chemical conditions in the repository over a long period of time so that the function of the engineered barriers is not jeopardized. (187 refs.) (au)

  11. Final disposal of spent fuels and high activity waste: status and trends in the world. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovich de Pahissa, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The proper management of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production is a key issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Some countries have adopted reprocessing of spent fuel and part of them has continued to develop and improve closed fuel cycle technologies; some other countries have adopted a direct final disposal. The objective in this article is to provide an update on the latest development in the world related with the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes. (author) [es

  12. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel before Final Disposal in Germany - Regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Goetz, Ch.; Geupel, Sandra; Gmal, B.; Mester, W.

    2014-01-01

    For spent nuclear fuel management in Germany the concept of dry interim storage in dual purpose casks before direct disposal is applied. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is the competent authority for licensing of interim storage facilities. The competent authority for surveillance of operation is the responsible authority of the respective federal state (Land). Currently operation licenses for storage facilities have been granted for a storage time of 40 years and are based on safety demonstrations for all safety issues as safe enclosure, shielding, sub-criticality and decay heat removal under consideration of operation conditions. In addition, transportability of the casks for the whole storage period has to be provided. Due to current delay in site selection and exploration of a disposal site, an extension of the storage time beyond 40 years could be needed. This will cause appropriate actions by the licensee and the competent authorities as well. A brief description of the regulatory base of licensing and surveillance of interim storage is given from the regulators view. Furthermore the current planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste and its interconnections between storage and disposal concepts are shortly explained. Finally the relevant aspects for licensing of extended storage time beyond 40 years will be discussed. Current activities on this issue, which have been initiated by the Federal Government, will be addressed. On the regulatory side a review and amendment of the safety guideline for interim storage of spent fuel has been performed and the procedure of periodic safety review is being implemented. A guideline for implementing an ageing management programme is available in a draft version. Regarding safety of long term storage a study focussing on the identification and evaluation of long term effects as well as gaps of knowledge has been finished in 2010. A continuation and update is currently underway

  13. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2005-12-01

    qualitatively as well as the ETEK material for the ORR, a non-trivial achievement. A fuel cell test showed that Pt/C outperformed the ETEK material by an average of 50% for a 300 hour test. Increasing surface area decreases the amount of Pt needed in a fuel cell, which translates into cost savings. Furthermore, the increased performance realized in the fuel cell test might ultimately mean less Pt is needed in a fuel cell; this again translates into cost savings. Finally, enhanced long-term stability is a key driver within the fuel cell community as improvements in this area must be realized before fuel cells find their way into the marketplace; these Pt/C materials hold great promise of enhanced stability over time. An external laser desorption ion source was successfully installed on the existing Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. However, operation of this laser ablation source has only generated metal atom ions, no clusters have been found to date. It is believed that this is due to the design of the pulsed-nozzle/laser vaporization chamber. The final experimental configuration and design of the two source housings are described.

  14. An innovative fuel design concept for improved light water reactor performance and safety. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Connell, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. The purpose of this research was to explore a technique for extending fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a non-alkaline liquid metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide (UO 2 ) fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Due to the thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding, and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap, while preserving the expansion and pellet loading capabilities. The resultant lower fuel temperature directly impacts fuel performance limit margins and also core transient performance. The application of liquid bonding techniques to LWR fuel was explored for the purposes of increasing LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) has been developed under the program to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid metal bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of Liquid Metal Bonded LWR fuel

  15. Site safety progress review of spent fuel central interim storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpinar, A.; Serva, L.; Giuliani

    1995-01-01

    Following the request of the Czech Power Board (CEZ) and within the scope of the Technical Cooperation Project CZR/9/003, a progress review of the site safety of the Spent Fuel Central Interim Storage Facility (SFCISF) was performed. The review involved the first two stages of the works comprising the regional survey and identification of candidate sites for the underground and surface storage options. Five sites have been identified as a result of the previous works. The following two stages will involved the identification of the preferred candidate sites for the two options and the final site qualification. The present review had the purpose of assessing the work already performed and making recommendations for the next two stages of works

  16. The impact of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on a municipality's image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Haapavaara, L.; Lampinen, T.

    1999-02-01

    The study comprised on one hand a nationwide telephone interview (totally 800 interviews) aimed at mapping out the current image of possible host municipalities to a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel, and on the other hand some group interviews of people of another parish but of interest from the municipalities' point of view. The purpose of these group interviews was the same as that of the telephone interview, i.e. to find out what kind of an impact locating a final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel in a certain municipality would have on the host municipality's image. Because the groups interviewed were selected on different grounds the results of the interviews are not fully comparable. The most important result of the study is that the current attitude towards a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is calm and collected and that the matter is often considered from the standpoint of an outsider. The issue is easily ignored, classified as a matter 'which does not concern me', provided that the facility will not be placed too near one's own home. Among those interviewed the subject seemed not to be of any 'great interest and did not arouse spontaneous feelings for or against'. There are, however, deeply rooted beliefs concerning the facility and quite strong negative and positive attitudes towards it. The facility itself and the associated decision-making procedure arouse many questions, which at present to a large extent are still unexpressed because the subject is considered so remote. It is, however, necessary to give concrete answers to the questions because this makes it possible for people to relate the issue to daily life. It is further important that things arousing fear and doubts also can be discussed because a silence in this respect only emphasizes their importance. The attitude towards the facility is varying. On one hand there are economic and technical factors: the probable economic benefit from it, the obligation to

  17. Prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment: Phase 2, Final design report: Volume 1, Detailed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissell, W.H.; Ciez, A.P.; Goedicke, F.E.; Bessko, C.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Final Design for the Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project. This design represents a fully qualified, licensable, cost effective spent fuel rod consolidation system. As a result of significant concerns raised by DOE and its Technical Review Committee during the 30% Design Review, significant changes were made to the original Preliminary Design resulting from Phase I activities. These changes focused on increased automation, end fitting removal, the rod pulling process and the need to maintain the consolidation canisters as clean as possible. As a result of these changes, the new system is greatly enhanced with a much greater probability of meeting or exceeding the project functional requirements. As a result of delays in resolving cost and contractual differences, additional bench testing was not conducted during Phase II. It is however our belief that the current design exceeds the 90% confidence level required by DOE because of the confidence gained from the Phase I tests, the additional engineering detail completed and the fact that our rod pulling tool has been demonstrated in a similar application at Oconee while our ID tube cutter is a modified (mounting method only) off-the-shelf design. 7 refs., 49 figs., 36 tabs

  18. Final Report. Fumex-III. Improvement of Models Used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulacsy, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    The FUMEX-III coordinated research programme organised by the IAEA was the first FUMEX exercise in which AEKI (Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute) took part with the partial support of Paks NPP. The aim of the participation was to test the code FUROM developed at AEKI against not only measurements but also other fuel behaviour simulation codes, to share and discuss modelling experience and issues, and to establish acquaintance with fuel modellers in other countries. Among the numerous cases proposed for the programme, AEKI chose to simulate normal operation up to high burn-up and ramp tests, with special interest in VVER rods and PWR rods with annular pellets. The US PWR 16x16, the SPC RE GINNA, the Kola3-MIR, the IFA-519.9 cases and the AREVA idealised rod were thus selected. The present Final Report gives a short description of the FUROM models relevant to the selected cases, presents the results for the 5 cases and summarises the conclusions of the FUMEX-III programme. The input parameters used for the simulations can be found in the Appendix at the end of the Report. Observations concerning the IFPE datasets are collected for each dataset in their respective Sections for possible use in the IFPE database. (author)

  19. Closing the gap between spent fuel storage and final disposal in a multinational management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredell, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a multinational spent fuel management concept is proposed. The management concept is based on a service agreement between countries, which intend participating in a common spent fuel (SNF) management venture. Accordingly, one of the participants in this venture would act as the hosting country, while the others fulfil the role of customer countries. The hosting country would agree to accept SNF from customer countries under specific conditions, as required by the service agreement. The service agreement should cover a sufficient number of options that customers can use, such as storage, reprocessing or disposal. The service offering should be flexible enough to accommodate diverse customer requirements. Typically, the first step in the multinational management process is the storage of the SNF delivered to the hosting country. The final step being the disposal of the material in a deep geologic repository. This paper explores the ways and means of closing the gap between the first and last steps in the management process. (author)

  20. Life cycle assessment of geological repositories for the final disposal of spent fuel in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhrer, A.; Bauer, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the geological repositories for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. A separate LCA has been performed for the geological spent fuel repository in each country and the results have been compared. A further benchmark comparison has been made with the LCA of the Swiss geological repository for high-level waste and spent fuel. The life cycle inventory (LCI) product system boundaries include the spent fuel repository and encapsulation facility in each country. All materials, processes, consumed utilities and transport associated with the construction, operation and closure of the repositories for spent fuel are included in the LCI. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is performed using two methods: IPCC 2007 Climate Change and ReCiPe. These assessment methods return results pertaining to global warming potential (GWP) as well as a number of environmental impact categories such as human toxicity and natural land transformation. Results indicate that the use of copper for disposal canister fabrication and bentonite for repository backfilling are the causes for most of the environmental impact of the spent fuel repositories in Finland and Sweden. Alternate, less bentonite-intensive backfilling scenarios may mitigate this impact. While the Swiss bentonite consumption is lower and no copper is used for canister fabrication, the Swiss electricity and fuel consumption associated with final disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel is significantly higher than in Finland or Sweden. Approximately 1 g CO 2 -eq is emitted due to the final disposal of spent fuel and HLW per kWh of nuclear generated electricity. This represents some 10% of the emissions due to the entire nuclear energy chain and is practically negligible in the context of GHG emissions of other energy technologies. (authors)

  1. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  2. About Economy of Fuel at Thermal Power Stations due to Optimization of Utilization Diagram of Power-Generating Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Svechko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of rational fuel utilization becomes more and more significant especially for thermal power stations (TPS. Thermal power stations have complicated starting-up diagrams and utilization modes of their technological equipment. Method of diagram optimization of TPS equipment utilization modes has been developed. The method is based on computer analytical model with application of spline-approximation of power equipment characteristics. The method allows to economize fuel consumption at a rate of 15-20 % with accuracy of the predicted calculation not more than 0.25 %.

  3. Political economy of low sulfurization and air pollution control policy in Japan : SOx emission reduction by fuel conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Terao, Tadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the early stages of the development of Japan’s environmental policy, sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions, which seriously damage health, was the most important air pollution problem. In the second half of the 1960s and the first half of the 1970s, the measures against SOx emissions progressed quickly, and these emissions were reduced drastically. The most important factor of the reduction was the conversion to a low-sulfur fuel for large-scale fuel users, such as the electric power industry. Howe...

  4. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel - the role of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Marie; Lindfors, Virpi; Andersson Oehrn, Barbro; Alm, Bertil; Soederblom, Anna-Lena; Berggren, Marie; Lindfors, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden there is a long tradition of local self-government which is enshrined within the Swedish constitution, and the municipalities are responsible for matters relating to its inhabitants and their immediate environment. The municipality of Oesthammar has been engaged in the project of final repository for spent nuclear fuel since 1995 and by that time a consultative committee was established with representatives from all the political parties within the municipality and neighbouring municipalities. Future potentials as well as threats must be considered when making decisions on the most favourable site and the method used for the disposal of nuclear waste, and the application from SKB, as well as the review by the authorities, must stand up to a number of public demands. The work has included several stages of decisions for the municipality, due to the site selection process for SKB. The dialogue between the municipality and SKB as well as between the municipality and the authorities has been of great importance for getting the stepwise decision making process that has become practice in this question. The municipality has intensively followed the process concerning establishment of a final repository through consultation meetings, by being observer on meetings between SKB and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), seminars, statements, etc. The openness and transparency throughout the process has been essential between all actors. However, if the municipalities have a right of absolute veto, the government still can say yes even if the municipality has said no

  5. Fuel dynamics loss-of-flow test L3. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.K.; Lo, R.K.; Barts, E.W.

    1976-06-01

    The behavior of FTR-type, mixed-oxide, preirradiated, ''intermediate-power-structure'' fuel during a simulation of an FTR loss-of-flow accident was studied in the Mark-IIA integral TREAT loop. Analysis of the data reported here leads to a postulated scenario (sequence and timing) of events in the test. This scenario is presented, together with the calculated timing of events obtained by use of the SAS code. The initial fuel motion, starting during the preheat phase, consisted of coherent motion of the entire intact fuel bundle toward the pump. Incoherence developed as temperature rose. The fuel motion was mostly upward, and the greatest was in the top third of the fuel column. Fuel fragments formed against the pump side of the fluted tube near the original fuel midplane. A penetration of fluted tube occurred. A sudden voiding of the central region of the fuel column occurred at 29.75 s and was largely completed within 150 ms. The lower steel blockage of the fuel elements occurred in the vicinity of the lower insulator pellets. The upper steel blockage just above the tops of the original fuel pins appeared to have channels through it. Cladding and spacer wires melted away in the fuel section. Fuel pellets were only evident at and above the top and at the bottom of the original fuel column, where a large mass of melted fuel was present. Over the length of the fuel column, most of the fluted tube had melted away

  6. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  7. Lessons learned in demonstration projects regarding operational safety during final disposal of vitrified waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, Wolfgang; Herold, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes the lessons learned in demonstration projects regarding operational safety during the final disposal of vitrified waste and spent fuel. The three demonstration projects for the direct disposal of vitrified waste and spent fuel are described. The first two demonstration projects concern the shaft transport of heavy payloads of up to 85 t and the emplacement operations in the mine. The third demonstration project concerns the borehole emplacement operation. Finally, open issues for the next steps up to licensing of the emplacement and disposal systems are summarized.

  8. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  9. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples.

  10. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  11. Symposium on hydrogen technology and fuel cells - opportunities for the economy; Symposium Wassertechnologie und Brennstoffzellen - Chancen fuer die Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This volume contains 17 contributions on fuel cell technology and on the infrastructure required for hydrogen production and supply, in the form of abstracts and short reports. [German] Dieser Band enthaelt 17 Beitraege zum Themenkreis Brennstoffzellentechnologie und die dazu erforderliche Infrastruktur fuer die Wasserstofferzeugung und -versorgung in Form von Kurzfassungen und Vortragsfolien.

  12. Development of CANFLEX fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Hwang, Woan; Jeong, Young Hwan

    1991-12-01

    This research project is underway in cooperation with AECL to develop the CANDU advanced fuel bundle(so-called CANFLEX) which can enhance reactor safety and fuel economy in comparison with the current CANDU fuel and which can be used with natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium and other advanced fuel cycle. As the final schedule, the advanced fuel will be verified by carrying out a large scale demonstration of the bundle irradiation in a commercial CANDU reactors for 1996 and 1997, and consequently will be used in the existing and future reactors in Korea. The research activities during this year include the basic design of CANFLEX fuel with slightly enriched uranium(CANFLEX-SEU), with emphasis on the extension of fuel operation limit. Based on this basic design, CANFLEX fuel was mocked up. Out-of-pile hydraulic scoping tests were conducted with the fuel. (Author)

  13. Freeze-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor Fuels. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegst, Ulrike G.K.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced fuel forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor fuel or recycle of fuel from a fast burner reactor. Fuel for burner reactors requires novel fuel types based on new materials and designs that can achieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greater margins to fuel melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved fuel performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a well-defined placement of the fuel into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET fuels.

  14. Freeze-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor Fuels. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, Ulrike G.K. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Allen, Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced fuel forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor fuel or recycle of fuel from a fast burner reactor. Fuel for burner reactors requires novel fuel types based on new materials and designs that can achieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greater margins to fuel melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved fuel performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a well-defined placement of the fuel into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET fuels.

  15. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  16. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500 C to 600 C) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: (1) Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion - Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment - Extrusion database on DU metal - Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys - Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys - Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals (2) Low-temperature sintering of U alloys - Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment - Sintering database on DU metal - Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys - Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the

  17. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  18. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  19. Impact on vehicle fuel economy of the soot loading on diesel particulate filters made of different substrate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millo, Federico; Andreata, Maurizio; Rafigh, Mahsa; Mercuri, Davide; Pozzi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Wall flow DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters) are nowadays universally adopted for all European passenger cars. Since the properties of the filter substrate material play a fundamental role in determining the optimal soot loading level to be reached before DPF regeneration, three different filter material substrates (Silicon Carbide, Aluminum Titanate and Cordierite) were investigated in this work, considering different driving conditions, after treatment layouts and regeneration strategies. In the first step of the research, an experimental investigation on the three different substrates over the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) was performed. The data obtained from experiments were then used for the calibration and the validation of a one dimensional fluid-dynamic engine and after treatment simulation model. Afterward, the model was used to predict the vehicle fuel consumption increments as a function of the exhaust back pressure due to the soot loading for different driving cycles. The results showed that appreciable fuel consumption increments could be noticed only in particular driving conditions, and, as a consequence, in most of the cases the optimal filter regeneration strategy corresponds to reach the highest soot loading that still ensures the component safety even in case of uncontrolled regeneration events. - Highlights: • Three different substrate materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter were investigated. • Fuel consumption increases due to DPF soot loading were generally not appreciable. • Optimal soot loading before regeneration was the highest safeguarding DPF integrity. • SiC substrate showed highest soot load limit and lowest fuel consumption penalties. • AT and Cd substrate properties lead to lower soot load limits than SiC

  20. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options

  1. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-25

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options.

  2. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  3. Gas-cooled fast reactor fuel-cost assessment. Final report, October 1978-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    This program, contracted to provide a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment, comprised the following basic activities: establish agreement on the ground rules for cost assessment, prepare a fuel factory flow sheet, and prepare a cost assessment for fuel assembly fabrication. Two factory sizes, 250 and 25 MTHM/year, were considered for fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment. The work on this program involved utilizing GE LMFBR cost assessment and fuel factory studies experience to provide a cost assessment of GCFR fuel assembly fabrication. The recent impact of highly sensitive safety and safeguards environment policies on fuel factory containment, safety, quality assurance and safeguards costs are significantly higher than might have been expected just a few years ago. Fuel assembly fabrication costs are significant because they represent an estimated 30 to 60% of the total fuel cycle costs. In light of the relative high cost of fabrication, changes in the core and assembly design may be necessary in order to enhance the overall fuel cycle economics. Fabrication costs are based on similar operations and experience used in other fuel cycle studies. Because of extrapolation of present technology (e.g., remote fuel fabrication versus present contact fabrication) and regulatory requirements, conservative cost estimates were made.

  4. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

  5. My 2030s. Citizens about the Biobased Economy; My 2030s. Burgers over de Biobased Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, N.; Hulshof, M.; Van der Veen, M.

    2013-02-15

    My 2030s is the first qualitative study of the needs and concerns of citizens about the Biobased Economy, an economy in which fossil fuels are largely substituted by vegetable alternatives. This final report describes the reason and purpose of My 2030s, the course of the public debates and the results of research into ideas of citizens on the Biobased Economy The report concludes with recommendations on how the stakeholders can actively involve citizens in one of the major transitions of the next century [Dutch] My 2030s is het eerste kwalitatieve onderzoek naar de wensen en zorgen van burgers over de Biobased Economy, een economie waarin fossiele grondstoffen grotendeels zijn vervangen door plantaardige alternatieven. Dit eindrapport beschrijft de aanleiding en opzet van My 2030s, het verloop van de publieksdebatten en de resultaten van het onderzoek naar denkbeelden van burgers over de Biobased Economy. Het rapport eindigt met aanbevelingen over hoe de stakeholders burgers actief kunnen betrekken bij een van de belangrijkste transities van de komende eeuw.

  6. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel-equipment for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.; Hansson, K.; Johansson, B.E.; Nilsson, G.; Andersson, O.; Wikberg, P.; Aahagen, H.

    1983-05-01

    The suitability of a certain geological formation as a repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel can be determined only after detailed investigation and analysis. The purpose of the investigations is to provide information on the geology and the hydrology and chemistry of the site concerned. The value of these data largely depends on the way in which they have been collected. The report of the findings should enable the investigating party to evaluate the function and the accuracy of the equipment with which field data have been collected for KBS 3. This report describes the geophysical equipment, the hydraulic testing equipment, the water chemistry sample extracting equipment and the core-logging equipment used. The objectives of the instrument development have been: - to obtain a high data quality. - to collect data automatically in logs and tape recorders for direct transfer to a central processing unit. - to provide back-up in order to counteract loss of data. - to make instrument more efficient. (author)

  7. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  8. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ionel HRETCANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss various aspects of the current economy known as the knowledge economy. Also we will review two indicators of this new economy, because these indicators presents a general plan on access, use and degree of diffusion of knowledge. Then, based on these indicators and taking into account other aspects, we outline the structure relations between "new economy" and "digital economy". Finally we present the main types of business existing in the digital economy.

  9. Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory HEU fuel shipment summary. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In November 1988, OSURR converted from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. As a result they needed to get rid of their HEU fuel by shipping it to Savannah River. The players in the fuel shipping game are: OSURR as the keeper of the fuel; DOE as the owner of fuel and shipper of record; Tri-State Motor Transit Co. for transporting the cask; Muth Brothers as the rigger responsible for getting the cask on and off the truck and in and out of the building; Hoffman LaRoche/Cintichem as the owner of the cask; Savannah River as the receiver of the fuel; and the NRC for approval of the Security Plan, QA Plan, etc. This report gives a chronological history of the events from February 1989 to June 1, 1995, the actual day of shipment. The cask was received at Savannah River on June 2, 1995

  10. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time

  11. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  12. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  13. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  14. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  15. Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    As storage of spent fuel has become a key technology in spent fuel management, wet and dry storage have become mature technologies and continue to demonstrate good performance. Increased spent fuel storage capacity in combination with longer storage durations will be needed over the foreseeable future as many countries have delayed their decision on spent fuel disposal or reprocessing. Extended spent fuel storage is, and will remain, an important activity for all countries with nuclear power programmes. A number of countries are planning or have already initiated research programmes on spent fuel storage performance, and there is a continuing benefit in exchanging spent fuel storage experience of the Member States in order to build a comprehensive technology knowledge base. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during wet storage are uniform corrosion, pitting, galvanic, and microbiologically-influenced corrosion. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during dry storage and subsequent handling and transportation operations are air oxidation, thermal creep, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride re-orientation, hydrogen migration and re-distribution. Investigations carried out so far indicate that from the degradation mechanisms that may affect the integrity of spent fuel assembly/bundle structure during interim storage, hydride re-orientation has the potential to impair the ability of the cladding to effectively withstand potentially adverse mechanical challenges resulting from handling or transportation accidents. Fuel integrity issues are related to the definition and criteria of fuel integrity, failure classification, packaging and retrieval of damaged fuel and transport of damaged fuel assemblies. Various monitoring technologies have been developed and used to confirm the continued spent fuel integrity during storage or to provide an early indication of developing

  16. Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    As storage of spent fuel has become a key technology in spent fuel management, wet and dry storage have become mature technologies and continue to demonstrate good performance. Increased spent fuel storage capacity in combination with longer storage durations will be needed over the foreseeable future as many countries have delayed their decision on spent fuel disposal or reprocessing. Extended spent fuel storage is, and will remain, an important activity for all countries with nuclear power programmes. A number of countries are planning or have already initiated research programmes on spent fuel storage performance, and there is a continuing benefit in exchanging spent fuel storage experience of the Member States in order to build a comprehensive technology knowledge base. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during wet storage are uniform corrosion, pitting, galvanic, and microbiologically-influenced corrosion. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during dry storage and subsequent handling and transportation operations are air oxidation, thermal creep, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride re-orientation, hydrogen migration and re-distribution. Investigations carried out so far indicate that from the degradation mechanisms that may affect the integrity of spent fuel assembly/bundle structure during interim storage, hydride re-orientation has the potential to impair the ability of the cladding to effectively withstand potentially adverse mechanical challenges resulting from handling or transportation accidents. Fuel integrity issues are related to the definition and criteria of fuel integrity, failure classification, packaging and retrieval of damaged fuel and transport of damaged fuel assemblies. Various monitoring technologies have been developed and used to confirm the continued spent fuel integrity during storage or to provide an early indication of developing

  17. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-01-01

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training

  18. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P; Nylund, N O [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  19. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-08-24

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.

  20. Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more

  1. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    not be less then two hundred GW. Therefore the burner segment of the projected syste ms should also have significant capacity. Consequently it will lead to the flexible fuel cycle and to the keeping of the breeding options. Concept of nuclide economy gives understanding of real motivation that lied in the basis of one or other innovative proposals. By another words it is only tool for cross-disciplinary systematic study of innovative technologies. (authors)

  2. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    DOE is responsible for the safe and efficient management of its sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. This fuel contains metallic sodium, a highly reactive material; metallic uranium, which is also reactive; and in some cases, highly enriched uranium. The presence of reactive materials could complicate the process of qualifying and licensing DOE's sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel inventory for disposal in a geologic repository. Currently, more than 98 percent of this inventory is located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), near Idaho Falls, Idaho. In addition, in a 1995 agreement with the State of Idaho, DOE committed to remove all spent nuclear fuel from Idaho by 2035. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with the treatment and management of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel in one or more facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) at INEEL and either the F-Canyon or Building 105-L at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE has identified and assessed six proposed action alternatives in this EIS. These are: (1) electrometallurgical treatment of all fuel at ANL-W, (2) direct disposal of blanket fuel in high-integrity cans with the sodium removed at ANL-W, (3) plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) processing of blanket fuel at SRS, (4) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at ANL-W, (5) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at SRS, and (6) melt and dilute processing of all fuel at ANL-W. In addition, Alternatives 2 through 5 include the electrometallurgical treatment of driver fuel at ANL-W. Under the No Action Alternative, the EIS evaluates both the continued storage of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel until the development of a new treatment technology or direct disposal without treatment. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of spent nuclear fuel treatment facilities. Analyses indicate

  3. Conditioning of spent fuel for interim and final storage in the pilot conditioning plant (PKA) at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahr, H.; Willax, H.O.; Spilker, H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, due to the change of the nuclear law in Germany, the concept of direct final disposal for spent fuel was developed as an equivalent alternative to the waste management with reprocessing. Since 1979, tests for the direct final disposal of spent fuel have been conducted in Germany. In 1985, the State and the utilities came to an agreement to develop this concept of waste management to technical maturity. Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS) was commissioned by the utilities with the following tasks: to develop and test components with regard to conditioning technology, to construct and operate the pilot conditioning plant (PKA), and to develop casks suitable for final disposal. Since 1990, the construction of the PKA has taken place at the Brennelementlager Gorleben site. The PKA has been designed as a multipurpose facility and can thus fulfil various tasks within the framework of the conditioning and management of spent fuel assemblies and radioactive waste. The pilot character of the plant allows for development and testing in the field of spent fuel assembly conditioning. The objectives of the PKA may be summarized as follows: to condition spent fuel assemblies, to reload spent fuel assemblies and waste packages, to condition radioactive waste, and to do maintenance work on transport and storage casks as well as on waste packages. Currently, the buildings of the PKA are constructed and the technical facilities are installed. The plant will be ready for service in the middle of 1999. It is the first plant of its kind in the world. (author)

  4. The evaluation of the use of metal alloy fuels in pressurized water reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, D.

    1992-10-26

    The use of metal alloy fuels in a PWR was investigated. It was found that it would be feasible and competitive to design PWRs with metal alloy fuels but that there seemed to be no significant benefits. The new technology would carry with it added economic uncertainty and since no large benefits were found it was determined that metal alloy fuels are not recommended. Initially, a benefit was found for metal alloy fuels but when the oxide core was equally optimized the benefit faded. On review of the optimization of the current generation of ``advanced reactors,`` it became clear that reactor design optimization has been under emphasized. Current ``advanced reactors`` are severely constrained. The AP-600 required the use of a fuel design from the 1970`s. In order to find the best metal alloy fuel design, core optimization became a central effort. This work is ongoing.

  5. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  6. Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Molter

    2012-08-18

    This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

  7. Potential health and environmental impacts attributable to the nuclear and coal fuel cycles: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the nuclear and coal fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation during the next decade. The author concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel fycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public for the balance of this century. The potential for large impacts exists in both fuel cycles, but the potential impacts associated with a runaway Greenhouse Effect from combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, cannot yet be reasonably quantified. Some of the potential environmental impacts of the coal fuel cycle cannot currently be realistically estimated, but those that can appear greater than those from the nuclear fuel cycle. 103 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  8. Supply Chain Based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion: Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Earl, Dennis Duncan [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL; McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Connatser, Raynella M [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a proof-of-concept (POC) system for preventing non-taxable (non-highway diesel use) or low-taxable (jet fuel) petrochemical products from being blended with taxable fuel products and preventing taxable fuel products from cross-jurisdiction evasion. The research worked to fill the need to validate the legitimacy of individual loads, offloads, and movements by integrating and validating, on a near-real-time basis, information from global positioning system (GPS), valve sensors, level sensors, and fuel-marker sensors.

  9. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  10. Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity in particular for BWR's, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWR's and BWR's without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWR's and BWR's were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density ? on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWR's more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fueled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ∼2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is

  11. Drilling of deep boreholes and associated geological investigations. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.

    1983-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 metres in the winter of 1984. The choice of drilling method and equipment depends on the geological circumstances and the target of the investigation. The most common drilling methods used with the investigations of nuclear waste disposal are diamond core drilling and percussion drilling. The Precambrian bedrock outcropping in Finland exists also in Sweden and Canada, where deep boreholes have been done down to more than 1000 metres using diamond core drilling. This method can be also used in Finland and equipment for the drilling are available. One of the main targets of the investigation is to clarify the true strike and dip of fractures and other discontinuities. The methods used abroad are taking of oriented cores, borehole television survey and geophysical measurements. TV-survey and geophysical methods seem to be most favourable in deep boreholes. Also the accurate position (inclination, bearing) of the borehole is essential to know and many techniques are used for measuring of it. Investigations performed on the core samples include core logging and laboratory tests. For the core logging there is no uniform practice concerning the nuclear waste investigations. Different counries use their own classifications. All of these, however, are based on the petrography and fracture properties of the rock samples. Laboratory tests (petrographical and rock mechanical tests) are generally performed according to the recommendations of international standards. The large volumes of data obtained during investigations require computer techniques which allow more comprehensive collection, storage and processing of data. This kind of systems are already used in Sweden and Canada, for instance, and they could be utilize in Finland

  12. Detailed site characterization for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland - Case study Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.; Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Hinkkanen, H.; Rouhiainen, P.; Oehberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Pos iva Oy is responsible for the site selection programme carried out in accordance with the governmental decisions. Preliminary site investigations were made in five areas in 1987-1992. Based on the results, three areas, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, were selected for the detailed site characterization in 1993-2000. The final site will be selected by the end of the year 2000. The interim reporting of the detailed studies of the three areas was made in 1996. In 1997, the island of Haestholmen, as the host to the Loviisa NPP, was included as a fourth candidate site in the programme for the detailed site investigations. The goal is to characterize this site also in detail by the end of 2000 to attain the same level of knowledge as available from the three other sites. The background information existing from the studies made for the construction of the repository for the low-and intermediate-level wastes will create a good basis to reach the target. The research programme for the detailed site characterization has mainly been focused on groundwater flow and geochemistry due to their importance in terms of long-term safety of the repository. Equipment and methodology development by Posiva has introduced new tools that provide more accurate data on relevant parameters than the ones used in previous stages of site characterization. The programme also contains studies for additional information of the structural and geological properties of the bedrock towards the depth. Also predictive modelling has been made for evaluating the relevance of the assumptions made. The methods applied in the site characterization have comprised, e.g., geological mapping, deep core drilling, groundwater sampling and analyzing, hydraulic testing and geophysical measurements

  13. Detailed site characterization for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland - Case study Loviisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd. (Finland); Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy (Finland); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J. [Vibrometric Oy (Finland); Hinkkanen, H. [Posiva Oy (Finland); Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy (Finland); Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers (Finland)

    1998-09-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Pos iva Oy is responsible for the site selection programme carried out in accordance with the governmental decisions. Preliminary site investigations were made in five areas in 1987-1992. Based on the results, three areas, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, were selected for the detailed site characterization in 1993-2000. The final site will be selected by the end of the year 2000. The interim reporting of the detailed studies of the three areas was made in 1996. In 1997, the island of Haestholmen, as the host to the Loviisa NPP, was included as a fourth candidate site in the programme for the detailed site investigations. The goal is to characterize this site also in detail by the end of 2000 to attain the same level of knowledge as available from the three other sites. The background information existing from the studies made for the construction of the repository for the low-and intermediate-level wastes will create a good basis to reach the target. The research programme for the detailed site characterization has mainly been focused on groundwater flow and geochemistry due to their importance in terms of long-term safety of the repository. Equipment and methodology development by Posiva has introduced new tools that provide more accurate data on relevant parameters than the ones used in previous stages of site characterization. The programme also contains studies for additional information of the structural and geological properties of the bedrock towards the depth. Also predictive modelling has been made for evaluating the relevance of the assumptions made. The methods applied in the site characterization have comprised, e.g., geological mapping, deep core drilling, groundwater sampling and analyzing, hydraulic testing and geophysical measurements 23 refs, 4 figs

  14. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  15. Fuel Testing for Sylvatex: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-16-636

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Jonathan L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-07

    Sylvatex is a green nano-chemistry company that has developed a platform technology utilizing renewable, non-toxic inputs to create a stable nanoparticle that can be used in multiple applications. Their mission is to increase the use of renewables globally, to empower a cleaner and healthier future. The main application is a fuel technology product - MicroX - that utilizes proprietary knowledge to scale low-cost, cleaner-burning renewable diesel fuel and additives by using a co-location commercial model. The aspects of this project will include testing of two Sylvatex MicroX fuels on an engine dynamometer platform. Industry standard ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) B3 fuel and a ULSD B20 will both be used for comparison of the Sylvatex fuels (U.S. standard diesel fuel at the pump contains an average of approximately 3% biodiesel; this is why B3 would be used as a baseline comparison). Sylvatex is currently using a prototype formulation (MicroX 1) that applies a high cost surfactant. An experimental formulation (MicroX 2) that uses lower cost materials is under development. The MicroX 1 will be blended at a 10% level into the B3 ULSD fuel and the MicroX 2 will be blended at a 10% level into both the B3 and the B20 ULSD fuels for study on the engine dynamometer test platform. All fuel blends will be tested over the FTP transient engine test cycle and a steady state ramped modal engine test cycle. Each test cycle will be performed a minimum of 3 times for each fuel. Tailpipe and/or engine out gaseous exhaust emissions (CO2, CO, NOx, THC, O2,), engine out PM emissions, and brake-specific fuel consumption rates will be evaluated for all test cycles.

  16. Final Report - Stationary and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Vince [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); George, Paul [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Eubanks, Fritz [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jansen, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Valluri, Manoj [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Mansouri, Mahan [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Swickrath, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is focused on providing a portfolio of technology solutions to meet energy security challenges of the future. Fuel cells are a part of this portfolio of technology offerings. To help meet these challenges and supplement the understanding of the current research, Battelle has executed a five-year program that evaluated the total system costs and total ownership costs of two technologies: (1) an ~80 °C polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and (2) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, operating with hydrogen or reformate for different applications. Previous research conducted by Battelle, and more recently by other research institutes, suggests that fuel cells can offer customers significant fuel and emission savings along with other benefits compared to incumbent alternatives. For this project, Battelle has applied a proven cost assessment approach to assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program in making decisions regarding research and development, scale-up, and deployment of fuel cell technology. The cost studies and subsequent reports provide accurate projections of current system costs and the cost impact of state-of-the-art technologies in manufacturing, increases in production volume, and changes to system design on system cost and life cycle cost for several near-term and emerging fuel cell markets. The studies also provide information on types of manufacturing processes that must be developed to commercialize fuel cells and also provide insights into the optimization needed for use of off-the-shelf components in fuel cell systems. Battelle’s analysis is intended to help DOE prioritize investments in research and development of components to reduce the costs of fuel cell systems while considering systems optimization.

  17. Notice and Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final Renewable Fuel Standard Program from Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule finalizes the determination that canola oil biodiesel meets the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction threshold of 50 required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  18. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  19. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  20. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik; Lin, C. S.; Hader, J. S.; Park, T. K.; Deng, P.; Yang, G.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, T. K.; Stauff, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two ''two-stage'' fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  1. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lin, C. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hader, J. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Park, T. K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Deng, P. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Yang, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jung, Y. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stauff, N. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-30

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  2. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  3. East Germany's future energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjon, F; Zuehlke, R [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). FG Energie und Rohstoffwirtschaft

    1991-01-01

    Since unification, the former German Democratic Republic has had to face major changes, one of which concerns the energy supply system. A secure energy supply system is an absolute requirement for the political and economical development of this Republic. Its former strategy of 'autarkical' energy supply until the end of 1989 was one of the factors which led to an economic downfall. This essay gives an overview of the major structural changes to the economy which have occurred since unification. First, the former energy situation is described and the status quo analyzed. Then, efforts in reorganizing the present energy supply system are outlined. Finally, new perspectives and strategies are described. The aspects taken into consideration include: energy price deregulation; European fossil fuel marketing trends; investments for the build up of an efficient energy supply system; and the creation of surcharges for environmental pollution abatement, in particular, the reduction of carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions.

  4. Future combustion technology for synthetic and renewable fuels in compression ignition engines (REFUEL). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakko-Saksa, P.; Brink, A.; Happonen, M. [and others

    2012-07-01

    This domestic project, Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (ReFuel), was part of a Collaborative Task 'Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Transport' of International Energy Agency (IEA) Combustion Agreement. This international Collaborative Task is coordinated by Finland. The three-year (2009-2011) prooject was a joint research project with Aalto University (Aalto), Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Aabo Akademi University (AAU). The project was funded by TEKES, Waertsilae Oyj, Agro Sisu Power, Aker Arctic Technology Oy and the research partners listed above. Modern renewable diesel fuels have excellent physical and chemical properties, in comparison to traditional crude oil based fuels. Purely paraffinic fuels do not contain aromatic compounds and they are totally sulphur free. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) was studied as an example of paraffinic high cetane number (CN) diesel fuels. HVO has no storage and low temperature problems like the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) have. The combustion properties are better than those of crude oil based fuels and FAME, because they have very high cetane numbers and contain no polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). With low HVO density, viscosity and distillation temperatures, these advantageous properties allow far more advanced combustion strategies, such as very high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates or extreme Miller timings, than has been possible with current fossil fuels. The implementation of these advanced combustion technologies, together with the novel renewable diesel fuel, brought significant nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), particulate matter (PM) emission reductions with no efficiency losses. (orig.)

  5. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  6. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-liquid fuels - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Buesser, S.; Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This study elaborates a life cycle assessment of using of BTL-fuels (biomass-to-liquid). This type of fuel is produced in synthesis process from e.g. wood, straw or other biomass. The life cycle inventory data of the fuel provision with different types of conversion concepts are based on the detailed life cycle assessment compiled and published within a European research project. The inventory of the fuel use emissions is based on information published by automobile manufacturers on reductions due to the use of BTL-fuels. Passenger cars fulfilling the EURO3 emission standards are the basis for the comparison. The life cycle inventories of the use of BTL-fuels for driving in passenger cars are investigated from cradle to grave. The full life cycle is investigated with the transportation of one person over one kilometre (pkm) as a functional unit. This includes all stages of the life cycle of a fuel (biomass and fuel production, distribution, combustion) and the necessary infrastructure (e.g. tractors, conversion plant, cars and streets). The use of biofuels is mainly promoted for the reason of reducing the climate change impact and the use of scarce non-renewable resources e.g. crude oil. The possible implementation of BTL-fuel production processes would potentially help to achieve this goal. The emissions of greenhouse gases due to transport services could be reduced by 28% to 69% with the BTL-processes using straw, forest wood or short-rotation wood as a biomass input. The reduction potential concerning non-renewable energy resources varies between 37% und 61%. A previous study showed that many biofuels cause higher environmental impacts than fossil fuels if several types of ecological problems are considered. The study uses two single score impact assessment methods for the evaluation of the overall environmental impacts, namely the Eco-indicator 99 (H,A) and the Swiss ecological scarcity 2006 method. The transportation with the best BTL-fuel from short

  7. Environmental implications of thorium use in selected nuclear fuel cycles. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, D.W.; Simmons, G.L.; Ziskind, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental implications of the nuclear fuel cycle associated with the highly enriched uranium concept of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor. Model fuel cycles were constructed for the HTGR and a reference light water reactor (LWR) cycle. Mass flows were developed, control technology cases proposed and costed, effluents determined, and population doses calculated. Emphasis was given to the intercomparison of the fuel cycles to delineate areas which show pronounced departure. The dose commitment received by the population both within and outside a radius of 50 miles of each facility was determined. The 100 year population dose commitments due to a single year's plant operation was selected to facilitate intercomparison among fuel cycle components. No account was taken for long term waste sources associated with the fuel cycle such as mill tailing piles or terminal waste storage (study groundrule). The resource utilization and radionuclide activity of various fuel cycle options for using thorium in a Pressurized Water Reactor were studied. These data were contrasted with similar results obtained for a uranium fuel PWR

  8. Determination and microscopic study of incipient defects in irradiated power reactor fuel rods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasupathi, V.; Perrin, J.S.; Roberts, E.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents the results of nondestructive and destructive examinations carried out on the Point Beach-1 (PWR) and Dresden-3 (BWR) candidate fuel rods selected for the study of pellet-clad interaction (PCI) induced incipient defects. In addition, the report includes results of examination of sections from Oskarshamn-1 (BWR) fuel rods. Eddy current examination of Point Beach-1 rods showed indications of possible incipient defects in the fuel rods. The profilometry and the gamma scan data also indicated that the source of the eddy current indications may be incipient defects. No failed rods or rods with incipient failure were found in the sample from Point Beach-1. Despite the lack of success in finding incipient defects and filed rods, the mechanism for fuel rod failures in Point Beach-1 is postulated to be PCI-related, with high startup rates and fuel handling being the key elements. Nine out of the 10 candidate fuel rods from Dresden-3 (BWR) were failed, and all the failed rods had leaked water so that the initial mechanism was observed. Examination of clad inner surfaces of the specimens from failed and unfailed rods showed fuel deposits of widely varying appearance. The deposits were found to contain uranium, cesium, and tellurium. Transmission electron microscopy of clad specimens showed evidence of microscopic strain. Metallographic examination of fuel pellets from the peak transient power location showed extensive grain boundary separation and axial movement of the fuel indicative of rapid release of fission products. Examination of Oskarshamn clad specimens did not show any stress corrosion crack (SCC) type defects. The defects found in the examinations appear to be related to secondary hydriding. The clad inner surface of the Oskarshamn specimens also showed uranium-rich deposits of varying features

  9. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  10. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  11. Safety research needs for carbide and nitride fueled LMFBR's. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study initiated at UCLA during the academic year 1974--1975 to evaluate and review the potential safety related research needs for carbide and nitride fueled LMFBR's are presented. The tasks included the following: (1) Review Core and primary system designs for any significant differences from oxide fueled reactors, (2) Review carbide (and nitride) fuel element irradiation behavior, (3) Review reactor behavior in postulated accidents, (4) Examine analytical methods of accident analysis to identify major gaps in models and data, and (5) Examine post accident heat removal. (TSS)

  12. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    International Energy Associates Limited undertook this study on behalf of Sweden's National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The purpose of the project was to compare the programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the Uinted States. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I consists of detailed country-specific reports on the policies, regulations, and strategies for spent fuel and high-level waste management in each of the eight countries

  13. High Performance Fuel Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The High Performance Fuel Laboratory (HPFL) will provide pilot scale tests of manufacturing processes, equipment, and handling systems and of accountability and safeguards, methods, and equipment while keeping radiological and chemical exposures of the workers, public, and environment at the lowest practicable levels. The experience gained from designing, constructing and operating the HPFL can be used in future commitments to commercial fuel fabrication plants in the late 1980s and beyond for processing of nuclear fuel. The HPFL site is located in the 400 Area of the 559-square mile, federally owned Hanford Reservation. This environmental impact statement considers effects of the HPFL under normal conditions and in the event of an accident

  14. Final Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowsell, David Leon [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and fuel element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move fuel elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.

  15. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel Comprehensive Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This report serves as a comprehensive overview of the Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel work performed for the Material Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies campaign under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes a signature based on the source and fissile material distribution found within a population of used fuel assemblies combined with the neutron absorbers found within cask design that is unique to a specific cask with its specific arrangement of fuel. The paper describes all the steps used in producing and analyzing this signature from the beginning to the project end.

  16. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Comment letters on draft statements and major comments with DOE responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Notice of availability of the draft environmental impact statement for storage of US spent power reactor fuel was published by DOE in the Federal Register on September 6, 1978. A subsequent notice was published in the Federal Register on December 14, 1978, on the availability of the draft EISs on storage of foreign fuel, on charge for spent fuel storage, and a supplement to the draft EIS on storage of US fuel. Copies of the draft EISs were distributed for review and comment by appropriate Federal agencies, state governments, and other organizations and individuals who were known to have an interest in spent fuel storage activities and those who requested them. Comments and views concerning the draft EISs were requested from other interested agencies, organizations, and individuals by means of the Federal Register notices. Approximately 1600 copies each of the draft Domestic, Foreign, and Charge EISs were distributed for comment. The closing date for comments to be received on the draft EISs was February 15, 1979. Copies of the EISs (upon publication) and comment letters received were placed for public inspection in DOE public document rooms at 10 locations throughout the country. To the extent practicable, comments received after the closing date were also considered in the preparation of the final EIS. A total of 78 comment letters (some with supplements) were received. These comment letters are reproduced in their entirety in Section I of this volume. Approximately 600 specific comments were identified in these letters

  17. Department of the Navy final environmental impact statement for a container system for the management of naval spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) addresses six general alternative systems for the loading, storage, transport, and possible disposal of naval spent nuclear fuel following examination. This EIS describes environmental impacts of (1) producing and implementing the container systems (including those impacts resulting from the addition of the capability to load the containers covered in this EIS in dry fuel handling facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)); (2) loading of naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility or at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant with subsequent storage at INEL; (3) construction of a storage facility (such as a paved area) at alternative locations at INEL; and (4) loading of containers and their shipment to a geologic repository or to a centralized interim storage site outside the State of Idaho once one becomes available. As indicated in the EIS, the systems and facilities might also be used for handling low-level radiological waste categorized as special case waste. The Navy's preferred alternative for a container system for the management of naval spent fuel is a dual-purpose canister system. The primary benefits of a dual-purpose canister system are efficiencies in container manufacturing and fuel reloading operations, and potential reductions in radiation exposure

  18. Bioconversion of cellulose to liquid fuel (ethanol). Final report, Stage 2, 1983-06-30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B

    1983-01-01

    The process routes of the conversion have been investigated. The material which contains lignocellulose should be pretreated, and the separate processes are to be integrated. The price of raw materials and enzymes influences the process economy. The efficiency of biocatalysts on fermentation and saccharification are being studied and the reuse of enzymes is discussed. The process for the production of ethanol out of lignocellulose is shown to be very complicated. The optimization of the process will necessitate computerized simulation.

  19. Review of the KBS II plan for handling and final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Swedish utilities programme for disposal of spent nuclear fuel elements (KBS II) is summarized. Comments and criticism to the programme are given by experts from several foreign or international institutions. (L.E.)

  20. Fuel Rod Consolidation Project: Phase 2, Final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document, Volume 2, provides the appendices to Volume 1 of the Fuel Rod Consolidation Project. It provides information on the following: References; Trade-off Studies; Instrument List; RAM Data; Fabrication Specifications; Software Specifications; and Design Requirements

  1. SPEAR-BETA fuel-performance code system: fission-gas-release module. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The original SPEAR-BETA general description manual covers both mechanistic and statistical models for fuel reliability, but only mechanistic modeling of fission gas release. This addendum covers the SPEAR-BETA statistical model for fission gas release

  2. Final report for fuel acquisition and design of a fast subcritical blanket facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clikeman, F.M.; Ott, K.O.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of work leading to the design of a subcritical facility for the study of fast reactor blankets. Included are activities related to fuel acquisition, design of the facility, and experiment planning

  3. FFTF fuel failure detection and characterization by cover gas monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Holt, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will include a Fuel Failure Monitoring (FFM) System designed to detect, characterize, and locate fuel and absorber pin failures (i.e., cladding breaches) using a combination of delayed neutron detection, cover gas radioisotope monitoring, and gas tagging. During the past several years the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory has been involved in the development, design, procurement, and installation of this integrated system. The paper describes one portion of the FFM System, the Cover Gas Monitoring System (CGMS), which has the primary function of fuel failure detection and characterization in the FFTF. By monitoring the various radioisotopes in the cover gas, the CGMS will both detect fuel and absorber pin failures and characterize those failures as to magnitude and severity

  4. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  5. Development and Demonstration of Carbon Fuel Cell Final Report CRADA No. TC02091.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berner, J. K. [Contained Energy, Inc., Shaker Heights, OH (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Contained Energy, Inc. (CEI), to conduct necessary research and to develop, fabricate and test a multi-cell carbon fuel cell.

  6. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  7. Store and process for intermediate or final storage of used fuel elements from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The fuel elements are enclosed in boxes at the nuclear reactor and transported in these to the incoming station. Transport is a by truck, which makes it possible for the transport container to move in a vertical position, where the upper side is on the top side of the truck. The fuel elements in their boxes are handed over to a magazine there, which can be reached by a loading machine serving the storage room. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Evaluation of biodiesel fuel and oxidation catalyst in an underground metal mine : revised final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, W.F. Jr.; Spears, M.; Johnson, J. [Minnesota Univ., St. Paul, MN (United States); Birch, E.; Cantrell, B.K. [National Inst, for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, VW (United States); Grenier, M. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Walker, J. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Bagley, S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Maskery, D.; Stachulak, J.S.; Conard, B.R. [Inco Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-24

    The impact of blended biodiesel fuel and modern diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on air quality and diesel emissions were evaluated. The study was conducted in October 1997 at Inco's Creighton Mine in Sudbury, Ontario. The concentration of diesel particulate matter (DPM) and exhaust gas emissions in a non-producing test section were characterized. A diesel-powered scoop was operated on low sulfur, number 2 diesel fuel (D2) during the first week of the evaluation. The scoop was operated on 58 per cent (by mass) blend of soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel fuel and a low sulfur D2 during the second week. A pair of identical, advanced design DOC equipped the scoop. The changes in exhaust emissions and an estimation of the operating costs of a test vehicle fueled with blended biodiesel were determined and represented the objectives of the study. A summary of the data collected for the determination in the difference in gaseous and particulate matter concentrations attributable to the use of a blended biodiesel fuel and catalyst was presented. The Emissions Assisted Maintenance Procedure (EAMP) was used to determine the day-to-day variation in emissions. The DOCs performed as expected and there were no major changes in engine emissions. An increase in nitrogen dioxide concentrations was noted, and carbon monoxide was effectively removed. The combination of the blended biodiesel fuel and DOCs used in this study decreased total carbon emissions by approximately 21 per cent, as indicated by air samples collected in the test section. During both weeks, sulphur dioxide levels were low. In an underground mine, the use of biodiesel fuel un combination with DOCs represents a passive control option. Cost is an obstacle, biodiesel selling for 3.00 to 3.50 American dollars per gallon. It is estimated that using a 50 per cent blended biodiesel fuel would cost between 2.00 and 2.25 American dollars per gallon. 35 refs., 18 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Development of Techniques for Spent Fuel Assay - Differential Dieaway Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Goodsell, Alison; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Desimone, David J.; Rael, Carlos D.; Henzl, Vladimir; Polk, Paul John

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under a DNDO R&D funded project on the development of the differential dieaway method to measure plutonium in spent fuel. There are large amounts of plutonium that are contained in spent fuel assemblies, and currently there is no way to make quantitative non-destructive assay. This has led NA24 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a multi-year program to investigate, develop and implement measurement techniques for spent fuel. The techniques which are being experimentally tested by the existing NGSI project do not include any pulsed neutron active techniques. The present work covers the active neutron differential dieaway technique and has advanced the state of knowledge of this technique as well as produced a design for a practical active neutron interrogation instrument for spent fuel. Monte Carlo results from the NGSI effort show that much higher accuracy (1-2%) for the Pu content in spent fuel assemblies can be obtained with active neutron interrogation techniques than passive techniques, and this would allow their use for nuclear material accountancy independently of any information from the operator. The main purpose of this work was to develop an active neutron interrogation technique for spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  11. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-14

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  12. Engineering study: 105KE to 105KW Basin fuel and sludge transfer. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    In the last five years, there have been three periods at the 105KE fuel storage basin (KE Basin) where the reported drawdown test rates were in excess of 25 gph. Drawdown rates in excess of this amount have been used during past operations as the primary indicators of leaks in the basin. The latest leak occurred in March, 1993. The reported water loss from the KE Basin was estimated at 25 gph. This engineering study was performed to identify and recommend the most feasible and practical method of transferring canisters of irradiated fuel and basin sludge from the KE Basin to the 105KW fuel storage basin (KW Basin). Six alternatives were identified during the performance of this study as possible methods for transferring the fuel and sludge from the KE Basin to the KW Basin. These methods were then assessed with regard to operations, safety, radiation exposure, packaging, environmental concerns, waste management, cost, and schedule; and the most feasible and practical methods of transfer were identified. The methods examined in detail in this study were based on shipment without cooling water except where noted: Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system and water cooling; Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system (without water cooling); Transfer by truck using the K Area fuel transfer cask (K Area cask); Transfer by truck using a DOE shipping cask; Transfer by truck using a commercial shipping cask; and Transfer by truck using a new fuel shipping cask

  13. Final Report - Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); van der Vliet, Dennis [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); Cullen, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atanasoska, Ljiljana [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the fuel cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and fuel starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the fuel cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM fuel cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local fuel starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.

  14. Evaluation of spectral shift controlled reactors operating on the uranium fuel cycle. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Sider, F.M.

    1979-08-01

    The performance of the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) operating on uranium fuel cycles was evaluated and compared with the conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to analyze the SSCR, the PSR design methodology was extended to include systems moderated by mixtures of light water and heavy water and these methods were validated by comparison with experimental results. Once the design methods had been formulated, the resouce requirements and power costs were determined for the uranium-fueled SSCR. The ore requirements of the UO 2 once-through fuel cycle and the UO 2 fuel cycle with self-generated recycle (SGR) of plutonium were found to be 10% and 19% less than those of similarly fueled PWRs, respectively. A fuel cycle optimization study was performed for the UO 2 once-through SSCR and the SGR SSCR. By individually altering lattice parameters, discharge exposure or number of in-core batches, savings of less than 8% in resource requirements and less than 1% in power costs were obtained

  15. Development of Techniques for Spent Fuel Assay – Differential Dieaway Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodsell, Alison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Iliev, Metodi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rael, Carlos D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Polk, Paul John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-28

    This report summarizes the work done under a DNDO R&D funded project on the development of the differential dieaway method to measure plutonium in spent fuel. There are large amounts of plutonium that are contained in spent fuel assemblies, and currently there is no way to make quantitative non-destructive assay. This has led NA24 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a multi-year program to investigate, develop and implement measurement techniques for spent fuel. The techniques which are being experimentally tested by the existing NGSI project do not include any pulsed neutron active techniques. The present work covers the active neutron differential dieaway technique and has advanced the state of knowledge of this technique as well as produced a design for a practical active neutron interrogation instrument for spent fuel. Monte Carlo results from the NGSI effort show that much higher accuracy (1-2%) for the Pu content in spent fuel assemblies can be obtained with active neutron interrogation techniques than passive techniques, and this would allow their use for nuclear material accountancy independently of any information from the operator. The main purpose of this work was to develop an active neutron interrogation technique for spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  17. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  18. Rock quality designation of the hydraulic properties in the near field of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Hans; Carlsson, Leif; Pusch, Roland

    1989-06-01

    Quality assurance of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel requires detailed information on the characteristics of the rock, backfill, canisters and the waste itself. Furthermore, and of fundamental importance, is the knowledge of the behaviour of the integrated system of the waste and the different barriers. The in-situ characteristics of the rock must therefore be assessed and their influence on and interactions with the remaining barriers must be predicted and verified. A rock quality designation process of the hydraulic properties in the near-field is out-lined both for the KBS-3 system as well as for the WP-cave system. The process, once updated and approved, will be included in a Quality Assurance Program for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Some of the available methods for the near-field designation process are presented as well as techniques that need further development or are not developed at all. Finally, a presentation is given of a generic designation process of the KBS-3 and WP-cave repository systems in the previously investigated area in Central Sweden, where the final repository for reactor waste, SFR, is located. Geological and hydrogeological data are here at hand and it is therefore possible to carry out a simulation of how the designation process would be accomplished. (authors) (72 figs., 12 tabs., 43 refs.)

  19. An assessment of the use of tires as an alternative fuel : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, M.J.; Amyotte, P.R.; Fels, M.; Cumming, C.R.R.; Poushay, J.C. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Process Engineering and Applied Science

    2007-04-15

    This study examined the benefits of using scrap tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF) in industrial applications. The study was comprised of a literature review of emissions from TDF in cement plants; risk management frameworks for TDF applications; and a review of potential applications. The aim of the study was to consider a program for recycling waste tires in the province of Nova Scotia. In Canada, approximately 20 per cent of waste tires are used as TDF. The majority of TDF in Canada is used as a supplemental fuel in cement kilns. The fuel now has a number of potential industrial applications within the province of Nova Scotia in the pulp and paper industry as well as in generating stations. A review of reported emissions showed decreases in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) when tires were used as a supplementary fuel in industrial applications. However, carbon monoxide (CO) levels are typically higher when TDF fuels are used. Emission levels of dioxins and furans show wide variability. The study provided recommendations for future studies on dioxin and furan emissions, as well as a comprehensive testing program at a cement plant to determine stack emissions and off-site ground pollutant concentrations. Dispersion modelling and risk management assessments were also recommended. 59 refs., 19 tabs., 15 figs.

  20. An assessment of the use of tires as an alternative fuel : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, M.J.; Amyotte, P.R.; Fels, M.; Cumming, C.R.R.; Poushay, J.C.

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the benefits of using scrap tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF) in industrial applications. The study was comprised of a literature review of emissions from TDF in cement plants; risk management frameworks for TDF applications; and a review of potential applications. The aim of the study was to consider a program for recycling waste tires in the province of Nova Scotia. In Canada, approximately 20 per cent of waste tires are used as TDF. The majority of TDF in Canada is used as a supplemental fuel in cement kilns. The fuel now has a number of potential industrial applications within the province of Nova Scotia in the pulp and paper industry as well as in generating stations. A review of reported emissions showed decreases in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) when tires were used as a supplementary fuel in industrial applications. However, carbon monoxide (CO) levels are typically higher when TDF fuels are used. Emission levels of dioxins and furans show wide variability. The study provided recommendations for future studies on dioxin and furan emissions, as well as a comprehensive testing program at a cement plant to determine stack emissions and off-site ground pollutant concentrations. Dispersion modelling and risk management assessments were also recommended. 59 refs., 19 tabs., 15 figs

  1. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  2. Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczak, F.

    1998-03-01

    Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

  3. Ohio's First Ethanol-Fueled Light-Duty Fleet: Final Study Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1998-10-01

    In 1996, the State of Ohio established a project to demonstrate the use of an ethanol blend (E85, which is 85% transportation-grade ethanol and 15% gasoline) as a transportation fuel in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The study included ten FFVs and three gasoline vehicles (used as control vehicles) operated by five state agencies. The project included 24 months of data collection on vehicle operations. This report presents the data collection and analysis from the study, with a focus on the last year.

  4. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  5. Supply Chain-Based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Lascurain, Mary Beth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Siekmann, Adam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Barker, Alan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Division

    2016-07-28

    The primary source of funding for the United States transportation system is derived from motor fuel and other highway use taxes. Loss of revenue attributed to fuel-tax evasion has been assessed to be somewhere between 1 billion and 3 billion per year. Any solution that addresses this problem needs to include not only the tax-collection agencies and auditors, but also the carriers transporting oil products and the carriers customers. This report presents a system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Federal Highway Administration which has the potential to reduce or eliminate many fuel-tax evasion schemes. The solution balances the needs of tax-auditors and those of the fuel-hauling companies and their customers. The system has three main components. The on-board subsystem combined sensors, tracking and communication devices, and software (the on-board Evidential Reasoning System, or obERS) to detect, monitor, and geo-locate the transfer of fuel among different locations. The back office sub-system (boERS) used self-learning algorithms to determine the legitimacy of the fuel loading and offloading (important for tax auditors) and detect potential illicit operations such as fuel theft (important for carriers and their customers, and may justify the deployment costs). The third sub-system, the Fuel Distribution and Auditing System or FDAS, is a centralized database, which together with a user interface allows tax auditors to query the data submitted by the fuel-hauling companies and correlate different parameters to quickly identify any anomalies. Industry partners included Barger Transport of Weber City, Virginia (fleet); Air-Weigh, of Eugene, Oregon (and their wires and harnesses); Liquid Bulk Tank (LBT) of Omaha, Nebraska (three five-compartment trailers); and Innovative Software Engineering (ISE) of Coralville, Iowa(on-board telematics device and back-office system). ORNL conducted a pilot test with the three instrumented vehicles

  6. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  7. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  8. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  9. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  10. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents the texts of laws and regulations on the management of spent nuclear fuel in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Reports and articles presented by the governments are also provided which in many cases offer useful descriptions of programs, regulations, and policies. Summary descriptions of each of the documents are presented in this volume. The scope of the materials provided covers policies and regulations on spent fuel storage (wet and dry, at-reactor and centralized), packaging, handling, transportation, reprocessing, and disposal. Types of documents include legislation, decrees and ordinances, regulations and regulatory guidance, statements of policy and important articles. All important nuclear legislation is included whether or not it deals with spent fuel management explicitly. This includes basic atomic energy laws and laws on financial liability, environmental protection, physical security etc. Similarly, regulations and ordinances having broad impact on nuclear activities are included, such as radiation protection, environmental protection and emergency planning requirements, as well as regulations dealing with spent fuel and waste management topics directly. All legal documents provided are currently in effect

  11. Optimised fuel cell operation management. Final report; Optimiertes Betriebsmanagement von Brennstoffzellen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-05

    Investigations were carried out on two fuel cell systems of the type ONSI PC 25C (large fuel cells) and three fuel cell heaters of the type HXS 1000 PREMIERE by Sulzer HEXIS (small fuel cells) for long periods of time and in different modes of operation. Information was obtained on efficiencies and performance, pollutant emissions, degradation and availability. The status of the project is reported and compared with the goals stated initially. (orig.) [German] Das Hauptziel des Projektes bestand darin, Kriterien fuer den optimalen Betrieb (hohe Verfuegbarkeit, geringe Anzahl von Abschaltungen, hohe Energienutzung etc.) von Brennstoffzellen im Zusammenspiel mit den peripheren Komponenten der Gebaeudetechnik zu ermitteln. Hierzu wurden Untersuchungen an zwei Brennstoffzellen-Anlagen vom Typ ONSI PC 25C (grosse BZ) und an drei Brennstoffzellen-Heizgeraeten HXS 1000 PREMIERE von Sulzer HEXIS (kleine BZ) ueber laengere Zeitraeume und bei weitestgehend unterschiedlichen Betriebsweisen durchgefuehrt. In Auswertung dieser Messkomplexe wurden Aussagen zum Betriebsverhalten der Brennstoffzellen, wie z.B. zu Wirk- und Nutzungsgraden, Schadstoffemissionen, Verlauf der Degradation sowie zur Verfuegbarkeit getroffen. Im vorliegenden Bericht wird der erreichte Sachstand detailliert dargestellt und mit den Zielsetzungen des FuE-Antrages verglichen. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Vyas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter

  13. Fossil Fuel (CO2) Emission Verification Capability07-ERD-064Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cameron-Smith, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lucas, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-26

    This work focused exclusively on designing a system for California as a test-bed. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions account for ~96% of the total California anthropogenic CO2 emissions (CEC GHG Inventory, 2006).

  14. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  15. Immunotoxicity of jet fuel. Final report, 1 October 1994-31 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.T.

    1995-10-31

    During our preliminary year of experimentation we have made an initial examination Off the immunotoxicological effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure. Inbred C57BL6 mice were exposed to varying concentrations (either 500, 1000 or 2500 mg/m3) of aerosolized JP-8 jet fuel for a period of 7 days with an exposure period of 1 hour per day. Animal exposure was performed via nose-only presentation while the animals were held in individual subject loading tubes. The tubes were nose cone fitted to receiving adapters that originated from a common anodized aluminum exposure chamber. Nose only exposure was utilized to minimize ingestion of jet fuel during self grooming. Animals were rotated on a daily basis through the 12 adapter positions on the exposure chamber. This rotation was done to minimize proximity to the jet fuel source as a variable in exposure concentration or composition. Exposure concentration was determined by a seven stage --cascade impactor, and were measured after each exposure (1,2). 24 hours after the last exposure the animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in immune system composition and function. The major immune system organ systems (i.e., spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, blood and bone marrow) were recovered and examined for changes in organ weight total cell numbers, immune cell components (by differential histochemical staining).

  16. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  17. Suitability of Haestholmen Loviisa for final disposal of spent fuel. Preliminary study; Loviisan Haestholmenin soveltuvuus kaeytetyn polttoaineen loppusijoitukseen. Esiselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Based on the amendment of the Nuclear Energy Act the spent nuclear fuel of Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) will be disposed of in Finland instead of returning it to Russia. After Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and IVO had founded a joint company Posiva Oy the work IVO started in 1995 was brought together with the ongoing research programme for final disposal of spent fuel and extended to a feasibility study. The feasibility study was launched in the beginning of 1996. The geological evaluation was mainly based on the previous investigations at the island. For this study the complementary geological mapping has been carried out at the Haestholmen and on the surrounding area with a radius of 20 km. (49 refs.).

  18. Two dimensional point of use fuel cell : a final LDRD project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Gross, Matthew L. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2011-03-01

    The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Fuel cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid fuels. Additionally, power generation and fuel storage can be decoupled in a fuel cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.

  19. Enhanced Emission Performance and Fuel Efficiency for HD Methane Engines. Literature Study. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, R.; Staalhammar, P.; Erlandsson, L.

    2010-05-15

    A literature survey has been conducted in order to define state-of-the-art for methane fuelled engines to be used in heavy duty vehicles. Use of methane can be favourable to increase security of supply and mitigate CO2 emissions, especially when the methane origins from biomass. Furthermore, methane used as a fuel in heavy duty engines has a potential to reduce toxic exhaust emissions. Historically, use of methane in heavy duty engines has often been hampered by poor efficiency, i.e. high fuel consumption when using the Otto-cycle. However, current generation technology engines might be within 5-10 % of the efficiency of Diesel engine technology. In this context it is worth mentioning that compliance-driven changes for meeting future emission regulations for Diesel engines may have a negative impact on fuel efficiency, thereby narrowing the gap. This may present an opportunity for heavy methane fuelled engines. The reliability and durability of the exhaust aftertreatment devices for methane fuelled engines has also given rise to some concerns. Some concepts are performing acceptable while others do not meet expectations. This is partly due to difficulties in handling methane in the aftertreatment device and partly to issues in the design of the ignition system. Methane is a fuel used worldwide and has a potential to be an important complement to Diesel oil. There are two categories of HD methane engines available to end-users: Retrofitted engines, which often include computer controlled retrofit systems developed as 'bolt-on' technologies that can be removed if necessary, to resell the vehicle with a normal diesel engine, and those developed specifically for and in conjunction with engine manufacturers and delivered to customers as factory-built engines or vehicles (OEM). Additionally, both these categories can include engines that use the Otto- or Diesel combustion cycles. When adapting a HD Diesel engine to run on methane there are two options, either

  20. Spent fuel verification options for final repository safeguards in Finland. A study on verification methods, their feasibility and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautamaeki, J.; Tiitta, A.

    2000-12-01

    The verification possibilities of the spent fuel assemblies from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPPs and the fuel rods from the research reactor of VTT are contemplated in this report. The spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before the final disposal into the geologic repository. The rods from the research reactor may be verified at the gross defect level. Developing a measurement system for partial defect verification is a complicated and time-consuming task. The Passive High Energy Gamma Emission Tomography and the Fork Detector combined with Gamma Spectrometry are the most potential measurement principles to be developed for this purpose. The whole verification process has to be planned to be as slick as possible. An early start in the planning of the verification and developing the measurement devices is important in order to enable a smooth integration of the verification measurements into the conditioning and disposal process. The IAEA and Euratom have not yet concluded the safeguards criteria for the final disposal. E.g. criteria connected to the selection of the best place to perform the verification. Measurements have not yet been concluded. Options for the verification places have been considered in this report. One option for a verification measurement place is the intermediate storage. The other option is the encapsulation plant. Crucial viewpoints are such as which one offers the best practical possibilities to perform the measurements effectively and which would be the better place in the safeguards point of view. Verification measurements may be needed both in the intermediate storages and in the encapsulation plant. In this report also the integrity of the fuel assemblies after wet intermediate storage period is assessed, because the assemblies have to stand the handling operations of the verification measurements. (orig.)

  1. Reference concepts for the final disposal of LWR spent fuel and other high activity wastes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, F.; Ulibarri, A.

    1993-01-01

    Studies over the last three years have been recently concluded with the selection of a reference repository concept for the final disposal of spent fuel and other high activity wastes in deep geological formations. Two non-site specific preliminary designs, at a conceptual level, have been developed; one considers granite as the host rock and the other rock salt formations. The Spanish General Radioactive Waste Program also considers clay as a potential host rock for HLW deep disposal; conceptualization for a deep repository in clay is in the initial phase of development. The salt repository concept contemplates the disposal of the HLW in self-shielding casks emplaced in the drifts of an underground facility, excavated at a depth of 850 m in a bedded salt formation. The Custos Type I(7) cask admits up to seven intact PWR fuel assemblies or 21 of BWR type. The final repository facilities are planned to accept a total of 20,000 fuel assemblies (PWR and BWR) and 50 vitrified waste canisters over a period of 25 years. The total space needed for the surface facilities amounts to 322,000 m 2 , including the rock salt dump. The space required for the underground facilities amounts to 1.2 km 2 , approximately. The granite repository concept contemplates the disposal of the HLW in carbon steel canisters, embedded in a 0.75 m thick buffer of swelling smectite clay, in the drifts of an underground facility, excavated at a depth of 55 m in granite. Each canister can host 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies. For this concept the total number of canisters needed amounts to 4,860. The space required for the surface and underground facilities is similar to that of the salt concept. The technical principles and criteria used for the design are discussed, and a description of the repository concept is presented

  2. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's regulations concerning the final management of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste - with background and comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This report presents and comments on the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's Regulations concerning the Protection of Human Health and the Environment in connection with the Final Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel or Nuclear Waste, SSI FS 1998: 1

  3. Final Report: Utilizing Alternative Fuel Ignition Properties to Improve SI and CI Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret; Boehman, Andre; Lavoie, George; Fatouraie, Mohammad

    2017-11-30

    Experimental and modeling studies were completed to explore leveraging physical and chemical fuel properties for improved thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. Fundamental studies of the ignition chemistry of ethanol and iso-octane blends and constant volume spray chamber studies of gasoline and diesel sprays supported the core research effort which used several reciprocating engine platforms. Single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine studies were carried out to characterize the impact of ethanol/gasoline, syngas (H2 and CO)/gasoline and other oxygenate/gasoline blends on engine performance. The results of the single-cylinder engine experiments and other data from the literature were used to train a GT Power model and to develop a knock criteria based on reaction chemistry. The models were used to interpret the experimental results and project future performance. Studies were also carried out using a state of the art, direct injection (DI) turbocharged multi- cylinder engine with piezo-actuated fuel injectors to demonstrate the promising spray and spark timing strategies from single-cylinder engine studies on the multi-cylinder engine. Key outcomes and conclusions of the studies were: 1. Efficiency benefits of ethanol and gasoline fuel blends were consistent and substantial (e.g. 5-8% absolute improvement in gross indicated thermal efficiency (GITE)). 2. The best ethanol/gasoline blend (based on maximum thermal efficiency) was determined by the engine hardware and limits based on component protection (e.g. peak in-cylinder pressure or maximum turbocharger inlet temperature) – and not by knock limits. Blends with <50% ethanol delivered significant thermal efficiency gains with conventional SI hardware while maintain good safety integrity to the engine hardware. 3. Other compositions of fuel blends including syngas (H2 and CO) and other dilution strategies provided significant efficiency gains as well (e.g. 5% absolute improvement in ITE). 4. When the

  4. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  5. Thin film battery/fuel cell power generating system. Final report, Task E-4, April 1976-April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feduska, W.

    1978-03-31

    A two-year researth program to design and demonstrate the technical feasibility of a high-temperature solid-electrolyte fuel cell is described in detail. A rare-earth chromite, in particular, La /sub 95/Mg /sub 05/Cr /sub 75/Al /sub 25/0/sub 3/ was identified, synthesized by RF-sputtering tested for resistivity, thermal expansion and inertness in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia, and was found promising as a candidate interconnection material. Films of these interconnection materials have been successfully deposited onto stabilized zirconia tubes by electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD) and the technique has been used to fabricate such films in building fuel cell stacks. Tin-doped indium oxide and antimony-doped tin oxide air electrode current collector materials have been successfully (CVD) chemically vapor deposited, as thin films, onto zirconia tubes. Fabrication procedures for the preparation of thin films of the nickel-cermet fuel electrode and yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte have been re-verified and improved for use in preparing unit cells and cell stacks on the program. An in-house extrusion technology for porous calcia-stabilized zirconia tubes has been developed and has been used to provide suitable support tubes for component combination samples, unit cell and cell stack sample preparation. Test concepts for component combinations and for unit cells and cell stacks have been evolved, particularly, the crossed electrode technique, and test equipment has been designed, built and used to evaluate fuel cell components and their interfaces. A five-cell fuel cell stack has been fabricated and operated for 700 hours at 200 mA/cm/sup 2/ at 950 to 980/sup 0/C and was subjected to three temperature cycles during the testing. Three series connected cells of this five cell stack met the 80% voltage efficiency final target objective of the program (less than 10% voltage degradation in 700 hours - with only 300 hours required.)

  6. Summary of fuel economy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-09

    This report contains estimated fleet production numbers and CAFE figures obtained from pre-model year (source I) and mid-model year (source 2) documents assembled prior to or during the model year. The actual mpg values reported to EPA at the end of ...

  7. Judgement of properties and function of concrete in connection with final disposal of nuclear fuel wastes in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, S.G.; Fagerlund, G.; Romben, L.

    1977-06-01

    This report deals with the possibility of using concrete in conjuction with the permanent storage of nuclear fuel waste in rock storage facilities. The emphasis has been placed on properties such as strength and tightness and how these may be affected by internal and external causes of destruction during a filling stage of approximately 100 years and during the final storage stage of 1 000 - 100 000 years. It is established that spontaneous structural changes, which lead to a certain increase in porosity, cannot be precluded during the filling stage and uring the final storage stage. It is deemed possible to avoid cracking during the manufacture and during the filling stage if the concrete is kept moist. The risk for cracking during the final storage stage is difficult to assess. Attempts are made to estimate the tightness of aged concrete during the various stages. The tightness during the final storage stage is difficult to assess due to the fact that the scope of the cracking cannot be estimated. Chemical attacks during the filling stage are deemed to be small and can be repaired. The risk for destruction due to radioactive radiation is extremely small. Reinforcement, if any, can be protected during the filling stage on condition that the concrete is kep saturated but all reinforcement will be destroyed during the final storage stage. By way of conclusion, a number of general views on the choice of concrete and work methods are provided. (author)

  8. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  9. Evaluation of fuel cycle options for plutonium utilization: 1977 study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardue, W.M.; Madia, W.J.; Pobereskin, M.; Tripplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports on the analysis of plutonium recycle. Analyses are based upon an October, 1976, middle case ERDA forecast of nuclear growth which predicts 510 GWe of nuclear capacity in the year 2000. Four fuel cycle options were reviewed, ranging from no LWR recycle of uranium of plutonium to recycle options both with and without breeder reactors. A special effort was devoted to the review of various estimates of the costs of reprocessing nuclear fuels, with a resulting value of $190/kg of heavy metal (deflated 1975 dollars). The associated range is estimated to $125/kg to $250/kg. Sensitivity analysis of reprocessing costs, uranium consumption, average generation costs, and total discounted costs of electricity indicate that the long-term economic advantages of plutonium recycle are quite conclusive. Nuclear scenarios which project low growth rates and which delay the start of recycle and introduction of a breeder reactor postpone the apparent economic advantages

  10. Final Report - Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark

    2012-09-28

    The principal objectives of the program were development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support), that is fully integrated into a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly with gas diffusion media, fabricated by high volume capable processes, and is able to meet or exceed the 2015 DOE targets. Work completed in this contract was an extension of the developments under three preceding cooperative agreements/grants Nos. DE-FC-02-97EE50473, DE-FC-99EE50582 and DE-FC36- 02AL67621 which investigated catalyzed membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells based on a fundamentally new, nanostructured thin film catalyst and support system, and demonstrated the feasibility for high volume manufacturability.

  11. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  12. Evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity for 233U--thorium fueled HTGR lattices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Trapp, T.J.; Gore, B.F.; Kottwitz, D.A.; Thompson, J.K.; Purcell, W.L.; Stewart, K.B.

    1977-05-01

    A comparison of calculated and measured neutron multiplication factors as a function of temperature was made for three graphite-moderated lattices in the High Temperature Lattice Test Reactor (HTLTR) using 233 UO 2 --ThO 2 fuels in varying amounts and configurations. Correlation of neutronic analysis methods and cross section data with the experimental measurements forms the basis for assessing the accuracy of the methods and data and developing confidence in the ability to predict the temperature coefficient of reactivity for various High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) conditions in which 233 U and thorium are present in the fuel. The calculated values of k/sub infinity/(T) were correlated with measured values using two least-squares-fitted correlation coefficients: (1) a normalization factor, and (2) a temperature coefficient bias factor. These correlations indicate the existence of a negative (nonconservative) bias in temperature coefficients of reactivity calculated using ENDF/B-IV cross section data

  13. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  14. Special routing of spent fuel shipments. Final report Dec 79-Apr 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, R.L.; Shaver, D.K.; Rudd, T.J.

    1982-05-01

    Special rail routing of spent fuel shipments from commercial nuclear power plants to Away-From-Reactor (AFR) storage and disposal sites has been proposed as one means of reducing the consequences and severity of radioactive materials accidents in areas of high population density. Whether or not special rail routing of spent fuel shipments does indeed decrease radiation exposure levels under normal and accident transportation conditions and at what incremental cost forms the basis of this study funded by the Federal Railroad Administration. The study is divided into five areas: (1) developing analytical models for assessing the risks associated with both the normal and accident transport modes; (2) selecting representative origin to destination routing pairs using the normal transportation and accident risk models; (3) analyzing rail shipment costs for nuclear spent fuel; and (4) performing sensitivity analyses to identify parameters that critically affect the total exposure level. The major findings resulting from this study are: (1) the risk over the seven example routes is relatively small for the normal transport mode; (2) the risk associated with an accident is at least an order of magnitude larger than the normal transport dose in all cases and as such is the overriding contribution to the total expected transport dose; and (3) no beneficial cost versus dose reduction relationship was found for any of the routes studied

  15. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cells for combined heat and power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottrup Barfod, R.; Juel Jensen, K.; Holt, T.; Drejer Jensen, M.; Danoe, S. (TOFC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mikkelsen, L.; Lund Frandsen, H. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The project has focused on examining three aspects that are important to the commercialization of ceramic fuel cells. The three main topics are: - the life and durability of ceramic fuel cells - the design of scalable units - increasing the electrical power. The studies range widely - from fundamental materials studies of the components in a stack to analysis of the requirements from the system that affect the design and the electrical connection of individual cells. In previous designs the lifetime was limited by the corrosion of the metal plate that electrically and mechanically connects the individual fuel cells in a stack. In this project, studies of various commercial types of steel, however, show that the lifetime can be increased significantly by choosing the right type of steel and an optimum operating temperature. In the project a lifetime of the steel of about seven years was achieved, and the steel is both cheaper and stronger than that which has hitherto been used. Another important result from the project is a significant increase of the electrical power. Compared with results from a previous project, the electrical power for a stack with the same area, same operating temperature and the same cell voltage increased by 130 %. This is achieved by a new design of the connection between the individual cells, optimized cells and improved utilization of the cell area. (ln)

  17. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: LWR fuel cycle, handling and storage of spent fuel, termination case considerations (use of coal-fired power plants to replace nuclear plants), increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data, characteristics of nuclear fuel, away-from-reactor storage concept, spent fuel storage requirements for higher projected nuclear generating capacity, and physical protection requirements and hypothetical sabotage events in a spent fuel storage facility

  18. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project. Fiscal Year 2014 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacFarlan, Paul J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Slonecker, Bruce D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steen, Franciska H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium–molybdenum (LEU-Mo) fuel plate samples and perform analysis in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. The primary research scope was to determine the thermo-physical properties as a function of temperature and burnup. Work conducted in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 complemented measurements performed in FY 2013 on four additional irradiated LEU-Mo fuel plate samples. Specifically, the work in FY 2014 investigated the influence of different processing methods on thermal property behavior, the absence of aluminum alloy cladding on thermal property behavior for additional model validation, and the influence of higher operating surface heat flux / more aggressive irradiation conditions on thermal property behavior. The model developed in FY 2013 and refined in FY 2014 to extract thermal properties of the U-Mo alloy from the measurements conducted on an integral fuel plate sample (i.e., U-Mo alloy with a thin Zr coating and clad in AA6061) continues to perform very well. Measurements conducted in FY 2014 on samples irradiated under similar conditions compare well to measurements performed in FY 2013. In general, there is no gross influence of fabrication method on thermal property behavior, although the difference in LEU-Mo foil microstructure does have a noticeable influence on recrystallization of grains during irradiation. Samples irradiated under more aggressive irradiation conditions, e.g., higher surface heat flux, revealed lower thermal conductivity when compared to samples irradiated at moderate surface heat fluxes, with the exception of one sample. This report documents thermal

  19. Operational Readiness Review Final Report for K Basin Fuel Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIES, T.H.

    2002-01-01

    An Operational Readiness Review (ORR) was conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for startup of the K Basin Fuel Transfer System (FTS). The DOE ORR was conducted during the period November 6-18, 2002. The DOE ORR team concluded that the K Basin Fuel Transfer System is ready to start operations, subject to completion and verification of identified pre-start findings. The ORR was conducted in accordance with the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) K Basin Fuel Transfer System (FTS) Operational Readiness Review (ORR) Plan of Action and the Operational Readiness Review Implementation Plan for K Basin Fuel Transfer System. Review activities consisted of staff interviews, procedure and document reviews, and observations of normal facility operations, operational upset conditions, and an emergency drill. The DOE ORR Team also reviewed and assessed the adequacy of the contractor ORR3 and the RL line management review. The team concurred with the findings and observations identified in these two reports. The DOE ORR for the FTS evaluated the contractor under single-shift operations. Of concern to the ORR Team was that SNF Project management intended to change from a single-shift FTS operation to a two-shift operation shortly after the completion of the DOE ORR. The ORR team did not assess two-shift FTS operations and the ability of the contractor to conduct a smooth transition from shift to shift. However, the DOE ORR team did observe an operational upset drill that was conducted during day shift and carried over into swing shift; during this drill, swing shift was staffed with fewer personnel as would be expected for two-shift operations. The facility was able to adequately respond to the event with the reduced level of staff. The ORR Team was also able to observe a Shift Manager turnover meeting when one shift manager had to be relieved during the middle of the day. The ORR

  20. Development of CANDU advanced fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, H. C.; Hwang, W.; Rhee, B. W.; Jung, S. H.; Chung, C. H.

    1992-05-01

    This research project is underway in cooperation with AECL to develop the CANDU advanced fuel bundle (so-called, CANFLEX) which can enhance reactor safety and fuel economy in comparison with the current CANDU fuel and which can be used with natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium and other advanced fuel cycle. As the final schedule, the advanced fuel will be verified by carrying out a large scale demonstration of the bundle irradiation in a commercial CANDU reactor for 1996 and 1997, and consequently will be used in the existing and future CANDU reactors in Korea. The research activities during this year include the detail design of CANFLEX fuel with natural enriched uranium (CANFLEX-NU). Based on this design, CANFLEX fuel was mocked up. Out-of-pile hydraulic scoping tests were conducted with the fuel in the CANDU Cold Test Loop to investigate the condition under which maximum pressure drop occurs and the maximum value of the bundle pressure drop. (Author)