WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel cycle systems

  1. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

    2009-06-01

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic

  2. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  3. Analysis of Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hong Lae; Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-11-15

    Proliferation resistance (PR) has been evaluated for the five nuclear fuel cycle systems, potentially deployable in Korea in the future, using the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes suggested in the TOPS report. Unidimensional Utility Theory (UUT) was used in the calculation of utility value for each of the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes, and Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), a decision tool with multiple objectives, was used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of each nuclear fuel cycle system. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert Elicitation (EE) were utilized in the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes. Among the five nuclear fuel cycle systems evaluated, the once-through fuel cycle system showed the highest level of proliferation resistance, and Pyroprocessing-SFR fuel cycle system showed the similar level of proliferation resistance with the DUPIC fuel cycle system, which has two time higher level of proliferation resistance compared to that of the thermal MOX fuel cycle system. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to make up for the uncertainty associated with the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes.

  4. ARC System fuel cycle analysis capability, REBUS-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosteny, R.P.

    1978-10-01

    A detailed description is given of the ARC System fuel cycle modules FCI001, FCC001, FCC002, and FCC003 which form the fuel cycle analysis modules of the ARC System. These modules, in conjunction with certain other modules of the ARC System previously described in documents of this series, form the fuel cycle analysis system called REBUS-2. The physical model upon which the REBUS-2 fuel cycle modules are based and the calculational approach used in solving this model are discussed in detail. The REBUS-2 system either solves for the infinite time (i.e., equilibrium) operating conditions of a fuel recycle system under fixed fuel management conditions, or solves for the operating conditions during each of a series of explicitly specified (i.e., nonequilibrium) sequence of burn cycles. The code has the capability to adjust the fuel enrichment, the burn time, and the control poison requirements in order to satisfy user specified constraints on criticality, discharge fuel burnup, or to give the desired multiplication constant at some specified time during the reactor operation.

  5. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul Philip Hood [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gidden, Matthew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Carlsen, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mouginot, Baptiste [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Flanagan, Robert [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2017-06-13

    This work introduces automated optimization into fuel cycle simulations in the Cyclus platform. This includes system-level optimizations, seeking a deployment plan that optimizes the performance over the entire transition, and market-level optimization, seeking an optimal set of material trades at each time step. These concepts were introduced in a way that preserves the flexibility of the Cyclus fuel cycle framework, one of its most important design principles.

  6. Basic data for integrated assessment of nuclear fuel cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Tamaki, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ito, Chihiro; Saegusa, Toshiari [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    In our country, where natural energy resources such as oil and coal are scarce, it is vital to establish a nuclear fuel cycle to reprocess spent fuel and reuse valuable nuclear fuel in electric power generation reactors. However spent fuel is now being accumulated too much so that, for the time being, it is necessary to establish a system for tentatively storing spent fuel. In this report, in order to deal with these issues, evaluation methods, which were developed, prepared and discussed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), are rendered together with sample results of their application. Also reported is some important information on the data and methods for the safety assessment of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, which have been surveyed by JAERI and CRIEPI. (author)

  7. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  8. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  9. Evolution of the CYCLE code for the system analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Kalashnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The CYCLE code is intended to simulate mathematically the operation of a nuclear power system (NPS with thermal and fast reactors in an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle, to develop scenarios of efficient nuclear power evolution in Russia and to analyze trends in global nuclear power. The code is based on a well-known software program, WIMSD-5B, broadly used for the design of thermal reactor cells, and on a 2D multi-group software system, RZA, for the fast neutron reactor simulation. The CYCLE code was developed at IPPE in Obninsk. This paper presents a brief review of the capabilities and information on the current status of the CYCLE code. The code allows simulation of key facilities of the external fuel cycle (fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities, SNF storage, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium stores, RW long-term storage sites, nuclear reactors, including RBMK-1000 reactors, existing and advanced VVER reactors (using different fuel types, and fast reactors (both existing and innovative. As an important feature, the CYCLE code allows the evolution of the fuel's nuclide composition both in reactors and at the external fuel cycle phase to be considered in details. Offered as an extra option is the capability to calculate a variety of the nuclear fuel cycle cost parameters for nuclear power plants with thermal and fast reactors. For years, the code has been successfully used as part of INPRO, an international innovative nuclear reactor and fuel cycle project. The results of studies into the Russian NPS evolution scenarios were presented at Global 2011. Some other of the CYCLE-based simulation results were presented at Global 2015.

  10. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  11. System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-09-01

    This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a

  12. Fuels and cycles for the fourth generation systems; Combustibles et cycles pour les systemes de 4. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares (DEN/DDIN), 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presented during the Cea Seminar on the nuclear systems of the future deals with the fuels and cycles of the fourth generation systems. Four goal areas have been defined for these systems: sustainable for the environment, economical for the investment, safety and reliability, a better protection against the proliferation. The different fuels and cycles of the research programs are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Leigh R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document was prepared to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M3FT-14IN0304022, “Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. This document reports preliminary work in support of determining the thermodynamic parameters for the ALSEP process. The ALSEP process is a mixed extractant system comprised of a cation exchanger 2-ethylhexyl-phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and a neutral solvating extractant N,N,N’,N’-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA). The extractant combination produces complex organic phase chemistry that is challenging for traditional measurement techniques. To neutralize the complexity, temperature dependent solvent extraction experiments were conducted with neat TODGA and scaled down concentrations of the ALSEP formulation to determine the enthalpies of extraction for the two conditions. A full set of thermodynamic data for Eu, Am, and Cm extraction by TODGA from 3.0 M HNO3 is reported. These data are compared to previous extraction results from a 1.0 M HNO3 aqueous medium, and a short discussion of the mixed HEH[EHP]/TODGA system results is offered.

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  15. Development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology - Assessment of Wolsong NPP fuel handling system for DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Bok Gyun; Nam, Gung Ihn [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The DUPIC fuel loading and discharge path of Wolsong NPP is studied assuming that DUPIC fuel is used at Wolsong NPP. Spent DUPIC fuel discharge path is irrelevant, since it uses the same spent fuel discharge path. Number of factors such as safety, economics of design change, radiation exposure to operators, easy of operation and maintenance, etc, are considered in the evaluation of path. A more detailed analysis of cost estimation of the selected path is also carried out. The study shows that DUPIC fuel loading path following through Spent Fuel Storage Bay and Spent Fuel Discharge Port in reverse direction will minimize the design change and additional equipment and radiation exposure to operators. The estimated total cost of using DUPIC fuel in Wolsong NPP based on price index of year 2000 is around 4.5 billion won. 4 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, David E.,

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  17. Sustainable thorium nuclear fuel cycles: A comparison of intermediate and fast neutron spectrum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.R., E-mail: nbrown@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Powers, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, B.; Heidet, F.; Stauff, N.E.; Zhang, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of intermediate and fast spectrum thorium-fueled reactors. • Variety of reactor technology options enables self-sustaining thorium fuel cycles. • Fuel cycle analyses indicate similar performance for fast and intermediate systems. • Reproduction factor plays a significant role in breeding and burn-up performance. - Abstract: This paper presents analyses of possible reactor representations of a nuclear fuel cycle with continuous recycling of thorium and produced uranium (mostly U-233) with thorium-only feed. The analysis was performed in the context of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to develop a compendium of informative nuclear fuel cycle performance data. The objective of this paper is to determine whether intermediate spectrum systems, having a majority of fission events occurring with incident neutron energies between 1 eV and 10{sup 5} eV, perform as well as fast spectrum systems in this fuel cycle. The intermediate spectrum options analyzed include tight lattice heavy or light water-cooled reactors, continuously refueled molten salt reactors, and a sodium-cooled reactor with hydride fuel. All options were modeled in reactor physics codes to calculate their lattice physics, spectrum characteristics, and fuel compositions over time. Based on these results, detailed metrics were calculated to compare the fuel cycle performance. These metrics include waste management and resource utilization, and are binned to accommodate uncertainties. The performance of the intermediate systems for this self-sustaining thorium fuel cycle was similar to a representative fast spectrum system. However, the number of fission neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed limits performance in intermediate spectrum systems.

  18. Feasibility of Thorium Fuel Cycles in a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Rodriguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy presents key challenges to be successful as a sustainable energy source. Currently, the viability of the use thorium-based fuel cycles in an innovative nuclear energy generation system is being investigated in order to solve these key challenges. In this work, the feasibility of three thorium-based fuel cycles (232Th-233U, 232Th-239Pu, and 232Th-U in a hybrid system formed by a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactor (VHTR and two Pebble-Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs was evaluated using parameters related to the neutronic behavior such as nuclear fuel breeding, minor actinide stockpile, the energetic contribution of each fissile isotope, and the radiotoxicity of the long lived wastes. These parameters were used to compare the fuel cycles using the well-known MCNPX ver. 2.6e computational code. The results obtained confirm that the 232Th-233U fuel cycle is the best cycle for minimizing the production of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides. Moreover, the inclusion of the second stage in the ADSs demonstrated the possibility of extending the burnup cycle duration and reducing the radiotoxicity of the discharged fuel from the VHTR.

  19. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    materials were produced and consumed in a fleet of 100 1,000 MWe LWRs and in FRs. The model also included recycle and reuse of extant inventories of spent LWR fuel. The results of the simulations allowed comparisons of the two fuel cycles from the standpoints of cost, non-proliferation, radiological health, wastes generated, and sustainability. Results of the research also provide insights regarding (i) multiple recycling of uranium and plutonium from spent MOX fuel in LWRs, (ii) costs and benefits of reenriching and reusing uranium from spent LWR fuel; (iii) effects of using uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides from LWR spent fuels to produce fuel for FRs; (iv) net rates of consumption (burning) in FRs of actinide elements produced in LWRs, and (v) ependencies of and interactions among the different systems of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle -- and the flows of nuclear materials between these systems.

  20. Study of visualized simulation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Quan; YOSHIKAWA Hidekazu; ZHOU Yang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Complex energy and environment system, especially nuclear fuel cycle system recently raised social concerns about the issues of economic competitiveness, environmental effect and nuclear proliferation. Only under the condition that those conflicting issues are gotten a consensus between stakeholders with different knowledge background, can nuclear power industry be continuingly developed. In this paper, a new analysis platform has been developed to help stakeholders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in the nuclear fuel cycle system based on the functional modeling method named Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) according to the cognition theory of human being. Its character is that MFM models define a set of mass, energy and information flow structures on multiple levels of abstraction to describe the functional structure of a process system and its graphical symbol representation and the means-end and part-whole hierarchical flow structure to make the represented process easy to be understood. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of nuclear fuel cycle system were selected to be simulated and some analysis processes such as economics analysis, environmental analysis and energy balance analysis related to those flows were also integrated to help stakeholders to understand the process of decision-making with the introduction of some new functions for the improved Multilevel Flow Models Studio, and finally the simple simulation such as spent fuel management process simulation and money flow of nuclear fuel cycle and its levelised cost analysis will be represented as feasible examples.

  1. V. S. O. P. - Computer Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Teuchert, E.; Hansen, U.; Haas, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    V .S .O .P . (Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes linked together for the simulation of reactor life histories. It comprisesneutron cross section libraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D diffusion calculation based onneutron flux synthesis with depletion and shut-down features, incore and out-of-pile fuel management, fuel cycle cost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (at present restricted to Pebble Bed HTRs). Various techniques have been employe...

  2. Cycle analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell and recuperative gas turbine with an air reheating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Jun; Li, Guojun; Feng, Zhenping

    Cycle simulation and analysis for two kinds of SOFC/GT hybrid systems were conducted with the help of the simulation tool: Aspen Custom Modeler. Two cycle schemes of recuperative heat exchanger (RHE) and exhaust gas recirculated (EGR) were described according to the air reheating method. The system performance with operating pressure, turbine inlet temperature and fuel cell load were studied based on the simulation results. Then the effects of oxygen utilization, fuel utilization, operating temperature and efficiencies of the gas turbine components on the system performance of the RHE cycle and the EGR cycle were discussed in detail. Simulation results indicated that the system optimum efficiency for the EGR air reheating cycle scheme was higher than that of the RHE cycle system. A higher pressure ratio would be available for the EGR cycle system in comparison with the RHE cycle. It was found that increasing fuel utilization or oxygen utilization would decrease fuel cell efficiency but improve the system efficiency for both of the RHE and EGR cycles. The efficiency of the RHE cycle hybrid system decreased as the fuel cell air inlet temperature increased. However, the system efficiency of EGR cycle increased with fuel cell air inlet temperature. The effect of turbine efficiency on the system efficiency was more obvious than the effect of the compressor and recuperator efficiencies among the gas turbine components. It was also indicated that improving the gas turbine component efficiencies for the RHE cycle increased system efficiency higher than that for the EGR cycle.

  3. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; G. E. Matthern; S. J. Piet; A. Moisseytsev

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing a system dynamics model as part of their broad systems analysis of future nuclear energy in the United States. The model will be used to analyze and compare various proposed technology deployment scenarios. The model will also give a better understanding of the linkages between the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle that includes uranium resources, reactor number and mix, nuclear fuel type and waste management. Each of these components is tightly connected to the nuclear fuel cycle but usually analyzed in isolation of the other parts. This model will attempt to bridge these components into a single model for analysis. This work is part of a multi-national laboratory effort between Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory and United States Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the basics of the system dynamics model and looks at some results from the model.

  4. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  5. DESIGN OF COMBINED CYCLE GENERATION SYSTEM WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL AND STEAM TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lijun; Yuan Junqi; Cao Guangyi

    2003-01-01

    For environment protection and high efficiency, development of new concept power plant has been required in China. The fuel cell is expected to be used in a power plant as a centralized power station or distributed power plant. It is a chemical power generation device that converts the energy of a chemical reaction directly into electrical energy and not limited by Carnot cycle efficiency. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant has several attractive features I.e. High efficiency and lower emission of Nox and Sox. A combined cycle generation system with MCFC and steam turbine is designed. Its net electrical efficiency LHV is about 55%.

  6. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  7. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  8. Neutronic behavior of thorium fuel cycles in a very high temperature hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Garcia, Lorena; Milian Perez, Daniel; Garcia Hernandez, Carlos; Milian Lorenzo, Daniel, E-mail: dperez@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: dmilian@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana (Cuba); Velasco, Abanades, E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [Department of Simulation of Thermo Energy Systems, Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy needs to guarantee four important issues to be successful as a sustainable energy source: nuclear safety, economic competitiveness, proliferation resistance and a minimal production of radioactive waste. Pebble bed reactors (PBR), which are very high temperature systems together with fuel cycles based in Thorium, they could offer the opportunity to meet the sustainability demands. Thorium is a potentially valuable energy source since it is about three to four times as abundant as Uranium. It is also a widely distributed natural resource readily accessible in many countries. This paper shows the main advantages of the use of a hybrid system formed by a Pebble Bed critical nuclear reactor and two Pebble Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) using a variety of fuel cycles with Thorium (Th+U{sup 233}, Th+Pu{sup 239} and Th+U). The parameters related to the neutronic behavior like deep burn, nuclear fuel breeding, Minor Actinide stockpile, power density profiles and other are used to compare the fuel cycles using the well-known MCNPX computational code. (author)

  9. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  10. V.S.O.P. (99) for WINDOWS and UNIX : computer code system for reactor physics and fuel cycle simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, H. J.; Haas, K. A.; Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.; Scherer, W.

    2000-01-01

    V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, processing of cross sections, neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to HTRs and to two spatial dimensions. The...

  11. V.S.O.P.(97) Computer Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation : Input Manual and Comments

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, H. J.; Haas, K. A.; Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.; Scherer, W.

    1998-01-01

    V.S.O.P. (97) is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation ofthe physics of thermal reactors. It implies processing ofcross sections, the setup ofthe reactor and ofthe fuel element, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to EM and to two spatial dimensi...

  12. System Theoretic Frameworks for Mitigating Risk Complexity in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adam David; Osborn, Douglas; Jones, Katherine A; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Cohn, Brian; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; DeMenno, Mercy; Thomas, Maikael A.; Parks, Mancel Jordan; Parks, Ethan Rutledge; Jeantete, Brian A

    2017-09-01

    In response to the expansion of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities -- and the associated suite of risks -- around the world, this project evaluated systems-based solutions for managing such risk complexity in multimodal and multi-jurisdictional international spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation. By better understanding systemic risks in SNF transportation, developing SNF transportation risk assessment frameworks, and evaluating these systems-based risk assessment frameworks, this research illustrated interdependency between safety, security, and safeguards risks is inherent in NFC activities and can go unidentified when each "S" is independently evaluated. Two novel system-theoretic analysis techniques -- dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA) and system-theoretic process analysis (STPA) -- provide integrated "3S" analysis to address these interdependencies and the research results suggest a need -- and provide a way -- to reprioritize United States engagement efforts to reduce global nuclear risks. Lastly, this research identifies areas where Sandia National Laboratories can spearhead technical advances to reduce global nuclear dangers.

  13. Cycle Analysis of Micro Gas Turbine-Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijima, Shinji; Kasagi, Nobuhide

    A hybrid system based on a micro gas turbine (µGT) and a high-temperature fuel cell, i.e., molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) or solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), is expected to achieve a much higher efficiency than conventional distributed power generation systems. In this study, a cycle analysis method and the performance evaluation of a µGT-MCFC hybrid system, of which the power output is 30kW, are investigated to clarify its feasibility. We developed a general design strategy in which a low fuel input to a combustor and higher MCFC operating temperature result in a high power generation efficiency. A high recuperator temperature effectiveness and a moderate steam-carbon ratio are the requirements for obtaining a high material strength in a turbine. In addition, by employing a combustor for complete oxidation of MCFC effluents without additional fuel input, i.e., a catalytic combustor, the power generation efficiency of a µGT-MCFC is achieved at over 60%(LHV).

  14. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  15. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants.

  16. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  17. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  18. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    fulfill its mission that is to contribute in improving the quality of life of the Brazilian people. The nuclear fuel cycle is a series of steps involved in the production and use of fuel for nuclear reactors. The Laboratories of Chemistry and Environmental Diagnosis Center, CQMA, support the demand of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Program providing chemical characterization of uranium compounds and other related materials. In this period the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) concentrated efforts on improving equipment and systems to enable the IEA-R1 research reactor to operate at higher power, increasing the capacity of radioisotopes production, samples irradiation, tests and experiments. (author)

  19. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  20. Study of A Multi-criteria Evaluation Methodology for Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Based on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jingquan; Hidekazu Yoshikawa; OuYang Jun; Zhou Yangping

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation methodology for nuclear fuel cycle options in terms of energy sustainability. Starting from the general sustainability concept and the public acceptance questionnaire, a set of indicators reflecting specific criteria for the evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle options are defined.Particular attention is devoted to the resource utility efficiency, environmental effect, human health hazard and economic effect, which represent the different concerns of different stakeholders. This methodology also integrated a special mathematic processing approach, namely the Extentics Evaluation Method, which quantifies the human being subjective perception to provide the intuitionistic judgement and comparison for different options. The once-through option and reprocessing option of nuclear fuel cycle are examined by using the proposed methodology. The assessment process and result can give us some guidance in nuclear fuel cycle evaluation under the constraint of limited data.

  1. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  2. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  3. Assessment of Proliferation Resistance of Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle System with Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using INPRO Evaluation Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2007-11-15

    Using the INPRO methodology, the proliferation resistance of an innovative nuclear energy system(INS) defined as a closed nuclear fuel cycle system consisting of KALIMER and pyroprocessing, has been assessed. Considering a very early development stage of the INS concept, the PR assessment is carried out based on intrinsic features, if required information and data are not available. The PR assessment of KALIMER and JSFR using the INPRO methodology affirmed that an adequate proliferation resistance has been achieved in both INSs CNFC-SFR, considering the assessor's progress and maturity of design development. KALIMER and JSFR are developed or being developed conforming to the targets and criteria defined for developing Gen IV nuclear reactor system. Based on these assessment results, proliferation resistance and physical protection(PR and PP) of KALIMER and JSFR are evaluated from the viewpoint of requirements for future nuclear fuel cycle system. The envisioned INSs CNFC-SFR rely on active plutonium management based on a closed fuel cycle, in which a fissile material is recycled in an integrated fuel cycle facility within proper safeguards. There is no isolated plutonium in the closed fuel cycle. The material remains continuously in a sequence of highly radioactive matrices within inaccessible facilities. The proliferation resistance assessment should be an ongoing analysis that keeps up with the progress and maturity of the design of Gen IV SFR.

  4. Analysis of the solar powered/fuel assisted Rankine cycle cooling system. Phase 1: Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lior, N.; Koai, K.; Yeh, H.

    1985-04-01

    The subject of this analysis is a solar cooling system which consists of a conventional open-compressor chiller, driven by a novel hybrid steam Rankine cycle. Steam is generated by the use of solar energy collected at about 100C, and it is then superheated to about 600C in a fossil-fuel fired superheater. The steam drives a novel counter-rotating turbine, some of the heat from it is regenerated, and it is then condensed. Thermal storage is implemented as an integral part of the cycle, by means of hot-water which is flashed to steam when needed for driving the turbine. For the solar energy input, both evacuated and double-glazed flat-plate collectors were considered. A comprehensive computer program was developed to analyze the operation and performance of the entire power/cooling system. Each component was described by a separate subroutine to compute its performance from basic principles, and special attention was given to the parasitic losses, including pumps, fans and pressure drops in the piping and heat exchangers, and to describe the off-design performance of the components. The thermophysical properties of the fluids used are also described in separate subroutines. Transient simulation of the entire system was performed on an hourly basis over a cooling season in two representative climatic regions (Washington, DC, and Phoenix, AZ) for a number of system configurations.

  5. System aspects on safeguards for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    This thesis has investigated system aspects of safeguarding the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. These aspects include the important notion of continuity of knowledge, the philosophy of verifying measurements and the need to consider the safeguards system as a whole when expanding it to include the encapsulation facility and the geological repository. The research has been analytical in method both in the identification of concrete challenges for the safeguards community in Paper 1, and in the diversion path analysis performed in Paper 2. This method of work is beneficial for example when abstract notions are treated. However, as a suggestion for further work along these lines, a formal systems analysis would be advantageous, and may even reveal properties of the safeguards system that the human mind so far has been to narrow to consider. A systems analysis could be used to model a proposed safeguards approach with the purpose of finding vulnerabilities in its detection probabilities. From the results, capabilities needed to overcome these vulnerabilities could be deduced, thereby formulating formal boundary conditions. These could include: The necessary partial defect level for the NDA measurement; The level of redundancy required in the C/S system to minimize the risk of inconclusive results due to equipment failure; and, Requirements on the capabilities of seismic methods, etc. The field of vulnerability assessment as a tool for systems analysis should be of interest for the safeguards community, as a formal approach could give a new dimension to the credibility of safeguards systems

  6. Quadratic reactivity fuel cycle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1985-11-01

    For educational purposes it is highly desirable to provide simple yet realistic models for fuel cycle and fuel economy. In particular, a lumped model without recourse to detailed spatial calculations would be very helpful in providing the student with a proper understanding of the purposes of fuel cycle calculations. A teaching model for fuel cycle studies based on a lumped model assuming the summability of partial reactivities with a linear dependence of reactivity usefully illustrates fuel utilization concepts. The linear burnup model does not satisfactorily represent natural enrichment reactors. A better model, showing the trend of initial plutonium production before subsequent fuel burnup and fission product generation, is a quadratic fit. The study of M-batch cycles, reloading 1/Mth of the core at end of cycle, is now complicated by nonlinear equations. A complete account of the asymptotic cycle for any order of M-batch refueling can be given and compared with the linear model. A complete account of the transient cycle can be obtained readily in the two-batch model and this exact solution would be useful in verifying numerical marching models. It is convenient to treat the parabolic fit rho = 1 - tau/sup 2/ as a special case of the general quadratic fit rho = 1 - C/sub tau/ - (1 - C)tau/sup 2/ in suitably normalized reactivity and cycle time units. The parabolic results are given in this paper.

  7. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M. [IRI, TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  8. V.S.O.P. (99/05) Computer Code System : computer code system for reactor physics and fuel cycle simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, W.; Brockmann, H.; Haas, K. A.; Rütten, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, processing of cross sections, neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to HTRs and to two spatial dimensions. The...

  9. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  10. Reprocessed and combined thorium fuel cycles in a PER system with a micro heterogeneous approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Fabiana B.A.; Castro, Victor F.; Faria, Rochkhudson B. de; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela, E-mail: fabianabeghini@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: victorfariacastro@gmail.com, E-mail: rochkdefaria@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: fortini@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    A micro heterogeneous approaches were used to study the behavior of reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium in a PWR fuel element considering (TRU-Th) cycle. The goal is to achieve a higher burnup using three different configurations to model the fuel element using SCALE 6.0. The reprocessed fuels were obtained using the ORIGEN 2.1 code from a spent PWR standard fuel (33,000 MWd/tHM burned), with 3.1% of initial enrichment. The spent fuel remained in the cooling pool for five years and then reprocessed using the UREX+ technique. Three configurations of micro heterogeneous approaches were analyzed, and the k{sub inf} and plutonium evolution during the burnup were evaluated. The preliminary results show that the behavior of advanced fuel based on transuranic elements spiked with thorium, and micro heterogeneous approach are satisfactory in PWRs, and the configuration that use a combination of Th and TRU (configuration 1) seems to be the most promising once has higher values for k{sub inf} during the burnup, compared with other configurations. (author)

  11. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, S. S., E-mail: Ananyev-SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, A. V., E-mail: spitsyn-av@nrcki.ru; Kuteev, B. V., E-mail: Kuteev-BV@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  12. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  13. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-09-02

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of nding reactor deployment pro les that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to re ne the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-o s that exist between these di erent objectives.

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  15. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  16. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  17. V. S. O. P. ('94) Computer Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Teuchert, E.; Haas, K. A.; Rütten, H. J.; Brockmann, Hans; Gerwin, Helmut; Ohlig, U.; Scherer, Winfried

    1994-01-01

    V. S. O. P. ('Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes lurked together for the simulationof reactor life histories and temporary in-depth research. In comprises neutron cross sectionlibraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D diffusion calculationwith depletion and shut-down features, in-core and out-of--pile fuel management, fuel cyclecost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (at present restricted to 's). Various techniques havebeen employed to accelerat...

  18. Life cycle sustainability of solid oxide fuel cells: From methodological aspects to system implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Andi; McPhail, Stephen J.; Pumiglia, Davide; Carlini, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    This study reviews the status of life cycle assessment (LCA) of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and methodological aspects, communicates SOFC environmental performance, and compares the environmental performance with competing power production technologies using a life cycle perspective. Results indicate that power generation using SOFCs can make a significant contribution to the aspired-to greener energy future. Despite superior environmental performance, empirical studies indicate that economic performance is predominantly the highest-ranked criterion in the decision making process. Future LCA studies should attempt to employ comprehensive dynamic multi-criteria environmental impact analysis coupled with economic aspects, to allow a robust comparison of results. A methodology framework is proposed to achieve simultaneously ambitious socio-economic and environmental objectives considering all life cycle stages and their impacts.

  19. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  20. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  1. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  2. V.S.O.P.(97) computer code system for reactor physics and fuel cycle simulation. Input manual and comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruetten, H.J.; Haas, K.A.; Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.; Scherer, W.

    1998-04-01

    V.S.O.P. (97) is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies processing of cross sections, the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to HTRs and to two spatial dimensions. V.S.O.P. (97) can simulate the reactor operation from the initial core towards the equilibrium core. V.S.O.P. (97) - on the basis of V.S.O.P. (94) - has been improved with regard to a more detailed treatment of the build-up and the depletion of the heavy metal isotopes. Their chains now include the minor actinides. Resonance cross sections of the lumped resonance absorbers are evaluated burnup-dependent. Beyond this, the code has been reviewed in many details, aiming at an improved precision in the computer simulation of the features of the reactors and of their fuel cycle. The code consists of about 65000 FORTRAN statements. A memory of 32 MB should be available for its use. (orig.)

  3. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  4. A Fast Numerical Method for the Calculation of the Equilibrium Isotopic Composition of a Transmutation System in an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Álvarez-Velarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast numerical method for the calculation in a zero-dimensional approach of the equilibrium isotopic composition of an iteratively used transmutation system in an advanced fuel cycle, based on the Banach fixed point theorem, is described in this paper. The method divides the fuel cycle in successive stages: fuel fabrication, storage, irradiation inside the transmutation system, cooling, reprocessing, and incorporation of the external material into the new fresh fuel. The change of the fuel isotopic composition, represented by an isotope vector, is described in a matrix formulation. The resulting matrix equations are solved using direct methods with arbitrary precision arithmetic. The method has been successfully applied to a double-strata fuel cycle with light water reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems. After comparison to the results of the EVOLCODE 2.0 burn-up code, the observed differences are about a few percents in the mass estimations of the main actinides.

  5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  6. Variants of closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of the nuclear energy structure, the conditions of fuel burnup, and accumulation of new fissile isotopes from the raw isotopes on the main parameters of a closed fuel cycle is considered. The effects of the breeding ratio, the cooling time of the spent fuel in the external fuel cycle, and the separation of the breeding area and the fissile isotope burning area on the parameters of the fuel cycle are analyzed.

  7. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan

    1999-02-01

    A dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during 2 days pulse operation cycles. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the fuel burn and the function of exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using this code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  8. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  9. V.S.O.P. (99/09) computer code system for reactor physics and fuel cycle simulation. Version 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruetten, H.J.; Haas, K.A.; Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.; Pohl, C.; Scherer, W.

    2010-07-15

    V.S.O.P. (99/ 09) represents the further development of V.S.O.P. (99/ 05). Compared to its precursor, the code system has been improved again in many details. The main motivation for this new code version was to update the basic nuclear libraries used by the code system. Thus, all cross section libraries involved in the code have now been based on ENDF/B-VII. V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, processing of cross sections, neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to gas-cooled reactors and to two spatial dimensions. The code can simulate the reactor operation from the initial core towards the equilibrium core. This latest code version was developed and tested under the WINDOWS-XP - operating system. (orig.)

  10. V.S.O.P. (99) for WINDOWS and UNIX. Computer code system for reactor physics and fuel cycle simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruetten, H.J.; Haas, K.A.; Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.; Scherer, W.

    2000-10-01

    V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of the reactor and of the fuel element, processing of cross sections, neutron spectrum evaluation, neutron diffusion calculation in two or three dimensions, fuel burnup, fuel shuffling, reactor control, thermal hydraulics and fuel cycle costs. The thermal hydraulics part (steady state and time-dependent) is restricted to HTRs and to two spatial dimensions. The code can simulate the reactor operation from the initial core towards the equilibrium core. V.S.O.P.(99) represents the further development of V.S.O.P. (97). Compared to its precursor, the code system has been improved in many details. Major extensions have been included concerning the thermal hydraulic sections. Beyond that, the many modules of the code-system have been condensed to only 2 executables in the ''99''-release of V.S.O.P., to be comfortably handled on a WINDOWS-PC or a UNIX-computer. The necessary data input as well as the handling and book-keeping of intermediate data sets has been condensed and simplified. A 64 MB memory should be available for the execution of the code. The hard disk requirement for the executables and the basic libraries associated with the code amounts to about 7 MB. (orig.)

  11. System and process for producing fuel with a methane thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, Richard B.

    2015-12-15

    A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

  12. Structured Assessment Approach: a procedure for the assessment of fuel cycle safeguard systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A.A.; Patenaude, C.J.; Renard, P.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1980-03-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed and tested for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission a procedure for the evaluation of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems at Nuclear Fuel Facilities. This procedure, called the Structured Assessment Approach, SAA, subjects the MC and A system at a facility to a series of increasingly sophisticated adversaries and strategies. A fully integrated version of the computer codes which assist the analyst in this assessment was made available in October, 1979. The concepts of the SAA and the results of the assessment of a hypothetical but typical facility are presented.

  13. Comparative analyses of forest fuels in a life cycle perspective with a focus on transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa Naeslund [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-08-15

    Local, national and international transportation of forest fuels with regard to costs, primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission was analysed. The main issue was the extent to which both mode and distance of transport affect the monetary cost, CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use arising from the use of various types of forest residues for energy purpose. Local applications proved the most efficient options of those studied. Chipping of bundles at a terminal, for transport by rail and sea to national or international end-users, has low costs and produces only modest CO{sub 2} emissions. For the pellet options, the cost is about the same as for chipping, but require more primary energy and emit more CO{sub 2}. The traditional chipping system is more expensive than the other options. The costs of the international options over a transport distance of 1100 km vary between 21 and 28 EUR{sub 2007}/MWh, whereas pellet options cost between 22 and 25 EUR{sub 2007}/MWh. The primary energy required for transport of logging residues vis-a-vis pellets falls in the range 4-7% and 2-4%, respectively, of the bio-energy delivered. The primary energy needed to produce pellets gives them a lower fossil fuel substitution rate per hectare, compared with bundle systems. Similarly, for chip systems vis-a-vis bundle systems, the biomass delivered to the conversion plant is reduced by the greater physical dry-matter losses entailed by chipping systems in the forest-fuel chain. (author)

  14. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  15. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  16. Thorium nuclear fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Do, Jae Bum; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Kyoung Kyum; Choi, In Kyu; Lee, Jae Won; Song, Woong Sup; Kim, Heong Woo

    1998-03-01

    Since thorium produces relatively small amount of TRU elements after irradiation in the reactor, it is considered one of possible media to mix with the elements to be transmuted. Both solid and molten-salt thorium fuel cycles were investigated. Transmutation concepts being studied involved fast breeder reactor, accelerator-driven subcritical reactor, and energy amplifier with thorium. Long-lived radionuclides, especially TRU elements, could be separated from spent fuel by a pyrochemical process which is evaluated to be proliferation resistance. Pyrochemical processes of IFR, MSRE and ATW were reviewed and evaluated in detail, regarding technological feasibility, compatibility of thorium with TRU, proliferation resistance, their economy and safety. (author). 26 refs., 22 figs

  17. Development of decommissioning management system for nuclear fuel cycle facilities (DECMAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichirou; Ishijima, Noboru; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    In making a plan of decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, it is important to optimize the plan on the standpoint of a few viewpoints, that is, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost (they are called evaluation indexes). In the midst of decommissioning, the decommissioning plan would be modified suitably to optimize the evaluation indexes adjusting to progress of the decommissioning. The decommissioning management code (DECMAN), that is support system on computer, has been developed to assist the decommissioning planning. The system calculates the evaluation indexes quantitatively. The system consists of three fundamental codes, facility information database code, technical know-how database code and index evaluation code, they are composed using Oracle' database and 'G2' expert system. The functions of the system are as follows. (1) Facility information database code. Information of decommissioning facility and its rooms, machines and pipes in the code. (2) Technical know-how database code. Technical Information of tools to use in decommissioning work, cutting, dose measure, and decontamination are there. (3) Index evaluation code. User build decommissioning program using above two database codes. The code evaluates five indexes, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost, on planning decommissioning program. Results of calculation are shown in table, chart, and etc. (author)

  18. Plutonium in an enduring fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles evolved over the past five decades have allowed many nations of the world to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy, while contributing to the sustainable consumption of the world`s energy resources. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production suffered many traumas since the 1970s because of perceived risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons. However, the experience of the past five decades has shown that the world community is committed to safeguarding all fissile materials and continuing the use of nuclear energy resources. Decisions of a few nations to discard spent nuclear fuels in geologic formations are contrary to the goals of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development being pursued by the world community. The maintenance of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including spent fuels.

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  20. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  1. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  2. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  3. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation.

  5. Cycle Average Peak Fuel Temperature Prediction Using CAPP/GAMMA+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Nam-il; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to obtain a cycle average maximum fuel temperature without rigorous efforts, a neutronics/thermo-fluid coupled calculation is needed with depletion capability. Recently, a CAPP/GAMMA+ coupled code system has been developed and the initial core of PMR200 was analyzed using the CAPP/GAMMA+ code system. The GAMMA+ code is a system thermo-fluid analysis code and the CAPP code is a neutronics code. The General Atomics proposed that the design limit of the fuel temperature under normal operating conditions should be a cycle-averaged maximum value. Nonetheless, the existing works of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) only calculated the maximum fuel temperature at a fixed time point, e.g., the beginning of cycle (BOC) just because the calculation capability was not ready for a cycle average value. In this work, a cycle average maximum fuel temperature has been calculated using CAPP/GAMMA+ code system for the equilibrium core of PMR200. The CAPP/GAMMA+ coupled calculation was carried out for the equilibrium core of PMR 200 from BOC to EOC to obtain a cycle average peak fuel temperature. The peak fuel temperature was predicted to be 1372 .deg. C near MOC. However, the cycle average peak fuel temperature was calculated as 1181 .deg. C, which is below the design target of 1250 .deg. C.

  6. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeau, J.-P.; Durret, L.-F.

    1995-12-31

    Three main features of the globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle are identified and discussed. The first is an increase in the scale of the nuclear fuel cycle materials and services markets in the past 20 years. This has been accompanied by a growth in the sophistication of the fuel cycle. Secondly, the nuclear industry is now more vulnerable to outside pressures; it is no longer possible to make strategic decisions on the industry within a country solely on national considerations. Thirdly, there are changes in the decision-making process at the political, regulatory, operational and industrial level which are the consequence of global factors. (UK).

  7. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  8. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  10. Direction of Improvement for Licensing Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Yook, Dae Sik; Jeong, Seung Yeong; Jeong, Chan Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The final spent fuel management method has yet to be established, and the South Korean government is expected to decide on the final spent fuel management method under a national consensus. In particular, two methods of spent fuel management are under consideration: Direct disposal in base rock several hundred meters underground and recycling. The present study reviewed the direction of improvement of the regulatory system that can be applied when an advanced fuel cycle for recycling spent fuel is adopted as the final management method. For recycling to be adopted as the domestic final spent fuel management method, there remains the task of having to overcome the stumbling blocks of a national consensus and the Agreement for Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the United States of America concerning the Civil Use of Atomic Energy (Korea-US Atomic Energy Agreement). To resolve this and to construct and operate advanced fuel cycle facilities, it is necessary to establish an applicable legal system, which the present study reviewed. The results of the present study are expected to be used as the basic data in improving the legal system after the realization of advanced fuel cycles in the future. In addition, research on the development of technical standards and safety requirements for advanced fuel cycle facilities will continue to be necessary.

  11. An Integrated Fuel Depletion Calculator for Fuel Cycle Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Bright-lite is a reactor modeling software developed at the University of Texas Austin to expand upon the work done with the Bright [1] reactor modeling software. Originally, bright-lite was designed to function as a standalone reactor modeling software. However, this aim was refocused t couple bright-lite with the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator [2] to make it a module for the fuel cycle simulator.

  12. Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-24

    The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be

  13. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurov, Boris P.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  14. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  15. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

    2010-09-01

    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  16. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  17. Model for deployment of a Quality Assurance System in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities using Project Management techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Ricardo F.; Ribeiro, Saulo F.Q., E-mail: rflage@gmail.com, E-mail: quintao.saulo@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety is the main goal in any nuclear facility. In this sense the Norm CNEN-NN-1.16 classifies the quality assurance issue as a management system to be deployed and implemented by the organization to achieving security goals. Quality Assurance is a set of systematic and planned actions necessary to provide adequate confidence ensuring that a structure, system, component or installation will work satisfactorily in s. Hence, the Quality Assurance System (QAS) is a complete and comprehensive methodology, going far beyond a management plan quality from the perspective of project management. The fundamental of QAS requirements is all activities that influence the quality, involving organizational, human resources, procurement, nuclear safety, projects, procedures and communication. Coordination of all these elements requires a great effort by the team responsible because it usually involves different areas and different levels of hierarchy within the organization. The objectives and desired benefits should be well set for everyone to understand what it means to be achieved and how to achieve. The support of senior management is critical at this stage, providing guidelines and resources necessary to get the job elapse clearly and efficiently, on time, cost and certain scope. The methodology of project management processes can be applied to facilitate and expedite the implementation of this system. Many of the principles of the QAS are correlated with knowledge areas of project management. The proposed model for implementation of a QAS in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considered the best project management practices according to the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK - 5th edition) of the Project Management Institute (PMI). This knowledge is considered very good practices around the world. Since the model was defined, the deployment process becomes more practical and efficient, providing reduction in deployment time, better management of human

  18. Nonproliferation and safeguards aspects of the DUPIC fuel cycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persiani, P. K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiative and safeguards systems. Alternative recycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products. The concepts are alternatives to either the direct long-term storage deposition of or the purex reprocessing of the spent fuels. The alternate fuel cycle concepts reviewed include: the dry-recycle processes such as the direct use of reconfigured PWR spent fuel assemblies into CANDU reactors(DUPIC); low-decontamination, single-cycle co-extraction of fast reactor fuels in a wet-purex type of reprocessing; and on a limited scale the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The nonproliferation advantages usually associated with the above non-separation processes are: the highly radioactive spent fuel presents a barrier to the physical diversion of the nuclear material; avoid the need to dissolve and chemically separate the plutonium from the uranium and fission products; and that the spent fuel isotopic quality of the plutonium vector is further degraded. Although the radiation levels and the need for reprocessing may be perceived as barriers to the terrorist or the subnational level of safeguards, the international level of nonproliferation concerns is addressed primarily by material accountancy and verification activities. On the international level of nonproliferation concerns, the non-separation fuel cycle concepts involved have to be evaluated on the bases of the impact the processes may have on nuclear materials accountancy. (author).

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  20. Development techniques of computerized maintenance management system for nuclear fuel cycle examination facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yon Woo; Kim, S. D.; Soong, W. S.; Kim, G. H.; Oh, W. H.; Kim, Y. G

    2000-12-01

    Normal operation of the facility is one of the key factors in the accomplishments of research goals. As confirmed by a case study of the influence of the facility operation condition on the research results, emphasis should be put on the facility preserve management. Facilities should be maintained in solid operational condition and their malfunctions should be repaired as soon as possible. The purpose of this project is to make propositions on the development of the facility Preserve management system which is to maximize the efficiency of the budget execution, manpower organization and maintenance planning, and is to minimize the duration of the operational pause due to malfunctions with the least disbursement.

  1. Plant Characteristics of an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle and a Steam Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Plant characteristics of a system containing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle on the top of a Rankine cycle were investigated. Natural gas (NG) was used as the fuel for the plant. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel, while a pre-reformer broke down the heavier...... hydrocarbons in an adiabatic steam reformer (ASR). The pre-treated fuel then entered to the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks entered a catalytic burner for further combusting. The burned gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the Rankine cycle in a heat...... recovery steam generator (HRSG). The remaining energy of the off-gases was recycled back to the topping cycle for further utilization. Several parameter studies were carried out to investigate the sensitivity of the suggested plant. It was shown that the operation temperature of the desulfurization unit...

  2. 77 FR 19278 - Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... criteria or the pros and cons of any particular fuel cycle option. Opportunity for providing input on the... Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options AGENCY: Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies, Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Fuel Cycle...

  3. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were

  4. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  5. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  6. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  7. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  8. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  9. The FIT Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Meliisa C Teague; Gregory M Teske; Kurt G Vedros

    2010-09-01

    All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010] are an initial step by the FCR&D program toward a global analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. The question originally posed to the “system losses study” was the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, waste management, etc. versus the separation efficiency. In other words, are the costs associated with marginal reductions in separations losses (or improvements in product recovery) justified by the gains in the performance of other systems? We have learned that that is the wrong question. The right question is: how does one adjust the compositions and quantities of all mass streams, given uncertain product criteria, to balance competing objectives including cost? FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles using common bases to determine how chemical performance changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say used fuel cooling times or separation efficiencies) affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT estimates impurities in fuel and waste via a rough estimate of physics and mass balance for a set of technologies. If feasibility is an issue for a set, as it is for “minimum fuel treatment” approaches such as melt refining and AIROX, it can help to make an estimate of how performances would have to change to achieve feasibility.

  10. The FIT Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Meliisa C Teague; Gregory M Teske; Kurt G Vedros

    2010-09-01

    All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010] are an initial step by the FCR&D program toward a global analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. The question originally posed to the “system losses study” was the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, waste management, etc. versus the separation efficiency. In other words, are the costs associated with marginal reductions in separations losses (or improvements in product recovery) justified by the gains in the performance of other systems? We have learned that that is the wrong question. The right question is: how does one adjust the compositions and quantities of all mass streams, given uncertain product criteria, to balance competing objectives including cost? FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles using common bases to determine how chemical performance changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say used fuel cooling times or separation efficiencies) affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT estimates impurities in fuel and waste via a rough estimate of physics and mass balance for a set of technologies. If feasibility is an issue for a set, as it is for “minimum fuel treatment” approaches such as melt refining and AIROX, it can help to make an estimate of how performances would have to change to achieve feasibility.

  11. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume III explores resources and fuel cycle facilities. Chapters are devoted to: estimates of US uranium resources and supply; comparison of US uranium demands with US production capability forecasts; estimates of foreign uranium resources and supply; comparison of foreign uranium demands with foreign production capability forecasts; and world supply and demand for other resources and fuel cycle services. An appendix gives uranium, fissile material, and separative work requirements for selected reactors and fuel cycles.

  13. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  14. ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Inventory Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutnik, Steven E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-06-19

    processing, and depletion/decay solvers) can be self-contained into a single executable sequence. Further, to embed this capability into other software environments (such as the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator) requires that Origen’s capabilities be encapsulated into a portable, self-contained library which other codes can then call directly through function calls, thereby directly accessing the solver and data processing capabilities of Origen. Additional components relevant to this work include modernization of the reactor data libraries used by Origen for conducting nuclear fuel depletion calculations. This work has included the development of new fuel assembly lattices not previously available (such as for CANDU heavy-water reactor assemblies) as well as validation of updated lattices for light-water reactors updated to employ modern nuclear data evaluations. The CyBORG reactor analysis module as-developed under this workscope is fully capable of dynamic calculation of depleted fuel compositions from all commercial U.S. reactor assembly types as well as a number of international fuel types, including MOX, VVER, MAGNOX, and PHWR CANDU fuel assemblies. In addition, the Origen-based depletion engine allows for CyBORG to evaluate novel fuel assembly and reactor design types via creation of Origen reactor data libraries via SCALE. The establishment of this new modeling capability affords fuel cycle modelers a substantially improved ability to model dynamically-changing fuel cycle and reactor conditions, including recycled fuel compositions from fuel cycle scenarios involving material recycle into thermal-spectrum systems.

  15. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  16. Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian [ORNL; Worrall, Andrew [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bowman, Steve [ORNL; Flanagan, George [ORNL; Gehin, Jess [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Thorium has been widely considered an alternative to uranium fuel because of its relatively large natural abundance and its ability to breed fissile fuel (233U) from natural thorium (232Th). Possible scenarios for using thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle include use in different nuclear reactor types (light water, high temperature gas cooled, fast spectrum sodium, molten salt, etc.), advanced accelerator-driven systems, or even fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on concepts that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2), add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to LWR fuel assemblies, or use mixed plutonium and thorium (PuO2 + ThO2) fuel assemblies. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts on the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have nuclear characteristics that are different from those of uranium. In addition, ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These aspects are key to reactor safety-related issues. The primary objectives of this report are to summarize historical, current, and proposed uses of thorium in nuclear reactors; provide some important properties of thorium fuel; perform qualitative and quantitative evaluations of both in-reactor and out-of-reactor safety issues and requirements specific to a thorium-based fuel cycle for current LWR reactor designs; and identify key knowledge gaps and technical issues that need to be addressed for the licensing of thorium LWR fuel in the United States.

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  18. Pebble bed reactor fuel cycle optimization using particle swarm algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavron, Barak, E-mail: btavron@bgu.ac.il [Planning, Development and Technology Division, Israel Electric Corporation Ltd., P.O. Box 10, Haifa 31000 (Israel); Shwageraus, Eugene, E-mail: es607@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Particle swarm method has been developed for fuel cycle optimization of PBR reactor. • Results show uranium utilization low sensitivity to fuel and core design parameters. • Multi-zone fuel loading pattern leads to a small improvement in uranium utilization. • Thorium mixes with highly enriched uranium yields the best uranium utilization. - Abstract: Pebble bed reactors (PBR) features, such as robust thermo-mechanical fuel design and on-line continuous fueling, facilitate wide range of fuel cycle alternatives. A range off fuel pebble types, containing different amounts of fertile or fissile fuel material, may be loaded into the reactor core. Several fuel loading zones may be used since radial mixing of the pebbles was shown to be limited. This radial separation suggests the possibility to implement the “seed-blanket” concept for the utilization of fertile fuels such as thorium, and for enhancing reactor fuel utilization. In this study, the particle-swarm meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method (PSO) has been used to find optimal fuel cycle design which yields the highest natural uranium utilization. The PSO method is known for solving efficiently complex problems with non-linear objective function, continuous or discrete parameters and complex constrains. The VSOP system of codes has been used for PBR fuel utilization calculations and MATLAB script has been used to implement the PSO algorithm. Optimization of PBR natural uranium utilization (NUU) has been carried out for 3000 MWth High Temperature Reactor design (HTR) operating on the Once Trough Then Out (OTTO) fuel management scheme, and for 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) operating on the multi-pass (MEDUL) fuel management scheme. Results showed only a modest improvement in the NUU (<5%) over reference designs. Investigation of thorium fuel cases showed that the use of HEU in combination with thorium results in the most favorable reactor performance in terms of

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle with a Rankine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel...... enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks enter a burner for further burning. The off-gases are then used to produce steam for a Rankine cycle in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). Different system setups are suggested. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67......% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional Combined Cycles (CC). Both ASR (Adiabatic Steam Reformer) and CPO (Catalytic Partial Oxidation) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation....

  20. VISION -- A Dynamic Model of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; S. J. Piet; D. E. Shropshire; G. E. Matthern

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that – if implemented – would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deploy¬ment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential “exit” or “off ramp” approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  1. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

  2. Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microturbines and internal combustion engines.

  3. A comparison between molten carbonate fuel cells based hybrid systems using air and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles with state of the art technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz de Escalona, J. M.; Chacartegui, R.; Muñoz, A.; Sánchez, T.

    A proposal for high efficiency hybrid systems based on molten carbonate fuel cells is presented in this paper. This proposal is based on adopting a closed cycle bottoming gas turbine using supercritical carbon dioxide as working fluid as opposed to open cycle hot air turbines typically used in this type of power generators. First, both bottoming cycles are compared for the same operating conditions, showing that their performances do not differ as much as initially expected, even if the initial objective of reducing compression work is accomplished satisfactorily. In view of these results, a profound review of research and industrial literature is carried out in order to determine realistic specifications for the principal components of the bottoming systems. From this analysis, it is concluded that an appropriate set of specifications must be developed for each bottoming cycle as the performances of compressor, turbine and recuperator differ significantly from one working fluid to another. Thus, when the operating conditions are updated, the performances of the resulting systems show a remarkable advantage of carbon dioxide based systems over conventional air units. Actually, the proposed hybrid system shows its capability to achieve 60% net efficiency, what represents a 10% increase with respect to the reference system.

  4. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

  5. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  6. Non-judgemental Dynamic Fuel Cycle Benchmarking

    CERN Document Server

    Scopatz, Anthony Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new fuel cycle benchmarking analysis methodology by coupling Gaussian process regression, a popular technique in Machine Learning, to dynamic time warping, a mechanism widely used in speech recognition. Together they generate figures-of-merit that are applicable to any time series metric that a benchmark may study. The figures-of-merit account for uncertainty in the metric itself, utilize information across the whole time domain, and do not require that the simulators use a common time grid. Here, a distance measure is defined that can be used to compare the performance of each simulator for a given metric. Additionally, a contribution measure is derived from the distance measure that can be used to rank order the importance of fuel cycle metrics. Lastly, this paper warns against using standard signal processing techniques for error reduction. This is because it is found that error reduction is better handled by the Gaussian process regression itself.

  7. Survey of nuclear fuel-cycle codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Marable, J.H.

    1981-04-01

    A two-month survey of nuclear fuel-cycle models was undertaken. This report presents the information forthcoming from the survey. Of the nearly thirty codes reviewed in the survey, fifteen of these codes have been identified as potentially useful in fulfilling the tasks of the Nuclear Energy Analysis Division (NEAD) as defined in their FY 1981-1982 Program Plan. Six of the fifteen codes are given individual reviews. The individual reviews address such items as the funding agency, the author and organization, the date of completion of the code, adequacy of documentation, computer requirements, history of use, variables that are input and forecast, type of reactors considered, part of fuel cycle modeled and scope of the code (international or domestic, long-term or short-term, regional or national). The report recommends that the Model Evaluation Team perform an evaluation of the EUREKA uranium mining and milling code.

  8. Fuel Cycle Technologies 2014 Achievement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bonnie C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program supports the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) mission to: “Enhance U.S. security and economic growth through transformative science, technology innovation, and market solutions to meet our energy, nuclear security, and environmental challenges.” Goal 1 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to innovate energy technologies that enhance U.S. economic growth and job creation, energy security, and environmental quality. FCT does this by investing in advanced technologies that could transform the nuclear fuel cycle in the decades to come. Goal 2 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to strengthen national security by strengthening key science, technology, and engineering capabilities. FCT does this by working closely with the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S Department of State to develop advanced technologies that support the Nation’s nuclear nonproliferation goals.

  9. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-04-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

  10. Exploratory Design of a Reactor/Fuel Cycle Using Spent Nuclear Fuel Without Conventional Reprocessing - 13579

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, Timothy C.; Schleicher, Robert W.; Rawls, John D. [General Atomics 3550 General Atomics Court San Diego, CA 92130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    General Atomics has started design of a waste to energy nuclear reactor (EM2) that can use light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This effort addresses two problems: using an advanced small reactor with long core life to reduce nuclear energy overnight cost and providing a disposal path for LWR SNF. LWR SNF is re-fabricated into new EM2 fuel using a dry voloxidation process modeled on AIROX/ OREOX processes which remove some of the fission products but no heavy metals. By not removing all of the fission products the fuel remains self-protecting. By not separating heavy metals, the process remains proliferation resistant. Implementation of Energy Multiplier Module (EM2) fuel cycle will provide low cost nuclear energy while providing a long term LWR SNF disposition path which is important for LWR waste confidence. With LWR waste confidence recent impacts on reactor licensing, an alternate disposition path is highly relevant. Centered on a reactor operating at 250 MWe, the compact electricity generating system design maximizes site flexibility with truck transport of all system components and available dry cooling features that removes the need to be located near a body of water. A high temperature system using helium coolant, electricity is efficiently produced using an asynchronous high-speed gas turbine while the LWR SNF is converted to fission products. Reactor design features such as vented fuel and silicon carbide cladding support reactor operation for decades between refueling, with improved fuel utilization. Beyond the reactor, the fuel cycle is designed so that subsequent generations of EM2 reactor fuel will use the previous EM2 discharge, providing its own waste confidence plus eliminating the need for enrichment after the first generation. Additional LWR SNF is added at each re-fabrication to replace the removed fission products. The fuel cycle uses a dry voloxidation process for both the initial LWR SNF re-fabrication and later for EM2

  11. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  12. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David J.

    to increase performance and reduce degradation of the fuel cell. It also provides the high temperature needed to efficiently produce hydrogen for the fuel cell. Moreover, the inclusion of a highly reliable and electrically independent fuel cell is particularly important as the ship will have the ability to divert large amounts of power from the propulsion system to energize high energy weapon pulse loads without disturbing vital parts of the C4ISR systems or control panels. Ultimately, the thesis shows that the combined cycle is mutually beneficial to each side of the cycle and overall critically needed for our future.

  13. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery

  14. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several

  15. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  16. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  17. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of fusion reactor. 1. Single pulse operation simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan

    1997-11-01

    A dynamic simulation code for the fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during a single pulse operation. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the function of fuel burn, exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for the steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using the code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  18. A study on the environmental friendliness of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Cheong, J. H; Park, J. B.; Kim, K. K.; Cheong, H. Y; Song, M. C; Lee, H. J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodologies for quantifying environmental and socio-political factors involved with nuclear fuel cycle and finally to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle options with special emphasis given to the factors. Moreover, methodologies for developing practical radiological health risk assessment code system will be developed by which the assessment could be achieved for the recycling and reuse of scrap materials containing residual radioactive contamination. Selected scenarios are direct disposal, DUPIC(Direct use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU), and MOX recycle, land use, radiological effect, and non-radiological effect were chosen for environmental criteria and public acceptance and non-proliferation of nuclear material for socio-political ones. As a result of this study, potential scenarios to be chosen in Korea were selected and methodologies were developed to quantify the environmental and socio-political criteria. 24 refs., 27 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  19. A study on the environmental friendliness of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Cheong, J. H; Park, J. B.; Kim, K. K.; Cheong, H. Y; Song, M. C; Lee, H. J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodologies for quantifying environmental and socio-political factors involved with nuclear fuel cycle and finally to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle options with special emphasis given to the factors. Moreover, methodologies for developing practical radiological health risk assessment code system will be developed by which the assessment could be achieved for the recycling and reuse of scrap materials containing residual radioactive contamination. Selected scenarios are direct disposal, DUPIC(Direct use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU), and MOX recycle, land use, radiological effect, and non-radiological effect were chosen for environmental criteria and public acceptance and non-proliferation of nuclear material for socio-political ones. As a result of this study, potential scenarios to be chosen in Korea were selected and methodologies were developed to quantify the environmental and socio-political criteria. 24 refs., 27 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  20. Evaluation of U-Zr hydride fuel for a thorium fuel cycle in an RTR concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Taek; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper, we performed a design study of a thorium fueled reactor according to the design concept of the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) and evaluated its overall performance. To enhance its performance and alleviate its problems, we introduced a new metallic uranium fuel, uranium-zirconium hydride (U-ZrH{sub 1.6}), as a seed fuel. For comparison, typical ABB/CE-type PWR based on SYSTEM 80+and standard RTR-type thorium reactor were also studied. From the results of performance analysis, we could ascertain advantages of RTR-type thorium fueled reactor in proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and back-end fuel cycle. Also, we found that enhancement of proliferation resistance and safer operating conditions may be achieved by using the U-ZrH{sub 1.6} fuel in the seed region without additional penalties in comparison with the standard RTR`s U-Zr fuel. 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  1. Fuel utilization improvements in a once-through PWR fuel cycle. Final report on Task 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabby, D.

    1979-06-01

    In studying the position of the United States Department of Energy, Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program, this report determines the uranium saving associated with various improvement concepts applicable to a once-through fuel cycle of a standard four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. Increased discharged fuel burnup from 33,000 to 45,000 MWD/MTM could achieve a 12% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ saving by 1990. Improved fuel management schemes combined with coastdown to 60% power, could result in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ savings of 6%.

  2. Life Cycle Analysis of a Geothermal Heatpump Installation and Comparison with a Conventional Fuel Boiler System in a Nursery School in Galicia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the work lines in sustainable energy field of the EnergyLab Technology Centre (Vigo, Spain, associated with the technologies that are under investigation by this centre, it is developed a study about the Life Cycle Analysis (hereinafter, LCA over a geothermal heatpump (hereafter, GSHP installation in a nursery school in the province of Pontevedra (Galicia, Spain, and its comparison with the fuel boiler system prior to GHP. Thus, with the use of computer tools and following specific rules about the calculation of LCA, assessing the environmental impact of each system, and perform the appropriate comparison in order to quantify the savings emissions and the improvement in sustainability related to the replacement of diesel boiler system by the GSHP system.

  3. Survey of nuclear fuel cycle economics: 1970--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, B. E.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Delene, J. G.

    1977-03-01

    This report is intended to provide a coherent view of the diversity of factors that may affect nuclear fuel cycle economics through about 1985. The nuclear fuel cycle was surveyed as to past trends, current problems, and future considerations. Unit costs were projected for each step in the fuel cycle. Nuclear fuel accounting procedures were reviewed; methods of calculating fuel costs were examined; and application was made to Light Water Reactors (LWR) over the next decade. A method conforming to Federal Power Commission accounting procedures and used by utilities to account for backend fuel-cycle costs was described which assigns a zero net salvage value to discharged fuel. LWR fuel cycle costs of from 4 to 6 mills/kWhr (1976 dollars) were estimated for 1985. These are expected to reach 6 to 9 mills/kWr if the effect of inflation is included.

  4. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part5) - DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hang Bok; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-08-01

    This study examines the economics of the DUPIC fuel cycle using unit costs of fuel cycle components estimated based on conceptual designs. The fuel cycle cost (FCC) was calculated by a deterministic method in which reference values of fuel cycle components are used. The FCC was then analyzed by a Monte Carlo simulation to get the uncertainty of the FCC associated with the unit costs of the fuel cycle components. From the deterministic analysis on the one-batch equilibrium fuel cycle model, the DUPIC FCC was estimated to be 6.55-6.72 mills/kWh for proposed DUPIC fuel options, which is a little smaller than that of the once-through FCC by 0.04-0.28 mills/kWh. Considering the uncertainty (0.45-0.51 mills/kWh) of the FCC estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation method, the cost difference between the DUPIC and once-through fuel cycle is negligible. On the other hand, the material balance calculation has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle can save natural uranium resources by -20% and reduce the spent fuel arising by -65%, compared with the once-through fuel cycle. In conclusion, the DUPIC fuel cycle possesses a strong advantage over the once-through fuel cycle from the viewpoint of the environmental effect.

  5. Descriptions of reference LWR facilities for analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Kabele, T.J.

    1979-09-01

    To contribute to the Department of Energy's identification of needs for improved environmental controls in nuclear fuel cycles, a study was made of a light water reactor system. A reference LWR fuel cycle was defined, and each step in this cycle was characterized by facility description and mainline and effluent treatment process performance. The reference fuel cycle uses fresh uranium in light water reactors. Final treatment and ultimate disposition of waste from the fuel cycle steps were not included, and the waste is assumed to be disposed of by approved but currently undefined means. The characterization of the reference fuel cycle system is intended as basic information for further evaluation of alternative effluent control systems.

  6. Descriptions of reference LWR facilities for analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Kabele, T.J.

    1979-09-01

    To contribute to the Department of Energy's identification of needs for improved environmental controls in nuclear fuel cycles, a study was made of a light water reactor system. A reference LWR fuel cycle was defined, and each step in this cycle was characterized by facility description and mainline and effluent treatment process performance. The reference fuel cycle uses fresh uranium in light water reactors. Final treatment and ultimate disposition of waste from the fuel cycle steps were not included, and the waste is assumed to be disposed of by approved but currently undefined means. The characterization of the reference fuel cycle system is intended as basic information for further evaluation of alternative effluent control systems.

  7. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  8. HTR Spherical Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray S. Cahng

    2005-09-01

    Advanced High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (HTR) currently being developed (GFR, VHTR - Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor, PBMR, and GT-MHR) are able to achieve a simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the innovative features in these HTRs is reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products even under extreme accident conditions. The effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel pebble / block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. In addition, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. Although HTR fuel is rather homogeneously dispersed in the fuel graphite matrix, the heterogeneity effects in between fuel kernels and pebbles cannot be ignored. The double-heterogeneous lattice model recently developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains tens of thousands of cubic fuel kernel cells, which makes it very difficult to deplete the fuel, kernel by kernel (KbK), for the EqFC analysis. In addition, it is not possible to preserve the cubic size and packing factor in a spherical fuel pebble. To avoid these difficulties, a newly developed and validated HTR pebble-bed Kernel-by-Kernel spherical (KbK-sph) model, has been developed and verified in this study. The objective of this research is to introduce the KbK-sph model and super whole Pebble lattice model (PLM). The verified double-heterogeneous KbK-sph and pebble homogeneous lattice model (HLM) are used for the fuel burnup chracteristics analysis and important safety parameters validation. This study summarizes and compares the KbK-sph and HLM burnup analyzed results. Finally, we discus the Monte-Carlo coupling with a fuel depletion and buildup code - Origen-2 as a fuel burnup

  9. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  10. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  11. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  12. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  13. LIFE vs. LWR: End of the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Blink, J A; Shaw, H F

    2008-10-02

    The worldwide energy consumption in 2003 was 421 quadrillion Btu (Quads), and included 162 quads for oil, 99 quads for natural gas, 100 quads for coal, 27 quads for nuclear energy, and 33 quads for renewable sources. The projected worldwide energy consumption for 2030 is 722 quads, corresponding to an increase of 71% over the consumption in 2003. The projected consumption for 2030 includes 239 quads for oil, 190 quads for natural gas, 196 quads for coal, 35 quads for nuclear energy, and 62 quads for renewable sources [International Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0484, Table D1 (2006) p. 133]. The current fleet of light water reactors (LRWs) provides about 20% of current U.S. electricity, and about 16% of current world electricity. The demand for electricity is expected to grow steeply in this century, as the developing world increases its standard of living. With the increasing price for oil and gasoline within the United States, as well as fear that our CO2 production may be driving intolerable global warming, there is growing pressure to move away from oil, natural gas, and coal towards nuclear energy. Although there is a clear need for nuclear energy, issues facing waste disposal have not been adequately dealt with, either domestically or internationally. Better technological approaches, with better public acceptance, are needed. Nuclear power has been criticized on both safety and waste disposal bases. The safety issues are based on the potential for plant damage and environmental effects due to either nuclear criticality excursions or loss of cooling. Redundant safety systems are used to reduce the probability and consequences of these risks for LWRs. LIFE engines are inherently subcritical, reducing the need for systems to control the fission reactivity. LIFE engines also have a fuel type that tolerates much higher temperatures than LWR fuel, and has two safety systems to remove decay heat in the event of loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow. These features of

  14. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste

  15. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  16. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  17. A prospective fuel cycle for long lived radionuclide transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Shim, Joon Bo; Ahn, Byung Gil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    This study is aimed at outlining a prospective fuel cycle applicable to the nuclear transmutation of long lived radionuclides. Recycling the uranium and plutonium of spent fuels by Purex reprocessing is known to be far from an economical way at present. In addition, it generates high-level rad waste containing long-lived radionuclides, which would be a great burden to the subsequent final disposal in terms of cost, safety, and risks of environmental impact. As an alternative way to overcome this problem while still recycling the valuable fissionable materials as energy resources, transmutation is being taken into account by scientists in many countries. The concept of P{center_dot}T cycle suggested in this study is based on the technological requirements in relation with the transmutation system, while lowering the burden of waste disposal as well as risks of nuclear proliferation. (author)

  18. The FIT 2.0 Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Gregory M Teske

    2011-06-01

    All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010b] are steps by the Fuel Cycle Technology program toward an analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each fuel cycle component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. This report describes FIT 2, an update of the original FIT model.[Piet2010c] FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles; in particular, to determine how changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say, fuel burnup, cooling, or separation efficiencies) chemically affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT provides the following: Rough estimate of physics and mass balance feasibility of combinations of technologies. If feasibility is an issue, it provides an estimate of how performance would have to change to achieve feasibility. Estimate of impurities in fuel and impurities in waste as function of separation performance, fuel fabrication, reactor, uranium source, etc.

  19. The FIT 2.0 Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Gregory M Teske

    2011-06-01

    All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010b] are steps by the Fuel Cycle Technology program toward an analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each fuel cycle component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. This report describes FIT 2, an update of the original FIT model.[Piet2010c] FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles; in particular, to determine how changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say, fuel burnup, cooling, or separation efficiencies) chemically affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT provides the following: Rough estimate of physics and mass balance feasibility of combinations of technologies. If feasibility is an issue, it provides an estimate of how performance would have to change to achieve feasibility. Estimate of impurities in fuel and impurities in waste as function of separation performance, fuel fabrication, reactor, uranium source, etc.

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis by Integrated AHP and TOPSIS Method Using an Equilibrium Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. Y. [UNIST, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Koc, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Determining whether to break away from domestic conflict surrounding nuclear power and step forward for public consensus can be identified by transparent policy making considering public acceptability. In this context, deriving the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle for Korea is the key task in current situation. Assessing nuclear fuel cycle is a multicriteria decision making problem dealing with multiple interconnected issues on efficiently using natural uranium resources, securing an environment friendliness to deal with waste, obtaining the public acceptance, ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy, maintaining economic competitiveness compared to other electricity sources, and assessing technical feasibility of advanced nuclear energy systems. This paper performed the integrated AHP and TOPSIS analysis on three nuclear fuel cycle options against 5 different criteria including U utilization, waste management, material attractiveness, economics, and technical feasibility. The fuel cycle options analyzed in this paper are three different fuel cycle options as follows: PWR-Once through cycle(PWR-OT), PWR-MOX cycle, Pyro- SFR cycle. These fuel cycles are most likely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The analyzed nuclear fuel cycle options include the once-through cycle, the PWR-MOX recycle, and the Pyro-SFR recycle.

  1. A Concept of An Accelerator Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeev, I. P.

    1997-05-01

    The physical approach (I.P.Eremeev. Proc. of the PAC-95. Vol.1, p.98.) is applied for technology of nuclear fuel cycle. It is proposed the cycle to be closed by such an accelerator based process link, which would allow, on the one hand, the most hazardous of "equilibrium" radionuclides to be transmuted to stable isotopes or incinerated and, on the other hand, additional fissile fuel to be produced to compensate the energy consumption. Parameters of the technology, such as an intensity and energy "cost" of a transmutation event, a flux of photoneutrons produced have been determined for model targets. It is shown that the approach allows the above fission/transuranium radionuclides to be transmuted/ incinerated at a much greater rate than that of their build-up in operating NPP reactors at a much less energy consumption than an energy produced under their formation and at considerable compensation of the consumed energy through breeding fissile isotopes. A possibility of going to a closed Th-U fuel cycle is discussed. To realize the technology proposed requirements to a system of electron accelerators are formulated.

  2. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  3. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To accurately represent how conservation and efficiency policies affect energy demand, both direct and indirect impacts need to be included in the accounting. The indirect impacts are defined here as the resource savings that accrue over the fuel production chain, which when added to the energy consumed at the point of use, constitute the full-fuel- cycle (FFC) energy. This paper uses the accounting framework developed in (Coughlin 2012) to calculate FFC energy metrics as time series for the period 2010-2040. The approach is extended to define FFC metrics for the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air-borne pollutants. The primary focus is the types of energy used in buildings and industrial processes, mainly natural gas and electricity. The analysis includes a discussion of the fuel production chain for coal, which is used extensively for electric power generation, and for diesel and fuel oil, which are used in mining, oil and gas operations, and fuel distribution. Estimates of the energy intensity parameters make use of data and projections from the Energy Information Agency’s National Energy Modeling System, with calculations based on information from the Annual Energy Outlook 2012.

  4. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  5. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  6. Completion of Population of and Quality Assurance on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, Matthew Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An Evaluation and Screening team supporting the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Office of the United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy is conducting an evaluation and screening of a comprehensive set of fuel cycle options. These options have been assigned to one of 40 evaluation groups, each of which has a representative fuel cycle option [Todosow 2013]. A Fuel Cycle Data Package System Datasheet has been prepared for each representative fuel cycle option to ensure that the technical information used in the evaluation is high-quality and traceable [Kim, et al., 2013]. The information contained in the Fuel Cycle Data Packages has been entered into the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog at Sandia National Laboratories so that it is accessible by the evaluation and screening team and other interested parties. In addition, an independent team at Savannah River National Laboratory has verified that the information has been entered into the catalog correctly. This report documents that the 40 representative fuel cycle options have been entered into the Catalog, and that the data entered into the catalog for the 40 representative options has been entered correctly.

  7. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  8. Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Dixon; Sonny Kim; David Shropshire; Steven Piet; Gretchen Matthern; Bill Halsey

    2008-12-01

    This report examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from the current United States (U.S.) nuclear fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is disposed in a repository to a closed fuel cycle where the used fuel is recycled and only fission products and waste are disposed. The report is intended to help inform policy developers, decision makers, and program managers of system-level options and constraints as they guide the formulation and implementation of advanced fuel cycle development and demonstration efforts and move toward deployment of nuclear fuel recycling infrastructure.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  10. Thermodynamic Investigation of an Integrated Gasification Plant with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Steam Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas...... was rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam...... generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system...

  11. Filling Knowledge Gaps with Five Fuel Cycle Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Jess Gehin; William Halsey; Temitope Taiwo

    2010-11-01

    During FY 2010, five studies were conducted of technology families’ applicability to various fuel cycle strategies to fill in knowledge gaps in option space and to better understand trends and patterns. Here, a “technology family” is considered to be defined by a type of reactor and by selection of which actinides provide fuel. This report summarizes the higher-level findings; the detailed analyses and results are documented in five individual reports, as follows: • Advanced once through with uranium fuel in fast reactors (SFR), • Advanced once through (uranium fuel) or single recycle (TRU fuel) in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in light water reactors (LWRs), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in molten salt reactors (MSR), and • Several fuel cycle missions with Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH). Each study examined how the designated technology family could serve one or more designated fuel cycle missions, filling in gaps in overall option space. Each study contains one or more illustrative cases that show how the technology family could be used to meet a fuel cycle mission, as well as broader information on the technology family such as other potential fuel cycle missions for which insufficient information was available to include with an illustrative case. None of the illustrative cases can be considered as a reference, baseline, or nominal set of parameters for judging performance; the assessments were designed to assess areas of option space and were not meant to be optimized. There is no implication that any of the cases or technology families are necessarily the best way to meet a given fuel cycle mission. The studies provide five examples of 1-year fuel cycle assessments of technology families. There is reasonable coverage in the five studies of the performance areas of waste management and uranium utilization. The coverage of economics, safety, and proliferation resistance and physical protection in

  12. Transition Analysis of Promising U.S. Future Fuel Cycles Using ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunny, Eva E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Joshua L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gregg, Robert [Preston Laboratory, Springfields Works (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies performed an evaluation and screening (E&S) study of nuclear fuel cycle options to help prioritize future research and development decisions. Previous work for this E&S study focused on establishing equilibrium conditions for analysis examples of 40 nuclear fuel cycle evaluation groups (EGs) and evaluating their performance according to a set of 22 standardized metrics. Following the E&S study, additional studies are being conducted to assess transitioning from the current US fuel cycle to future fuel cycle options identified by the E&S study as being most promising. These studies help inform decisions on how to effectively achieve full transition, estimate the length of time needed to undergo transition from the current fuel cycle, and evaluate performance of nuclear systems and facilities in place during the transition. These studies also help identify any barriers to achieve transition. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuel Cycle Options Campaign team used ORION to analyze the transition pathway from the existing US nuclear fuel cycle—the once-through use of low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel in thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs) —to a new fuel cycle with continuous recycling of plutonium and uranium in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). This paper discusses the analysis of the transition from an LWR to an SFR fleet using ORION, highlights the role of lifetime extensions of existing LWRs to aid transition, and discusses how a slight delay in SFR deployment can actually reduce the time to achieve an equilibrium fuel cycle.

  13. Comparative assessment of nuclear fuel cycles. Light-water reactor once-through, classical fast breeder reactor, and symbiotic fast breeder reactor cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, R.W.; Barrett, R.J.; Freiwald, J.G.

    1980-06-01

    The object of the Alternative Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study is to perform comparative assessments of nuclear power systems. There are two important features of this study. First, this evaluation attempts to encompass the complete, integrated fuel cycle from mining of uranium ore to disposal of waste rather than isolated components. Second, it compares several aspects of each cycle - energy use, economics, technological status, proliferation, public safety, and commercial potential - instead of concentrating on one or two assessment areas. This report presents assessment results for three fuel cycles. These are the light-water reactor once-through cycle, the fast breeder reactor on the classical plutonium cycle, and the fast breeder reactor on a symbiotic cycle using plutonium and /sup 233/U as fissile fuels. The report also contains a description of the methodology used in this assessment. Subsequent reports will present results for additional fuel cycles.

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  15. AB 1007 Full Fuel Cycle Analysis (FFCA) Peer Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D; Armstrong, D; Campbell, C; Lamont, A; Gallegos, G; Stewart, J; Upadhye, R

    2007-01-19

    LLNL is a participant of California's Advanced Energy Pathways (AEP) team funded by DOE (NETL). At the AEP technical review meeting on November 9, 2006. The AB 1007 FFCA team (Appendix A) requested LLNL participate in a peer review of the FFCA reports. The primary contact at the CEC was McKinley Addy. The following reports/presentations were received by LLNL: (1) Full Fuel Cycle Energy and Emissions Assumptions dated September 2006, TIAX; (2) Full Fuel cycle Assessment-Well to Tank Energy Inputs, Emissions, and Water Impacts dated December 2006, TIAX; and (3) Full Fuel Cycle Analysis Assessment dated October 12, 2006, TIAX.

  16. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  17. Fuel Cycle Performance of Thermal Spectrum Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Andrew [ORNL; Todosow, Michael [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors may offer potential benefits, such as enhanced operational flexibility. However, it is vital to understand the holistic impact of small modular reactors on the nuclear fuel cycle and fuel cycle performance. The focus of this paper is on the fuel cycle impacts of light water small modular reactors in a once-through fuel cycle with low-enriched uranium fuel. A key objective of this paper is to describe preliminary reactor core physics and fuel cycle analyses conducted in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Options Campaign. Challenges with small modular reactors include: increased neutron leakage, fewer assemblies in the core (and therefore fewer degrees of freedom in the core design), complex enrichment and burnable absorber loadings, full power operation with inserted control rods, the potential for frequent load-following operation, and shortened core height. Each of these will impact the achievable discharge burn-up in the reactor and the fuel cycle performance. This paper summarizes the results of an expert elicitation focused on developing a list of the factors relevant to small modular reactor fuel, core, and operation that will impact fuel cycle performance. Preliminary scoping analyses were performed using a regulatory-grade reactor core simulator. The hypothetical light water small modular reactor considered in these preliminary scoping studies is a cartridge type one-batch core with 4.9% enrichment. Some core parameters, such as the size of the reactor and general assembly layout, are similar to an example small modular reactor concept from industry. The high-level issues identified and preliminary scoping calculations in this paper are intended to inform on potential fuel cycle impacts of one-batch thermal spectrum SMRs. In particular, this paper highlights the impact of increased neutron leakage and reduced number of batches on the achievable burn-up of the reactor. Fuel cycle performance

  18. Testing and analysis of the impact on engine cycle parameters and control system modifications using hydrogen or methane as fuel in an industrial gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, H. H.-W.; Keinz, J.; Börner, S.; Hendrick, P.; Elsing, R.

    2016-07-01

    The paper highlights the modification of the engine control software of the hydrogen (H2) converted gas turbine Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) GTCP 36-300 allowing safe and accurate methane (CH4) operation achieved without mechanical changes of the metering unit. The acceleration and deceleration characteristics of the engine controller from idle to maximum load are analyzed comparing H2 and CH4. Also, the paper presents the influence on the thermodynamic cycle of gas turbine resulting from the different fuels supported by a gas turbine cycle simulation of H2 and CH4 using the software GasTurb.

  19. V.S.O.P. (99/09) Computer Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation; Version 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, H.-J.; Haas, K. A.; Brockmann, H.; Ohlig, U.; Pohl, C.; Scherer, W.

    2010-01-01

    V.S.O.P.(99/ 09) represents the further development of V.S.O.P.(99/ 05). Compared to its precursor, the code system has been improved again in many details. The main motivation for this new code version was to update the basic nuclear libraries used by the code system. Thus, all cross section libraries involved in the code have now been based on ENDF/B-VII. V.S.O.P. is a computer code system for the comprehensive numerical simulation of the physics of thermal reactors. It implies the setup of...

  20. Interim assessment of the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle: feasibility and nonproliferation characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L.S.; Bartine, D.E.; Burns, T.J. (eds.)

    1978-12-01

    A fuel cycle that employs /sup 233/U denatured with /sup 238/U and mixed with thorium fertile material is examined with respect to its proliferation-resistance characteristics and its technical and economic feasibility. The rationale for considering the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle is presented, and the impact of the denatured fuel on the performance of Light-Water Reactors, Spectral-Shift-Controlled Reactors, Gas-Cooled Reactors, Heavy-Water Reactors, and Fast Breeder Reactors is discussed. The scope of the R, D and D programs to commercialize these reactors and their associated fuel cycles is also summarized and the resource requirements and economics of denatured /sup 233/U cycles are compared to those of the conventional Pu/U cycle. In addition, several nuclear power systems that employ denatured /sup 233/U fuel and are based on the energy center concept are evaluated. Under this concept, dispersed power reactors fueled with denatured or low-enriched uranium fuel are supported by secure energy centers in which sensitive activities of the nuclear cycle are performed. These activities include /sup 233/U production by Pu-fueled transmuters (thermal or fast reactors) and reprocessing. A summary chapter presents the most significant conclusions from the study and recommends areas for future work.

  1. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...... configurations are compared with each other. Technoeconomy is used when calculating the cost if the plants. It is found that when a solid oxide fuel cell plant is combined with a gas turbine cycle then the plant efficiency will be the highest one while if a biomass gasification plant is integrated...... with these hybrid cycles then integrated biomass gasification with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycle will have the highest plant efficiency. The cost of solid oxide fuel cell with steam plant is found to be the lowest one with a value of about 1030$/kW....

  2. Fuel Cycle Services the Heart of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soentono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel is essential for development whether for survival and or wealth creation purposes. In this century the utilization of fuels need to be improved although energy mix is still to be the most rational choice. The large amount utilization of un-renewable fossil has some disadvantages since its low energy content requires massive extraction, transport, and processing while emitting CO2 resulting degradation of the environment. In the mean time the advancement of nuclear science and technology has improved significantly the performance of nuclear power plant, management of radioactive waste, enhancement of proliferation resistance, and more economic competitiveness. Ever since the last decade of the last century the nuclear renaissance has taken place. This is also due to the fact that nuclear energy does not emit GHG. Although the nuclear fuel offers a virtually limitless source of economic energy, it is only so if the nuclear fuel is reprocessed and recycled. Consequently, the fuel cycle is to be even more of paramount important in the future. The infrastructure of the fuel cycle services worldwide has been adequately available. Various International Initiatives to access the fuel cycle services are also offered. However, it is required to put in place the International Arrangements to guaranty secured sustainable supply of services and its peaceful use. Relevant international co-operations are central for proceeding with the utilization of nuclear energy, while this advantageous nuclear energy utilization relies on the fuel cycle services. It is therefore concluded that the fuel cycle services are the heart of nuclear energy, and the international nuclear community should work together to maintain the availability of this nuclear fuel cycle services timely, sufficiently, and economically.

  3. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  4. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  5. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  6. Conception of high safety reactor MAVR, technical and economical fuel cycle characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, V.M.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.

    1993-12-31

    Operation safety of reactor MAVR under nominal and emergency situations is based on creation of conditions for the minimum time of fuel operation in the core at the minimum quantity of the fissionable material. The variants of core elements construction, of the reactor control systems, and the possible scheme of fuel cycles of the reactor MAVR are considered.

  7. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  8. Criticality safety aspects of spent fuel arrays from emerging nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G. [University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, Kimmerria Campus, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Emerging nuclear fuel cycles: fuels with Pu or minor actinides (MA) for their self-generated recycling or transmutation in PWR or FR {yields} reduction of radiotoxicity of HLW. The aim of work is to assess criticality (k{sub {infinity}}) of arrays of spent nuclear fuels from these emerging fuel cycles. Procedures: Calculations of - k{sub {infinity}}, using MCNP5 based on fresh and spent fuel compositions (infinite arrays), - spent fuel compositions using ORIGEN. Fuels considered: - commercial PWR-UO{sub 2} (R1) and -MOX (R2), [45 GWd/t] and fast reactor [100 GWd/t] (R3), - PWR self-generated Pu recycling (S1) and MA recycling (S2), FR self-generated MA recycling (S3), FR with 2% {sup 237}Np for transmutation purposes (T). Results: k{sub {infinity}} based on fresh and spent fuel compositions is shown. Fuels are clustered in two distinct families: - fast reactor fuels, - thermal reactor fuels; k{sub {infinity}} decreases when calculated on the basis of actinide and fission product inventory. In conclusions: - Emerging fuels considered resemble their corresponding commercial fuels; - k{sub {infinity}} decreases in all cases when calculated on the basis of spent fuel compositions (reactivity worth {approx}-20%{Delta}k/k), hence improving the effectiveness of packaging. (author)

  9. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT, DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX, and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyroprocessing (Pyro-SFR. This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyrotechniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  10. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

    1984-03-01

    This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids - international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

  11. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide: (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs; and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

  12. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  13. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  14. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  15. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  16. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-30

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy`s activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration`s annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment.

  17. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lin, C. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hader, J. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Park, T. K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Deng, P. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Yang, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jung, Y. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stauff, N. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-30

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  18. Strategic research of advanced fuel cycle technologies in JNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, T.; Fukushima, M.; Nomura, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Key technologies for the future nuclear fuel cycle have been proposed and are being reviewed in JNC as a part of the Feasibility Study for an Advanced Fuel Cycle, which is to achieve a more flexible energy choice to satisfy a sustainable energy security and global environmental protection. The candidate reprocessing technologies are: 1) aqueous simplified PUREX process, 2) oxide or metallic electrowinning, and 3) fluoride volatilization for oxide, metal, or nitride fuels. The fuel fabrication methods being investigated are: 1) simplified pellet process, 2) sphere/vibro-packed process for MOX/MN fuel, and 3) casting for metal fuel. These candidate technologies are currently being compared based on past experiences, technical issues to be solved, industrial applicability for future plants, feasible options for MA/LLFP separation, and nonproliferation aspects. Alter two years of the present reviewing process, selected key technologies will be developed over the next five years to evaluate industrial applicability of reprocessing and fuel manufacturing processes for the advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

  19. Technical ability of new MTR high-density fuel alloys regarding the whole fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, J.P. [CERCA, Romans (France); Maugard, B. [CEA, F-75000 Paris (France); Gay, A. [Cogema, Velizy (France)

    1998-07-01

    The development of new fuel alloys could provide a good opportunity to improve drastically the fuel cycle on the neutronic performances and the reprocessing point of view. Nevertheless, those parameters can only be considered if the fuel manufacture feasibility has been previously demonstrated. As a matter of fact, a MTR work group involving French partners (CEA, CERCA, COGEMA) has been set up in order to evaluate the technical ability of new fuels considering the whole fuel cycle. In this paper CERCA is presenting the preliminary results of UMo and UNbZr fuel plate manufacture, CEA is comparing to U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} the neutronic performances of fuels such as UMo, UN, UNbZr, while COGEMA is dealing with the reprocessing feasibility. (author)

  20. Fuel Cycle Scenario Definition, Evaluation, and Trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Christopher T. Laws; Lee C. Cadwallader; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Robert N. Hill; J. D. Smith; Andrew S. Goldmann; George Bailey

    2006-08-01

    This report aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, potential need for transmutation of technetium and iodine, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. It documents most of the work produced by INL, ANL, and SNL personnel under their Simulation, Evaluation, and Trade Study (SETS) work packages during FY2005 and the first half of FY2006. This report represents the first attempt to calculate a full range of metrics, covering all four AFCI program objectives - waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety - using a combination of "static" calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This is a technical report, not aimed at a policy-level audience. A wide range of options are studied to provide the technical basis for identifying the most attractive options and potential improvements. Option improvement could be vital to accomplish before the AFCI program publishes definitive cost estimates. Information from this report will be extracted and summarized in future policy-level reports. Many dynamic simulations of deploying those options are included. There are few "control knobs" for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future, even though it is dark (uncertain) and controls are sluggish with slow time response: what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants. Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would

  1. Impact of the Taxes on Used Nuclear Fuel on the Fuel Cycle Economics in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yolanda Moratilla Soria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Spanish government created two new taxes on used nuclear fuel. This article aims to present the results of an economic study carried out to compare the costs of long-term storage of used nuclear fuel –open cycle strategy–, with the cost of the strategy of reprocessing and recycling used fuel– closed cycle strategy– taking into account the impact of the new taxes on the global cost of the fuel cycle. The results show that the costs of open-cycle and closed-cycle spent fuel management, evaluated in Spain after the introduction of the taxes, are sufficiently similar (within the bounds of uncertainty, that the choice between both is predicated on other than purely economic criteria.

  2. Results of studies on application of CCMHD to advanced fossil fuel power plant cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, J.P.; Wu, Y.C.L.S.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential for application of a Closed Cycle MHD disk generator (CCMHD) in advanced fossil fuel power generation systems. Cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of candidate power cycles, including simple cycle CCMHD (MHD); a cycle combining CCMHD and gas turbines (MHD/GT); and a triple combined cycle including CCMHD, gas turbines, and steam turbines (MHD/GT/ST). The above cycles were previously considered in cycle studies reported by Japanese researchers. Also considered was a CCMHD cycle incorporating thermochemical heat recovery through reforming of the fuel stream (MHD/REF), which is the first consideration of this approach. A gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GT/ST) was also analyzed for baseline comparison. The only fuel considered in the study was CH4. Component heat and pressure losses were neglected, and the potential for NOx emission due to high combustion temperatures was not considered. Likewise, engineering limitations for cycle components, particularly the high temperature argon heater, were not considered. This approach was adopted to simplify the analysis for preliminary screening of candidate cycles. Cycle calculations were performed using in-house code. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties were calculated using the NASA SP- 273 data base, and thermodynamic properties for steam were calculated using the computerized ASME Steam Tables. High temperature equilibrium compositions for combustion gas were calculated using tabulated values of the equilibrium constants for the important reactions.

  3. Tritium fuel cycle in ITER and DEMO: Issues in handling large amount of fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, T., E-mail: tanabe@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Since tritium resources are very limited, economical conversion of fusion energy to electricity and/or heat must have an enough margin to keep self-fuel-sufficiency and simultaneously ensure tritium safety. To realize this, tritium inventory in reactor systems, which use ∼10{sup 17} Bq (a few kg) of tritium, should be kept as small as possible, under strict accountancy or regulation of a few tens Bq (∼pg). In present tokamaks, however, hydrogen retention rate is significantly large, i.e. more than 5% of fueled hydrogen is continuously piled up in their vacuum vessels, which must not be allowed in a reactor. Moreover, both fuelling and burning efficiencies are very poor, only a few % or less. Accordingly, huge amount of tritium fuel must be recycled. In the paper, after the introduction of tritium as a hydrogen radioisotope, important issues to establish safe and economical tritium fuel cycle for a fusion reactor will be summarized considering the handling of large amounts of tritium, i.e. confinement, leakage, contamination, permeation, regulation and tritium accountancy.

  4. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity.

  5. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  6. LIFE CYCLE BASED STUDIES ON BIOETHANOL FUEL FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    A literature search was conducted and revealed 45 publications (1996-2005) that compare bio-ethanol systems to conventional fuel on a life-cycle basis, or using life cycle assessment. Feedstocks, such as sugar beets, wheat, potato, sugar cane, and corn, have been investigated in...

  7. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: A Systematic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, Stefano

    For decades, nuclear energy development was based on the expectation that recycling of the fissionable materials in the used fuel from today's light water reactors into advanced (fast) reactors would be implemented as soon as technically feasible in order to extend the nuclear fuel resources. More recently, arguments have been made for deployment of fast reactors in order to reduce the amount of higher actinides, hence the longevity of radioactivity, in the materials destined to a geologic repository. The cost of the fast reactors, together with concerns about the proliferation of the technology of extraction of plutonium from used LWR fuel as well as the large investments in construction of reprocessing facilities have been the basis for arguments to defer the introduction of recycling technologies in many countries including the US. In this thesis, the impacts of alternative reactor technologies on the fuel cycle are assessed. Additionally, metrics to characterize the fuel cycles and systematic approaches to using them to optimize the fuel cycle are presented. The fuel cycle options of the 2010 MIT fuel cycle study are re-examined in light of the expected slower rate of growth in nuclear energy today, using the CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis). The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is considered as the base-line case, while advanced technologies with fuel recycling characterize the alternative fuel cycle options available in the future. The options include limited recycling in L WRs and full recycling in fast reactors and in high conversion LWRs. Fast reactor technologies studied include both oxide and metal fueled reactors. Additional fuel cycle scenarios presented for the first time in this work assume the deployment of innovative recycling reactor technologies such as the Reduced Moderation Boiling Water Reactors and Uranium-235 initiated Fast Reactors. A sensitivity study focused on system and technology parameters of interest has been conducted to test

  8. Computer code system for the R and D of nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor. 5. Development and application of reactor analysis code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Hazama, Taira; Chiba, Go; Ohki, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Makoto [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-12-01

    In the core design of fast reactors (FRs), it is very important to improve the prediction accuracy of the nuclear characteristics for both reducing cost and ensuring reliability of FR plants. A nuclear reactor analysis code system for FRs has been developed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This paper describes the outline of the calculation models and methods in the system consisting of several analysis codes, such as the cell calculation code CASUP, the core calculation code TRITAC and the sensitivity analysis code SAGEP. Some examples of verification results and improvement of the design accuracy are also introduced based on the measurement data from critical assemblies, e.g, the JUPITER experiment (USA/Japan), FCA (Japan), MASURCA (France), and BFS (Russia). Furthermore, application fields and future plans, such as the development of new generation nuclear constants and applications to MA{center_dot}FP transmutation, are described. (author)

  9. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T. [FSUE RFNC - VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  10. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  11. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections for the Isotopes relevant to the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The present concern about a sustainable energy supply is characterised by a considerable uncertainty: the green house effect and foreseeable limits in fossil fuel resources on the one hand, the concern about the environmental impact of nuclear fission energy and the long term fusion research on the other hand, have led to the consideration of a variety of advanced strategies for the nuclear fuel cycle and related nuclear energy systems. The present research directories concern such strategies as the extension of the life span of presently operating reactors, the increase of the fuel burn-up, the plutonium recycling, and in particular the incineration of actinides and long-Lived fission products, the accelerator driven systems (ADS), like the "Energy Amplifier" (EA) concept of C. Rubbia, and the possible use of the Thorium fuel cycle. The detailed feasibility study and safety assessment of these strategies requires the accurate knowledge of neutron nuclear reaction data. Both, higher fuel burn-up and especiall...

  12. Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

    2013-10-01

    This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas: Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities) Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed: Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Waste Generation Based on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to the recommendations submitted by the Public Engagement Commission on Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (PECOS), the government was advised to pick the site for an underground laboratory and interim storage facilities before the end of 2020 followed by the related research for permanent and underground disposal of spent fuel after 10 years. In the middle of the main issues, the factors of environmentally friendly and safe way to handle nuclear waste are inextricable from nuclear power generating nation to ensure the sustainability of nuclear power. For this purposes, the closed nuclear fuel cycle has been developed regarding deep geological disposal, pyroprocessing, and burner type sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) in Korea. Among two methods of an equilibrium model and a dynamic model generally used for screening nuclear fuel cycle system, the dynamic model is more appropriate to envisage country-specific environment with the transition phase in the long term and significant to estimate meaningful impacts based on the timedependent behavior of harmful wastes. This study aims at analyzing the spent nuclear fuel generation based on the long-term nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios considered at up-to-date country specific conditions and comparing long term advantages of the developed nuclear fuel cycle option between once-through cycle and Pyro-SFR cycle. In this study, a dynamic analysis was carried out to estimate the long-term projection of nuclear electricity generation, installed capacity, spent nuclear fuel arising in different fuel cycle scenarios based on the up-to-date national energy plans.

  14. A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Denia

    The radioactive waste classification system currently used in the United States primarily relies on a source-based framework. This has lead to numerous issues, such as wastes that are not categorized by their intrinsic risk, or wastes that do not fall under a category within the framework and therefore are without a legal imperative for responsible management. Furthermore, in the possible case that advanced fuel cycles were to be deployed in the United States, the shortcomings of the source-based classification system would be exacerbated: advanced fuel cycles implement processes such as the separation of used nuclear fuel, which introduce new waste streams of varying characteristics. To be able to manage and dispose of these potential new wastes properly, development of a classification system that would assign appropriate level of management to each type of waste based on its physical properties is imperative. This dissertation explores how characteristics from wastes generated from potential future nuclear fuel cycles could be coupled with a characteristics-based classification framework. A static mass flow model developed under the Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research & Development program, called the Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) model, was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices: two modified open fuel cycle cases (recycle in MOX reactor) and two different continuous-recycle fast reactor recycle cases (oxide and metal fuel fast reactors). This analysis focuses on the impact of waste heat load on waste classification practices, although future work could involve coupling waste heat load with metrics of radiotoxicity and longevity. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles and how it could inform long- and short-term disposal management is discussed. It is shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission

  15. A collaboration on extended INPRO case study of the DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Ko, W. I. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    Since 1992, KAERI, AECL, United States Department of States(USDOS) and IAEA have performed the DUPIC fuel cycle development activities as an international cooperative research program, which has now been chosen as a target nuclear system for an INPRO case study. This study will focus on a further improvement and modification of the basic principles, user requirements and acceptance limits, which are defined in the IAEA-TECDOC-1434 for an evaluation of its proliferation-resistance through a proliferation-resistance assessment of the whole fuel cycle of DUPIC based on the INPRO methodology. In order to further develop an evaluation method for a proliferation-resistance based on the INPRO methodology, the basic principles, user requirements and acceptance limits of a proliferation-resistance was reviewed and quantified. Then the evaluation model (material flow, facility scale, reference fuel, etc.) of the DUPIC fuel cycle was developed and a proliferation-resistance assessment of the DUPIC fuel cycle including the PWR fuel cycle was performed by using the revised INPRO methodology in the area of a proliferation resistance. Also, the recommendations for a further improvement of INPRO methodology were suggested through examining the INPRO methodology for a proliferation resistance assessment. Through the proliferation resistance assessment of the whole fuel cycle of DUPIC including the PWR fuel cycle, the proliferation-resistance methodology was updated and re-established. And based on its experience, The research results can be used not only to evaluate and determine the future domestic proliferation-resistant fuel cycles which were derived from the GEN{sub I}V or INPRO programs but also to improve a system design to enhance its proliferation resistance. The present results will be utilized for the development of an INPRO User's Manual which is being developed as an important issue by IAEA. The credibility of the research results were ensured by the IAEA

  16. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  17. Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Rynes

    2010-11-01

    With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

  18. Utilization of spent PWR fuel-advanced nuclear fuel cycle of PWR/CANDU synergism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Xiao-Dong; XIE Zhong-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    High neutron economy, on line refueling and channel design result in the unsurpassed fuel cycle flexibility and variety for CANDU reactors. According to the Chinese national conditions that China has both PWR and CANDU reactors and the closed cycle policy of reprocessing the spent PWR fuel is adopted, one of the advanced nuclear fuel cycles of PWR/CANDU synergism using the reprocessed uranium of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor is proposed, which will save the uranium resource (~22.5%), increase the energy output (~41%), decrease the quantity of spent fuels to be disposed (~2/3) and lower the cost of nuclear power. Because of the inherent flexibility of nuclear fuel cycle in CANDU reactor, and the low radiation level of recycled uranium(RU), which is acceptable for CANDU reactor fuel fabrication, the transition from the natural uranium to the RU can be completed without major modification of the reactor core structure and operation mode. It can be implemented in Qinshan Phase Ⅲ CANDU reactors with little or no requirement of big investment in new design. It can be expected that the reuse of recycled uranium of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor is a feasible and desirable strategy in China.

  19. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  20. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  1. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  2. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  3. Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle.

  4. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book: Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. The Fact Book contains: national summaries in which a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; and international agencies in which a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement, and a listing of nuclear societies. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States.

  5. Technology of the light water reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wymer, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    This essay presents elements of the processes used in the fuel cycle steps and gives an indication of the types of equipment used. The amounts of radioactivity released in normal operation of the processes are indicated and related to radiation doses. Types and costs of equipment or processes required to lower these radioactivity releases are in some cases suggested. Mining and milling, conversion of uranium concentrate to UF/sub 6/, uranium isotope separation, LWR fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, transportation, and waste management are covered in this essay. 40 figures, 34 tables. (DLC)

  6. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  7. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  8. Economic Evaluation on the MOX Fuel in the Closed Fuel Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqi Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed oxide (MOX fuel is one of the most important fuels for the advanced reactors in the future. It is flexible to be applied either in the thermal reactor like pressurized water reactor (PWR or in the fast reactor (FR. This paper compares the two approaches from the view of fuel cost. Two features are involved. (1 The cost of electricity (COE is investigated based on the simulation of realistic operation of a practical PWR power plant and a typical fast breeder reactor design. (2 A new economic analysis model is established, considering the discount rate and the revenue of the reprocessed plutonium besides the traditional costs in the processes of fuel cycle. The sensitivity of COE to the changing parameters is also analyzed. The results show that, in the closed fuel cycle, the fuel cost of applying MOX fuels in the FBR is about 25% lower than that in the PWR at the current operating and fuel cycle level.

  9. Symbiotic Pu/Th fuel cycle for HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Enrico; Lecarpentier, David [EDF R and D, Les Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    HTGRs, loaded with uranium or plutonium fuel do not authorize high breeding ratios. Consequently, the Gen IV requirement of sustainability with respect to the use of fissile resources may be difficult to meet. Relying on the thorium conversion into fissile uranium 233, the use of thorium is promising regarding the breeding ratio. Accordingly, the symbiotic Pu/Th fuel cycle is an interesting way to optimize the energetic use of plutonium. In the first part of this paper, we compare the performances of HTRs with different types of fuel (15% enriched U, Pu alone, Th-Pu) on the resource consumption. Relying on HTGRs, a good conversion ratio (typically 0.8) is mandatory to satisfy high temperature needs in the long term. In the second part, we discuss the neutronic calculation scheme for a prismatic HTGR annular core (GTMHR like, with an internal graphite reflector), and for a large HTGR (modeled with an assembly calculation). In the last part of the paper, Pu/Th, U233/Th and Pu-U233/Th fuel cycle are studied for the two types of HTGRs. The performances in terms of conversion ratios are compared. For a given power of 300 Mwe, several compositions for the fuel are studied. The fraction of thorium in the fuel composition is varying from 0% to 99% and the total fuel mass charged in the core ranges from 1200 kg to 15,000 kg. We show that good conversion ratios are very difficult to obtain for annular HTGRs. New designs must be considered, with a larger core, and a smaller power density (to reach the passive evacuation of residual power). Finally, a preliminary strategy for the deployment of these fuel cycles is presented. (authors)

  10. Simulation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-13

    Standard practices of internal combustion (IC) engine experiments are to conduct the measurements of quantities averaged over a large number of cycles. Depending on the operating conditions, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of quantities, such as the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) are observed at different levels. Accurate prediction of CCV in IC engines is an important but challenging task. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using high performance computing (HPC) can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. In the present study, a dual fuel large engine is considered, with natural gas injected into the manifold accompanied with direct injection of diesel pilot fuel to trigger ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series as in the experiments to investigate the potential of HPC based high fidelity simulations to accurately capture the cycle to cycle variation in dual fuel engines. Open cycle simulations are conducted to predict the combined effect of the stratification of fuel-air mixture, temperature and turbulence on the CCV of pressure. The predicted coefficient of variation (COV) of pressure compared to the results from closed cycle simulations and the experiments.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  12. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  13. LMFBR operation in the nuclear cycle without fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshinsky, S.I. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Kaluga (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-01

    Substantiation is given to expediency of investigation of nuclear power (NP) development with fast reactors cooled by lead-bismuth alloy operating during extended time in the open nuclear fuel cycle with slightly enriched or depleted uranium make-up. 9 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  14. Prediction Method of the Fuel Consumption of Wheel Loaders in the V-Type Loading Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheel loaders in the V-type loading cycle are characterized by complicated loading conditions, nonlinear power-train system, and time-variable engine power distribution. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the fuel consumption of wheel loaders in the V-type loading cycle. The static matching methods cannot provide fuel consumption prediction for the loading cycle. In this paper, the prediction method and model of the fuel consumption for wheel loaders in the V-type loading cycle were proposed. Firstly, the hydraulic system data were tested when a wheel loader loaded three different materials in a typical V-type loading cycle. Secondly, the tested data were filtered by the 8th-order Butterworth filter and the dimensionless power deduction equations of hydraulic power system for loading three different materials were obtained by Gaussian and linear fitting based on the filtered data in the loading cycle. Finally, fuel consumption was obtained with the compiling dynamic calculation program as well as input parameters of tested vehicle speed, throttle parameter, and the dimensionless equation. The simulation results agreed well with experiment results. Dynamic calculation program is applicable to calculate loading economy and can provide academic guidance for wheel loader’s design and optimization.

  15. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  16. Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

    2009-04-17

    Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

  17. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  18. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines and...

  19. Cycle to Cycle Variation Study in a Dual Fuel Operated Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Pasunurthi, Shyamsundar

    2017-03-28

    The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series like in the experiments to investigate the potential of high fidelity RANS simulations coupled with detailed chemistry, to accurately predict the CCV. Cycle to cycle variation (CCV) is expected to be due to variabilities in operating and boundary conditions, in-cylinder stratification of diesel and natural gas fuels, variation in in-cylinder turbulence levels and velocity flow-fields. In a previous publication by the authors [1], variabilities in operating and boundary conditions are incorporated into several closed cycle simulations performed in parallel. Stochastic variations/stratifications of fuel-air mixture, turbulence levels, temperature and internal combustion residuals cannot be considered in such closed cycle simulations. In this study, open cycle simulations with port injection of natural gas predicted the combined effect of the stratifications on the CCV of in-cylinder pressure. The predicted Coefficient of Variation (COV) of cylinder pressure is improved compared to the one captured by closed cycle simulations in parallel.

  20. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  1. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  2. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  3. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  4. Thorium-based fuel cycles: Reassessment of fuel economics and proliferation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [Senior Lecturer at the School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001, Internal Post Box 360, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [Professor at the School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    At current consumption and current prices, the proven reserves for natural uranium will last only about 100 years. However, the more abundant thorium, burned in breeder reactors, such as large High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, and followed by chemical reprocessing of the spent fuel, could stretch the 100 years for uranium supply to 15,000 years. Thorium-based fuel cycles are also viewed as more proliferation resistant compared to uranium. However, several barriers to entry caused all countries, except India and Russia, to abandon their short term plans for thorium reactor projects, in favour of uranium/plutonium fuel cycles. In this article, based on the theory of resonance integrals and original analysis of fast fission cross sections, the breeding potential of {sup 232}Th is compared to that of {sup 238}U. From a review of the literature, the fuel economy of thorium-based fuel cycles is compared to that of natural uranium-based cycles. This is combined with a technical assessment of the proliferation resistance of thorium-based fuel cycles, based on a review of the literature. Natural uranium is currently so cheap that it contributes only about 10% of the cost of nuclear electricity. Chemical reprocessing is also very expensive. Therefore conservation of natural uranium by means of the introduction of thorium into the fuel is not yet cost effective and will only break even once the price of natural uranium were to increase from the current level of about $70/pound yellow cake to above about $200/pound. However, since fuel costs constitutes only a small fraction of the total cost of nuclear electricity, employing reprocessing in a thorium cycle, for the sake of its strategic benefits, may still be a financially viable option. The most important source of the proliferation resistance of {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycles is denaturisation of the {sup 233}U in the spent fuel by {sup 232}U, for which the highly radioactive decay chain potentially poses a large

  5. Outline of results of safety research (in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The safety research in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation in fiscal year 1996 has been carried out based on the basic plan of safety research (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000) which was decided in March, 1996. In this report, on nuclear fuel cycle field, namely all the subjects in the fields of nuclear fuel facilities, environmental radioactivity and waste disposal, and the subjects related to nuclear fuel facilities among the fields of aseismatic and probabilistic safety assessments, the results of research in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5-year project, are summarized together with the outline of the basic plan of safety research. The basic policy, objective and system for promotion of the safety research are described. The objectives of the safety research are the advancement of safety technology, the safety of facilities, stable operation techniques, the safety design and the evaluation techniques of next generation facilities, and the support of transferring nuclear fuel cycle to private businesses. The objects of the research are uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing, and waste treatment and storage. 52 investigation papers of the results of the safety research in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996 are collected in this report. (K.I.)

  6. Shutdown Margin for High Conversion BWRs Operating in Th-233U Fuel Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnik, Yaniv; Elias, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-233U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone sandwiched between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Instead, an alternative assembly design, also relying on heterogeneous fuel zoning, is proposed for achieving fissile inventory ratio (FIR) above unity, adequate SDM and meeting minimum CPR limit at thermal core output matching the ABWR power. The new concept was modeled as a single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupl...

  7. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle - impact of developments on fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the deregulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to complete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according to the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economic perspective including environmental and social considerations. (orig.) [German] Die Kernenergie wird sich mehr und mehr in einem Umfeld behaupten muessen, das durch schnelle Veraenderungen auf Grund des Wettbewerbsdrucks in der Wirtschaft und des Liberalisierungsprozesses gekennzeichnet ist. Im heutigen Wirtschaftsumfeld muessen sich die Energieversorgungsunternehmen hauptsaechlich auf die Senkung ihrer Stromerzeugungs-Gesamtkosten konzentrieren. Darunter fallen auch die Brennstoffkreislaufkosten, die sie nur zum Teil beeinflussen koennen. Kurzfristig gesehen, duerften die Entwicklungen im Brennstoffkreislauf eher evolutionaer verlaufen und den jeweiligen Beduerfnissen der EVUs entsprechen. Im Zusammenhang mit einer

  8. Combinations of solid oxide fuel cell and several enhanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchonthara, Prapan; Bhattacharya, Sankar; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    Combined power generation systems with combinations of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and various enhanced gas turbine (GT) cycles were evaluated. In the GT part, steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle, GT/steam turbine (ST) combined cycle, and humid air turbine (HAT) cycle were considered. Moreover, additional recuperation was considered by means of air preheating (APH) in the STIG cycle. Effects of operating turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and pressure ratio (PR) on overall system performance were assessed. Although the SOFC-HAT system shows the lowest specific work output compared to other systems, its highest thermal efficiency presents a significant advantage. Furthermore, at high TITs and PRs the SOFC-HAT system gives the best performance in terms of both thermal efficiency and specific work. Results indicate that energy recuperative features in the HAT promote the positive effect of increasing TIT by means of enhancing GT efficiency, leading to the improvement in thermal efficiency of the overall system.

  9. A review of fuel cell systems for maritime applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Biert, L.; Godjevac, M.; Visser, K.; Aravind, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    Progressing limits on pollutant emissions oblige ship owners to reduce the environmental impact of their operations. Fuel cells may provide a suitable solution, since they are fuel efficient while they emit few hazardous compounds. Various choices can be made with regard to the type of fuel cell system and logistic fuel, and it is unclear which have the best prospects for maritime application. An overview of fuel cell types and fuel processing equipment is presented, and maritime fuel cell application is reviewed with regard to efficiency, gravimetric and volumetric density, dynamic behaviour, environmental impact, safety and economics. It is shown that low temperature fuel cells using liquefied hydrogen provide a compact solution for ships with a refuelling interval up to a tens of hours, but may result in total system sizes up to five times larger than high temperature fuel cells and more energy dense fuels for vessels with longer mission requirements. The expanding infrastructure of liquefied natural gas and development state of natural gas-fuelled fuel cell systems can facilitate the introduction of gaseous fuels and fuel cells on ships. Fuel cell combined cycles, hybridisation with auxiliary electricity storage systems and redundancy improvements are identified as topics for further study.

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel...... system based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant and a SKC plant is presented and investigated. The system is called IGSKC (Integrated Gasification SOFC Simple Kalina Cycle). The system layout is studied, and the optimal ammonia-water mole fraction is selected. An electrical efficiency of 58...

  11. Verify Super Double-Heterogeneous Spherical Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis AND HTR Spherical Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray S. Chang

    2005-11-01

    The currently being developed advanced High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (HTR) is able to achieve a simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the innovative features in these HTRs is reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products even under extreme accident conditions. Traditionally, the effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel pebble / block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced KbK-sph model and whole pebble super lattice model (PSLM), which can address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The pebble homogeneous lattice model (HLM) is verified by the burnup characteristics with the double-heterogeneous KbK-sph lattice model results. This study summarizes and compares the KbK-sph lattice model and HLM burnup analyzed results. Finally, we discuss the Monte-Carlo coupling with a fuel depletion and buildup code - ORIGEN-2 as a fuel burnup analysis tool and its PSLM calculated results for the HTR EqFC burnup analysis.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal

  13. Degree of Sustainability of Various Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico (United States)

    2002-08-01

    The focus of this study is on a 'top-level' examination of the sustainability of nuclear energy in the context of the overall nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). This evaluation is conducted according to a set of established sustainability criteria that encompasses key economic (energy generation costs), environmental (resource utilization, long-term waste accumulations), and societal (nuclear-weapons proliferation risk) concerns associated with present and future NFC approaches. In this study, key NFCs are assessed according to a simplified and limited set of criteria that attempts to quantify NFC concerns related to cost, resource, waste, and proliferation. The overarching aim of this study is to examine a representative set of NFC options on a relative basis according to the adopted set of criteria to aid in the assessment and decision-making process. These criteria were then aggregated into a single, composite metric to examine the impacts of specific 'stakeholder' preferences. The study architecture is based on sets of nuclear process components. These sets are assembled around a particular nuclear reactor technology for the generation of electricity. Selections are made from the resulting sets of reactor-centric technologies and grouped to form nine central NFC scenarios. The above-described sustainability metrics are evaluated using a steady-state (equilibrium), highly aggregated model that is applied through mass and energy conservation to evaluate each NFC scenario. Six NFC scenarios examined to varying degrees are adaptations or extensions of scenarios used in a recent OECD study (OECD, 2002) of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) schemes based on accelerator-driven systems (ADS) or fast reactors (FR). Three NFC scenarios are based entirely on present-day or near-term LWR technologies. In addition to these near-term scenarios, more advanced systems considered in the original OECD study on which this model is based were retained using a

  14. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  15. Modeling and analysis of tritium dynamics in a DT fusion fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, William

    1998-11-01

    A number of crucial design issues have a profound effect on the dynamics of the tritium fuel cycle in a DT fusion reactor, where the development of appropriate solutions to these issues is of particular importance to the introduction of fusion as a commercial system. Such tritium-related issues can be classified according to their operational, safety, and economic impact to the operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Given such key design issues inherent in next generation fusion devices using the DT fuel cycle development of appropriate models can then lead to optimized designs of the fusion fuel cycle for different types of DT fusion reactors. In this work, two different types of modeling approaches are developed and their application to solving key tritium issues presented. For the first approach, time-dependent inventories, concentrations, and flow rates characterizing the main subsystems of the fuel cycle are simulated with a new dynamic modular model of a fusion reactor's fuel cycle, named X-TRUFFLES (X-Windows TRitiUm Fusion Fuel cycLE dynamic Simulation). The complex dynamic behavior of the recycled fuel within each of the modeled subsystems is investigated using this new integrated model for different reactor scenarios and design approaches. Results for a proposed fuel cycle design taking into account current technologies are presented, including sensitivity studies. Ways to minimize the tritium inventory are also assessed by examining various design options that could be used to minimize local and global tritium inventories. The second modeling approach involves an analytical model to be used for the calculation of the required tritium breeding ratio, i.e., a primary design issue which relates directly to the feasibility and economics of DT fusion systems. A time-integrated global tritium balance scheme is developed and appropriate analytical expressions are derived for tritium self-sufficiency relevant parameters. The easy exploration of the large

  16. A Review of RedOx Cycling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van herle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells are able to convert fuels, including hydrocarbons, to electricity with an unbeatable efficiency even for small systems. One of the main limitations for long-term utilization is the reduction-oxidation cycling (RedOx cycles of the nickel-based anodes. This paper will review the effects and parameters influencing RedOx cycles of the Ni-ceramic anode. Second, solutions for RedOx instability are reviewed in the patent and open scientific literature. The solutions are described from the point of view of the system, stack design, cell design, new materials and microstructure optimization. Finally, a brief synthesis on RedOx cycling of Ni-based anode supports for standard and optimized microstructures is depicted.

  17. The Adoption of Advanced Fuel Cycle Technology Under a Single Repository Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Wilson

    2009-11-02

    Develops the tools to investiage the hypothesis that the savings in repository space associated with the implementation of advanced nuclear fuel cycles can result in sufficient cost savings to offset the higher costs of those fuel cycles.

  18. The choice of the fuel assembly for VVER-1000 in a closed fuel cycle based on REMIX-technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrov Evgenii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows basic features of different fuel assembly (FA application for VVER-1000 in a closed fuel cycle based on REMIX-technology. This investigation shows how the change in the water–fuel ratio in the VVER FA affects on the fuel characteristics produced by REMIX technology during multiple recycling.

  19. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  20. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  1. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  2. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  3. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  4. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  5. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  6. Shutdown margin for high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnik, Y., E-mail: shaposhy@bgu.ac.il [NRCN – Nuclear Research Center Negev, POB 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shwageraus, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Elias, E. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle. • Shutdown Margin in Th-RBWR design. • Fully coupled MC with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. • Thermal–hydraulic analysis includes MCPR observation. - Abstract: Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied core has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone “sandwiched” between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Implementation of alternative reactivity control materials, reducing axial leakage through non-uniform enrichment distribution, use of burnable poisons, reducing number of pins as well as increasing pin diameter are also shown to be incapable of meeting the SDM requirements. Instead, an alternative assembly design, based on Rod Cluster Control Assembly with absorber rods was investigated. This design matches the reference ABWR core power and has adequate shutdown margin. The new concept was modeled as a single three-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules.

  7. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  8. Selenium electrochemistry. Applications in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslennikov, A.; Peretroukhine, V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry; David, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France); Lecomte, M. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de la Valle du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible

    1999-07-01

    Modern state of selenium electrochemistry is reviewed in respect of the application of electrochemical methods for the study of the behavior of this element and its quantitative analysis in the solutions of nuclear fuel cycle. The review includes the data on the redox potentials of Se in aqueous solutions, and the data on Se redox reactions, occurring at mercury and solid electrodes. Analysis of the available literature data shows that the inverse stripping voltammetry technique for trace Se concentration and determination seems to be the most promising in application for the Se determination in PUREX solutions and in radioactive wastes. The adaptation of the ISV technique for the trace Se concentration and determination in the solutions of the nuclear fuel cycle is indicated as the most prospective goal of the future experimental study. (author)

  9. Enduring Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Proceedings of a panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C. E., LLNL

    1997-11-18

    The panel reviewed the complete nuclear fuel cycle in the context of alternate energy resources, energy need projections, effects on the environment, susceptibility of nuclear materials to theft, diversion, and weapon proliferation. We also looked at ethical considerations of energy use, as well as waste, and its effects. The scope of the review extended to the end of the next century with due regard for world populations beyond that period. The intent was to take a long- range view and to project, not forecast, the future based on ethical rationales, and to avoid, as often happens, long-range discussions that quickly zoom in on only the next few decades. A specific nuclear fuel cycle technology that could satisfy these considerations was described and can be applied globally.

  10. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  11. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  12. Analysis of Trace Hydrogen Isotopes in Fusion Fuel Cycle by High Precision Gas Chromatograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Li-ling; YANG; Hong-guang; ZHAO; Wei-wei; HE; Chang-shui; LIU; Zhen-xing; ZHAN; Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to analysis of hydrogen isotopes in the fuel cycle system of fusion reactors,gas chromatography(GC)was found to be an effectively analytical technique.Compared with conventional GC,the high-precision GC with a cryogenic column could achieve fairly good performance to reduce the retention time.

  13. Back-end of the fuel cycle and non-proliferation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebeskov, A.N.; Oussanov, V.I.; Iougai, S.V.; Pshakin, G.M. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The paper focuses on the problem of fissile materials proliferation risk estimation. Some methodological approaches to the solution of this task and results of their application for comparison of different nuclear fuel cycle strategies are discussed. The results of comparative assessment of non-proliferation aspects of plutonium utilization alternatives in Russia using system analysis approach are presented. (author)

  14. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Glarborg; A.D. Jensen; J.E. Johnsson [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. There are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NOx control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. Results on biomass combustion are also discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. 247 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Characteriztion of particulate plutonium released in fuel cycle operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seefeldt, W.B.; Mecham, W.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    An estimate of the plutonium source terms is made for the fuel cycles of three reactor types on the basis of currently applied, currently available, and estimated future technology. The three reactors are LWR-U, LWR-Pu, and LMFBR. The source terms are characterized as to quantity, form, and particle size distribution. Historical operating data for existing plants and the state of the art of the technology of air cleaning are reviewed.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY13 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Strasburg, Jana D.

    2013-09-30

    In Fiscal Year 2012 (FY12) PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In Fiscal Year 2013 (FY13) the SNAP demonstration was enhanced with respect to query and navigation usability issues.

  17. Summary of Off-Normal Events in US Fuel Cycle Facilities for AFCI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. J. Piet; S. O. Sheetz; D. H. McGuire; W. B. Boore

    2005-09-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for facilities comprising the fission reactor fuel cycle, with the exception of reactor operations. This report includes mines, mills, conversion plants, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication plants, transportation of fuel materials between these centers, and waste storage facilities. Some of the facilities discussed are no longer operating; others continue to produce fuel for the commercial fission power plant industry. Some of the facilities discussed have been part of the military’s nuclear effort; these are included when the processes used are similar to those used for commercial nuclear power. When reading compilations of incidents and accidents, after repeated entries it is natural to form an opinion that there exists nothing but accidents. For this reason, production or throughput values are described when available. These adverse operating experiences are compiled to support the design and decisions needed for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The AFCI is to weigh options for a new fission reactor fuel cycle that is efficient, safe, and productive for US energy security.

  18. Speciation, in the nuclear fuel cycle by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, S.; Plancque, G.; Allain, F.; Lamouroux, C.; Steiner, V.; Amekraz, B.; Moulin, C. [CEA/Saclay, Dept, des Procedes d' Enrichissement (DPE), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-07-01

    New analytical techniques allowing to perform speciation in the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle are more and more needed. They have to be selective (since matrix encountered are very complex), sensitive (in order to work at representative concentration and below solubility limit), as well as non intrusive (in order to keep the image of the real solution). Among them, laser-based analytical techniques present these advantages together with the possibility to perform remote measurements via fiber optics. Hence, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) has been used for actinides/lanthanides interaction and speciation studies in inorganic and organic matrices from the reprocessing to waste storage. Moreover, new ion detection methods such as Electro-Spray - Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) seems promising for speciation studies. Hence, it is the first time that it is possible to directly couple a liquid at atmospheric pressure to a mass detection working at reduced pressure with a soft mode of ionisation that should allow to give informations on chemical species present. Principle, advantages and limitations as well as results obtained with the use of TRLIF and ES-MS on different systems of interest including actinides, lanthanides, fission products in interaction with simple organic molecules to very complex structure will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  19. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, The Big Picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear industry, at least in the United States, has failed to deliver on its promise of cheap, abundant energy. After pioneering the science and application and becoming a primary exporter of nuclear technologies, domestic use of nuclear power fell out-of-favor with the public and has been relatively stagnant for several decades. Recently, renewed interest has generated optimism and talk of a nuclear renaissance characterized by a new generation of safe, clean nuclear plants in this country. But, as illustrated by recent policy shifts regarding closure of the fuel cycle and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, significant hurdles have yet to be overcome. Using the principles of system dynamics, this paper will take a holistic look at the nuclear industry and the interactions between the key players to explore both the intended and unintended consequences of efforts to address the issues that have impeded the growth of the industry and also to illustrate aspects which must be effectively addressed if the renaissance of our industry is to be achieved and sustained.

  20. Evaluation Indicators for Analysis of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae

    2008-01-15

    In this report, an attempt was made to derive indicators for the evaluation of the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle, using the methodologies developed by the INPRO, OECD/NEA and Gen-IV. In deriving the indicators, the three main elements of the sustainability, i.e., economics, environmental impact, and social aspect, as well as the technological aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle, considering the importance of the safety, were selected as the main criteria. An evaluation indicator for each criterion was determined, and the contents and evaluation method of each indicator were proposed. In addition, a questionnaire survey was carried out for the objectivity of the selection of the indicators in which participated some experts of the Korea Energy Technology and Emergency Management Institute (KETEMI) . Although the proposed indicators do not satisfy the characteristics and requirements of general indicators, it is presumed that they can be used in the analysis of the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle because those indicators incorporate various expert judgment and public opinions. On the other hand, the weighting factor of each indicator should be complemented in the future, using the AHP method and expert advice/consultations.

  1. User Guide for VISION 3.4.7 (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Wendell D. Hintze

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters and options; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation or disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. You must use Powersim Studio 8 or better. We have tested VISION with the Studio 8 Expert, Executive, and Education versions

  2. Characterizing model uncertainties in the life cycle of lignocellulose-based ethanol fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatari, Sabrina; MacLean, Heather L

    2010-11-15

    Renewable and low carbon fuel standards being developed at federal and state levels require an estimation of the life cycle carbon intensity (LCCI) of candidate fuels that can substitute for gasoline, such as second generation bioethanol. Estimating the LCCI of such fuels with a high degree of confidence requires the use of probabilistic methods to account for known sources of uncertainty. We construct life cycle models for the bioconversion of agricultural residue (corn stover) and energy crops (switchgrass) and explicitly examine uncertainty using Monte Carlo simulation. Using statistical methods to identify significant model variables from public data sets and Aspen Plus chemical process models,we estimate stochastic life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the two feedstocks combined with two promising fuel conversion technologies. The approach can be generalized to other biofuel systems. Our results show potentially high and uncertain GHG emissions for switchgrass-ethanol due to uncertain CO₂ flux from land use change and N₂O flux from N fertilizer. However, corn stover-ethanol,with its low-in-magnitude, tight-in-spread LCCI distribution, shows considerable promise for reducing life cycle GHG emissions relative to gasoline and corn-ethanol. Coproducts are important for reducing the LCCI of all ethanol fuels we examine.

  3. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  4. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    The activities that produce electric power typically range from extracting and transporting a fuel, to its conversion into electric power, and finally to the disposition of residual by-products. This chain of activities is called a fuel cycle. A fuel cycle has emissions and other effects that result in unintended consequences. When these consequences affect third parties (i.e., those other than the producers and consumers of the fuel-cycle activity) in a way that is not reflected in the price of electricity, they are termed ''hidden'' social costs or externalities. They are the economic value of environmental, health and any other impacts, that the price of electricity does not reflect. How do you estimate the externalities of fuel cycles? Our previous report describes a methodological framework for doing so--called the damage function approach. This approach consists of five steps: (1) characterize the most important fuel cycle activities and their discharges, where importance is based on the expected magnitude of their externalities, (2) estimate the changes in pollutant concentrations or other effects of those activities, by modeling the dispersion and transformation of each pollutant, (3) calculate the impacts on ecosystems, human health, and any other resources of value (such as man-made structures), (4) translate the estimates of impacts into economic terms to estimate damages and benefits, and (5) assess the extent to which these damages and benefits are externalities, not reflected in the price of electricity. Each step requires a different set of equations, models and analysis. Analysts generally believe this to be the best approach for estimating externalities, but it has hardly been used! The reason is that it requires considerable analysis and calculation, and to this point in time, the necessary equations and models have not been assembled. Equally important, the process of identifying and estimating externalities leads to a number

  5. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel at VVER-1000 operation in closed fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Bobrov, E. A.; Chibinyaev, A. V.; Teplov, P. S.; Dudnikov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The basic features of loading the VVER-1000 core with a new variant of REMIX fuel (REgenerated MIXture of U-Pu oxides) are considered during its multiple recycle in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The fuel composition is produced on the basis of the uranium-plutonium regenerate extracted at processing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from a VVER-1000, depleted uranium, and the fissionable material: 235U as a part of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from warheads superfluous for defense purposes or 233U accumulated in thorium blankets of fusion (electronuclear) neutron sources or fast reactors. Production of such a fuel assumes no use of natural uranium in addition. When converting a part of the VVER-1000 reactors to the closed fuel cycle based on the REMIX technology, the consumption of natural uranium decreases considerably, and there is no substantial degradation of the isotopic composition of plutonium or change in the reactor-safety characteristics at the passage from recycle to recycle.

  6. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel at VVER-1000 operation in closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Bobrov, E. A., E-mail: evgeniybobrov89@rambler.ru; Chibinyaev, A. V.; Teplov, P. S.; Dudnikov, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The basic features of loading the VVER-1000 core with a new variant of REMIX fuel (REgenerated MIXture of U–Pu oxides) are considered during its multiple recycle in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The fuel composition is produced on the basis of the uranium–plutonium regenerate extracted at processing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from a VVER-1000, depleted uranium, and the fissionable material: {sup 235}U as a part of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from warheads superfluous for defense purposes or {sup 233}U accumulated in thorium blankets of fusion (electronuclear) neutron sources or fast reactors. Production of such a fuel assumes no use of natural uranium in addition. When converting a part of the VVER-1000 reactors to the closed fuel cycle based on the REMIX technology, the consumption of natural uranium decreases considerably, and there is no substantial degradation of the isotopic composition of plutonium or change in the reactor-safety characteristics at the passage from recycle to recycle.

  7. Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B

    2003-12-01

    We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options.

  8. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... fuel economy calculations. This section applies to data used for fuel economy labeling under Subpart D...

  9. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  10. Computer code system for the R and D of nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor. 4. Development of an object-oriented analysis code for estimation of the material balance in the pyrochemical reprocessing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Nobuo; Sato, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-03-01

    An analysis code using the object-oriented software EX{center_dot}TD Ver.4 was developed for the estimation of material balance for the system design of the pyrochemical reprocessing plants consisting of batch processes. This code can also estimate the radioactivity balance, decay heat balance and holdup, and easily cope with the improvement of the process flow, and so on. An example of the material balance estimation under the consideration of the solvent (molten salt) recycling time is presented for the oxide electrowinning reprocessing system designed in the feasibility study of the FBR fuel cycle system. The results indicate the possibility of reduction of the vitrified waste form volume due to the extension of the recycling time of the solvent. This paper describes the outline of the code and estimation of the material balance in the oxide electrowinning reprocessing system under consideration of the solvent recycling time. (author)

  11. 33 CFR 183.542 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel systems. 183.542 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.542 Fuel systems. (a) Each fuel system in a boat must have been tested by the boat manufacturer and not leak when subjected to the...

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature. [Once-through Cycle and Plutonium Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included.

  13. Cycle update : advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, G. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a summary of key achievements of the Program of Energy Research and Development advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction (AFTER) program over the funding cycle from fiscal year 2005/2006 to 2008/2009. The purpose of the paper was to inform interested parties of recent advances in knowledge and in science and technology capacities in a concise manner. The paper discussed the high level research and development themes of the AFTER program through the following 4 overarching questions: how could advanced fuels and internal combustion engine designs influence emissions; how could emissions be reduced through the use of engine hardware including aftertreatment devices; how do real-world duty cycles and advanced technology vehicles operating on Canadian fuels compare with existing technologies, models and estimates; and what are the health risks associated with transportation-related emissions. It was concluded that the main issues regarding the use of biodiesel blends in current technology diesel engines are the lack of consistency in product quality; shorter shelf life of biodiesel due to poorer oxidative stability; and a need to develop characterization methods for the final oxygenated product because most standard methods are developed for hydrocarbons and are therefore inadequate. 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  14. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P. [DEN, DER, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 ST Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D. [DEN, DM2S, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ourly, H. [EDF, R and D, 1 av. General de Gaulle, F-92131 Clamart Cedex (France); Thro, J. F. [AREVA, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris la Defense (France)

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  15. User's guide for the REBUS-3 fuel cycle analysis capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppel, B.J.

    1983-03-01

    REBUS-3 is a system of programs designed for the fuel-cycle analysis of fast reactors. This new capability is an extension and refinement of the REBUS-3 code system and complies with the standard code practices and interface dataset specifications of the Committee on Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). The new code is hence divorced from the earlier ARC System. In addition, the coding has been designed to enhance code exportability. Major new capabilities not available in the REBUS-2 code system include a search on burn cycle time to achieve a specified value for the multiplication constant at the end of the burn step; a general non-repetitive fuel-management capability including temporary out-of-core fuel storage, loading of fresh fuel, and subsequent retrieval and reloading of fuel; significantly expanded user input checking; expanded output edits; provision of prestored burnup chains to simplify user input; option of fixed-or free-field BCD input formats; and, choice of finite difference, nodal or spatial flux-synthesis neutronics in one-, two-, or three-dimensions.

  16. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82

  17. Safety research in nuclear fuel cycle at PNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This report collects the results of safety research in nuclear fuel cycle at Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, in order to answer to the Questionnaire of OECD/NEA. The Questionnaire request to include information concerning to research topic, description, main results (if available), reference documents, research institutes involved, sponsoring organization and other pertinent information about followings: a) Recently completed research projects. b) Ongoing (current) research projects. Achievements on following items are omitted by the request of OECD/NEA, uranium mining and milling, uranium refining and conversion to UF{sub 6}, uranium enrichment, fuel manufacturers, spent fuel storage, radioactive waste management, transport of radioactive materials, decommissioning. We select topics from the fields of a) nuclear installation, b) seismic, and c) PSA, in projects from frame of annual safety research plan for nuclear installations established by Nuclear Safety Commission. We apply for the above a) and b) projects as follows: a) Achievements in Safety Research, fiscal 1991-1995, b) fiscal 1996 Safety Research Achievements: Progress. (author)

  18. Safety research in nuclear fuel cycle at PNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This report collects the results of safety research in nuclear fuel cycle at Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, in order to answer to the Questionnaire of OECD/NEA. The Questionnaire request to include information concerning to research topic, description, main results (if available), reference documents, research institutes involved, sponsoring organization and other pertinent information about followings: a) Recently completed research projects. b) Ongoing (current) research projects. Achievements on following items are omitted by the request of OECD/NEA, uranium mining and milling, uranium refining and conversion to UF{sub 6}, uranium enrichment, fuel manufacturers, spent fuel storage, radioactive waste management, transport of radioactive materials, decommissioning. We select topics from the fields of a) nuclear installation, b) seismic, and c) PSA, in projects from frame of annual safety research plan for nuclear installations established by Nuclear Safety Commission. We apply for the above a) and b) projects as follows: a) Achievements in Safety Research, fiscal 1991-1995, b) fiscal 1996 Safety Research Achievements: Progress. (author)

  19. Closed fuel cycle with increased fuel burn-up and economy applying of thorium resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, G. G.; Apse, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The possible role of existing thorium reserves in the Russian Federation on engaging thorium in being currently closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power of the country is considered. The application efficiency of thermonuclear neutron sources with thorium blanket for the economical use of existing thorium reserves is demonstrated. The aim of the work is to find solutions of such major tasks as the reduction of both front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and an enhancing its protection against the uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials by means of the smallest changes in the fuel cycle. During implementation of the work we analyzed the results obtained earlier by the authors, brought new information on the number of thorium available in the Russian Federation and made further assessments. On the basis of proposal on the inclusion of hybrid reactors with Th-blanket into the future nuclear power for the production of light uranium fraction 232+233+234U, and 231Pa, we obtained the following results: 1. The fuel cycle will shift from fissile 235U to 233U which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. 2. The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium component of fuel and mixed with regenerated uranium will in addition become a low enriched uranium fuel, that will weaken the problem of uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials. 3. 231Pa doping into the fuel stabilizes its multiplying properties that will allow us to implement long-term fuel residence time and eventually to increase the export potential of all nuclear power technologies. 4. The thorium reserves being near city Krasnoufimsk (Russia) are large enough for operation of large-scale nuclear power of the Russian Federation of 70 GWe capacity during more than a quarter century under assumption that thorium is loaded into blankets of hybrid TNS only. The general conclusion: the inclusion of a small number of hybrid reactors with Th-blanket into the future nuclear

  20. Molten salt considerations for accelerator-driven subcritical fission to close the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooby, Elizabeth; Adams, Marvin; Baty, Austin; Gerity, James; McIntyre, Peter; Melconian, Karie; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Simpson, Michael; Tripathy, Prabhat; Tsevkov, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    The host salt selection, molecular modeling, physical chemistry, and processing chemistry are presented here for an accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). The core is fueled solely with the transuranics (TRU) and long-lived fission products (LFP) from used nuclear fuel. The neutronics and salt composition are optimized to destroy the transuranics by fission and the long-lived fission products by transmutation. The cores are driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. One such ADSMS system can destroy the transuranics in the used nuclear fuel produced by a 1GWe conventional reactor. It uniquely provides a method to close the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  3. Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

  4. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim

  5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY12 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Pomiak, Yekaterina G.; Neorr, Peter A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Strasburg, Jana D.

    2013-05-03

    Building on previous internal investments and leveraging ongoing advancements in semantic technologies, PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In developing this proof of concept prototype, the utility and relevancy of semantic technologies to the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D) has been better understood.

  6. Business cycles and the financial performance of fuel cell companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, I.; Sadorsky, P. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Schulich School of Business

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in a hydrogen powered world. They will provide power to homes, modes of transportation and appliances. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in nature, but it must be extracted in order to be usable. It can be produced from oil, natural gas and coal or from renewable sources such as biomass, thermal or nuclear reactions. Fuel cells running on hydrogen extracted from non renewable resources have an efficiency of 30 per cent, which is twice as efficient as an internal combustion engine. The greatest barrier to mass commercialization is the cost of making hydrogen-powered auto engines. Also, an infrastructure must be developed to refill hydrogen cars. One solution is to build a hydrogen highway using the existing natural gas grid to produce hydrogen and sell it at existing filling stations. The cost of building 12,000 refueling pumps in urban areas which will provide access to 70 per cent of America's population is estimated at $10 to $15 billion. This paper described the vector autoregression (VAR) model which empirically examines the relationship between financial performance of fuel cell companies and business cycles. It was used to measure how sensitive the financial performance of fuel cell companies are to changes in macroeconomic activity. A four variable VAR model was developed to examine the relationship between stock prices, oil prices and interest rates. It was shown that the stock prices of fuel cell companies are affected by shocks to technology stock prices and oil prices, with the former having a longer lasting impact. These results add to the growing literature that oil price movements are not as important as once thought. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People`s Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  8. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People's Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  9. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Jensen, A.D.; Johnsson, J.E. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. Even though this area has been the subject of extensive research over the last three decades, there are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NO{sub x} control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The present paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing mostly combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. However, also results on biomass combustion is discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. (author)

  10. Study of Thorium-Plutonium Fuel for Possible Operating Cycle Extension in PWRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Insulander Björk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulations have been carried out to investigate the possibility of extending operating cycle length in the Pressurised Water Reactor Ringhals 3 by the use of thorium-plutonium oxide fuel. The calculations have been carried out using tools and methods that are normally employed for reload design and safety evaluation in Ringhals 3. The 3-batch reload scheme and the power level have been kept unchanged, and a normal uranium oxide fuel assembly designed for a 12-month operating cycle in this reactor is used as a reference. The use of plutonium as the fissile component reduces the worth of control rods and soluble boron, which makes it necessary to modify the control systems. The delayed neutron fraction is low compared with the reference, but simulations and qualitative assessments of relevant transients indicate that the reactor could still be operated safely. Differences in reactivity coefficients are mainly beneficial for the outcome of transient simulations for the thorium based fuel. A 50% extension of the current 12-month operating cycle length should be possible with thorium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel, given an upgrade of the control systems. More detailed simulations have to be carried out for some transients in order to confirm the qualitative reasoning presented.

  11. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Selected Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Systems in Denmark and Ghana - with a focus on greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    , and for the definition of reference technology. For all Danish case studies the reference technology has been energy produced by natural gas. The total emission for willow chips in Denmark is 99 g CO2-eq per kWh of electricity produced for willow chips, 68 g CO2-eq per kWh for surplus straw and 58 g CO2-eq per k...... for Denmark and energy forest and use of saved wood in the food preparation process for electricity production in Ghana.DenmarkThe life cycle analysis has been relatively well defined for the case of willow chips and straw as their system boundaries are relatively well-defined, whereas the definition...... of system boundaries are more difficult for the biogas case. For the willow chip production the uncertainty is the possible enhanced emission of N2O when the energy forest is fertilised. For the biogas study, the uncertainties are related to the definition of alternative uses and handling of the manure...

  13. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  14. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Soldat, J. K.; McNeese, J. A.; Watson, E. C.

    1977-07-01

    This report describes the methodology for determining where environmental control technology is required for the nuclear fuel cycle. The methodology addresses routine emission of chemical and radioactive effluents, and applies to mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactors (LWR and BWR) and fuel reprocessing. Chemical and radioactive effluents are evaluated independently. Radioactive effluents are evaluated on the basis of maximum exposed individual dose and population dose calculations for a 1-year emission period and a 50-year commitment. Sources of radionuclides for each facility are then listed according to their relative contribution to the total calculated dose. Effluent, ambient and toxicology standards are used to evaluate the effect of chemical effluents. First, each chemical and source configuration is determined. Sources are tagged if they exceed existirrg standards. The combined effect of all chemicals is assessed for each facility. If the additive effects are unacceptable, then additional control technology is recommended. Finally, sources and their chemicals at each facility are ranked according to their relative contribution to the ambient pollution level. This ranking identifies those sources most in need of environmental control.

  16. Transitioning nuclear fuel cycles with uncertain fast reactor costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phathanapirom, U.B., E-mail: bphathanapirom@utexas.edu; Schneider, E.A.

    2016-06-15

    This paper applies a novel decision making methodology to a case study involving choices leading to the transition from the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle to one relying on continuous recycle of plutonium and minor actinides in fast reactors in the face of uncertain fast reactor capital costs. Unique to this work is a multi-stage treatment of a range of plausible trajectories for the evolution of fast reactor capital costs over time, characterized by first-of-a-kind penalties as well as time- and unit-based learning. The methodology explicitly incorporates uncertainties in key parameters into the decision-making process by constructing a stochastic model and embedding uncertainties as bifurcations in the decision tree. “Hedging” strategies are found by applying a choice criterion to select courses of action which mitigate “regrets”. These regrets are calculated by evaluating the performance of all possible transition strategies for every feasible outcome of the uncertain parameter. The hedging strategies are those that preserve the most flexibility for adjusting the fuel cycle strategy in response to new information as uncertainties are resolved.

  17. Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles and World Regional Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Schwenk-Ferrero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we have attempted to associate quantified impacts with a forecasted nuclear energy development in different world regions, under a range of hypotheses on the energy demand growth. It gives results in terms of availability of uranium resources, required deployment of fuel cycle facilities and reactor types. In particular, the need to achieve short doubling times with future fast reactors is investigated and quantified in specific world regions. It has been found that a crucial feature of any world scenario study is to provide not only trends for an idealized “homogeneous” description of the global world, but also trends for different regions in the world. These regions may be selected using rather simple criteria (mostly of a geographical type, in order to apply different hypotheses for energy demand growth, fuel cycle strategies and the implementation of various reactor types for the different regions. This approach was an attempt to avoid focusing on selected countries, in particular on those where no new significant energy demand growth is expected, but instead to provide trends and conclusions that account for the features of countries that will be major players in the world energy development in the future.

  18. Changing Perspectives on Nonproliferation and Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J; Isaacs, T H

    2005-03-29

    The concepts of international control over technologies and materials in the proliferation sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, specifically those related to enrichment and reprocessing, have been the subject of many studies and initiatives over the years. For examples: the International Fissionable Material Storage proposal in President Eisenhower's Speech on Atoms for Peace, and in the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) when the organization was formed in 1957; the regional nuclear fuel cycle center centers proposed by INFCE in the 80's; and most recently and notably, proposals by Dr. ElBaradei, the Director General of IAEA to limit production and processing of nuclear weapons usable materials to facilities under multinational control; and by U.S. President George W. Bush, to limit enrichment and reprocessing to States that have already full scale, functioning plants. There are other recent proposals on this subject as well. In this paper, the similarities and differences, as well as the effectiveness and challenges in proliferation prevention of these proposals and concepts will be discussed. The intent is to articulate a ''new nuclear regime'' and to develop concrete steps to implement such regime for future nuclear energy and deployment.

  19. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  20. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  1. A methodology for determining the dynamic exchange of resources in nuclear fuel cycle simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidden, Matthew J., E-mail: gidden@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wilson, Paul P.H. [University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A novel fuel cycle simulation entity interaction mechanism is proposed. • A framework and implementation of the mechanism is described. • New facility outage and regional interaction scenario studies are described and analyzed. - Abstract: Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle can be performed using a wide range of techniques and methodologies. Past efforts have focused on specific fuel cycles or reactor technologies. The CYCLUS fuel cycle simulator seeks to separate the design of the simulation from the fuel cycle or technologies of interest. In order to support this separation, a robust supply–demand communication and solution framework is required. Accordingly an agent-based supply-chain framework, the Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE), has been designed implemented in CYCLUS. It supports the communication of complex resources, namely isotopic compositions of nuclear fuel, between fuel cycle facilities and their managers (e.g., institutions and regions). Instances of supply and demand are defined as an optimization problem and solved for each timestep. Importantly, the DRE allows each agent in the simulation to independently indicate preference for specific trading options in order to meet both physics requirements and satisfy constraints imposed by potential socio-political models. To display the variety of possible simulations that the DRE enables, example scenarios are formulated and described. Important features include key fuel-cycle facility outages, introduction of external recycled fuel sources (similar to the current mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility in the United States), and nontrivial interactions between fuel cycles existing in different regions.

  2. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies - bases of long-term provision of fuel and environmental safety of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solonin, M.I.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Smelov, V.S.; Nenarokomov, E.A.; Mukhin, I.V. [SSC, RF, A.A. Bochvar ALL-Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    To-day nuclear power is one of the options, however, to-morrow it may become the main source of the energy, thus, providing for the stable economic development for the long time to come. The availability of the large-scale nuclear power in the foreseeable future is governed by not only the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) but also by the environmentally safe management of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste conditioning and long-term storage. More emphasis is to be placed to the closing of the fuel cycle in view of substantial quantities of spent nuclear fuel arisings. The once-through fuel cycle that is cost effective at the moment cannot be considered to be environmentally safe even for the middle term since the substantial build-up of spent nuclear fuel containing thousands of tons Pu will require the resolution of the safe management problem in the nearest future and is absolutely unjustified in terms of moral ethics as a transfer of the responsibility to future generations. The minimization of radioactive waste arisings and its radioactivity is only feasible with the closed fuel cycle put into practice and some actinides and long-lived fission radionuclides burnt out. The key issues in providing the environmentally safe fuel cycle are efficient processes of producing fuel for NPP, radionuclide after-burning included, a long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reprocessing as well as radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the problems inherent in producing fuel for NPP with a view for the closed fuel cycle. Also discussed are options of the fuel cycle, its effectiveness and environmental safety with improvements in technologies of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and long-lived radionuclide partitioning. (authors)

  3. Origin and characteristics of low-level nontransuranic waste from the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C.W.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    Low-level nontransuranic wastes are generated in all nuclear fuel cycle operations. While the activity levels and radiotoxicities of these effluents are generally of a lower magnitude than other fuel cycle wastes, their large volumes and their appearance throughout the fuel cycle make their management a very real concern regardless of the fuel cycle option being considered. Low-level nontransuranic wastes are defined here as wastes that contain less than about 10 nCi of long-lived alpha radiation per gram and have gamma radiations low enough to require only minimal biological shielding and remote handling. Wastes from uranium mining and milling, UF/sub 6/ conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing are examined with respect to their radionuclide content, volume, and chemical composition. Projections of total quantities through the end of this century are also presented. Fuel cycles based on recycling only uranium, and on recycling both uranium and plutonium, are considered.

  4. Energy, Environment, Economic Life Cycle Assessment of Cassava-based Ethanol Used as Automotive Fuel in Guangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-yuan; ZHANG Cheng; PU Geng-qiang; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to compare the energy, environmental and economic impacts of converting cassava to fuel ethanol in Guangxi Province, China. The entire life cycle is a system that includes stages from cassava farming to ethanol fuel combustion. A computer-based model was developed to assess energy, environmental, and economic (EEE) life cycle implication of cassava-based ethanol fuel. The LCA results for fuel ethanol were compared to conventional gasoline (CG) as a base-line case. On the life-cycle bases, the use of cassava-based ethanol fuel in Guangxi may consume more energy but reduce greenhouse gas, VOC, and CO emissions. Life cycle cost results indicate that although fuel ethanol currently is not competitive compared to conventional gasoline, it has great potentials when there are subsidies and/or yields of cassava planting are improved. In terms of balancing the energy, environmental and economical, the introduction form of cassavabased ethanol fuel would be E10. The assessment results generated from this study provide an important reference for Guangxi policy makers to better understand the trade-offs among energy, environmental effects, and economics for the most effective using of regional energy resources.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto

    a systematic framework for the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity systems, which aimed at providing: •Scientifically sound recommendations for decision-making processes, leading to more sustainable energy systems; •Accurate and transparent LCA data for electricity supply, thereby increasing......Electricity systems represent a major source of global pollutants. Whilst currently relying heavily on fossil fuels, electricity systems are progressively shifting towards renewable sources to mitigate climate change and enhance energy security. The goal of this PhD project was to develop...... developing data on smart grids should be a priority for future research. The environmental impacts of low-carbon electricity systems were assessed by combining LCA with power system modelling. Possible scenarios for the island of Ireland in 2025 and Denmark in 2030, with high amounts of wind power, were...

  6. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  7. The basic features of a closed fuel cycle without fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, E. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Teplov, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the basic features of a closed fuel cycle with thermal reactors are considered. The three variants of multiple Pu and U recycling in VVER reactors was investigated. The comparison of MOX and REMIX fuel approaches for closed fuel cycle with thermal reactors is presented. All variants make possible to recycle several times the total amount of Pu and U obtained from spent fuel. The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 16-38-00021

  8. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  9. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  10. Exergy Analysis of Gas Turbine – Fuel cell based combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sreeramulu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in demand for electrical energy leads to the newer power generation systems. Though it is not new, fuel cell technology is one of the promising systems for cleaner and competitive alternate power generation system. When the fuel cells are integrated with the Gas Turbines, the total thermal efficiency of the combined cycle is obtained greater than 60%. In this paper, thermodynamic analysis of SOFC-GT combined system (2.898MW has been carried out, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of each component are calculated.The effect of compression ratio (rp, turbine inlet temperature (TIT and ambient temperature of air, on the performance of the system has been analyzed. Outcome of the system modeling reveals that SOFC andcombustion chamber are the main sources of exergy destruction. At the optimum compression ratio 9, the total thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency are found to be 63.3% and 60.85% respectively.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... of state). A genetic algorithm is employed to select the optimal working fluid and the maximum pressure for the bottoming cycle. Thermodynamic and physical properties, environmental impacts and hazard specifications are also considered in the screening process. The results suggest that efficiencies...

  12. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  13. Regenerative fuel cell systems R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using stacks of electrochemical cells. Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (> 400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Progress is reported on the development, integration, and operation of rechargeable energy storage systems with such high specific energy. Lightweight pressure vessels that enable high specific energies have been designed with performance factors (burst pressure/internal volume/tank weight) > 50 km (2.0 million inches), and a vessel with performance factor of 40 km (1.6 million inches) was fabricated. New generations of both advanced and industry-supplied hydrogen tankage are under development. A primary fuel cell test rig with a single cell (46 cm{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC (for up to 2010 cycles on a single cell). This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the hydrogen side of the cell). Recent modifications also enable anode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Hydrogen/halogen URFCs, capable of higher round-trip efficiency than hydrogen/oxygen URFCs, have been considered, and will be significantly heavier. Progress is reported on higher performance hydrogen/oxygen URFC operation with reduced catalyst loading.

  14. The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Thomas, Mike [The UK' s National Nuclear Laboratory, Preston Laboratory, Preston, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

  15. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  16. Fuel cycle analysis of TRU or MA burner fast reactors with variable conversion ratio using a new algorithm at equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, Massimo [CEA Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Argonne National Laboratory, NE Division, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: massimo.salvatores@cea.fr; Chabert, Christine [CEA Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Fazio, Concetta [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hill, Robert [Argonne National Laboratory, NE Division, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Peneliau, Yannick; Slessarev, Igor [CEA Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Yang, Won Sik [Argonne National Laboratory, NE Division, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) strategies assessment and implementation play a key role in the definition of advanced fuel cycles, in order to insure both sustainability and waste minimization. Several options are under study worldwide, and their impact on core design and associated fuel cycles are under investigation, to offer a rationale to down selection and to streamline efforts and resources. Interconnected issues like fuel type, minor actinide content, conversion ratio values, etc. need to be understood and their impact quantified. Then, from a practical point of view, studies related to advanced fuel cycles require a considerable amount of analysis to assess performances both of the reactor cores and of the associated fuel cycles. A physics analysis should provide a sound understanding of major trends and features, in order to provide guidelines for more detailed studies. In this paper, it is presented an improved version of a generalization of the Bateman equation that allows performing analysis at equilibrium for a large number of systems. It is shown that the method reproduces very well the results obtained with full depletion calculations. The method is applied to explore the specific issue of the features of the fuel cycle parameters related to fast reactors with different fuel types, different conversion ratios (CR) and different ratios of Pu over minor actinide (Pu/MA) in the fuel feed. As an example of the potential impact of such analysis, it is shown that for cores with CR below {approx}0.8, the increase of neutron doses and decay heat can represent a significant drawback to implement the corresponding reactors and associated fuel cycles.

  17. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  18. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  19. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

  20. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

  1. Future nuclear fuel cycles: Prospect and challenges for actinide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear power has the worldwide potential to curtail the dependence on fossil fuels and thereby to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting energy independence. How we deal with nuclear radioactive waste is crucial in this context. In France, the public's concern regarding the long-term waste management made the French Governments to prepare and pass the 1991 and 2006 Acts, requesting in particular the study of applicable solutions for still minimizing the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste. This necessitates High Active Long Life element (such as the Minor Actinides MA) recycling, since the results of fuel cycle R&D could significantly change the challenges for the storage of nuclear waste. HALL recycling can reduce the heat load and the half-life of most of the waste to be buried to a couple of hundred years, overcoming the concerns of the public related to the long-life of the waste and thus aiding the "burying approach" in securing a "broadly agreed political consensus" of waste disposal in a geological repository. This paper presents an overview of the recent R and D results obtained at the CEA Atalante facility on innovative actinide partitioning hydrometallurgical processes. For americium and curium partitioning, these results concern improvements and possible simplifications of the Diamex-Sanex process, whose technical feasibility was already demonstrated in 2005. Results on the first tests of the Ganex process (grouped actinide separation for homogeneous recycling) are also discussed. In the coming years, next steps will involve both better in-depth understanding of the basis of these actinide partitioning processes and, for the new promising

  2. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  3. Perodua Myvi engine fuel consumption map and fuel economy vehicle simulation on the drive cycles based on Malaysian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdan Muhammad Iftishah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fuel consumption engine map for a 1.3L Perodua Myvi passenger car. The engine dynamometer and the engine throttle are controlled, to create the operating conditions for the engine map. Interpolation work is done in MATLAB, to create a 3D fuel consumption engine map. The engine map is used in a fuel-economy estimation simulation, using the city and the highway drive cycles based on Malaysian roads. The fuel economy values generated from the simulations are similar to experimental fuel consumption results.

  4. Study on the fuel cycle cost of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300). Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, Masanobu; Katanishi, Shoji; Nakata, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Oda, Takefumi; Izumiya, Toru [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    In the basic design of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300), reduction of the fuel cycle cost has a large benefit of improving overall plant economy. Then, fuel cycle cost was evaluated for GTHTR300. First, of fuel fabrication for high-temperature gas cooled reactor, since there was no actual experience with a commercial scale, a preliminary design for a fuel fabrication plant with annual processing of 7.7 ton-U sufficient four GTHTR300 was performed, and fuel fabrication cost was evaluated. Second, fuel cycle cost was evaluated based on the equilibrium cycle of GTHTR300. The factors which were considered in this cost evaluation include uranium price, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, storage of spent fuel, reprocessing, and waste disposal. The fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated at about 1.07 yen/kWh. If the back-end cost of reprocessing and waste disposal is included and assumed to be nearly equivalent to LWR, the fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated to be about 1.31 yen/kWh. Furthermore, the effects on fuel fabrication cost by such of fuel specification parameters as enrichment, the number of fuel types, and the layer thickness were considered. Even if the enrichment varies from 10 to 20%, the number of fuel types change from 1 to 4, the 1st layer thickness of fuel changes by 30 {mu}m, or the 2nd layer to the 4th layer thickness of fuel changes by 10 {mu}m, the impact on fuel fabrication cost was evaluated to be negligible. (author)

  5. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Del Cul, G. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toth, L. M. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1999-06-07

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNL's Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts.

  6. Crop production without fossil fuel: production systems for tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen based on biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlgren, Serina

    2009-12-15

    With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate different systems for biomass-based production of tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen fertilisers, which at present are the two largest fossil energy carriers in Swedish agriculture. The land use, energy input and environmental load of the systems were calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Two categories of renewable tractor fuel were studied: first generation fuels and second generation fuels, the latter defined as fuels not yet produced on a commercial scale. An organic farm self-sufficient in tractor fuel was modelled. Raw material from the farm was assumed to be delivered to a large fuel production facility and fuel transported back to the farm, where it was utilised. In general, the second generation renewable fuels had higher energy balance and lower environmental impact than the first generation fuels. However all systems studied reduced the use of fossil fuels to a great extent and lowered the contribution to global warming. The land needed to be set aside for tractor fuel varied between 2% and 5% of the farm's available land. Two major routes for biomass-based production of mineral nitrogen for conventional agriculture were studied, one based on anaerobic digestion and one on thermochemical gasification of biomass. The crops studied were able to produce between 1.6 and 3.9 tonnes N per hectare in the form of ammonium nitrate. The use of fossil fuel for ammonium nitrate production was 35 MJ per kg N in the fossil reference scenario, but only 1-4 MJ per kg N in the biomass systems. The contribution to global warming can be greatly reduced by the biomass systems, but there is an increased risk of eutrophication and acidification. It is clear that the agricultural sector has great potential to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to lower the emissions of greenhouse

  7. Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, Wouter M.J. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Almeida, Joana [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Grupo de Disciplinas da Ecologia da Hidrosfera, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fobelets, Vincent; Bolle, Evelien; Muys, Bart [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mathijs, Erik [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, Virendra P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Tewari, Dina N. [Utthan NGO, Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation, 18-A, Auckland Road, Civil Lines, Allahabad 211 001 (India); Verchot, Louis V. [Centre for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 0113 BOCBD, Bogor 16000 (Indonesia)

    2010-12-15

    Since 2003 India has been actively promoting the cultivation of Jatropha on unproductive and degraded lands (wastelands) for the production of biodiesel suitable as transportation fuel. In this paper the life cycle energy balance, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and land use impact on ecosystem quality is evaluated for a small scale, low-input Jatropha biodiesel system established on wasteland in rural India. In addition to the life cycle assessment of the case at hand, the environmental performance of the same system expanded with a biogas installation digesting seed cake was quantified. The environmental impacts were compared to the life cycle impacts of a fossil fuel reference system delivering the same amount of products and functions as the Jatropha biodiesel system under research. The results show that the production and use of Jatropha biodiesel triggers an 82% decrease in non-renewable energy requirement (Net Energy Ratio, NER = 1.85) and a 55% reduction in global warming potential (GWP) compared to the reference fossil-fuel based system. However, there is an increase in acidification (49%) and eutrophication (430%) from the Jatropha system relative to the reference case. Although adding biogas production to the system boosts the energy efficiency of the system (NER = 3.40), the GWP reduction would not increase (51%) due to additional CH{sub 4} emissions. For the land use impact, Jatropha improved the structural ecosystem quality when planted on wasteland, but reduced the functional ecosystem quality. Fertilizer application (mainly N) is an important contributor to most negative impact categories. Optimizing fertilization, agronomic practices and genetics are the major system improvement options. (author)

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Selected Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Systems in Denmark and Ghana - with a focus on greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    . This will increase the reduction potential for CO2. GhanaTwo different case studies have been carried out for Ghana. The first is a life cycle analysis of an energy forest plantation in Ghana which has been cultivated with modern equipment. The second LCA is extended with an energy end use chain to determine...... for use of machines have been made in the two cases. The main difference is that the energy forest in Ghana uses Nitrogen fixing species to avoid the use of fertilisers. The second Ghanaian case study was established so that one-third of the electricity produced at the power plant should be supplied...... the different cooking options. This is an important issue as long as cooking is the main energy service in Ghana. Life cycle analysis can be a useful tool for assessing the different saving options and for identifying environmental impacts from the cooking process.To supply sufficient woodfuel to cover one...

  9. Nuclear-fuel-cycle risk assessment: descriptions of representative non-reactor facilities, Sections 15-19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.

    1982-09-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: fuel reprocessing; spent fuel and high-level and transuranic waste storage; spent fuel and high-level and transuranic waste disposal; low-level and intermediate-level waste disposal; and, transportation of radioactive materials in the nuclear fuel cycle. In each of the first three sections a description is given on the mainline process, effluent processing and waste management systems, plant layout, and alternative process schemes. Safety information and a summary are also included in each. The section on transport of radioactive materials includes information on the transportation of uranium ore, uranium ore concentrate, UF/sub 6/, PuO/sub 2/ powder, unirradiated uranium and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies, spent fuel, solidified high-level waste, contact-handled transuranic waste, remote-handled transuranic waste, and low and intermediate level nontransuranic waste. A glossary is included. (JGB)

  10. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  11. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  12. THE MISSION AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FROM DOE’S FUEL CYCLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (FCRD) ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Carmack; L. Braase; F. Goldner

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors, enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel, effectively utilize nuclear energy resources, and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state of the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal oriented science based approach.” AFC uses a “goal oriented, science based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. One of the most challenging aspects of AFC is the management, integration, and coordination of major R&D activities across multiple organizations. AFC interfaces and collaborates with Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) campaigns, universities, industry, various DOE programs and laboratories, federal agencies (e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC]), and international organizations. Key challenges are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Challenged with the research and development of fuels for two different reactor technology platforms, AFC targeted transmutation fuel development and focused ceramic fuel development for Advanced LWR Fuels.

  13. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  14. Thermal cycling effect in U-10Mo/Zry-4 monolithic nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Denise A.; Zimmermann, Angelo J. O.; Silva, Selma L.; Piqueira, J. R. C.

    2016-05-01

    Uranium alloys in a monolithic form have been considered attractive candidates for high density nuclear fuel. However, this high-density fissile material configuration keeps the volume permitted for the retention of fission products at a minimum. Additionally, the monolithic nuclear fuel has a peculiar configuration, whereby the fuel is in direct contact with the cladding. How this fuel configuration will retain fission products and how this will affect its integrity under various physical conditions - such as thermal cycling - are some of the technological problems for this new fuel. In this paper, the effect of out-of-pile thermal cycling is studied for a monolithic fuel plate produced by a hot co-rolling method using U-10Mo (wt %) as the fuel alloy and Zircaloy-4 as the cladding material. After performing 10 thermal cycles from 25 to 400 °C at a rate of 1 °C/min (∼125 h), the fuel alloy presented several fractures that were observed to occur in the last three cycles. These cracks nucleated approximately in the center of the fuel alloy and crossed the interdiffusion zone initiating an internal crack in the cladding. The results suggest that the origin of these fractures is the thermal fatigue of the U-10Mo alloy caused due to the combination of two factors: (i) the high difference in the thermal expansion coefficient of the fuel and of the cladding material, and (ii) the bound condition of fuel/cladding materials in this fuel element configuration.

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of Cookstove Fuels in India and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental footprint of current and possible fuels used for cooking within China and India. Current fuel mix profiles are compared to scenarios of projected differences in and/or cleaner cooking fuels. Results are repo...

  16. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Repository Impact Evaluation FY-05 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G

    2005-09-12

    An important long-term objective of advanced nuclear fuel cycle (AFC) technologies is to provide improvement in the long-term management of radioactive waste. Compared to a once-thru fuel cycle, it is possible to generate far less waste, and potentially easier waste to manage, with advanced fuel cycles. However, the precise extent and value of these benefits are complex and difficult to quantify. This document presents a status report of efforts within AFCI Systems Analysis to define and quantify the AFC benefits to geologic disposal, development of cooperative efforts with the US repository program, and participation with international evaluations of AFC impacts on waste management. The primary analysis of repository benefits is conducted by ANL. This year repository impact evaluations have included: (1) Continued evaluation of LWR recycle benefits in support of scenario analysis. (2) Extension of repository analyses to consider long-term dose reductions. (3) Developing the opportunity for cooperation with the U.S. repository program. (4) International cooperation with OECD-NEA.

  17. To Recycle or Not to Recycle? An Intergenerational Approach to Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThis paper approaches the choice between the open and closed nuclear fuel cycles as a matter of intergenerational justice, by revealing the value conflicts in the production of nuclear energy. The closed fuel cycle improve sustainability in terms of the supply certainty of uranium and involv

  18. 78 FR 45983 - Acceptability of Corrective Action Programs for Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing draft NUREG-2154, ``Acceptability of Corrective Action Programs for Fuel Cycle Facilities,'' based on receipt and review of public comments. The draft NUREG provided guidance to NRC staff on how to determine whether a submittal for a Corrective Action Program (CAP), voluntarily submitted by fuel cycle facility licensees, was......

  19. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  20. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  1. On feasibility of a closed nuclear power fuel cycle with minimum radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    Practical implementation of a closed nuclear fuel cycle implies solution of two main tasks. The first task is creation of environmentally acceptable operating conditions of the nuclear fuel cycle considering, first of all, high radioactivity of the involved materials. The second task is creation of effective and economically appropriate conditions of involving fertile isotopes in the fuel cycle. Creation of technologies for management of the high-level radioactivity of spent fuel reliable in terms of radiological protection seems to be the hardest problem.

  2. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  3. Advanced fuel cycle cost estimation model and its cost estimation results for three nuclear fuel cycles using a dynamic model in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Saerom; Gao, Ruxing [University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajungro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Sungsig, E-mail: ssbang@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Business and Technology Management, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear fuel cycle cost using a new cost estimation model was analyzed. • The material flows of three nuclear fuel cycle options were calculated. • The generation cost of once-through was estimated to be 66.88 mills/kW h. • The generation cost of pyro-SFR recycling was estimated to be 78.06 mills/kW h. • The reactor cost was identified as the main cost driver of pyro-SFR recycling. - Abstract: The present study analyzes advanced nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation models such as the different discount rate model and its cost estimation results. To do so, an analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle cost of three options (direct disposal (once through), PWR–MOX (Mixed OXide fuel), and Pyro-SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)) from the viewpoint of economic sense, focusing on the cost estimation model, was conducted using a dynamic model. From an analysis of the fuel cycle cost estimation results, it was found that some cost gap exists between the traditional same discount rate model and the advanced different discount rate model. However, this gap does not change the priority of the nuclear fuel cycle option from the viewpoint of economics. In addition, the fuel cycle costs of OT (Once-Through) and Pyro-SFR recycling based on the most likely value using a probabilistic cost estimation except for reactor costs were calculated to be 8.75 mills/kW h and 8.30 mills/kW h, respectively. Namely, the Pyro-SFR recycling option was more economical than the direct disposal option. However, if the reactor cost is considered, the economic sense in the generation cost between the two options (direct disposal vs. Pyro-SFR recycling) can be changed because of the high reactor cost of an SFR.

  4. Proliferation resistance for fast reactors and related fuel cycles: issues and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend to a significant degree on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance and nuclear materials accountability. The challenges for fast reactors and related fuel cycles are especially critical. They are being explored in the Generation IV Tnternational Forum (GIF) and the Tnternational Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, as well as by many states that are looking to these systems for the efficient lise of uranium resources and long-term energy security. How do any proliferation risks they may pose compare to other reactors, both existing and under development, and their fuel cycles? Can they be designed with intrinsic (technological) features to make these systems more proliferation resistant? What roles can extrinsic (institutional) features play in proliferation resistance? What are the anticipated safeguards requirements, and will new technologies and approaches need to be developed? How can safeguards be facilitated by the design process? These and other questions require a rethinking of proliferation resistance and the prospects for new technologies and other intrinsic and extrinsic features being developed that are responsive to specific issues for fast reactors and related fuel cycles and to the broader threat environment in which these systems will have to operate. There are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, but technology and design can playa role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating non-state threats. There will be a significant role for extrinsic factors, especially the various measures - from safeguards and physical protection to export controls - embodied in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. This paper

  5. Economic incentives and recommended development for commercial use of high burnup fuels in the once-through LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Merckx, K.R.; Holm, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This study calculates the reduced uranium requirements and the economic incentives for increasing the burnup of current design LWR fuels from the current range of 25 to 35 MWD/Kg to a range of 45 to 55 MWD/Kg. The changes in fuel management strategies which may be required to accommodate these high burnup fuels and longer fuel cycles are discussed. The material behavior problems which may present obstacles to achieving high burnup or to license fuel are identified and discussed. These problems are presented in terms of integral fuel response and the informational needs for commercial and licensing acceptance. Research and development programs are outlined which are aimed at achieving a licensing position and commercial acceptance of high burnup fuels.

  6. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options.

  7. Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

  8. Rankine cycle system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-09-09

    A Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system uses a receiver with a maximum liquid working fluid level lower than the minimum liquid working fluid level of a sub-cooler of the waste heat recovery system. The receiver may have a position that is physically lower than the sub-cooler's position. A valve controls transfer of fluid between several of the components in the waste heat recovery system, especially from the receiver to the sub-cooler. The system may also have an associated control module.

  9. JAEA key facilities for global advanced fuel cycle R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Ryuichi [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Labos, JAEA, 4-33 Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Advanced fuel cycle will be realized with the mid and long term R and D during the long-term transition period from LWR cycle to advanced reactor fuel cycle. Most of JAEA facilities have been utilized to establish the current LWR and FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) fuel cycle by implementing evolutionary R and D. An assessment of today's state experimental facilities concerning the following research issues: reprocessing, Mox fuel fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examination, waste management and nuclear data measurement, is made. The revolutionary R and D requests new issues to be studied: the TRU multi-recycling, minor actinide recycling, the assessment of proliferation resistance and the assessment of cost reduction. To implement the revolutionary R and D for advanced fuel cycle, however, these facilities should be refurbished to install new machines and process equipment to provide more flexible testing parameters.

  10. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  11. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel cycle studies reported for this period include studies of advanced solvent extraction techniques focussed on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes. Miniature single-stage and eight-stage centrifugal contactors are being employed in performance studies applicable to larger units. In other work, literature on the dispersion of reagents as a result of explosions is being reviewed to develop systematic data applicable to fuel reprocessing and useful in identifying source terms. In yet other work, scouting studies were performed to obtain criteria for identifying organic solutions suitable for the separation of actinides from fission products. A program has been initiated on pyrochemical and dry processing of nuclear fuel. Literature reviews have been initiated on material development, carbide fuel reprocessing, and thorium-uranium reprocessing in fused salts. A review and evaluation of the encapsulation of high-level waste in a metal matrix is under way. Corrosion and leach rates of simulated waste forms are being measured and a model has been proposed to describe the reaction between solidified high-level waste and metals. In other work, criteria for the handling of fuel assembly hulls are being developed on the basis of past work on the pyrophoricity of zirconium alloys and related criteria from several sources. Experimental work is underway to determine whether nuclear wastes can be safely confined in geologic formations. Information is being obtained on the migration of radionuclides in aqueous solution-rock systems. 17 figures, 27 tables.

  12. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Meng; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel pr...

  13. Summary of non-US national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    Brief program overviews of fuel cycle, spent fuel, and waste management activities in the following countries are provided: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, USSR, and the United Kingdom. International nonproliferation activities, multilateral agreements and projects, and the international agencies specifically involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are also described.

  14. Hybrid two fuel system nozzle with a bypass connecting the two fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar [Cincinnati, OH; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC

    2012-05-29

    A hybrid fuel combustion nozzle for use with natural gas, syngas, or other types of fuels. The hybrid fuel combustion nozzle may include a natural gas system with a number of swozzle vanes and a syngas system with a number of co-annular fuel tubes.

  15. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  16. Uranium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Creation of Plutonium (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    One of the important properties of uranium is that it can be used to “breed” higher actinides, particularly plutonium. During the past sixty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu, and substantial quantities of the “minor” actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors - a permanent record of nuclear power. Some of these transuranium elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), and of environmental concern because of their long-half lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np). In fact, the new strategies of the Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) are, in part, motivated by an effort to mitigate some of the challenges of the disposal of these long-lived actinides. There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these heavy elements: 1.) to “burn” or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to “sequester” the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A= rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium, both as inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. Systematic studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high doses of alpha-decay event damage1. The radiation stability of these compositions is closely related to the structural distortions that can be accommodated for specific pyrochlore compositions and the electronic structure of the B-site cation. Recent developments in the understanding of the properties of heavy element solids have opened up new possibilities for the design of advanced nuclear fuels and waste forms.

  17. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  18. Theoretical Study on CO2 Transcritical Cycle Combined Ejector Cycle Refrigeration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢苇; 马一太; 李敏霞; 查世彤

    2003-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons(HCFCs) are as main refrigerants used in traditional refrigeration systems driven by electricity from burning fossil fuels, which is regarded as one of the major reasons for ozone depletion (man-made refrigerants emission) and global warming (CO2 emission). So people pay more and more attention to natural refrigerants and energy saving technologies. An innovative system combining CO2 transcritical cycle with ejector cycle is proposed in this paper. The CO2 compression sub-cycle is powered by electricity with the characteristics of relatively high temperature in the gas cooler (defined as an intercooler by the proposed system). In order to recover the waste heat, an ejector sub-cycle operating with the natural refrigerants (NH3, H2O) is employed. The two sub-cycles are connected by an intercooler. This combined cycle joins the advantages of the two cycles together and eliminates the disadvantages. The influences of the evaporation temperature in CO2 compression sub-cycle, the evaporation temperature in the ejector sub-cycle, the temperature in the intercooler and the condensation temperature in the proposed system performance are discussed theoretically in this study. In addition, some unique features of the system are presented.

  19. Extending the world's uranium resources through advanced CANDU fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vuono, Tony; Yee, Frank; Aleyaseen, Val; Kuran, Sermet; Cottrell, Catherine

    2010-09-15

    The growing demand for nuclear power will encourage many countries to undertake initiatives to ensure a self-reliant fuel source supply. Uranium is currently the only fuel utilized in nuclear reactors. There are increasing concerns that primary uranium sources will not be enough to meet future needs. AECL has developed a fuel cycle vision that incorporates other sources of advanced fuels to be adaptable to its CANDU technology.

  20. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. High-temperature isothermal chemical cycling for solar-driven fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong; Yang, Chih-Kai; Haile, Sossina M

    2013-10-28

    The possibility of producing chemical fuel (hydrogen) from the solar-thermal energy input using an isothermal cycling strategy is explored. The canonical thermochemical reactive oxide, ceria, is reduced under high temperature and inert sweep gas, and in the second step oxidized by H2O at the same temperature. The process takes advantage of the oxygen chemical potential difference between the inert sweep gas and high-temperature steam, the latter becoming more oxidizing with increasing temperature as a result of thermolysis. The isothermal operation relieves the need to achieve high solid-state heat recovery for high system efficiency, as is required in a conventional two-temperature process. Thermodynamic analysis underscores the importance of gas-phase heat recovery in the isothermal approach and suggests that attractive efficiencies may be practically achievable on the system level. However, with ceria as the reactive oxide, the isothermal approach is not viable at temperatures much below 1400 °C irrespective of heat recovery. Experimental investigations show that an isothermal cycle performed at 1500 °C can yield fuel at a rate of ~9.2 ml g(-1) h(-1), while providing exceptional system simplification relative to two-temperature cycling.

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development: strategies for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, J

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation, the author aims to define the major role of the nuclear energy in the future, according a sustainable development scenario. The today aging park and the new Generation IV technologies are presented. The transition scenario from Pu mono-recycling in PWRs to actinide global recycling in fast neutron Gen IV systems is also developed. Closed cycles and fast reactors appear as the appropriate answer to sustainable objectives in a vision of a large expansion. (A.L.B.)

  3. A Review of Thorium Utilization as an option for Advanced Fuel Cycle--Potential Option for Brazil in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, J.R.; Carluccio, T.

    2004-10-03

    Since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Development, Thorium was considered as a potential fuel, mainly due to the potential to produce fissile uranium 233. Several Th/U fuel cycles, using thermal and fast reactors were proposed, such as the Radkwoski once through fuel cycle for PWR and VVER, the thorium fuel cycles for CANDU Reactors, the utilization in Molten Salt Reactors, the utilization of thorium in thermal (AHWR), and fast reactors (FBTR) in India, and more recently in innovative reactors, mainly Accelerator Driven System, in a double strata fuel cycle. All these concepts besides the increase in natural nuclear resources are justified by non proliferation issues (plutonium constrain) and the waste radiological toxicity reduction. The paper intended to summarize these developments, with an emphasis in the Th/U double strata fuel cycle using ADS. Brazil has one of the biggest natural reserves of thorium, estimated in 1.2 millions of tons of ThO{sub 2}, as will be reviewed in this paper, and therefore R&D programs would be of strategically national interest. In fact, in the past there was some projects to utilize Thorium in Reactors, as the ''Instinto/Toruna'' Project, in cooperation with France, to utilize Thorium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, in the mid of sixties to mid of seventies, and the thorium utilization in PWR, in cooperation with German, from 1979-1988. The paper will review these initiatives in Brazil, and will propose to continue in Brazil activities related with Th/U fuel cycle.

  4. Closed-Cycle Hydrogen-Oxygen Regenerative Fuel Cell at the NASA Glenn Research Center-An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    The closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has demonstrated multiple back-to-back contiguous cycles at rated power and round-trip efficiencies up to 52 percent. It is the first fully closed cycle RFC ever demonstrated. (The entire system is sealed; nothing enters or escapes the system other than electrical power and heat.) During fiscal year fiscal year (FY) FY06 to FY07, the system s numerous modifications and internal improvements focused on reducing parasitic power, heat loss, and noise signature; increasing its functionality as an unattended automated energy storage device; and in-service reliability.

  5. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  6. Comparison and Impact of Waste Heat Recovery Technologies on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption in a Normalized Driving Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legros Arnaud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology.

  7. The cycle of the nuclear fuel used in EDF power plants; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire utilise dans les centrales EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This document briefly indicates the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, from the purchase of natural uranium to waste storage. It also indicates the main responsibilities of EDF regarding this fuel cycle (to secure supplies, to organise material transportation, to process and store used fuels and associated wastes). It presents the different associated processes: uranium extraction, purification and concentration, conversion or fluoridation, enrichment. It briefly describes the fuel assembly fabrication, and indicates the main uranium producers in the world. Other addressed steps are: the transportation of fuel assembly, fuel loading, and spent fuel management, the processing of spent fuel and radioactive wastes

  8. Transuranic material recovery in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, R.W.; Goff, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The plans for demonstrating the IFR fuel cycle, including its waste processing options, by processing irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility have been developed for the first refining series. This series has been designed to provide the data needed for the further development of the IFR program. An important piece of the data needed is the recovery of TRU material during the reprocessing and waste operations.

  9. Transuranic material recovery in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, R.W.; Goff, K.M.

    1993-03-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The plans for demonstrating the IFR fuel cycle, including its waste processing options, by processing irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility have been developed for the first refining series. This series has been designed to provide the data needed for the further development of the IFR program. An important piece of the data needed is the recovery of TRU material during the reprocessing and waste operations.

  10. The scheme for evaluation of isotopic composition of fast reactor core in closed nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldikov, I. S.; Ternovykh, M. Yu; Fomichenko, P. A.; Gerasimov, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The PRORYV (i.e. «Breakthrough» in Russian) project is currently under development. Within the framework of this project, fast reactors BN-1200 and BREST-OD-300 should be built to, inter alia, demonstrate possibility of the closed nuclear fuel cycle technologies with plutonium as a main source of power. Russia has a large inventory of plutonium which was accumulated in the result of reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal power reactors and conversion of nuclear weapons. This kind of plutonium will be used for development of initial fuel assemblies for fast reactors. To solve the closed nuclear fuel modeling tasks REPRORYV code was developed. It simulates the mass flow for nuclides in the closed fuel cycle. This paper presents the results of modeling of a closed nuclear fuel cycle, nuclide flows considering the influence of the uncertainty on the outcome of neutron-physical characteristics of the reactor.

  11. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  12. Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

    2011-01-01

    The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described.

  13. Study of Thorium Fuel Cycles for Light Water Reactor VBER-150

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Evelio Milian Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the use of thorium-based fuel cycle for the transportable reactors or transportable nuclear power plants (TNPP VBER-150 concept, in particular the neutronic behavior. The thorium-based fuel cycles included Th232+Pu239, Th232+U233, and Th232+U and the standard design fuel UOX. Parameters related to the neutronic behavior such as burnup, nuclear fuel breeding, MA stockpile, and Pu isotopes production (among others were used to compare the fuel cycles. The Pu transmutation rate and accumulation of Pu with MA in the spent fuel were compared mutually and with an UOX open cycle. The Th232+U233 fuel cycle proved to be the best cycle for minimizing the production of Pu and MA. The neutronic calculations have been performed with the well-known MCNPX computational code, which was verified for this type of fuel performing calculation of the IAEA benchmark announced by IAEA-TECDOC-1349.

  14. Method for modeling driving cycles, fuel use, and emissions for over snow vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangchuan; Frey, H Christopher; Sandhu, Gurdas S; Graver, Brandon M; Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Ray, John D

    2014-07-15

    As input to a winter use plan, activity, fuel use, and tailpipe exhaust emissions of over snow vehicles (OSV), including five snow coaches and one snowmobile, were measured on a designated route in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Engine load was quantified in terms of vehicle specific power (VSP), which is a function of speed, acceleration, and road grade. Compared to highway vehicles, VSP for OSVs is more sensitive to rolling resistance and less sensitive to aerodynamic drag. Fuel use rates increased linearly (R2>0.96) with VSP. For gasoline-fueled OSVs, fuel-based emission rates of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) typically increased with increasing fuel use rate, with some cases of very high CO emissions. For the diesel OSVs, which had selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filters, fuel-based NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission rates were not sensitive to fuel flow rate, and the emission controls were effective. Inter vehicle variability in cycle average fuel use and emissions rates for CO and NOx was substantial. However, there was relatively little inter-cycle variation in cycle average fuel use and emission rates when comparing driving cycles. Recommendations are made regarding how real-world OSV activity, fuel use, and emissions data can be improved.

  15. Analysis of fuel cycle strategies and U.S. transition scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigeland, Roald; Taiwo, Temitope A.

    2016-10-17

    The nuclear fuel cycle Evaluation and Screening (E&S) study that was completed in October 2014 [1] enabled the identification of four fuel cycle groups that are considered most promising based on a set of nine evaluation criteria: (a) six benefit criteria of Nuclear Waste Management, Proliferation Risk, Nuclear Material Security Risk, Safety, Environmental Impact, Resource Utilization, and (b) three challenge criteria of Development and Deployment Risk, Institutional Issues, Financial Risk and Economics. The E&S study was conducted at a level of analysis that is "technology- neutral," that is, without consideration of specific technologies, but using the fundamental physics characteristics of each part of the fuel cycle. The study focused on the fuel cycle performance benefits at the fuel cycle equilibrium state, with only limited consideration of transition and deployment impacts. Common characteristics of the four most promising fuel cycle options include continuous recycle of all U/Pu or U/TRU, the use of fast-spectrum reactors, and no use of uranium enrichment once fuel cycle equilibrium has been established. The high-level wastes are mainly from processing of irradiated fuel, and there would be no disposal of any spent fuel. Building on the findings of the E&S study, additional studies have been conducted in the last two years following the information exchange meeting, the 13th IEMPT, which was held in Seoul, the Republic of Korea in 2014. Insights are presented from the recent studies on the benefits and challenges of recycling minor actinides, and transition considerations to some of the most promising fuel cycle options.

  16. Scenarios for the Nuclear fuel cycle in the next decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M.J. [Nuclear Resources International, Inc. (NRI), Atlanta, Georgia 30319 (United States); Ortega C, R.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: NRIAtlanta@aol.com

    2005-07-01

    Some ask: What is the most important event in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in recent years? One obvious answer is: the dramatic increase in the price of uranium in the international market. The 'spot' or short term delivery price of uranium, increased from $10.90 US dol/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in June 2003 to $14.40 US dol/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in December 2003, a 34% increase in just six months. Then it jumped again to $20.50 US dol/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} by December 2004, an increase of 42% that year. Now, by June of 2005, the spot price has climbed another 41% in six months to $29.00 dol/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Altogether this is a 270% jump in the spot price in just two years. In the same period, the long-term contract price increased from $ 11.75 US dol/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to $30.00 US dol/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - an increase of 255%. These 'adjustments' are a shock to fuel buyers similar to that adjustment of tectonic plates that caused the terrible 'tsunami' in the coast of East Asia last December. This 'adjustment' occurred in a market that most buyers had thought had developed stability - but this was a stability which we now know was mainly due to the supply of large excess inventories of uranium from several countries, including military stocks in the CIS and USA. But what the future holds may be even more dramatic. This paper examines some of the critical elements that will shape the future U{sub 3}O{sub 8} supply/demand relationship, and prices, in the coming decade. (Author)

  17. Characteristics of a different fuel cycle in a PBMR-400 for burning reactor grade plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, Eben [M-TECH Industrial (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 54620, Wierdapark 0149 (South Africa)], E-mail: ejm@mtechindustrial.com; Teuchert, Eberhard [M-TECH Industrial (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 54620, Wierdapark 0149 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    An outstanding feature of the high temperature, gas-cooled, version of a Generation IV type reactor is its versatility in application. Apart from the capacity in high temperature gas-cooled reactors to generate electricity it could desalinate (multi-effect distillation [MED] by deploying excess heat or reverse osmosis by deploying excess electricity), produce hydrogen (by deploying excess electricity), whereas this article showcases the on-line fuelling characteristics of a pebble bed reactor concept for the incineration of reactor grade plutonium, whilst producing electricity. The VSOP-A system of codes is employed to demonstrate by calculation how the standard PBMR-400 commercial reactor design offers similar inherent safety characteristics with a Pu-Th/U advanced fuel cycle. This implies that no significant design changes are necessary to implement such a fuel cycle. Furthermore, the flexibility of the pebble fuel concept is deployed to house the fertile material in one type of pebble, whilst a second type will contain the fissile or driver material.

  18. A study on the radioactive waste management for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, H. S.; Park, J. J.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, Y. H.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. G.; Park, S. D.; Suh, M. Y.; Sohn, S. C.; Song, B. C.; Lee, C. H.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jo, K. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Jee, C. S.; Han, S. H.

    1997-09-01

    Part 1: The characteristics if the radioactive wastes coming from the DUPIC fuel manufacturing process were analyzed and evaluated. The gross {alpha}-activity and {alpha}-, {gamma}-spectrum of irradiated zircaloy specimens form KORI unit 1 were analyzed. In order to develop the trapping media of radioactive ruthenium oxides, trapping behavior of volatilized ruthenium oxides on various metal oxides or carbonates was analyzed. Fly ash was selected as a trapping materials for gaseous cesium. And reaction characteristics of CsNO{sub 3} and CsI with fly ash have been investigated. Also, trapping material were performed to test fly ash filter for removal of gaseous cesium under the air and hydrogen atmosphere. The applicability of fly ash to the vitrification of the spent filter was analyzed in the aspects of predictability, leachability. Good quality of Borosilicate glass was formed using Cesium spent filter. Offgas treatment system of DUPIC fuel manufacturing facility was designed and constructed in order to trap of gaseous radioactive waste from 100 batch of OREOXA furnace (the capacity : 500 g/batch). Part II: To develop chemical analysis techniques necessary for understanding chemical properties of the highly radioactive materials related to the development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology, the following basic studies were performed : dissolution of SIMFUEL (simulated fuel), determination of uranium by potentiometry and UV/Vis absorption spectrophotometry, separation of PWR spent fuel, group separation of fission products from uranium, individual separation for analysis of actinides, determination of free acid in a artificial dissolved solution of PWR spent fuel, group separation of fission products form uranium, individual separation of Sm from a mixed rare earth elements and measurement of its isotopes by TI-mass spectrometry, and characteristics of detectors in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) suitable for analysis of trace fission

  19. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-03-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  20. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  1. India's nuclear fuel cycle unraveling the impact of the U.S.-India nuclear accord

    CERN Document Server

    Woddi, Taraknath VK

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the current (February 2009) status and future potential of India's nuclear fuel cycle is presented in this book. Such a fuel cycle assessment is important, but relatively opaque because India regards various aspects of its nuclear fuel cycle as strategically sensitive. Any study therefore necessarily depends upon reverse calculations based on the information that is available, expert assessments, engineering judgment and anecdotal information. In this work every effort is made to provide transparency to these foundations, so that changes can be made in light of alternative expec

  2. Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Burton; Chu, Margaret; Hoffman, Darleane; Juzaitis, Ray; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Omberg, Ronald P.; Rempe, Joy L.; Warin, Dominique

    2012-06-12

    The Fuel Cycle (FC) Subcommittee of NEAC met February 7-8, 2012 in Washington (Drs. Hoffmann and Juzaitis were unable to attend). While the meeting was originally scheduled to occur after the submission of the President’s FY 2013 budget, the submission was delayed a week; thus, we could have no discussion on balance in the NE program. The Agenda is attached as Appendix A. The main focus of the meeting was on accident tolerant fuels, an important post Fukushima issue, and on issues related to the report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future (BRC) as related to the responsibility for used fuel disposal which was assigned to the FC program with the end of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. In addition we heard an update on the systems study program which is aimed at helping chose the best options for advanced reactors, and possible new study on separation and waste form relevance to used fuel disposal (these two items are only discussed in this section of the report).

  3. Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriyanti, Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair, Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this study a fesibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850° C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticallity was obtained for this reactor.

  4. Comparison for thorium fuel cycle facilities of two different capacities for implementation of safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangotra, Suresh, E-mail: sgangotra@yahoo.co.in; Grover, R.B.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Facilities for implementation of safeguards for thorium fuel cycle have been compared. • Two concepts have been compared. • In one concept, the facilities are designed in hub and spoke concept. • In second concept the facilities are designed as self-contained concept. • The comparison is done on a number of factors, which affect safeguardability and proliferation resistance. -- Abstract: Thorium based nuclear fuel cycle has many attractive features, its inherent proliferation resistance being one of them. This is due to the presence of high energy gamma emitting daughter products of U{sup 232} associated with U{sup 233}. This high energy gamma radiation also poses challenges in nuclear material accounting. A typical thorium fuel cycle facility has a number of plants including a fuel fabrication plant for initial and equilibrium core, a reprocessed U{sup 233} fuel fabrication plant, a reprocessing plant, a fuel assembly/disassembly plant and associated waste handling and management plants. A thorium fuel cycle facility can be set up to serve reactors at a site. Alternatively, one can follow a hub and spoke approach with a large thorium fuel cycle facility acting as a hub, catering to the requirements of reactors at several sites as spokes. These two concepts have their respective merits and shortcomings in terms of engineering and economics. The present paper is aimed at comparing the merits and challenges for implementation of safeguards on the two concepts viz. a large fuel cycle hub catering to reactors at several sites versus a small fuel cycle facility dedicated to reactors at a single site.

  5. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For alcohol dual fuel automobiles and natural gas dual fuel automobiles, the procedures of paragraphs... from the tests performed using gasoline or diesel test fuel. (ii) If 5-cycle testing was performed on... values for the model type. (5) For alcohol dual fuel automobiles and natural gas dual fuel automobiles...

  6. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Accident Tolerant Fuels Series 1 (ATF-1) Irradiation Testing FY 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Core, Gregory Matthew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report contains a summary of irradiation testing of Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Accident Tolerant Fuels Series 1 (ATF 1) experiments performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in FY 2016. ATF 1 irradiation testing work performed in FY 2016 included design, analysis, and fabrication of ATF-1B drop in capsule ATF 1 series experiments and irradiation testing of ATF-1 capsules in the ATR.

  7. Life cycle analysis and choice of natural gas-based automotive alternative fuels in Chongqing Municipality,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui; LI Guangyi; ZHANG Zongyi; REN Yulong; HAN Weijian

    2007-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of emissions by using crude oil as the primary energy source.A reduction of emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains.The objective of this study is to carry out an economic,environmental and energy (EEE) life cycle study on natural gas-based automotive fuels with conventional gasoline in an abundant region of China.A set of indices of four fuels/vehicle systems on the basis of life cycle are assessed in terms of impact of EEE,in which natural gas produces compressed natural gas (CNG),methanol,dimethylether (DME) and Fischer Tropsch diesel (FTD).The study included fuel production,vehicle production,vehicle operation,infrastructure and vehicle end of life as a system for each fuel/vehicle system.A generic gasoline fueled car is used as a baseline.Data have been reviewed and modified based on the best knowledge available to Chongqing local sources.Results indicated that when we could not change electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles into commercial vehicles on a large scale,direct use of CNG in a dedicated or bi-fuel vehicle is an economical choice for the region which is most energy efficient and more environmental friendly.The study can be used to support decisions on how natural gas resources can best be utilized as a fuel/energy resource for automobiles,and what issues need to be resolved in Chongqing.The models and approaches for this study can be applied to other regions of China as long as all the assumptions are well defined and modified to find a substitute automotive energy source and establish an energy policy in a specific region.

  8. Social Cost Assessment for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji-eun; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper will investigate the vast array of economic factors to estimate the true cost of the nuclear power. There are many studies addressing the external costs of energy production. However, it is only since the 1990s that the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production has been studied in detail. Each investigation has identified their own set of external costs and developed formulas and models using a variety of statistical techniques. The objective of this research is to broaden the scope of the parameters currently consider by adding new areas and expanding on the types of situations considered. Previously the approach to evaluating the external cost of nuclear power did not include various fuel cycle options and influencing parameters. Cost has always been a very important factor in decision-making, in particular for policy choices evaluating the alternative energy sources and electricity generation technologies. Assessment of external costs in support of decision-making should reflect timely consideration of important country specific policy objective. PWR-MOX and FR-Pyro are the best fuel cycle in parameter of environment impacts, but OT or OT-ER is proper than FR-Pyro in human beings. Using the OT fuel cycle is better than FR-Pyro to reduce the conflict cost. When energy supply is deficient, FR-Pyro fuel cycle stands longer than other fuel cycles. Proliferation resistance is shown as 'high' in all fuel cycles, so there are no difference between fuel cycles. When the severe accident occurs, FR-Pyro cycle is economical than other OT based fuel cycles.

  9. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  10. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  11. Assess How Changes in Fuel Cycle Operation Impact Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Adigun, Babatunde John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division

    2016-10-31

    In this report two research topics of interest to Concepts and Approaches are investigated. The motivation of joining them into one project is that both require (1) the simulation of fuel irradiation in a reactor and (2) the transport of gamma and neutron irradiation from the fuel to safeguards detectors. In the next two subsections the merits of each of the two safeguards applications are further introduced. Given the cumulative impact of the enhancements listed above, it is not surprising that both fuel assembly design and fuel assembly irradiation optimization have improved over the past 50+ years. The purpose of the research summarized in this sub-­section is to investigate what, if any, consequence this evolution in reactor operation might have for nuclear safeguards. It is anticipated that the burnup and isotopics of the spent fuel should exhibit less variation over the decades as reactor operators irradiate each assembly to the optimum amount. In contrast, older spent fuel is anticipated to vary more in burnup and resulting isotopics for a given initial enrichment. Continuing with this thesis, modern fuel should be more uniform in composition, and thus, measured safeguards results should be easier to interpret than results from older spent fuel. With spent fuel ponds filling up, interim and long-­term storage of spent fuel will need to be addressed. Additionally after long periods of storage, spent fuel is no longer self-­protecting and as such the IAEA will categorize it as more attractive; in approximately 20 years many of the assemblies from early commercial cores will no longer be considered self-­protecting. This study will assess how more recent changes in the reactor operation could impact the interpretation of safeguards measurements.

  12. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  13. Variable volume combustor with nested fuel manifold system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-13

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles, a fuel manifold system in communication with the micro-mixer fuel nozzles to deliver a flow of fuel thereto, and a linear actuator to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the fuel manifold system.

  14. Potential External (non-DOE) Constraints on U.S. Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet

    2012-07-01

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program will be conducting a screening of fuel cycle options in FY2013 to help focus fuel cycle R&D activities. As part of this screening, performance criteria and go/no-go criteria are being identified. To help ensure that these criteria are consistent with current policy, an effort was initiated to identify the status and basis of potentially relevant regulations, laws, and policies that have been established external to DOE. As such regulations, laws, and policies may be beyond DOE’s control to change, they may constrain the screening criteria and internally-developed policy. This report contains a historical survey and analysis of publically available domestic documents that could pertain to external constraints on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. “External” is defined as public documents outside DOE. This effort did not include survey and analysis of constraints established internal to DOE.

  15. 77 FR 18272 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...) staff has conducted inspections of the Louisiana Energy Services (LES), LLC, National enrichment... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Discussion The NRC staff has conducted inspections of the Louisiana...

  16. Multiple Limit Cycles in an Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng Huang; Le-min Zhu; Minaya Villasana

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillatory phenomenon has been observed in the system of immune response, which corresponds to the limit cycles in the mathematical models. We prove that the system simulating an immune response studied by Huang has at least three limit cycles in the system. The conditions for the multiple limit cycles are useful in analyzing the nonlinear oscillation in immune response.

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle: estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-02-01

    The decision-making process for setting future energy policy requires a large range of information. An important component in this process is the comparison of the various costs incurred by the different types of energy systems. Among these costs are those that the production and consumption of energy impose on society as a whole. Some of which are borne by the producers and consumers of the energy. However, other social costs have not been internalized in the costing structure of the various fuel cycle, and therefore have not been fully considered in the past. These costs are referred to as external costs. The aim of the ExternE project is the computation of these external costs using a common methodology and the design of a unified framework for the presentation of the results. For direct comparison to be made between energy options, it is necessary that a common approach is taken. Two important categories of physical impacts that potentially fall into the classification of external costs are human health effects and environmental impacts. This report presents a methodology for an assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle that could be applied anywhere in Europe, however in this report, whenever possible, site-specific information for France has been used. The first phase of this project was a joint European Community/U.S. Department of Energy effort and the final results for the priority pathways of the nuclear fuel cycle presented in this document have been compared to the preliminary results reported by the US team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Impact of thorium based molten salt reactor on the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Safwan Qasim Mohammad

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of six reactors selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is a MSR concept based on thorium fuel cycle. LFTR uses liquid fluoride salts as a nuclear fuel. It uses 232Th and 233U as the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. Fluoride salt of these nuclides is dissolved in a mixed carrier salt of lithium and beryllium (FLiBe). The objective of this research was to complete feasibility studies of a small commercial thermal LFTR. The focus was on neutronic calculations in order to prescribe core design parameter such as core size, fuel block pitch (p), fuel channel radius, fuel path, reflector thickness, fuel salt composition, and power. In order to achieve this objective, the applicability of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) to MSR modeling was verified. Then, a prescription for conceptual small thermal reactor LFTR and relevant calculations were performed using MCNP to determine the main neutronic parameters of the core reactor. The MCNP code was used to study the reactor physics characteristics for the FUJI-U3 reactor. The results were then compared with the results obtained from the original FUJI-U3 using the reactor physics code SRAC95 and the burnup analysis code ORIPHY2. The results were comparable with each other. Based on the results, MCNP was found to be a reliable code to model a small thermal LFTR and study all the related reactor physics characteristics. The results of this study were promising and successful in demonstrating a prefatory small commercial LFTR design. The outcome of using a small core reactor with a diameter/height of 280/260 cm that would operate for more than five years at a power level of 150 MWth was studied. The fuel system 7LiF - BeF2 - ThF4 - UF4 with a (233U/ 232Th) = 2.01 % was the candidate fuel for this reactor core.

  19. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lakey, L. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  20. Description Fuel Cycle Spanish. Technical Visits; Descripcion del Ciclo de Combustible Espanol. VisitasTecnicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Valero, R.; Vinuesa Carretero, A.

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes all processes and operations from the mining of uranium to the management of radioactive waste generated. These processes include the manufacture of nuclear fuel, the operation of the plants and the storage of radioactive waste in the corresponding temporary stores. (Author)

  1. 10 CFR 51.51 - Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with once-through cooling. Fossil fuel: Electrical energy (thousands of MW-hour) 323 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3. 51.51 Section 51.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR...

  2. Liquid fuel utilization in SOFC hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The interest in solid oxide fuel cell systems comes from their capability of converting the chemical energy of traditional fuels into electricity, with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In this paper, a study of the design space of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrids fed by methanol and kerosene is presented for stationary power generation in isolated areas (or transportation). A 500 kW class hybrid system was analysed using WTEMP original software developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa. The choice of fuel-processing strategy and the influence of the main design parameters on the thermoeconomic characteristics of hybrid systems were investigated. The low capital and fuel cost of methanol systems make them the most attractive solutions among those investigated here. (author)

  3. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A

    2001-08-01

    -protection metrics; b) a highly aggregated 'cost-equal-effort' or comparative-value method was applied to an array of commercial nuclear fuel forms in an effort to rank the attractiveness (to a proliferating agent) in terms of required effort as gauged through commercial costs; and c) the extension, if not actual application, of the system of Attractiveness Levels recommended by the USDOE as an extension and refinement of related IAEA protection-category guidelines. The Attractiveness-Level methodology, when compared to similar protection categories suggested by the IAEA, highlighted differences in required protection of specific source materials, with the IAEA being more conservative. From the viewpoint of a utility or research institute dealing with potential source materials, these differences can be important in budgetary terms. Both the 'cost-equal-effort' and the Attractiveness-Level methodologies were pursued to deal with conceptual and evaluation impasses encountered with the 'four-factor' formulation that were related primarily to the material-protection term necessary for its evaluation. The development, analyses, and evaluations performed to date on all three, inter-related approaches to simplified proliferation-risk metrics, as applied to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, is reported. Key questions are discussed that must be resolved before a useful and simplified evaluation 'recipe' with which to evaluate proliferation risk and required protection levels (and cost) to nullify that risk is made available to the operator of a nuclear power plant and the total fuel cycle supporting it. (author)

  4. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy use and costs of the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) which provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat that would normally be rejected to the environment is compared to a conventional system purchasing electricity from a utility and a phosphoric acid fuel cell powered system. The analysis showed that for a 500-unit apartment complex a fuel OS/IES would be about 10% more energy conservative in terms of total coal consumption than a diesel OS/IES system or a conventional system. The fuel cell OS/IES capital costs could be 30 to 55% greater than the diesel OS/IES capital costs for the same life cycle costs. The life cycle cost of a fuel cell OS/IES would be lower than that for a conventional system as long as the cost of electricity is greater than $0.05 to $0.065/kWh. An analysis of several parametric combinations of fuel cell power plant and state-of-art energy recovery systems and annual fuel requirement calculations for four locations were made. It was shown that OS/IES component choices are a major factor in fuel consumption, with the least efficient system using 25% more fuel than the most efficient. Central air conditioning and heat pumps result in minimum fuel consumption while individual air conditioning units increase it, and in general the fuel cell of highest electrical efficiency has the lowest fuel consumption.

  5. Shortcut model for water-balanced operation in fuel processor fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Kramer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a fuel processor, a hydrocarbon or oxygenate fuel is catalytically converted into a mixture rich in hydrogen which can be fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. In these fuel processor fuel cell systems (FPFCs), water is recovered from the exhaust gases and recycled back into the system. We

  6. Reciprocating Joule-cycle engine for domestic CHP systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, R.W.; Roskilly, A.P.; Nanda, S.K. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Marine Science and Technology

    2005-02-01

    The reciprocating Joule-cycle engine operates on a recuperated gas-turbine cycle and is intended to provide high thermal efficiency in small sizes (1-10 kW). It is designed to achieve a higher efficiency than a comparable gas-turbine by using a reciprocating compressor and expander to provide very high compression and expansion efficiencies. Possible power plants for small combined heat-and-power systems currently include Stirling engines, internal-combustion engines, gas-turbines and fuel cells. The reciprocating Joule-cycle engine appears to have considerable advantages compared with other prime movers in terms of efficiency, emissions and multi-fuel capability. The present study estimates the performance of such an engine and is the first stage in a larger project that will in due course produce a demonstration engine. (author)

  7. New developments in tele-robotics for the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbats, P.; Geffard, F.; Garrec, P.; Perrot, Y.; Measson, Y.; Russotto, F.X. [CEA LIST, Bat 476 - DTSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thro, J.F.; Piolain, G. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris - La Defense (France)

    2009-06-15

    In the nuclear facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle, as fuel manufacturing and reprocessing plants, power reactors, waste temporary storage units.., materials handling must be carried out remotely, taking into account the high nuclear radiating environment. Tele-robotics technologies clearly aim to improve the working conditions of human operators with respect to the ALARA principle. The Laboratory of Applied Research on Software-intensive Technologies of the French Nuclear Commission (CEA LIST) has developed, in collaboration with AREVA NC company, a wide range of robotics and remote handling technologies for the maintenance of the operating nuclear fuel cycle facilities and for the dismantling of the older nuclear facilities having shut down. The paper gives an overview of the progress of these developments which cover a wide range of technologies, like force-feedback master-salve systems, master arms, slave manipulators, long range inspection robots, radiation tolerant electronic systems, interactive environment modeling and simulation software, as well as generic control and simulation software tools for tele-operated systems. Several recent applications are presented in the paper: - electrical industrial robot arm remotely operated with force feedback; - hot cell tele-manipulator remotely operated with an electrical master arm; - hydraulic tele-manipulator with its embedded electronics controller; - modular articulated arm for inspection of blind cells or vessel. The paper shows how the results of this R and D program, carried out by CEA LIST along 15 years in the framework of industrial partnerships, will be valuable for the introduction of new robotics and remote handling technologies in current and future nuclear hazardous facilities. (authors)

  8. Life Cycle GHG of NG-Based Fuel and Electric Vehicle in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG- based fuels to the GHG emissions of electric vehicles (EVs powered with NG-to-electricity in China. A life-cycle model is used to account for full fuel cycle and use-phase emissions, as well as vehicle cycle and battery manufacturing. The reduction of life-cycle GHG emissions of EVs charged by electricity generated from NG, without utilizing carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS technology can be 36%–47% when compared to gasoline vehicles. The large range change in emissions reduction potential is driven by the different generation technologies that could in the future be used to generate electricity in China. When CCS is employed in power plants, the GHG emission reductions increase to about 71%–73% compared to gasoline vehicles. It is found that compressed NG (CNG and liquefied NG (LNG fuels can save about 10% of carbon as compared to gasoline vehicles. However, gas-to-liquid (GTL fuel made through the Fischer-Tropsch method will likely lead to a life-cycle GHG emissions increase, potentially 3%–15% higher than gasoline, but roughly equal to petroleum-based diesel. When CCS is utilized, the GTL fueled vehicles emit roughly equal GHG emissions to petroleum-based diesel fuel high-efficient hybrid electric vehicle from the life-cycle perspective.

  9. Feasibility of Burning Civilian Grade Pu in the Modular HTR with Th Fuel Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云林; 经荥清

    2001-01-01

    The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTR) can be usedto burn plutonium fuel to reduce Pu stockpiles because of its inherent safety characteristics and ability to burn a variety of fuel mixtures. The equilibrium core is calculated and analyzed for Pu enriched fuel. Fuel spheres with 7 g heavy metal including the civilian grade Pu and thorium are loaded into the reactor. An enrichment of 11% is chosen to provide the desired equilibrium core reactivity. The fuel and moderator temperature coefficients are both negative. The maximum fuel element temperature during normal operation and during a loss of coolant accident is less than 1500 ℃. 92% of 239Pu will be burnt during nomal operation. Therefore, a thorium fuel cycle in the modular HTR is an effective method for burning civilian grade plutonium.

  10. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  11. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  12. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  13. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  14. 14 CFR 33.67 - Fuel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.67 Fuel system. (a) With fuel supplied to the engine at the flow and pressure specified by the applicant, the engine...

  15. Evaluation of isotopic composition of fast reactor core in closed nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Georgy; Ternovykh, Mikhail; Saldikov, Ivan; Fomichenko, Peter; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The strategy of the development of nuclear power in Russia provides for use of fast power reactors in closed nuclear fuel cycle. The PRORYV (i.e. «Breakthrough» in Russian) project is currently under development. Within the framework of this project, fast reactors BN-1200 and BREST-OD-300 should be built to, inter alia, demonstrate possibility of the closed nuclear fuel cycle technologies with plutonium as a main source of energy. Russia has a large inventory of plutonium which was accumulated in the result of reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal power reactors and conversion of nuclear weapons. This kind of plutonium will be used for development of initial fuel assemblies for fast reactors. The closed nuclear fuel cycle concept of the PRORYV assumes self-supplied mode of operation with fuel regeneration by neutron capture reaction in non-enriched uranium, which is used as a raw material. Operating modes of reactors and its characteristics should be chosen so as to provide the self-sufficient mode by using of fissile isotopes while refueling by depleted uranium and to support this state during the entire period of reactor operation. Thus, the actual issue is modeling fuel handling processes. To solve these problems, the code REPRORYV (Recycle for PRORYV) has been developed. It simulates nuclide streams in non-reactor stages of the closed fuel cycle. At the same time various verified codes can be used to evaluate in-core characteristics of a reactor. By using this approach various options for nuclide streams and assess the impact of different plutonium content in the fuel, fuel processing conditions, losses during fuel processing, as well as the impact of initial uncertainties on neutron-physical characteristics of reactor are considered in this study.

  16. An initial study on modeling the global thermal and fast reactor fuel cycle mass flow using Vensim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinton, Samuel [Kansas State University, Mechanical Engineering, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This study concentrated on modeling the construction and decommissioning rates of five major facilities comprising the nuclear fuel cycle: (1) current LWRs with a 60-year service life, (2) new LWRs burning MOX fuel, (3) new LWRs to replace units in the current fleet, (4) new FRs to be added to the fleet, and (5) new spent fuel reprocessing facilities. This is a mass flow mode starting from uranium ore and following it to spent forms. The visual dynamic modeling program Vensim was used to create a system of equations and variables to track the mass flows from enrichment, fabrication, burn-up, and the back-end of the fuel cycle. The scenarios considered provide estimates of the uranium ore requirements, quantities of LLW and HLW production, and the number of reprocessing facilities necessary to reduce recently reported levels of spent fuel inventory. Preliminary results indicate that the entire national spent fuel inventory produced in the next 100 years can be reprocessed with a reprocessing plant built every 11 years (small capacity) or even as low as every 23 years (large capacity). (authors)

  17. The Importance of Establishing and Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge during 21st Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL; Wishard, Bernard [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Bean, Robert [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA; Blair, Dianna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawson, Ray [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Weeks, George [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting

    2012-01-01

    During this century, the entire nuclear fuel cycle will expand and become increasingly more global, taxing both the resources and capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to maintain an effective Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) and its ability to provide timely detection of diversion. Uranium that currently is mined and milled in one country will be converted, enriched, and fabricated into fuel for reactors in an expanding set of new countries. This expansion will make it harder to guarantee that regional activities stay regional and that diversion detection is timely unless new and sustainable tools are developed to improve inspector effectiveness. To deal with this emerging reality, the IAEA must increase its use of unattended monitoring and employ new tools and methods that enhance CoK during all phases of the fuel cycle. This approach will help provide useful information to aid in detecting undeclared activities and create opportunities for timely and appropriate responses to events well before they enter phases of greater concern (e.g., enrichment). The systems that maintain CoK of safeguarded assets rely on containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies. The 21st century fuel cycle will require increased use of these technologies and systems, plus greater implementation of unattended systems that can securely collect data when inspectors are not present.

  18. Calculational Benchmark Problems for VVER-1000 Mixed Oxide Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, M.B.

    2000-03-17

    Standard problems were created to test the ability of American and Russian computational methods and data regarding the analysis of the storage and handling of Russian pressurized water reactor (VVER) mixed oxide fuel. Criticality safety and radiation shielding problems were analyzed. Analysis of American and Russian multiplication factors for fresh fuel storage for low-enriched uranium (UOX), weapons- (MOX-W) and reactor-grade (MOX-R) MOX differ by less than 2% for all variations of water density. For shielding calculations for fresh fuel, the ORNL results for the neutron source differ from the Russian results by less than 1% for UOX and MOX-R and by approximately 3% for MOX-W. For shielding calculations for fresh fuel assemblies, neutron dose rates at the surface of the assemblies differ from the Russian results by 5% to 9%; the level of agreement for gamma dose varies depending on the type of fuel, with UOX differing by the largest amount. The use of different gamma group structures and instantaneous versus asymptotic decay assumptions also complicate the comparison. For the calculation of dose rates from spent fuel in a shipping cask, the neutron source for UOX after 3-year cooling is within 1% and for MOX-W within 5% of one of the Russian results while the MOX-R difference is the largest at over 10%. These studies are a portion of the documentation required by the Russian nuclear regulatory authority, GAN, in order to certify Russian programs and data as being acceptably accurate for the analysis of mixed oxide fuels.

  19. Macstor system for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattantyus, P. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Projects)

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Transnuclear Inc. and AECL jointly developed the conceptual design for the Modular Aircooled Canister Storage System (Macstor) for LWR fuel. The development effort has proceeded to the completion of successful full-scale thermal testing. In 1990, AECL adapted the Macstor System approach for use with Candu fuel. The adapted design, called Canstor, has also successfully completed full-scale thermal testing, and the final system design has been completed. (author) 1 fig.

  20. The influence of the placement method of fuel dispenserson the refueling cycle of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Ruslan Yur’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics of production processes at a gas station is a critical point in the system of petroleum products, on the operation of which the effectiveness and sustainability of the transport sector depends. The provision and supply of road transportation of petroleum products is one of the most urgent tasks.Technological processes of reception, storage of fuel and refuelling of motor vehicles on petrol stations needs a scientific study of their structure and organization. At the design stage of a gas station, it is necessary to consider quite a lot of different factors: the configuration of the area under the gas station, the scheme of arrangement and the number of fuel dispensers, the trajectory of motion and the design of vehicles, calls to the station, distance between cars on duty, between the elements of buildings and equipment, as well as the requirements for fire, building, public, sanitary-epidemiological and state regulations. Therefore, the designer has a great opportunity for varying the parameters of the elements of the station, especially when considering the characteristics of the fueled vehicles.Typical projects at a same power station include various sizes, the seizure of land to build a station changes from planning decisions and the locations of all its technological elements. For increase of functioning efficiency of transportation systems of petroleum products in modern conditions on the basis of the design and technical innovations it is necessary to conduct special studies.Research planning decisions for a refueling station led to the conclusion that the placement of technological equipment in the refueling area has a certain impact on the length of vehicles service. Improving the layout of the refueling zone several times reduces the loss of the components of the refueling cycle time and increase the capacity of the station.Information base describing the stages of a gas station includes parts of refueling cycle time and

  1. NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH A CLOSED FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Wallace, R. K.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Jarvinen, G. D.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2010-06-11

    This paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the various processing steps required for a closed fuel cycle. This paper combines the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR with new results for the final, repeated burning of SNM in fast-spectrum reactors: fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). The results of this paper suggest that all reprocessing products evaluated so far need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, or undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  2. LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

  3. A Compact Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor with an Ultra-Long Fuel Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangbok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to allow nuclear power to reach its full economic potential, General Atomics is developing the Energy Multiplier Module (EM2, which is a compact gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR. The EM2 augments its fissile fuel load with fertile materials to enhance an ultra-long fuel cycle based on a “convert-and-burn” core design which converts fertile material to fissile fuel and burns it in situ over a 30-year core life without fuel supplementation or shuffling. A series of reactor physics trade studies were conducted and a baseline core was developed under the specific physics design requirements of the long-life small reactor. The EM2 core performance was assessed for operation time, fuel burnup, excess reactivity, peak power density, uranium utilization, etc., and it was confirmed that an ultra-long fuel cycle core is feasible if the conversion is enough to produce fissile material and maintain criticality, the amount of matrix material is minimized not to soften the neutron spectrum, and the reactor core size is optimized to minimize the neutron loss. This study has shown the feasibility, from the reactor physics standpoint, of a compact GFR that can meet the objectives of ultra-long fuel cycle, factory-fabrication, and excellent fuel utilization.

  4. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas.

  5. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Lasteyrie, B. de; Doumerc, J. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    Uranium processing from the pit to the fuel element rod entails metal losses at every step. These losses become more and more expensive with the elaboration of the metal. Some of the uranium must be accepted as definitely lost whilst the rest could be recovered and recycled. The high cost of these losses, whether they are recycled or not, and the fact that the higher the enrichment is the higher their costs are, make it necessary to take them into account when optimizing fuel cycles. It is therefore felt important to determine their most desirable level from an economic point of view at the various nuclear fuel processing stages. However, in France as in some other countries, fissile material production is a state concern, whilst fuel element fabrication is carried out by private enterprise. Optimization criteria and the economic value of losses are therefore different for each of the two links in the fabrication chain. One can try in spite of this to reach an optimum which would conform to public interest, without interfering with the firm's sales policy. This entails using the fact that for a given output marginal costs are equal at the optimum. One can therefore adjust the level of the losses to attain this equation of marginal costs, as these are easier to obtain from the firm than a justification of the actual prices. One notices moreover that, although mainly concerned with losses, this global analysis can bring both the state and the firm to a better use of other production factors. An account is given of the theory of this economic optimization method and practical applications in the field of natural uranium-graphite moderated and CO{sub 2} cooled reactor fuel element fabrication are offered. (authors) [French] L'elaboration de l'uranium, de la mine a la cartouche d'element combustible, s'accompagne, a tous les stades, de pertes, de plus en plus onereuses, a mesure que le metal devient plus elabore. Une certaine proportion de l

  6. A fuel management study and cycle nuclear design for PW reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minguez, E.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J. M.; Corella, M. R.

    1975-07-01

    A reference reactor was chosen to do a general study involving Fuel Management Evaluations of several cycles, and Design Calculations of cycles already performed, according to a calculation scheme set up in the Reactor Technology Division of the J.E.N., using some computer codes acquired to foreign sources and other ones developed in the J.E.N. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M. [Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  8. Improved analysis on multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor in a closed fuel cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pandikumar; V Gopalakrishnan; P Mohanakrishnan

    2011-08-01

    An FBR closed fuel cycle involves recycling of the discharge fuel, after reprocessing and refabrication, to utilize the unburnt fuel remains and the freshly bred fissile material. Our previous study in this regard for the PFBR indicated a comfortable feasibility of multiple recycling with selfsufficiency. In the present work, more refined estimations are done using the most recent nuclear data, viz. ENDF/B-VII.0, and with the most recent specification of the fuel composition. Among others, this paper brings out the importance of taking into account the energy self-shielding effects in the cross-section averages used in the study. While self-shielded averages lead to realistic predictions, unshielded averages significantly overpredict breeding in the blankets and underpredict loss in the cores.

  9. Lubricity Doser Evaluation Studies on High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    high-pressure common rail system found on John Deere 4.5L Powertech Engines. The completion of a modified test protocol based on the NATO test cycle...Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) fuel system found on a John Deere 4.5L PowetechPlus engine. The three fuels that were tested on the HPCR test rig with...for John Deere HPCR Pump Stand ............................................................................. 10 Table 3. Test Fuels and Summary of

  10. Modeling and control of fuel cell systems and fuel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukrushpan, Jay Tawee

    Fuel cell systems offer clean and efficient energy production and are currently under intensive development by several manufacturers for both stationary and mobile applications. The viability, efficiency, and robustness of this technology depend on understanding, predicting, and controlling the unique transient behavior of the fuel cell system. In this thesis, we employ phenomenological modeling and multivariable control techniques to provide fast and consistent system dynamic behavior. Moreover, a framework for analyzing and evaluating different control architectures and sensor sets is provided. Two fuel cell related control problems are investigated in this study, namely, the control of the cathode oxygen supply for a high-pressure direct hydrogen Fuel Cell System (FCS) and control of the anode hydrogen supply from a natural gas Fuel Processor System (FPS). System dynamic analysis and control design is carried out using model-based linear control approaches. A system level dynamic model suitable for each control problem is developed from physics-based component models. The transient behavior captured in the model includes flow characteristics, inertia dynamics, lumped-volume manifold filling dynamics, time evolving spatially-homogeneous reactant pressure or mole fraction, membrane humidity, and the Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPOX) reactor temperature. The goal of the FCS control problem is to effectively regulate the oxygen concentration in the cathode by quickly and accurately replenishing oxygen depleted during power generation. The features and limitations of different control configurations and the effect of various measurement on the control performance are examined. For example, an observability analysis suggests using the stack voltage measurement as feedback to the observer-based controller to improve the closed loop performance. The objective of the FPS control system is to regulate both the CPOX temperature and anode hydrogen concentration. Linear

  11. Fuel Cycle Research & Development Technical Monthly - June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    two papers to the upcoming INMM meeting that are related to the fast neutron multiplicity R&D effort. Progress was made on the project's main goal of designing a concept for a prototype fast-neutron multiplicity counter. We started laying out the outline for the final report. We have been working with our ORNL collaborators to develop a new digitizer system to support our experimental campaign planned for next year. (3) MPACT Analysis Tools - (a) Multi-isotope Process Monitor - Fuel characterization framework development continued during June. A report describing the methodologies is being completed. Kenneth Dayman, from University of Texas, spent a week at PNNL wrapping up his master's research and working on a journal submission covering that work. The target journal is the IEEE transactions on Nuclear Science; submission is planned for the end of July. A proposal to instrument H-Canyon is being prepared in conjunction with SRNL and the NNSA's NGSI program. The impact of gamma-ray spectrum counting statistics on the precision of relative radioisotope component intensities as reconstructed via Principal Component Regression (PCR) continued in June with Monte Carlo simulations of a two-component (i.e., two radioisotope) system. This work generalizes earlier studies in FY12 in which Poisson counting variations of only a single spectrum component were simulated. (b) Modeling and Simulation for Analysis of Safeguards Performance (Electrochemical) - Preliminary insights into safeguards challenges and the initial design for an electrochemical plant have been written up into an INMM paper and will be presented at the INMM Summer Meeting. Work is currently adding a new visualization capability for integrating materials accountancy with physical protection. (c) Material Control including Process Monitoring (Pattern Recognition, Sensors) - Fabrication of quartz chips continued at an external foundry. Awaiting delivery of the heat exchange manifold and chip

  12. Fuel cell power generation system. Nenryo denchi hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Shiba, Y.

    1993-06-11

    It is general to fabricate the primary cooling water system including the fuel cell main body using corrosion resistant stainless steel, while the secondary cooling system including absorption type freezer is made of carbon steel. For this structure, returning the cooling water of the secondary cooling system to the primary cooling system can cause the corrosion of the primary cooling system. That is, the water of inferior quality in the secondary system can corrode the primary system including the fuel cell. This invention solves the problem. The fuel cell bypass which is branched from the fuel cell cooling water inlet, detours the fuel cell, and it is connected to the water-vapor separator installed to the fuel cell. And the heat exchanger is installed at any of fuel cooling water outlet line, fuel cell cooling water inlet line, or fuel cell bypass line. With this structure, recovering the heat generated during the power generation by the fuel cell at the secondary side of the heat exchanger can be achieved while separating the primary and secondary cooling water. So that the trouble of fuel cell operation caused by the contamination of the primary cooling water with the secondary cooling water which contains corrosive impurities can be avoided. 6 figs.

  13. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  14. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  15. The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Robert A

    2003-11-20

    The long-term carbon cycle operates over millions of years and involves the exchange of carbon between rocks and the Earth's surface. There are many complex feedback pathways between carbon burial, nutrient cycling, atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen, and climate. New calculations of carbon fluxes during the Phanerozoic eon (the past 550 million years) illustrate how the long-term carbon cycle has affected the burial of organic matter and fossil-fuel formation, as well as the evolution of atmospheric composition.

  16. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  17. Cycle for innovative nuclear Gen 4. systems=; Cycle des systemes du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the development of nuclear systems of the 4. generation, the preliminary and schematic reprocessing goals are a cleaning of fission products without a priori separation of the different actinides. The objective of the workshop is to exchange information about the potential efficiency of innovative fuel processing treatments in order to evaluate the impact of impurities on the design of the fuel during its re-fabrication and re-introduction inside the reactor, and on the materials and systems. This document gathers the slides of the 18 presentations given at this workshop: 1 - from the PWR fuel to the closed cycle fast spectrum concepts of generation 4 systems (P. Anzieu, F. Carre, Ph. Brossard, M. Delpech); 2 - the double strata scenarios: objectives and characteristics (S. David and F. Varaine); 3 - why a molten salts thorium file (D. Heuer); 4 - the common 'molten salts' research program of the CNRS (D. Heuer, S. Sanchez); 5 - the hydro-metallurgical reprocessing, the knowledge gained and the statuses of the 5. PCRD, synthesis of the OECD works (C. Madic); 6 - pyro-chemistry: Pyropep status (H. Boussier); 7 - technological bolts identified during the Most project of the 5. PCRD (C. Renault, Ch. Le Brun, M. Delpech and C. Garzenne); 8 - the molten salt reactor concept and its reprocessing options, expected efficiencies (L. Mathieu); 9 - methodology of evaluation of pyro-chemical fuel reprocessing schemes (H. Boussier); 10 - molten salt reactor, design-aided tools for the reactor and the reprocessing plant (O. Gastaldi, E. Walle, O. Koberl, D. Lecarpentier); 11 - status of CEA's prospective studies for the front-end of the fuel reprocessing process/dry ways (S. Bourg); 12 - results of activity coefficient measurements in liquid metals (J. Finne, E. Walle, G. Picard, S. Sanchez and O. Conocar); 13 - potentialities of electrolytic separation and liquid-liquid extraction processes (molten salts/molten metal) for the multi

  18. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  19. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  20. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  1. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of natural gas based fuel chains for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-04-15

    This research compares the use of natural gas, methanol, and hydrogen as transportation fuels. These three fuel chains start with the extraction and processing of natural gas in the Norwegian North Sea and end with final use in Central Europe. The end use is passenger transportation with a sub-compact car that has an internal combustion engine for the natural gas case and a fuel cell for the methanol and hydrogen cases. The life cycle assessment is performed by combining a process based life-cycle inventory with economic input-output data. The analysis shows that the potential climate impacts are lowest for the hydrogen fuel scenario with CO2 deposition. The hydrogen fuel chain scenario has no significant environmental disadvantage compared to the other fuel chains. Detailed analysis shows that the construction of the car contributes significantly to most impact categories. Finally, it is shown how the application of a hybrid inventory model ensures a more complete inventory description compared to standard process-based life-cycle assessment. This is particularly significant for car construction which would have been significantly underestimated in this study using standard process life-cycle assessment alone.

  2. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, C.; Tompsett, G.A.; Kendall, K.; Ormerod, R.M. [Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H{sub 2}/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack. (orig.)

  3. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Caine; Tompsett, Geoff. A.; Kendall, Kevin; Ormerod, R. Mark

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm -2 at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H 2/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack.

  4. Comparison of open and closed U-Pu equilibrium fuel cycles for Generation-IV fast reactors with the EQL3D procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepel, Jiri, E-mail: Jiri.Krepel@psi.ch [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pelloni, Sandro; Mikityuk, Konstantin [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze open and closed fuel cycle of GFR, SFR, and LFR cores by means of ERANOS based EQL3D procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equilibrium of open and closed fuel cycles were compared in terms of their performance and safety parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All three cores act in equilibrium closed cycle as iso-breeder and have similar fuel composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In spite of the same fuel composition the Dopper constants and void reactivities strongly differ between the cores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All three systems seem capable, from neutronics point of view, for the fuel cycle closure. - Abstract: The advanced fast reactors of the fourth generation should enable an indirect burning of poorly fissile {sup 238}U through {sup 239}Pu breeding and recycling of the actinides from their own spent fuel. The recycling or actually the fuel cycle closure can significantly reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste and the {sup 238}U burning can multiply the sustainability of the uranium fueled reactors. Regular periodic operation with the fuel recycling converges to an equilibrium cycle. To enable its simulation a numerical tool named equilibrium fuel cycle procedure for fast reactors (EQL3D) was developed in the FAST group of LRS at Paul Scherrer Institut. The procedure is based on the ERANOS code and can be used to yield the description of two basic situations: the equilibrium of an open fuel cycle and the equilibrium of a closed fuel cycle. The goals of the present study are (i) to apply EQL3D to the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), and Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), (ii) to simulate and confirm the GFR, SFR, and LFR neutronics capability for closed fuel cycle, and (iii) to evaluate and compare the equilibrium cycle safety and performance parameters. The EQL3D capability enables to characterize the equilibrium cycle for complex reloading patterns

  5. Operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Bergelson; A S Gerasimov; G V Tikhomirov

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in thorium fuel cycle. Calculations are performed to estimate the feasibility of operation of heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in self-sufficient thorium cycle. Parameters of active core and scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the same as for standard o