WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel chemistry division

  1. Fuel Chemistry Division: progress report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The progress of research and development activities of the Fuel Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during 1987 is reported in the form of summaries which are arranged under the headings: Fuel Development Chemistry, Chemistry of Actinides, Chemical Quality Control of Fuel, and Studies related to Nuclear Material Accounting. A list of publications by the members of the Division during the report period is given at the end of the report. (M.G.B.). refs., 15 figs., 85 tabs

  2. Fuel Chemistry Division: progress report for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Fuel Chemistry Division was formed in May 1985 to give a larger emphasis on the research and development in chemistry of the nuclear fuel cycle. The areas of research in Fuel Chemistry Division are fuel development and its chemical quality control, understanding of the fuel behaviour and post irradiation examinations, chemistry of reprocessing and waste management processes as also the basic aspects of actinide and relevant fission product elements. This report summarises the work by the staff of the Division during 1985 and also some work from the previous periods which was not reported in the progress reports of the Radiochemistry Division. The work related to the FBTR fuel was one of the highlights during this period. In the area of process chemistry useful work has been carried out for processing of plutonium bearing solutions. In the area of mass spectrometry, the determination of trace constituents by spark source mass spectrometry has been a major area of research. Significant progress has also been made in the use of alpha spectromet ry techniques for the determination of plutonium in dissolver solution and other samples. The technology of plutonium utilisation is quite complex and the Division would continue to look into the chemical aspects of this technology and provide the necessary base for future developments in this area. (author)

  3. Fuel Chemistry Division annual progress report for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The progress report gives brief descriptions of the various activities of the Fuel Chemistry Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay for the year 1990. The descriptions of activities are arranged under the headings: Fuel Development Chemistry, Chemistry of Actinides, Quality Control of Nuclear Fuels, and studies related to Nuclear Materials Accounting. At the end of the report, a list of papers published in journals and presented at various conferences/symposia is also given. (author). 7 figs., 52 tabs

  4. Fuel Chemistry Division: annual progress report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The progress report gives the brief descriptions of various activites of the Fuel Chemistry Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay for the year 1988. The descriptions of activities are arranged under the headings: Fuel Development Chemistry of Actinides, Quality Control of Fuel, and Studies related to Nuclear Material Accounting. At the end of report, a list of publications published in journals and papers presented at various conferences/symposia during 1988 is given. (author). 13 figs., 61 tabs

  5. Fuel Chemistry Division annual progress report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress report gives a brief description of the various activities of the Fuel Chemistry Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay for the year 1989. The descriptions of activities are arranged under the headings: Fuel Development Chemistry, Chemical Quality Control, Chemistry of Actinides, Sol-Gel process for the non Nuclear Ceramics and Studies related to Nuclear Material Accounting.At the end of the report, a list of papers published in journals and presented at various conferences/symposia is also given. (author). 69 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Saclay Center of Nuclear Studies, Direction of Materials and Nuclear Fuels, Department of Physico-Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry. 1968 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Clerc, M.; Le Calve, J.; Bourene, M.; Lesigne, B.; Gillois, M.; Devillers, C.; Arvis, M.; Gilles, L.; Moreau, M.; Sutton, J.; Faraggi, M.; Desalos, J.; Tran Dinh Son; Barat, F.; Hickel, B.; Chachaty, C.; Forchioni, A.; Shiotani, M.; Larher, Y.; Maurice, P.; Le Bail, H.; Nenner, T.

    1969-03-01

    This document is the 1968 annual report of research activities at the Physico-Chemistry Department (Physical Chemistry Division), part of the Directorate of Materials and Nuclear Fuels of the CEA Saclay center of nuclear studies. The report is divided into two main parts: radiolysis and photolysis studies (gaseous phase, condensed phase), and general physico-chemical studies (sorption, molecular jets)

  7. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  8. BNFL Springfields Fuel Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkiainen, S.; Plit, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Fuel Division of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) manufactures nuclear fuel elements for British Magnox and AGR power plants as well as for LWR plants. The new fuel factory - Oxide Fuel Complex (OFC), located in Springfields, is equipped with modern technology and the automation level of the factory is very high. With their quality products, BNFL aims for the new business areas. A recent example of this expansion was shown, when BNFL signed a contract to design and license new VVER-440 fuel for Finnish Loviisa and Hungarian Paks power plants. (author)

  9. Chemistry Division : Annual progress report of 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Research and development activities (during 1974) of the Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, are described. Some of the activities of particular interest to nuclear science and technology are: (1) chemistry-based problems of the operating power reactors such as development of a decontaminating solution for power reactors, correlation of iodine-131 levels in the primary heat transport system of a reactor with its operation (2) release of fission gases like xenon from ceramic fuels and (3) radiation chemistry of nitrate solutions (M.G.B.)

  10. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing

  11. Chemistry Division: progress report (1983-84)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastri, L.V.; George, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    This is the seventh progress report of the Chemistry Division covering the two years 1983 and 1984. The main emphasis of the Division continues to be on basic research though spin offs in high technology areas are closely pursued. Laboratory facilities have been considerably augmented during this period. Besides the design and fabrication of a crossed molecular beam chemiluminescence apparatus, a 80 MHz FTNMR and a 5nsec. excimer laser kinetic spectrometer were acquired; a 5nsec. pulsed electron accelerator would be installed in 1985. The research and development projects taken up during the VI Five Year Plan have achieved considerable progress. Only brief accounts of investigations are presented in the report. (author)

  12. Analytical Chemistry Division : annual report (for) 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, N.

    1986-01-01

    An account of the various activities of the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during 1985 is presented. The main function of the Division is to provide chemical analysis support to India's atomic energy programme. In addition, the Division also offers its analytical services, mostly for measurement of concentrations at trace levels to Indian industries and other research organization in the country. A list of these determinations is given. The report also describes the research and development (R and D) activities - both completed and in progress, in the form of individual summaries. During the year an ultra trace analytical laboratory for analysis of critical samples without contamination was set up using indigenous material and technology. Publications and training activities of the staff, training of the staff from other institution, guidance by the staff for post-graduate degree and invited talks by the staff are listed in the appendices at the end of the report. (M.G.B.)

  13. Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the annual reports of the Nuclear Chemistry Division is to provide a timely summary of research activities pursued by members of the Division during the preceding year. Throughout, details are kept to a minimum; readers desiring additional information are encouraged to read the referenced documents or contact the authors. The Introduction presents an overview of the Division's scientific and technical programs. Next is a section of short articles describing recent upgrades of the Division's major facilities, followed by sections highlighting scientific and technical advances. These are grouped under the following sections: nuclear explosives diagnostics; geochemistry and environmental sciences; safeguards technology and radiation effect; and supporting fundamental science. A brief overview introduces each section. Reports on research supported by a particular program are generally grouped together in the same section. The last section lists the scientific, administrative, and technical staff in the Division, along with visitors, consultants, and postdoctoral fellows. It also contains a list of recent publications and presentations. Some contributions to the annual report are classified and only their abstracts are included in this unclassified portion of the report (UCAR-10062-83/1); the full article appears in the classified portion (UCAR-10062-83/2)

  14. Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the annual reports of the Nuclear Chemistry Division is to provide a timely summary of research activities pursued by members of the Division during the preceding year. Throughout, details are kept to a minimum; readers desiring additional information are encouraged to read the referenced documents or contact the authors. The Introduction presents an overview of the Division's scientific and technical programs. Next is a section of short articles describing recent upgrades of the Division's major facilities, followed by sections highlighting scientific and technical advances. These are grouped under the following sections: nuclear explosives diagnostics; geochemistry and environmental sciences; safeguards technology and radiation effect; and supporting fundamental science. A brief overview introduces each section. Reports on research supported by a particular program are generally grouped together in the same section. The last section lists the scientific, administrative, and technical staff in the Division, along with visitors, consultants, and postdoctoral fellows. It also contains a list of recent publications and presentations. Some contributions to the annual report are classified and only their abstracts are included in this unclassified portion of the report (UCAR-10062-83/1); the full article appears in the classified portion (UCAR-10062-83/2).

  15. Environmental Chemistry Division annual report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.

    1990-01-01

    The research activities making up the programs in the Environmental Chemistry Division of the Department of Applied Science are presented. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1989 are described and plans for 1990 are discussed briefly. Publications for the period are listed and abstracts are provided. Research objectives and principal investigators are given for each of the active programs. A list of personnel and collaborators during the past year is presented. The support distribution of FY 1989 is approximately 85% from the Department of Energy (65% Office of Health and Environmental Research), and 15% other agencies (principally from the Electric Power Research Institute)

  16. Progress report chemistry and materials division 1984 January 1 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    During the first half of 1984 work in the Chemistry and Materials Division of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories concentrated on studies of ion penetration phenomena, surface phenomena, radiation damage, radiochemical analysis, recycle fuel analysis, gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometry of fuels and moderators, analysis of hydrogen in zirconium alloys, burnup analysis, radiolysis, hydrogen isotope separation, hydrogen adsorption, zirconium corrosion, and metal physics studies of zirconium

  17. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report describes some of the major research and development programs of the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division during FY 1988. The report includes articles on weapons chemistry, biochemistry and nuclear medicine, nuclear structure and reactions, and the INC Division facilities and laboratories

  18. Fuel Chemistry Research | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Chemistry Research Fuel Chemistry Research Photo of a hand holding a beaker containing a clear oils. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's fuel chemistry research explores how biofuels, advanced , emissions control catalysts, and infrastructure materials. Results from NREL's fuel chemistry studies feed

  19. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  20. American Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 161 papers of this divisional meeting for the US Department of Energy's Database. Main topics discussed included: acid rain mitigation - liming technologies and environmental considerations; biotechnology for wastewater treatment; environmental chemistry of lakes and reservoirs and pollution prevention and process analytical chemistry

  1. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research

  2. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  3. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A. (eds.)

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  4. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes

  5. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1984 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques: development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes. 287 refs

  6. Progress report: Chemistry and Materials Division, 1982 April 1 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The work of the division in the areas of solid state studies, radiation chemistry, isotope separation, analytical chemistry and materials science is described. The solid state science group studied solute atom vacancy trapping in irradiated f.c.c. alloys as well as the rearrangement of atoms in solids bombarded by energetic heavy ions. In radiation chemistry, work was done on the pulse radiolysis of NO in argon. Isotope separation studies were done on fluoroform and uranium. Fuel burnup determination using 148 Nd and 139 La was investigated. Zirconium alloy studies included work on stress corrosion cracking and the Baushinger effect

  7. American Chemical Society. Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The meeting of the 201st American Chemical Society Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was comprised from a variety of topics in this field including: nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics, and nuclear techniques for environmental studies. Particular emphasis was given to fundamental research concerning nuclear structure (seven of the nineteen symposia) and studies of airborne particle monitoring and transport (five symposia). 105 papers were presented

  8. Analytical Chemistry Division : annual report for the year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathe, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, during 1980 are reported in the form of abstracts. Various methods nuclear, spectral, thermal, electrochemical ion exchange developed for chemical analysis are described. Solvent extraction studies are also reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  9. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    A marked asymmetry has been observed in the intensity of ions scattered from manganese atoms in a Mn-Al alloy as a function of incidence angle, under near-axial channeling conditions. Proton dechanneling has been used to discriminate between simple and cluster defects created by He-ion irradiation of an Al-Ag alloy crystal. An automated Langmuir surface has been constructed for study of the radiation chemistry of polyunsaturated compounds organized in molecular films. New information about reactions of nitric oxide (NO) has been obtained which suggests that the reaction of NO with O 2 in the gas phase is also an important reaction in the radiation chemistry of oxygenated nitrate and nitrite solutions. Development work on an ion-selective electrode for the determination of boron has been completed. Recent studies have resulted in improvements to the mass spectrometric determination of thorium, uranium and plutonium. Good agreement between the results of the determinations of atom percent fission by a stable isotope dilution Nd-148 and a uranium isotope ratio method was observed. Examination of a large number of iodine-induced crack initiation sites formed under conditions where the hydrides are in solution has shown no evidence for the involvement of any second phase particles, or any local segregation of impurities or alloying elements. Reproducible improvement in the purity of zirconium has been achieved by the electrotransport method. Doppler broadening studies of positron annihilation in electron irradiated Zr and Ti have been completed

  10. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1990, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.; Minahan, M.

    1991-06-01

    This report describes some of the major research and development programs of the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division during FY 1990. The report includes articles on weapons chemistry, environmental chemistry, actinide and transition metal chemistry, geochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, biochemistry and nuclear medicine, materials chemistry, and INC Division facilities and laboratories

  11. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, R.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research

  12. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  13. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Laser radiation has been used to anneal damage created by implantation of arsenic ions into silicon single-crystal wafers. The threshold for recovery of lattice order, as measured by ion channeling methods, appeared at an energy density of 1.2 J.cm -2 . Deuterium-enriched water has been recovered for the first time in visible amounts from a process based on laser photolysis. High performance liquid chromatography has been applied to the determination of U(VI) in ground water and urine. Results with low ground water concentrations were judged to be successful, while only limited success was achieved with urine. The first analyses in support of the production of (Th,Pu)O 2 fuel elements were completed successfully. Experiments performed during the quarter have shown that cracking of Zr-2.5 percent Nb alloy by gaseous hydrogen is inhibited by traces of oxygen. It was found that there was no inhibition by helium in the absence of trace oxygen. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the growth and creep constants derived from ion-irradiated cantilever beam specimens and those from reactor irradiation of the same materials. (O.T.)

  14. Analytical Chemistry Division, annual report for the year 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Research and development activities of the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India), for the year 1973 are reported. From the point of view of nuclear science and technology, the following are worth mentioning: (1) radiochemical analysis of mercury in marine products (2) rapid anion exchange separation and spectrophotometric determination of gadolinium in uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide blend and (3) neutron activation analysis for forensic purpose. (M.G.B.)

  15. Nuclear activation analysis work at Analytical Chemistry Division: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy; Ghosh, M.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Dasgupta, S.

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear activation analysis using neutron and charged particles is used routinely for analysis and research at Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Neutron activation analysis at ACD, BARC, Mumbai, India has been pursued since late fifties using Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva and Critical facility Research reactors, 239 Pu-Be neutron source and neutron generator. Instrumental, Radiochemical, Chemical and Derivative neutron activation analysis approaches are adopted depending on the analyte and the matrix. Large sample neutron activation analysis as well as k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis is also used. Charged particle activation analysis at ACD, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata started in late eighties and is being used for industrial applications and research. Proton, alpha, deuteron and heavy ion beams from 224 cm room temperature Variable Energy Cyclotron are used for determination of trace elements, measurement of excitation function, thin layer activation and preparation of endohedral fullerenes encapsulated with radioactive isotopes. Analytical Chemistry Division regularly participates in Inter and Intra laboratory comparison exercises conducted by various organizations including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results invariably include values obtained by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  16. The chemistry of water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss features of the changes in chemical constitution which occur in fuel and fuel rods for water reactors during operation and in fault conditions. The fuel for water reactors consists of pellets of urania (UO 2 ) clad in Zircaloy. An essential step in the prediction of the fate of all the radionuclides in a fault or accident is to possess a detailed knowledge of their chemical behavior at all stages of the development of such incidents. In this paper, the authors consider: the chemical constitution of fuel during operation at temperatures corresponding to rather low ratings, together with a quite detailed discussion of the chemistry within the fuel-clad gap; the behavior of fuel subjected to higher temperatures and ratings than those of contemporary fuel; and the changes in constitution on failure of fuel rods in fault or accident conditions

  17. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division 1 July - 30 September, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    The work of the division in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry and materials science over the quarter is described. The solid state science branch has worked on crystal defect formation after ion beam irradiation. Laser isotope separation methods have produced visible amounts of water enriched 2000-fold in deuterium. Work has been done on hydrogen isotope exchange in H 2 -methanol mixtures. Nitrogen impurities in Xe-133 can be determined down to the microgram level. A new apparatus for the determination of hydrogen in zirconium has been assembled. Coatings of stainless steels on zircaloy fuel cladding continue to offer protection against oxidation. Agreement has been obtained between computer-simulated and observed electron microscope images of irradiated titanium. Cold-worked zirconium has been studied under helium ion bombardment

  18. Isotope and nuclear chemistry division. Annual report, FY 1987. Progress report, October 1986-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.W.; Heiken, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1987 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical weapons diagnostics and research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry

  19. Applied Chemistry Division progress report for the period 1990-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, S.R.; Kishore, K.; Ramshesh, V.

    1993-01-01

    The report covers the research and development (R and D) activities of the Applied Chemistry Division for the period January 1990 to December, 1992. R and D programmes of the Division are formulated to study the chemical aspects related to nuclear power plants and heavy water plants. The Division also gives consultancy to DAE units and outside agencies on water chemistry problems. The thrust areas of the Division's R and D programmes are : decontamination of nuclear facilities, metal water interaction of the materials used in PHT system, chemistry of soluble poisons, biofouling and its control in cooling water circuits, and treatment of cooling waters. Other major R and D activities are in the areas of: solid state reactions and high temperature thermodynamics, primary coolant water chemistry, speciation studies in metal amine systems, high temperature aqueous radiation chemistry. The Division was engaged in studies in novel areas such as dental implants, remote sealing of pipes in MS pipes, and cold fusion. The Division also designed and fabricated instruments like the Knudsen cell mass spectrometer, calorimeters and developed required software. All these R and D activities are reported in the form of individual summaries. A list of publications from the Division and a list of the staff members of the Division are given at the end of the report. (author). tabs., figs., appendices

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited

  1. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited.

  2. Water chemistry regimes for VVER-440 units: water chemistry influence on fuel cladding behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture next problems of water chemistry influence on fuel cladding behaviour for VVER-440 units are presented: primary coolant technologies; water chemistry specification and control; fuel integrity considerations; zirconium alloys cladding corrosion (corrosion versus burn-up; water chemistry effect; crud deposition; hydrogen absorption; axial offset anomaly); alternatives for the primary coolant regimes

  3. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Hansen, Nils; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used

  4. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division has programs in inorganic mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy, organic mass spectrometry, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. It maintains a transuranium analytical laboratory and an environmental analytical laboratory. It carries out chemical and physical analysis in the fields of inorganic chemistry, organic spectroscopy, separations and synthesis. (WET)

  5. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poutsma, M.L.; Ferris, L.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Chemistry Division conducts basic and applied chemical research on projects important to DOE`s missions in sciences, energy technologies, advanced materials, and waste management/environmental restoration; it also conducts complementary research for other sponsors. The research are arranged according to: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, chemistry of advanced inorganic materials, structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, chemical and structural principles in solvent extraction, surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis, photolytic transformations of hazardous organics, DNA sequencing and mapping, and special topics.

  6. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. [ed.

    1992-11-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  7. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  8. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, April 1 to June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    Research results are reported in such areas as ion penetration, electron microscopy, metal physics and radiation damage, nuclear methods of analysis, fuel analysis, and general analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, radiation chemistry, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and surface chemistry of nuclear materials like zirconium base alloys. (E.C.B.)

  9. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, January 1 to March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    Results are described of research on ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, nuclear methods of analysis, computer calculating methods, analytical chemistry, deuterium exchange, radioactivity measurement, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry and fuel analysis, radiation chemistry, surface chemistry, and properties of zirconium base alloys. (E.C.B.)

  10. Chemistry Division. Quarterly progress report for period ending June 30, 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-09-14

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) nuclear and chemical properties of heavy elements (solution chemistry, phase rule studies); (2) nuclear and chemical properties of elements in the fission product region; (3) general nuclear chemistry; (4) radio-organic chemistry; (5) chemistry of separations processes; (6) physical chemistry and chemical physics; (7) radiation chemistry; (8) physical measurements and instrumentation; and (9) analytical chemistry. The program of the chemistry division is divided into two efforts of approximately equal weight with respect to number of personnel, chemical research, and analytical service for the Laboratory. The various research problems fall into the following classifications: (1) chemical separation processes for isolation and recovery of fissionable material, production of radioisotopes, and military applications; (2) reactor development; and (3) fundamental research.

  11. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, 1 April to 30 June, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Research results are reported by groups investigating ion penetration, nuclear methods of analysis, accelerator operation, general analytical chemistry, radoactivity measurement, deuterium analysis, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry and fuel analysis, radiation chemistry and laser photochemistry, hydrogen-water exchange, isotope chemistry, surface chemistry, and electron microscopy. Work in an associated laboratory at the University of Toronto on isotopic changes in reaction rates is reported. (L.L.)

  12. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry

  13. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1985, October 1984-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1985 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiations facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes

  14. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, J.H. (ed.)

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry.

  15. Applied Chemistry Division progress report for the period 1993-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, D. B.; Ramshesh, V.; Wani, B. N. [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Applied Chemistry Div.

    1997-09-01

    The report covers the research and development (R and D) activities of the Applied Chemistry Division for the period January 1993 to December 1995. This period is marked by important contributions pertaining to the R and D programmes on chemistry aspects related to nuclear power stations. The thrust areas of the Division`s R and D programmes are : chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor systems, metal-water interactions relevant to the Nuclear Power Stations and other industrial units of the Department, biofouling and its control in cooling water circuits and cooling water treatment. Other major research programmes are in the areas of radiation chemistry, solid state reactions and thermodynamic studies aimed at reactor applications. refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Underlying chemistry research for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Sagert, N.H.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Taylor, P.

    1984-04-01

    This document reviews the underlying chemistry research part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, carried out in the Research Chemistry Branch. This research is concerned with developing the basic chemical knowledge and under-standing required in other parts of the Program. There are four areas of underlying research: Waste Form Chemistry, Solute and Solution Chemistry, Rock-Water-Waste Interactions, and Abatement and Monitoring of Gas-Phase Radionuclides

  17. The chemistry of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiles, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    About one-fifth of the world's supply of energy is derived from nuclear fission. While this important source of power avoids the environmental and resource problems of most other fuels, and although nuclear accident statistics are much less alarming, no other peacetime technology has evoked such public disquiet and impassioned feeling. Central to dealing with these fears is the management and disposal of radioactive waste. An expert Canadian panel in 1977 recommended permanent disposal of wastes in deep geological formations, providing a basis for subsequent policies and research. In 1988, the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO) appointed a panel to assess the proposed disposal concepts and to recommend government policy. The panel in turn appointed a Scientific Review Group to examine the underlying science. Behind all these issues lay one central question: How well is the chemistry understood? This became the principal concern of Professor Donald Wiles, the senior nuclear chemist of the Scientific Review Group. In this book, Dr. Wiles carefully describes the nature of radioactivity and of nuclear power and discusses in detail the management of radioactive waste by the multi-barrier system, but also takes an unusual approach to assessing the risks. Using knowledge of the chemical properties of the various radionuclides in spent fuel, this book follows each of the important radionuclides as it travels through the many barriers placed in its path. It turns out that only two radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere, and they arrive at the earth's surface only after many thousands of years. A careful analysis of the critical points of the disposal plan emphasizes site rejection criteria and other stages at which particular care must be taken, demonstrating how dangers can be anticipated and putting to rest the fear of nuclear fuel waste and its geological burial

  18. Chemistry Division progress report for the period January 1, 1977 - December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.; Ramshesh, V.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    The research and development work of the Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the period 1977-1980 is reported in the form of individual summaries under the headings: basic research including radiation chemistry, photochemistry, kinetic and electrochemical studies, ion exchange and sorption behaviour, chemistry of metal complexes (in particular, of uranium complexes), radiation damage in solids, heterogeneous catalysts, studies in magnetism, physical properties, solid state studies, theoretical studies, reactor related programmes (including reactor chemistry, lubricants and sealants, surface studies, water chemistry), applied research and development (including materials development, purification and analytical techniques, apolied radiation chemistry etc.), and instrumentation. Work of service facilities such as workshop, analytical se services, and repair and maintenance of instruments is described. Lists of training programmes, staff publications and divisional seminars, are given. At the end a sectionwise list of staff members is also given. (M.G.B.)

  19. American Chemical Society, 75 years of progress, Division of Environmental Chemistry, preprints of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The 196th ACS meeting was held in the Los Angeles September 25-30, 1988. The Division of Environmental Chemistry presented symposia on the following topics: data analysis procedures for trace constituents and toxic compounds, photochemical oxidants and their precursors, ionizing radiation in drinking water, environmental chemistry of dyes, biogeochemistry of CO 2 and the greenhouse effect, and biological markers of environmental contaminants. Abstracts are included for 151 papers

  20. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, 1 April - 30 June, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The work of the Division in the areas of solid state science, radiation, physical and analytical chemistry, and materials science during the quarter is described. Measurements of ion stopping power have emphasized the importance of axial symmetry and may be used to show the contribution of nuclear inelastic events to stopping processes. Enhancement of ion scattering at 180 degrees can occur even in the first few layers of a single crystal of gold implanted with heavy atoms. Agreement has been obtained between experimental and calculated rates for dechanneling of protons in gold. The rate of decomposition of HOI in aqueous solutions has been determined. The effects of radiation on dithiothreitol is being studied. Laser photochemistry work includes investigations of multiphoton dissociation and of laser-induced zirconium isotope separation. A method has been found for the preparation of oxygen gas samples for the determination of oxygen isotope ratios in water, and high-performance liquid chromatography has been applied to metals in ground water. Sputtered coatings of stainless steel on the surface of zircaloy fuel cladding reduce the oxidation rate in steam. A theoretically-based design equation for irradiation growth of pressure tubes has been developed. Studies on the effect of small strains on zircaloy-2 tubing show the need to avoid even small amounts of compressive deformation of calandria tubes

  1. Chemistry and radiation in oxy-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of combustion chemistry and radiation heat transfer in oxy-fuel combustion modeling, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling study has been performed for two different oxy-fuel furnaces. One is a lab-scale 0.8MW oxy-natural gas flame furnace whose detailed in....... Among the key issues in combustion modeling, e.g., mixing, radiation and chemistry, this paper derives useful guidelines on radiation and chemistry implementation for reliable CFD analyses of oxy-fuel combustion, particularly for industrial applications....

  2. Analytical capabilities and services of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.; Crawford, R.

    1978-01-01

    This comprehensive guide to the analytical capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division describes each analytical method in terms of its principle, field of application, and qualitative and quantitative uses. Also described are the state and quantity of sample required for analysis, processing time, available instrumentation, and responsible personnel

  3. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  4. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO 2 fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  5. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  6. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) Analytical Research, Development, and Implementation. The division maintains a program to conceptualize, investigate, develop, assess, improve, and implement advanced technology for chemical and physicochemical measurements. Emphasis is on problems and needs identified with ORNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programs; however, attention is also given to advancing the analytical sciences themselves. (2) Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization. The division carries out a wide variety of chemical work that typically involves analytical research and/or development plus the utilization of analytical capabilities to expedite programmatic interests. (3) Technical Support. The division performs chemical and physicochemical analyses of virtually all types. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each of which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1988. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8

  7. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) Analytical Research, Development, and Implementation. The division maintains a program to conceptualize, investigate, develop, assess, improve, and implement advanced technology for chemical and physicochemical measurements. Emphasis is on problems and needs identified with ORNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programs; however, attention is also given to advancing the analytical sciences themselves. (2) Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization. The division carries out a wide variety of chemical work that typically involves analytical research and/or development plus the utilization of analytical capabilities to expedite programmatic interests. (3) Technical Support. The division performs chemical and physicochemical analyses of virtually all types. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each of which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1988. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8.

  8. Applied Chemistry Division progress report for the period 1993-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, D.B.; Ramshesh, V.; Wani, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    The report covers the research and development (R and D) activities of the Applied Chemistry Division for the period January 1993 to December 1995. This period is marked by important contributions pertaining to the R and D programmes on chemistry aspects related to nuclear power stations. The thrust areas of the Division's R and D programmes are : chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor systems, metal-water interactions relevant to the Nuclear Power Stations and other industrial units of the Department, biofouling and its control in cooling water circuits and cooling water treatment. Other major research programmes are in the areas of radiation chemistry, solid state reactions and thermodynamic studies aimed at reactor applications. refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Final Report - Low Temperature Combustion Chemistry And Fuel Component Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Recent research into combustion chemistry has shown that reactions at “low temperatures” (700 – 1100 K) have a dramatic influence on ignition and combustion of fuels in virtually every practical combustion system. A powerful class of laboratory-scale experimental facilities that can focus on fuel chemistry in this temperature range is the rapid compression facility (RCF), which has proven to be a versatile tool to examine the details of fuel chemistry in this important regime. An RCF was used in this project to advance our understanding of low temperature chemistry of important fuel compounds. We show how factors including fuel molecular structure, the presence of unsaturated C=C bonds, and the presence of alkyl ester groups influence fuel auto-ignition and produce variable amounts of negative temperature coefficient behavior of fuel ignition. We report new discoveries of synergistic ignition interactions between alkane and alcohol fuels, with both experimental and kinetic modeling studies of these complex interactions. The results of this project quantify the effects of molecular structure on combustion chemistry including carbon bond saturation, through low temperature experimental studies of esters, alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols.

  10. WWER water chemistry related to fuel cladding behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysela, J; Zmitko, M [Nuclear Research Inst. plc., Rez (Czech Republic); Vrtilkova, V [Nuclear Fuel Inst., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-02-01

    Operational experience in WWER primary water chemistry and corrosion related to the fuel cladding is reviewed. Insignificant corrosion of fuel cladding was found which is caused by good corrosion resistance of Zr1Nb material and relatively low coolant temperature at WWER-440 reactor units. The differences in water chemistry control is outlined and an attention to the question of compatibility of Zircaloys with WWER water chemistry is given. Some results of research and development in field of zirconium alloy corrosion behaviour are discussed. Experimental facility for in-pile and out-of-pile cladding material corrosion testing is shown. (author). 14 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  11. Impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, C.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van den Berghe, S.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains a series of papers presented at SCK-CEN's workshop on the impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour. Contributing authors discuss different processes affecting the behaviour of fission products in different types of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, a number of papers discusses the behaviour of actinides and fission products released from spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste in geological disposal conditions

  12. Nuclear fuel conversion and fabrication chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Norman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following irradiation and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, two operations are performed to prepare the fuel for subsequent reuse as fuel: fuel conversion, and fuel fabrication. These operations complete the classical nuclear fuel cycle. Fuel conversion involves generating a solid form suitable for fabrication into nuclear fuel. For plutonium based fuels, either a pure PuO 2 material or a mixed PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel material is generated. Several methods are available for preparation of the pure PuO 2 including: oxalate or peroxide precipitation; or direct denitration. Once the pure PuO 2 is formed, it is fabricated into fuel by mechanically blending it with ceramic grade UO 2 . The UO 2 can be prepared by several methods which include direct denitration. ADU precipitation, AUC precipitation, and peroxide precipitation. Alternatively, UO 2 -PuO 2 can be generated directly using coprecipitation, direct co-denitration, or gel sphere processes. In coprecipitation, uranium and plutonium are either precipitated as ammonium diuranate and plutonium hydroxide or as a mixture of ammonium uranyl-plutonyl carbonate, filtered and dried. In direct thermal denitration, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrates are heated causing concentration and, subsequently, direct denitration. In gel sphere conversion, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrate containing additives are formed into spherical droplets, gelled, washed and dried. Refabrication of these UO 3 -PuO 2 starting materials is accomplished by calcination-reduction to UO 2 -PuO 2 followed by pellet fabrication. (orig.)

  13. Cesium chemistry in GCFR fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fee, D.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The fuel rod design for the Gas Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor (GCFR) is similar to that employed for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) with the exception of the unique features inherent to the use of helium as the coolant. These unique design features include the use of (1) vented and pressure-equalized fuel rods, and (2) ribbed cladding along 75% of the fuel section. The former design feature enables reduction in cladding thickness and prevention of possible creep collapse of the cladding due to the high coolant pressure (8.5 MPa). The latter design feature brings about improved heat transfer characteristics. Each GCFR fuel rod is vented to a manifold whereby gaseous fission products diffusing out of the fuel pin are retained on charcoal traps. As a result, the internal pressure of a GCFR fuel pin does not increase during irradiation. In addition, the venting system also maintains the pressure within the fuel pin slightly below (0.3 to 0.5 MPa) the coolant pressure outside the fuel pin. Consequently, should a breach occur in the cladding, helium flows into the breached fuel pin thereby minimizing fission product contamination of the coolant. These desirable aspects of a GCFR fuel pin can be maintained only as long as axial gas transport paths are available and operating within the fuel pin

  14. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H. (ed.)

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique.

  15. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique

  16. Summary Report for April, May and June, 1951, Chemistry Division, Section C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemistry Division; Osborne, D. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemistry Division

    1951-08-01

    This is a summary report for April, May and June, 1951, in the Chemistry Division, Section C-1 of Argonne National Laboratory. Topics include Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry with specifics about the following: 1) U238 (n,2n) Cross Section WIthin a Uranium Slug, and 2) Possible Occurrence of Si32 in Nature. Basic Chemistry is also covered, going into the following subjects: 1) Heats of Solution of Salts in Organic Solvents, 2) Effect of Coordination on Absorption Spectra of Anions, 3) Entropy, Enthalpy, and Heat Capacity of Thorium Dioxide from 10 to 300°K, 4) The Thermodynamics of Neptunium Ions, 5) Migration of Ions in Ion-Exchange Resins During Electrolysis, and 5) Mutual Separation of Lanthanides and Actinides by Solvent Extraction Techniques.

  17. Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon:Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine Division CHARLES W. STEVENS, Lead Engineer Turbine Engine Division Aerospace Systems...evaluation concludes, based on fundamental physical chemistry , that all hydrocarbon kerosenes that meet the minimum density requirement will have bulk...alternative jet fuels; renewable jet fuel; fuel physical properties; fuel chemistry ; fuel properties 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  18. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs: October--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Bernstein, G.; Flynn, K.; Gerding, T.; Jardine, L.; Kullen, B.; Mecham, W.; Saunders, B.; Seefeldt, W.; Seitz, M.; Siczek, A.; Trevorrow, L.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel-cycle studies reported for this period include pyrochemical separation of plutonium and americium oxides from contaminated materials of construction such as steel. The actinides are partitioned to a high degree into slags that are contacted by the molten metal. Studies of advanced solvent extraction techniques focussed on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes. A miniature contactor is to be used for performance studies applicable to larger units. Review of literature on the process chemistry of zirconium and ruthenium has been carried out to aid in improving the process when fast contactors are used. A review of information on the dispersion of reagents during accidents in reprocessing has been initiated to develop systematic data useful in identifying source terms. A review and evaluation of the encapsulation of high level waste in a metal matrix has been initiated. The data will be used to identify the state of the art and the importance of selected features of this process. Criteria for the handling of hulls are being developed on the basis of past work on the pyrophoricity of zirconium alloys and related criteria from several sources. These suggested criteria will be assembled together with the necessary technical rationalization, into a package for review by interested parties. A brief program to explore the disposal of noble gas fission products by deep-well injection has been started

  19. Fuel deposits, chemistry and CANDU® reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    'Hot conditioning' is a process which occurs as part of commissioning and initial start-up of each CANDU® reactor, the first being the Nuclear Power Demonstration - 2 reactor (NPD). Later, understanding of the cause of the failure of the Pickering Unit 1 G16 fuel channelled to a revised approach to 'hot conditioning', initially demonstrated on Bruce Unit 5. The difference being that during 'hot conditioning' of CANDU® heat transport systems fuel was not in-core until Bruce Unit 5. The 'hot conditioning' processes will be briefly described along with the consequences to fuel. (author)

  20. Nitrogen Chemistry During Burnout in Fuel-Staged Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Gravers; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A parametric study involving flow reactor experiments and chemical kinetic modeling is presented for the burnout zone in fuel-staging (reburning). The results provide guidelines for optimizing the reburn process and provide a test basis for verifying kinetic models for nitrogen chemistry at tempe......A parametric study involving flow reactor experiments and chemical kinetic modeling is presented for the burnout zone in fuel-staging (reburning). The results provide guidelines for optimizing the reburn process and provide a test basis for verifying kinetic models for nitrogen chemistry...

  1. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: Analytical Research, Development and Implementation; Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization; and Technical Support. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1989. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 69 articles, 41 proceedings, and 31 reports were published, and 151 oral presentations were given during this reporting period. Some 308,981 determinations were performed

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: Analytical Research, Development and Implementation; Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization; and Technical Support. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1989. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 69 articles, 41 proceedings, and 31 reports were published, and 151 oral presentations were given during this reporting period. Some 308,981 determinations were performed.

  3. Expression of results in quantum chemistry physical chemistry division commission on physicochemical symbols, terminology and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase """"atomic units"""" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitte

  4. Fuel deposits, chemistry and CANDU reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    'Hot conditioning' is a process which occurs as part of commissioning and initial start-up of each CANDU reactor, the first being the Nuclear Power Demonstration-2 reactor (NPD). Later, understanding of the cause of the failure of the Pickering Unit 1 G16 fuel channel led to a revised approach to 'hot conditioning', initially demonstrated on Bruce Unit 5, and subsequently utilized for each CANDU unit since. The difference being that during 'hot conditioning' of CANDU heat transport systems fuel was not in-core until Bruce Unit 5. The 'hot conditioning' processes will be briefly described along with the consequences to fuel. (author)

  5. Effect of Alternative Fuels on SCR Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, Simin

    2012-01-01

    In the time line of world industrial age, the most important era begins in the late 18th century when the use of fossil fuels was growing intensively. This approach has continued and developed up to the 20th century. Besides, this trend has had side effects like polluting environment. Air pollution is one of the critical issues nowadays that stems from using hydrocarbon fuels. One type of the problematic compounds in polluting air is nitrogen oxides that can be produced in combustion process ...

  6. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period

  7. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W. S. [ed.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period.

  8. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into: Analytical spectroscopy (optical spectroscopy, organic mass spectrometry, inorganic mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry), inorganic and radiochemistry (transuranium and activation analysis, low-level radiochemical analysis, inorganic analysis, radioactive materials analysis, special projects), organic chemistry (organic spectroscopy, separations and synthesis, special projects, organic analysis, ORNL/UT research program), operations (quality assurance/quality control, environmental protection, safety, analytical improvement, training, radiation control), education programs, supplementary activities, and presentation of research results. Tables are included for articles reviewed or refereed for periodicals, analytical service work, division manpower and financial summary, and organization chart; a glossary is also included.

  9. Role of analytical chemistry in the development of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is indispensable and plays a pivotal role in the entire gamut of nuclear fuel cycle activities starting from ore refining, conversion, nuclear fuel fabrication, reactor operation, nuclear fuel reprocessing to waste management. As the fuel is the most critical component of the reactor where the fissions take place to produce power, extreme care should be taken to qualify the fuel. For example, in nuclear fuel fabrication, depending upon the reactor system, selection of nuclear fuel has to be made. The fuel for thermal reactors is normally uranium oxide either natural or slightly enriched. For research reactors it can be uranium metal or alloy. The fuel for FBR can be metal, alloy, oxide, carbide or nitride. India is planning an advanced heavy water reactor for utilization of vast resources of thorium in the country. Also research is going on to identify suitable metallic/alloy fuels for our future fast reactors and possible use in fast breeder test reactor. Other advanced fuel materials are also being investigated for thermal reactors for realizing increased performance levels. For example, advanced fuels made from UO 2 doped with Cr 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 are being suggested in LWR applications. These have shown to facilitate pellet densification during sintering and enlarge the pellet grain size. The chemistry of these materials has to be understood during the preparation to the stringent specification. A number of analytical parameters need to be determined as a part of chemical quality control of nuclear materials. Myriad of analytical techniques starting from the classical to sophisticated instrumentation techniques are available for this purpose. Insatiable urge of the analytical chemist enables to devise and adopt new superior methodologies in terms of reduction in the time of analysis, improvement in the measurement precision and accuracy, simplicity of the technique itself etc. Chemical quality control provides a means to ensure that the

  10. Handbook on process and chemistry of nuclear fuel reprocessing. 3rd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    The fundamental data on spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and related chemistry was collected and summarized as a new edition of 'Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing'. The purpose of this handbook is contribution to development of the fuel reprocessing and fuel cycle technology for uranium fuel and mixed oxide fuel utilization. Contents in this book was discussed and reviewed by specialists of science and technology on fuel reprocessing in Japan. (author)

  11. Fuels management in the southern Appalachian Mountains, hot continental division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Reilly; Thomas A. Waldrop; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Hot Continental Mountains Division, M220 (McNab and others 2007) are a topographically and biologically complex area with over 10 million ha of forested land, where complex environmental gradients have resulted in a great diversity of forest types. Abundant moisture and a long, warm growing season support high levels of productivity...

  12. List of unclassified documents, lectures, etc. by the staff of Chemistry Division AERE Harwell 1.11.74 - 31.10.75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttar, N.

    1976-02-01

    This list comprises unclassified material published or presented during 1975 by the staff of Chemistry Division and covers reports, memoranda, conference papers, lectures and articles in journals. (author)

  13. TALSPEAK Chemistry in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    The separation of trivalent transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanide ions represents a challenging aspect of advanced nuclear fuel partitioning schemes. The challenge of this separation could be amplified in the context of the AFCI-UREX+1a process, as Np and Pu will accompany the minor actinides to this stage of separation. At present, the baseline lanthanide-actinide separation method is the TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous complexes) process. TALSPEAK was developed in the late 1960's at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and has been demonstrated at pilot scale. This process relies on the complex interaction between an organic and an aqueous phase both containing complexants for selectively separating the trivalent actinide. The 3 complexing components are: the di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), the lactic acid (HL) and the diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA). In this report we discuss observations on kinetic and thermodynamic features described in the prior literature and describe some results of our ongoing research on basic chemical features of this system. The information presented indicates that the lactic acid buffer participates in the net operation of the TALSPEAK process in a manner that is not explained by existing information on the thermodynamic features if the known Eu(III)-lactate species. (authors)

  14. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  15. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division: 1982 October 1 -December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Solid state studies included work on the trapping vacancies of Au atoms by the backscattering-channeling method, and investigation into mixing across interfaces resulting from heavy ion bombardment. In radiation chemistry, computer simulations of nitrogen atom yield from radiolysis of N 2 -O 2 mixtures were found to agree with experiment. Surface science research included studies of temporal oscillations in the kinetics of oxidation of carbon monoxide over the (100) face of single-crystal platinum. In analytical chemistry, research projects included the determination of thorium-230 in ores, use of a high specific activity methyl bromide tracer in commercial applications, determination of burnup in (Th,U)0 2 fuels using HPLC, and development of a simple and quick means to determine D 2 0 content of water grab samples at CANDU sites using a small soft-bulb hydrometer. Materials science studies included experiments on true incubation time for stress-corrosion cracking in iodine vapour, examination of hydrogen contents of fuel cladding from bundles with failed pins, and studies of initiation of ΣnodularΣ corrosion of fuel cladding in high-temperature steam

  16. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2017-03-10

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used gasoline surrogates – primary reference fuel 84 (PRF 84, 84 vol% iso-octane and 16 vol% n-heptane), has been examined in a stoichiometric premixed laminar flame. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron light source for species photoionization was used. Reactants, major end-products, stable intermediates, free radicals, and isomeric species were detected and quantified. Numerical simulations were conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic model with the most recently available high temperature sub-mechanisms for iso-octane and heptane, built on the top of an updated pentane isomers model and AramcoMech 2.0 (C0C4) base chemistry. A detailed interpretation of the major differences between the mechanistic pathways of both fuel components is given. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results is depicted and rate of production and sensitivity analyses are shown for the species with considerable disagreement between the experimental and numerical findings.

  17. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  18. Modeling Human Serum Albumin Tertiary Structure to Teach Upper-Division Chemistry Students Bioinformatics and Homology Modeling Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Dus?an; Zlatovic´, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A homology modeling laboratory experiment has been developed for an introductory molecular modeling course for upper-division undergraduate chemistry students. With this experiment, students gain practical experience in homology model preparation and assessment as well as in protein visualization using the educational version of PyMOL…

  19. European analytical column No. 36 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)......European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)...

  20. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery

  1. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery. (DLC)

  2. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    This report has been indexed by 11 separate chapters. The subjects covered are: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, catalysis, electron spectroscopy, nuclear waste chemistry, heuristic modeling, and special topics. (PLG)

  3. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This report has been indexed by 11 separate chapters. The subjects covered are: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, materials chemistry, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, catalysis, electron spectroscopy, nuclear waste chemistry, heuristic modeling, and special topics

  4. Flame chemistry of alkane-rich gasoline fuels and a surrogate using photoionization mass spectrometry: I. Primary reference fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, H.

    2015-03-30

    Improving the gasoline engines performance requires thorough understanding of their fundamental chemistry of combustion. Since the actual gasoline fuels are difficult to examine, due to the lack of knowledge about their exact composition as well as their numerous fuel components, the approach of using simpler gasoline fuels with limited number of components or using surrogate fuels has become more common. In this study, the combustion chemistry of laminar premixed flame of different gasoline fuels/surrogate has been examined. In this particular paper, the primary reference fuel, PRF84, has been examined at equivalence ratio of 1 and pressure of 20 Torr. The gas analysis was conducted using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

  5. Flame chemistry of alkane-rich gasoline fuels and a surrogate using photoionization mass spectrometry: I. Primary reference fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, H.; Lucassen, A.; Hansen, N.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Improving the gasoline engines performance requires thorough understanding of their fundamental chemistry of combustion. Since the actual gasoline fuels are difficult to examine, due to the lack of knowledge about their exact composition as well as their numerous fuel components, the approach of using simpler gasoline fuels with limited number of components or using surrogate fuels has become more common. In this study, the combustion chemistry of laminar premixed flame of different gasoline fuels/surrogate has been examined. In this particular paper, the primary reference fuel, PRF84, has been examined at equivalence ratio of 1 and pressure of 20 Torr. The gas analysis was conducted using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

  6. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The following sentences highlight some of the technical activities carried out during 1991. They illustrate the diversity of programs and technical work performed within the Analytical Chemistry Division. Our neutron activation analysis laboratory at HFIR was placed into operation during 1991. We have combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with a preparation procedure developed at the Argonne National Laboratory to measure ultra-trace levels of U, Pu, Np, and Am in body fluids, primarily urine. Much progress has been made over the last year in the interfacing of an rf-powered glow discharge source to a double-focusing mass spectrometer. Preliminary experiments using electrospray ionization combined with ion trap mass spectrometry show much promise for the analysis of metals in solution. A secondary ion microprobe has been constructed that permits determination of the distribution of organic compounds less than a monolayer thick on samples as large as 1 cm diameter. Fourier transform mass spectrometry has been demonstrated to be a highly effective tool for the detailed characterization of biopolymers, especially normal and modified oligonucleotides. Much has been accomplished in understanding the fundamentals of quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Work with ITMS instrumentation has led to the development of rapid methods for the detection of trace organics in environmental and physiological samples. A new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed for use with our positron ionization experiments. Fundamental research on chromatography at high concentrations and on gas-solid adsorption has continued. The preparation of a monograph on the chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke was completed this year.

  7. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, October 1 to December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Interim research results are reported in solid state science (ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, nuclear methods of analysis), general chemistry (analytical chemistry, hydrogen-water exchange, radioactivity measurements, electrochemistry), physical chemistry (radiation and isotope chemistry), materials science (surface chemistry and metal physics), and university research (deuterium exchange and zirconium alloy properties). (E.C.B.)

  8. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  9. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division: 1982 July 1 - September 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    During the third quarter of 1982, work in solid state studies included study of energy spectra of Auger electrons from a silicon single crystal, use of an excimer laser to anneal an aluminum crystal implanted with iron atoms, studies of defects created by helium ion irradiation of a dilute copper-indium alloy crystal, and computer simulations of ion channeling in a platinum crystal surface. Work in radiation chemistry on the enhancement of water calorimetry sensitivity continued. A surface science program to understand the temporal oscillations in the oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum continued with the study of the interaction of oxygen with the (100) crystallographic face of platinum. Studies in analytical chemistry included a comparison of fuel burnup results using 145 Nd + 146 Nd and 148 Nd, and a preliminary investigation into methods of reduction of U(VI) to U(IV), particularly electrolytic reduction. Materials science work continued on the fracture surfaces of Exel alloys cracked in hydrogen gas, the true incubation time for stress corrosion cracking in cesium-cadmium vapour mixtures, evidence for a previously unknown hexagonal phase of germanium, growth experiments in the DIDO reactor on swaged single-crystals, and examination of the first zirconium specimen purified by electrotransport in the CRNL equipment

  10. Fuels and Materials Division biennial report, fiscal years 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.L.

    1980-10-01

    The Fuels and Materials Division of EG and G Idaho, Inc., reports its technical activities for the fiscal years 1979 to 1980. This Division supports technical programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory with materials science, materials engineering, nondestructive evaluation engineering, and remote handling of radioactive and other hazardous materials and conducts several direct-funded materials-related programs for the US Department of Energy. This report details programmatic and other support activities, direct-funded programs, organization and facility status, and EG and G Idaho-funded technical development programs

  11. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1983-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Dvision of Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development, and utilization; and (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections, each of which may carry out any type of work falling in the three categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections (analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials, bio/organic analysis, and general and environmental analysis) during the period January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1982. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 61 articles, 32 proceedings publications and 37 reports have been published, and 107 oral presentations were given during this reporting period

  12. Chemistry Division: Annual progress report for period ending March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: coal chemistry; aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures; geochemistry of crustal processes to high temperatures and pressures; chemistry of advanced inorganic materials; structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials; chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds; separations chemistry; reactions and catalysis in molten salts; surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis; electron spectroscopy; chemistry related to nuclear waste disposal; computational modeling of security document printing; and special topics

  13. Chemistry Division: Annual progress report for period ending March 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: coal chemistry; aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures; geochemistry of crustal processes to high temperatures and pressures; chemistry of advanced inorganic materials; structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials; chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds; separations chemistry; reactions and catalysis in molten salts; surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis; electron spectroscopy; chemistry related to nuclear waste disposal; computational modeling of security document printing; and special topics. (DLC)

  14. AERE Harwell Applied Chemistry Division unclassified progress report and bibliography for the period 1st April 1975 to 31st March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The Progress Report is under the headings: Analytical Chemistry Group, Actinide Analysis Group, Applied Electrochemistry Group, Nuclear Fuels Group, Solid State Chemistry Group, Separation Processes Group, list of unclassified publications. (U.K.)

  15. Beyond Solar Fuels: Renewable Energy-Driven Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Paola; Abate, Salvatare; Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2017-11-23

    The future feasibility of decarbonized industrial chemical production based on the substitution of fossil feedstocks (FFs) with renewable energy (RE) sources is discussed. Indeed, the use of FFs as an energy source has the greatest impact on the greenhouse gas emissions of chemical production. This future scenario is indicated as "solar-driven" or "RE-driven" chemistry. Its possible implementation requires to go beyond the concept of solar fuels, in particular to address two key aspects: i) the use of RE-driven processes for the production of base raw materials, such as olefins, methanol, and ammonia, and ii) the development of novel RE-driven routes that simultaneously realize process and energy intensification, particularly in the direction of a significant reduction of the number of the process steps. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  17. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates - substituted ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-01-01

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE)

  18. Recent Developments in the Management of Cameco Corporation's Fuel Services Division Waste - 13144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas P. [Cameco Corporation, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is a world leader in uranium production. Headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan our operations provide 16% of the world uranium mine production and we have approximately 435 million pounds of proven and probable uranium reserves. Cameco mining operations are located in Saskatchewan, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kazakhstan. Cameco is also a major supplier of uranium processing services required to produce fuel for the generation of clean energy. These operations are based in Blind River, Cobourg and Port Hope, Ontario and are collectively referred to as the Fuel Services Division. The Fuel Services Division produces uranium trioxide from uranium ore concentrate at the Blind River Refinery. Cameco produces uranium hexafluoride and uranium dioxide at the Port Hope Conversion Facility. Cameco operates a fuel manufacturing facility in Port Hope, Ontario and a metal fabrication facility located in Cobourg, Ontario. The company manufactures fuel bundles utilized in the Candu reactors. Cameco's Fuel Services Division produces several types of low-level radioactively contaminated wastes. Internal processing capabilities at both the Blind River Refinery and Port Hope Conversion Facility are extensive and allow for the recycling of several types of waste. Notwithstanding these capabilities there are certain wastes that are not amenable to the internal processing capabilities and must be disposed of appropriately. Disposal options for low-level radioactively contaminated wastes in Canada are limited primarily due to cost considerations. In recent years, Cameco has started to ship marginally contaminated wastes (<500 ppm uranium) to the United States for disposal in an appropriate landfill. The landfill is owned by US Ecology Incorporated and is located near Grand View, Idaho 70 miles southeast of Boise in the Owyhee Desert. The facility treats and disposes hazardous waste, non-hazardous industrial waste and low-activity radioactive material. The site

  19. Recent Developments in the Management of Cameco Corporation's Fuel Services Division Waste - 13144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Cameco Corporation is a world leader in uranium production. Headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan our operations provide 16% of the world uranium mine production and we have approximately 435 million pounds of proven and probable uranium reserves. Cameco mining operations are located in Saskatchewan, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kazakhstan. Cameco is also a major supplier of uranium processing services required to produce fuel for the generation of clean energy. These operations are based in Blind River, Cobourg and Port Hope, Ontario and are collectively referred to as the Fuel Services Division. The Fuel Services Division produces uranium trioxide from uranium ore concentrate at the Blind River Refinery. Cameco produces uranium hexafluoride and uranium dioxide at the Port Hope Conversion Facility. Cameco operates a fuel manufacturing facility in Port Hope, Ontario and a metal fabrication facility located in Cobourg, Ontario. The company manufactures fuel bundles utilized in the Candu reactors. Cameco's Fuel Services Division produces several types of low-level radioactively contaminated wastes. Internal processing capabilities at both the Blind River Refinery and Port Hope Conversion Facility are extensive and allow for the recycling of several types of waste. Notwithstanding these capabilities there are certain wastes that are not amenable to the internal processing capabilities and must be disposed of appropriately. Disposal options for low-level radioactively contaminated wastes in Canada are limited primarily due to cost considerations. In recent years, Cameco has started to ship marginally contaminated wastes (<500 ppm uranium) to the United States for disposal in an appropriate landfill. The landfill is owned by US Ecology Incorporated and is located near Grand View, Idaho 70 miles southeast of Boise in the Owyhee Desert. The facility treats and disposes hazardous waste, non-hazardous industrial waste and low-activity radioactive material. The site's arid

  20. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, October 1 to December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Recent experiments have been successful in showing that molecular orbital radiation is polarized. Further experiments with both nitrogen-nitrous oxide and nitrogen-oxygen mixtures have failed to resolve the discrepancy in the yield of excited nitrogen atoms formed in the radiolysis of nitrogen. An equation describing the observed relationship between the average number of photons absorbed by a molecule in a laser field and the energy fluence of the laser has been derived. A computer program is being written which calculates nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer lineshapes for intermolecular hydrogen isotope exchange. Two absorption states of oxygen on the (111) crystal face of platinum have been observed and characterized by changes in work function and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy is being utilized in the total sample analysis of XL-alloy, a zirconium-tin-niobium-molybdenum alloy for which no certified standard exists. The analytical chemistry facilities set up to support the mixed oxide fuel fabrication line are functioning satisfactorily. The existence of a high-velocity hydrogen-induced cracking process has been confirmed for zirconium alloys exposed to gaseous hydrogen at room temperature. Positron annihilation studies on neutron-irradiated zirconium have been interpreted as implying that radiation damage at 375 K is in the form of isolated crystal lattice vacancies rather than vacancy clusters. (OST)

  1. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, 1 October - 31 December, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Experiments with aluminum-indium single crystals in which the indium atoms occupy interstitial positions have enabled the first direct measurements of ion flux gradients to be made for a particular channel. A search is being carried out for tri-, tetra-, and hexa-vacancy clusters centered on interstitial indium or tin atoms in irradiated copper single crystal alloys. Work on hydrogen and helium ion scattering at keV energies from tungsten and tungsten oxide. Research is being carried out on dithiothreitol in aqueous solution with nitrate ion to improve understanding of the radiation chemistry of sulphydryl compounds. A short pulse carbon dioxide laser is being used in experiments on the multiphoton absorption and decomposition of alcohols. The separation factor for isotope exchange between heavy water and hydrogen gas has been measured as a function of temperature from 5 to 95 0 C. A procedure has been developed for the determination of gadolinium, samarium, europium and dysprosium at levels down to 10 -7 g.g -1 in ThO 2 by emission spectroscopy. It is now possible to determine uranium with high precision and accuracy in 2 percent uranium-thorium dioxide fuel by controlled potential coulometry. It has been shown that cracking of Zr-2.5 percent Nb in hydrogen gas is not pressure-dependent. The solubility of tin in zirconium has been studied. (L.L.)

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results

  3. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, April 1 to June 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Provisional research results are reported in the general areas of ion beam-radiation interactions with metals, radiation chemistry, hydrogen isotope exchange, analytical chemistry, and zirconium alloy properties. (E.C.B.)

  4. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, July 1 to September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are reported on research into ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, analytical chemistry, radiation chemistry, basic corrosion studies and isotope separation techniques. (O.T.)

  5. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, October 1 to December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Research results are reported on the interaction of ion beams with solids, radiation chemistry, hydrogen isotope exchange, surface science, analytical chemistry, and properties of zirconium and its alloys. (E.C.B.)

  6. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results.

  7. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1997 are presented

  8. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  9. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, January 1 to March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Interim results are reported in research fields roughly classified as ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, nuclear methods of analysis, analytical chemistry, deuterium separation, radioactivity measurement, radiation and isotope chemistry, and surface chemistry and metal physics, primarily of zirconium alloys. (E.C.B.)

  10. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  11. A CHARACTERISTIC DIVISION BETWEEN THE FUELING OF QUASARS AND SEYFERTS: FIVE SIMPLE TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Given the existence of the M BH -σ relation, models of self-regulated black hole (BH) growth require both a fuel supply and concomitant growth of the host bulge to deepen the central potential, or else the system will either starve or immediately self-regulate without any sustained activity. This leads to a generic prediction that the brightest quasars must be triggered in major mergers: a large fraction of the galaxy mass must be added/converted to new bulge mass and a galactic supply of gas must lose angular momentum in less than a dynamical time. Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, in contrast, require little bulge growth and small gas supplies, and could be triggered in more common nonmerger events. This leads to the expectation of a characteristic transition to merger-induced fueling around the traditional quasar-Seyfert luminosity division (growth of BH masses above/below ∼10 7 M sun ). We compile and survey a number of observations in order to test several predictions of such a division, including (1) a transition to bulge-dominated hosts (which any major merger remnant, regardless of difficult-to-observe tidal features, should be). (2) A transition between 'pseudobulges' and 'classical' bulges hosting the remnant BHs: pseudobulges are formed in secular processes and minor mergers, whereas classical bulges are relics of major mergers. (3) An increase in the amplitude of small-scale clustering (increased halo occupation of small group environments) where mergers are more efficient. (4) Different redshift evolution, with gas-rich merger rates rising to redshifts z > 2 while secular processes are relatively constant in time. (5) An increasing prominence of post-starburst features in more luminous systems. Our compilation of observations in each of these areas provides tentative evidence for the predicted division around the Seyfert-quasar threshold, and we discuss how future observations can improve these constraints and, in combination with the tests

  12. Fair division of generation profile and fuel consumption in isolated micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Heussen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    leads to more stressed loading conditions of diesel generators. We propose a control strategy employing fair division of generator allocation using a compensation procedure based on social choice methods. A co-simulation set up with separate power system and control strategy simulators is used...... to provide a proof-of-concept case study of an isolated micro-grid with two wind turbines and three diesel generators. In comparison with a simple master- slave allocation, the proposed coordination scheme improves the distribution of fuel allocation by 27,5%, reduces under-load time by 43,5% and decreases...

  13. Handbook on process and chemistry of nuclear fuel reprocessing version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of aqueous reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing technology and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO 2 fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize aqueous reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook is the second edition of the first report, which summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing' from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  14. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, April 1 to June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Preliminary results are reported on research covering such topics as ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, nuclear methods of analysis, analytical chemistry, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, radiation chemistry, and corrosion (primarily of zirconium alloys). (E.C.B.)

  15. Effect of water chemistry and fuel operation parameters on Zr + 1% Nb cladding corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsky, V G; Petrik, N G; Berezina, I G; Doilnitsina, V V [VNIPIET, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-02-01

    In-pile corrosion of Zr + 1%Nb fuel cladding has been studied. Zr-oxide and hydroxide solubilities at various temperatures and pH values have been calculated and correlations obtained between post-transition corrosion and the solubilities nodular corrosion and fuel operation parameters, as well as between the rate of fuel cladding degradation and water chemistry. Extrapolations of fuel assemblies behaviour to higher burnups have also performed. (author). 12 refs, 11 figs.

  16. The post-irradiation examination of fuel in support of Bruce A Nuclear Division fueling with flow program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montin, J.; Sagat, S.

    1995-10-01

    Bruce A Nuclear Division (BAND) units are operating at ∼ 75% of full power, because of the potential of a power pulse in the event of an inlet header break. As a result, BAND is converting to fueling with flow, to eliminate the potential of a power pulse and to allow for full-power operation. Concerns regarding the integrity of the end-of-life (EOL) bundles interacting with the latch at the downstream end of the fuel channel were raised. BAND carried out a test program in which EOL bundles in the upstream position of 13 of Unit 2 were cascaded into the downstream latch position 1 of another channel. Six of twelve cascaded bundles and two typical EOL position 13 (benchmark) bundles were selected for post-irradiation examination (PIE). Incipient cracks were found in the benchmark bundles. Metallographic and fractographic examination, along with crack dating, and hydrogen and deuterium analyses, indicated that the incipient cracks were the result of delayed-hydride assisted cracking at the EOL. Consequently, Ontario Hydro changed the design of the outlet shield plug to support all three rings of the fuel bundle, to minimize stress and prevent end plate cracking. Also, an ultrasonic end plate inspection tool (UT) was developed and located in the fuel bay, to inspect fuel-bundle end plates for cracks. A second test was done involving a series of four bundle cascades in BAND Unit 4 channels that had new outlet shield plugs. The latch bundles were discharged after a hot shutdown. The cascaded Unite 2 and Unit 4 latch bundles were checked for cracks using the UT. The PIE found incipient cracks or less-than-ideal welds in the assembly welds of fuel elements from Unit 2 (latch-supported fuel bundles) that had been identified by the UT as having incipient cracks. No incipient cracks were found in the assemble welds of fuel elements from Unit 4 (new outlet shield-supported fuel bundles) confirming the UT results. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs

  17. Effect of reactor chemistry and operating variables on fuel cladding corrosion in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Ghu; Lee, Sang Hee

    1997-01-01

    As the nuclear industry extends the fuel cycle length, waterside corrosion of zircaloy cladding has become a limiting factor in PWR fuel design. Many plant chemistry factors such as, higher lithium/boron concentration in the primary coolant can influence the corrosion behavior of zircaloy cladding. The chemistry effect can be amplified in higher duty fuel, particularlywhen surface boiling occurs. Local boiling can result in increased crud deposition on fuel cladding which may induce axial power offset anomalies (AOA), recently reported in several PWR units. In this study, the effect of reactor chemistry and operating variables on Zircaloy cladding corrosion is investigated and simulation studies are performed to evaluate the optimal primary chemistry condition for extended cycle operation. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs

  18. Milk and dairy product analyses at the Dairy Chemistry Division in Mauritius: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Neeliah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mauritius has continuously supported the dairy sector. In a 2011 speech, the Acting President pointed out that the implementation of schemes under the Food Security Fund strategic plan yielded satisfactory results such as an increase in milk production by 55%. One institution which has played a key role in boosting the sector is the Dairy Chemistry Division (DCD. DCD forms part of the Agricultural Services which fall under the aegis of the Ministry of Agro-Industry and Food Security (MOAFS. It has been at the forefront of milk test­ing, constantly innovating with respect to analytical methods and instrumentation use. It has thus evolved from a laboratory that had the responsibility of monitoring the quality of milk in Government dairies and, later on, of locally-produced fresh raw milk under the Pilot Milk Scheme, to an institution providing analytical, advisory and technical services in various fields of food science and technology. From 1999 to 2014, more than 116,000 samples have been tested. The fat and microbial con­tents, and percentage adulteration with water varied depending on the client. The laboratory was accredited in 2012 by Mauritas, the local accreditation body, for certain microbiological param­eters. The aim of this paper was to describe the evolution in DCD activities with a focus on milk testing. The paper is based on a review of DCD past annual reports and relevant technical documents pertaining to the local milk sector. Food testing started in the 1920s in the Agricultural Services of MOAFS. The main activities were the analysis of morning and evening milk samples from Government dairies for fat, solids non-fat and lactose. The milk was assessed as being of fairly good chemical quality. Table I provides a summary of results of analyses of milk collected from Government dairies. DCD was created in 1973 in line with the Government policy to support the dairy sector. Apart from testing activities DCD has

  19. The post irradiation examination of fuel in support of Bruce A nuclear division fueling with flow program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montin, J.; Sagat, S.; Day, R.; Novak, J.; Bromfield, H.

    1995-01-01

    Bruce A Nuclear Division (BAND) units are operating at ∼ 75% of full power, because of the potential of a power pulse in the event of an inlet header break. As a result, BAND is converting to fueling with flow, to eliminate the potential of a power pulse and to allow for full-power operation. Concerns regarding the integrity of the end-of-life (EOL) bundles interacting with the latch at the downstream end of the fuel channel were raised. BAND carried out a test program in which EOL bundles in the upstream position 13 of Unit 2 were cascaded into the downstream latch position 1 of another channel. Six of twelve cascaded bundles and two typical EOL position 13 (benchmark) bundles were selected for post-irradiation examination (PIE). Incipient cracks were found in the assembly welds (endplateto-endcap welds) of all six cascaded bundles. No incipient cracks were found in the benchmark bundles. Metallographic and fractographic examination, along with crack dating, and hydrogen and deuterium analyses, indicated that the incipient cracks were the result of delayed-hydride assisted cracking at the EOL. Consequently, Ontario Hydro changed the design of the outlet shield plug to support all three rings of the fuel bundle, to minimize stress and prevent endplate cracking. Also, an ultrasonic endplate inspection tool (UT) was developed and located in the fuel bay. to inspect fuelbundle endplates for cracks. A second test was done involving a series of four bundle cascades in BAND Unit 4 channels that had new outlet shield plugs. The latch bundles were discharged after a hot shutdown. The cascaded Unit 2 and Unit 4 latch bundles were checked for cracks using the UT. The PIE found incipient cracks or less-than-ideal welds in the assembly welds of fuel elements from Unit 2 (latch-supported fuel bundles) that had been identified by the UT as having incipient cracks. No incipient cracks were found in the assembly welds of fuel elements from Unit 4 (new outlet shield

  20. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  1. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, October 1 to December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of research largely centering around radiation effects on materials, radiation and analytical chemistry, surface studies, and materials science, esp. zirconium base alloys and their problems and properties in nuclear service. (E.C.B.)

  2. Progress report: Chemistry and Materials Division, 1983 January 1 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The research progams in solid state science, analytical and physical chemistry and materials science are outlined for the first half of 1983. Studies are being carried out in the areas of surface science, isotope separation and irradiation effects on zirconium

  3. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1979-September 1980: fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Research is reported on the physics and chemistry of atoms, ions, and molecules, especially their interactions with external agents such as photons and electrons. Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base

  4. Analytical chemistry challenges at the back end of fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panja, S.; Dhami, P.S.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Among the various nuclear fuel cycle activities, spent fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste management play key role for adaptation of closed fuel cycle option and success of three stage Indian nuclear power programme. Reprocessing mainly aims to recover fissile and fertile component from spent fuel using well known PUREX/THOREX processes. Waste management deals with all the activities which are essential for safe management of radioactive wastes that get generated during entire nuclear fuel cycle operation

  5. BWR fuel performance under advanced water chemistry conditions – a delicate journey towards zero fuel failures – a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have undergone a variety of chemistry evolutions over the past few decades as a result of the need to control stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, radiation fields and personnel exposure. Some of the advanced chemistry changes include hydrogen addition, zinc addition, iron reduction using better filtration technologies, and more recently noble metal chemical addition to many of the modern day operating BWRs. These water chemistry evolutions have resulted in changes in the crud distribution on fuel cladding material, Co-60 levels and the Rod oxide thickness (ROXI) measurements using the conventional eddy current techniques. A limited number of Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIE) of fuel rods that exhibited elevated oxide thickness using eddy current techniques showed that the actual oxide thickness by metallography is much lower. The difference in these observations is attributed to the changing magnetic properties of the crud affecting the rod oxide thickness measurement by the eddy current technique. This paper will review and summarize the BWR fuel cladding performance under these advanced and improved water chemistry conditions and how these changes have affected the goal to reach zero fuel failures. The paper will also provide a brief summary of some of the results of hot cell PIE, results of crud composition evaluation, crud spallation, oxide thickness measurements, hydrogen content in the cladding and some fuel failure observations. (author) Key Words: Boiling Water Reactor, Fuel Performance, Hydrogen Addition, Zinc Addition, Noble Metal Chemical Addition, Zero Leakers

  6. European analytical column No. 37 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column again has a somewhat different format. We have once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Prof. Manfred Grasserbauer of Vienna University of Technology to present some...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely, analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry in particular since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We are already noticing a decreased industrial commitment...... with respect to new research projects and sponsoring of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we keep our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences unchanged. Recent activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) and details regarding the major...

  7. Use of the World Wide Web in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E.; Stevens, Richard E.

    1996-10-01

    Recent articles have identified the plethora of chemical information existing currently on the World-Wide Web (WWW) available via the Internet (1). This information medium is particularly valuable because it represents a very up-to-date source of information. Site managers can update information and it can be "instantaneously visited" by someone. As an example, several current topics of chemical significance were highlighted in a nonmajor chemistry class held in January 1996 at our college. December 31, 1995, represented the last day that leaded gasoline could be sold for use in automobiles. In early January, the FDA approved the synthetic fat olestra for use in snack foods. Both of these topics provoked great interest in students as they brought up issues of relevance and interest to their lives that were currently being discussed in the news. The WWW was utilized extensively as a source of information and current updates. Print media, such as texts and reference manuals, have a much longer "lag-time" before current information can be typeset, printed, and accessed by a researcher. Previous articles (1, 2) have focused on Internet use for upper-division classes, but we have found a useful way to bring the Internet into nonmajor and freshman level classes composed of 20-50 students. The student assignment was to find information on a chemical topic currently in the news by using the WWW and use that information to write a 2-3 page essay (3, 4). Using the Internet to find information presents one issue not previously encountered when using encyclopedias, reference books, or textbooks, but an issue raised in previous editorials in this Journal (5, 6). That difference is that virtually anyone can post information on the WWW. Thus, the WWW can have governmental organizations, environmental groups, large corporations, or just individuals posting their views. Hence, when searching a particular topic, students might find a very factual article, or they might find a very

  8. Study on the influence of water chemistry on fuel cladding behaviour of LWR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Y.

    1983-01-01

    This article presents the results of the study on the influence of water chemistry on fuel cladding behaviour, which has been performed for more than ten years on BWRs and PWRs in Japan. The post irradiation examination (P.I.E.) program of commercial reactor fuel assembly which was explained at Tokyo meeting in 1981 includes an investigation of the characteristics and build-up conditions of crud deposited on mainly BWR fuel cladding. This article also provides a summary of the results of the investigation and shows how the results are utilized for establishing effective water chemistry measures

  9. Ammonia chemistry in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Glarborg, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of NH3 during oxy-fuel combustion of methane, i.e., at high [CO2], has been studied in a flow reactor. The experiments covered stoichiometries ranging from fuel rich to very fuel lean and temperatures from 973 to 1773 K. The results have been interpreted in terms of an updated detai...

  10. Fuel deposits and water chemistry at TVO I power station during the first three fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, S.; Hakala, J.

    1983-01-01

    TVO 1 is a 660 MWe direct-cycle, light-water cooled BWR of Asea-Atom design. The unit has just completed the 4th cycle. Sampling of deposits on fuel surfaces has been performed by Asea-Atom after each cycle. The deposits consist mainly of iron (78-86%) excepting two rods in a bundle belonging to the first reload. On these two rods the amounts of Cr and Cu were exceptionally high indicating differences in the deposition processes between the initial fuel and the first reload. In general the crud thickness is highest at a height of 1 to 1.5 meters from the bottom plate of the bundle. The average concentrations of the corrosion products vary from 3.6 to 10.3 g/m 2 /bundle. Inexplicable large variations of the crud amount between the bundles and between the individual rods in a bundle have been measured. Growth rate of deposits is decreased and water chemistry is improved with improved operation of the plant. During normal operation many impurities are below the detection limit thus making the interpretation of the results difficult. (author)

  11. Fuel chemistry and pellet-clad interaction related to high burnup fuel. Proceedings of the technical committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review new developments in clad failures. Major findings regarding the causes of clad failures are presented in this publication, with the main topics being fuel chemistry and fission product behaviour, swelling and pellet-cladding mechanical interaction, cladding failure mechanism at high burnup, thermal properties and fuel behaviour in off-normal conditions. This publication contains 17 individual presentations delivered at the meeting; each of them was indexed separately

  12. Fission product release as a function of chemistry and fuel morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; Osetek, D.J.; Petti, D.A.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the consequences of severe reactor accidents requires knowledge of the location and chemical form of fission products throughout the accident sequence. Two factors that strongly influence the location and chemical form of fission products are the chemistry within the core and the morphology of the fuel or fuel-bearing debris. This paper reviews the current understanding of the these factors garnered from integral and separate effect experiments and the TMI-2 accident, and provides perspective on the significance of contributing phenomena for the analysis of severe accidents, particularly during the in-vessel phase. Information has been obtained recently on phenomena affecting the release of fission products from fuel and the reactor vessel during the in-vessel melt progression phase of a severe accident. The influence of a number of these phenomena will be reviewed, including fuel chemistry, H 2 /H 2 O ratio, fuel liquefaction, molten pools, and debris beds. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Session 4: The influence of elementary heterogeneous reforming chemistry within solid-oxide fuel cell anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, H.; Kee, R.J. [Engineering Division, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Janardhanan, V.M.; Deutschmann, O. [Karlsruhe Univ., Institute for Chemical Technology (Germany); Goodwin, D.G. [Engineering and Applied Science., California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Sullivan, N.P. [ITN Energy Systems, Littleton, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In the work presented a computational model is developed that represents the coupled effects of fluid flow in fuel channels, porous media transport and chemistry in the anode, and electrochemistry associated with the membrane-electrode assembly. An important objective is to explore the role of heterogeneous chemistry within the anode. In addition to cell electrical performance the chemistry model predicts important behaviors like catalyst-fouling deposit formation (i.e., coking). The model is applied to investigate alternative fuel-cell operating conditions, including varying fuel flow rates, adding air to the fuel stream, and recirculating exhaust gases. Results include assessments of performance metrics like fuel utilization, cell efficiency, power density, and catalyst coking. The model shows that 'direct electrochemical oxidation' of hydrocarbon fuels in solid-oxide fuel cells can be explained by a process that involves reforming the fuel to H{sub 2}, with hydrogen being the only species responsible for charge exchange. The model can be applied to investigate alternative design and operating conditions, seeking to improve the overall performance. (O.M.)

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R&D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1996 are presented.

  15. Some aspects of the chemistry of fast reactor fuel, structural material and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of materials pertaining to fast reactors is both fascinating and challenging considering the nature of materials involved such as the fuel, coolant, control and shielding materials in addition to the interactions between the structural materials and the fuel/coolant depending on the nature and conditions involved. The different chemical forms of fuel materials, the need to operate up to high burnups with consequent interactions of the fuel with clad materials, the need to close the fuel cycle by recovery of the fuel materials from spent fuels for refabrication and the necessity to manage the waste, throw a host of challenges which make their study scientifically interesting and technologically important. The use of liquid sodium as coolant in fast reactor heat transport systems combined with its inherent chemical reactivity opens up an interesting branch of chemistry involving liquid sodium especially in contact with structural materials during normal operation of the reactor and with fuels in the event of fuel pin failure. The phenomenon of sodium wetting and the associated corrosion of structural materials in contact with it combined with the need to carryout decontamination of such materials make it interesting to examine and evaluate their suitability for reuse without compromising on their structural integrity. Boron being the material of choice for control and shielding applications in fast reactors with varying isotopic enrichment and the technological challenge to produce large quantities of boron carbide makes it unique. Some of these aspects are addressed in this paper. (author)

  16. CHEMISTRY DIVISION, SECTION C-II SUMMARY REPORT FOR JULY, AUGUST, AND SEPTEMBER 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbreath, J. R.; Simpson, O.C., comps.

    1953-01-21

    The progress of the work is reported on the physical properties of graphite; effect of reactor radiation on the properties of graphite; effect of irradiation on ceramic materials; x-ray-induced luminescence of ice; investigation of color centers and other optical properties of single crystals; radiation chemistry of liquids; application of mass spectrometry to chemical problems; vapor pressure and heat of vaporization of U; nuclear properties of Zr/ sup 93/ and Nb/sup 93m/; mass distribution in the spontaneous fission of Cm/sup 242/; upper limit to lifetimes of first excited states of Th/sup 230/, U/sup 234/ and Pu/sup 238/; spectrographic and chemical analysis; and design and performance of the 60-in. cyclotron. (For preceding period see ANL-4888.) (B.O.G.)

  17. Analytical chemistry needs for nuclear safeguards in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel reprocessing plant designed to process 1500 tons of light water reactor fuel per year will recover 15 tons of Pu during that time, or approximately 40 to 50 kg of Pu per day. Conventional nuclear safeguards accountability has relied on batch accounting at the head and tail ends of the reprocessing plant with semi-annual plant cleanout to determine in-process holdup. An alternative proposed safeguards system relies on dynamic material accounting whereby in-line NDA and conventional analytical techniques provide indications on a daily basis of SNM transfers into the system and information of Pu holdup within the system. Some of the analytical requirements and problems for dynamic materials accounting in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant are described. Some suggestions for further development will be proposed

  18. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, July 1 to September 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Studies of x-rays produced by ion-penetration confirming the view that target and host atoms participate in two-collision sequences are reported along with related studies of K x-rays observed when projectile ions are lighter than target atoms. The latter observation was not expected on the basis of current theory and is the first experimental evidence for radial coupling in asymmetric heavy ion collisions. A computer simulation model yielding good agreement with experimental observations on the planar dechanneling process is described. Research on the chemistry of alkali metals in amine solutions showing improved accord between results of pulse radiolysis, optical spectroscopy and electron spin resonance is described. Preliminary measurements of kinetic isotope effects in the reaction between methanol and bromine in the presence of weak visible light are discussed. Studies on the influence of adsorbed gases on electronic energy levels of atoms in the surface layers of catalytically active metals are summarized. Oxidation studies on Zr 3 Al and crystal bar zirconium are also reported. (O.T.)

  19. Progress report: Chemistry and Materials Division, 1982 January 1 to March 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Solid state studies in this period included observations of annealing of irradiation damage in Ni-In and Al-Sn alloys. Extensive experiments on the radiation chemistry of nitrogen-oxygen mixtures have been completed enabling comparisons to be made with calculations based on physical data. The program MAKSIMA-CHEMIST has been used to calculate the effects of variables such as concentration of dissolved gases on the accuracy of water calorimeters. Work in laser photochemistry continued with measurement of the infrared spectra of methylamine with and without deuterium substituted for the amino-hydrogens. Spectroscopic data for chemical species involved in laser isotope separation processes are being taken by laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy Improvements in detection of anions separated on columns of styrenedivinylbenzene with hydrophobic modifiers have been achieved by use of conductivity detection in place of ultraviolet absorption. The accuracy of the inert gas fusion method for measuring hydrogen in zirconium was verified. Research on zirconium alloys continued with work on gaseous hydrogen cracking, metal vapor embrittlement, nodular corrosion, and irradiation with helium ions at elevated temperatures

  20. Fuel operation of EDF nuclear fleet presentation of the centralized organization for operational engineering at the nuclear generation division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The main feature of EDF Nuclear Fleet is the standardization, with 'series' of homogeneous plants (same equipment, fuel and operation technical documents). For fuel operation, this standardization is related to the concept of 'fuel management scheme' (typical fuel reloads with fixed number and enrichment of fresh assemblies) for a whole series of plants. The context of the Nuclear Fleet lead to the choice of a centralized organization for fuel engineering at the Nuclear Generation Division (DPN), located at UNIPE (National Department for Fleet Operation Engineering) in Lyon. The main features of this organization are the following: - Centralization of the engineering activities for fuel operation support in the Fuel Branch of UNIPE, - Strong real-time link with the nuclear sites, - Relations with various EDF Departments in charge of design, nuclear fuel supply and electricity production optimization. The purposes of the organization are: - Standardization of operational engineering services and products, - Autonomy with independent methods and computing tools, - Reactivity with a technical assistance for sites (24 hours 'hot line'), - Identification of different levels (on site and off site) to solve core operation problems, - Collection, analysis and valorization of operation feedback, - Contribution to fuel competence global management inside EDF. This paper briefly describes the organization. The main figures of annual engineering production are provided. A selection of examples illustrates the contribution to the Nuclear Fleet performance. (authors)

  1. Developing and Implementing a Simple, Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Laboratory in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klara, Kristina; Hou, Ning; Lawman, Allison; Wu, Liheng; Morrill, Drew; Tente, Alfred; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, affordable hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell laboratory was developed through a collaborative effort between faculty and undergraduate students at Brown University. It has been incorporated into the introductory chemistry curriculum and successfully implemented in a class of over 500 students per academic year for over 3…

  2. CANDU fuel deposits and chemistry optimizations. Recent regulatory experience in Canadian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswaran, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Water chemistry of the Primary Heat Transport System (PHT) of CANDU – Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors profoundly influences the transport of corrosion products around the Heat Transport System (HTS), where they can be deposited as crud on steam generators, feeder pipes and on the fuel. Fuel cladding can be covered with deposits which have precipitated from the coolant as a result of temperature changes or non-optimal coolant pH. Precipitation of deposits in-core must be avoided as far as possible, as it leads to fouling of the fuel, loss of heat transfer efficiency, and increased radiation fields. In the recent years a Canadian NPP experienced increased instances of black deposits being observed on fuel bundles discharged from one of the units. The black deposits were initially observed in 2008 during in-bay fuel inspections. Since then it has been determined that all the discharged fuel bundles have black deposits on them and that observed deposits have been increasing in size (thickness and surface area). This negative trend has persisted through to 2012, when one of fuel bundles was observed with significantly larger deposit than previously seen. Initial analysis of the deposit indicated it to be iron oxide (magnetite). Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel feeder pipes is the primary source of iron, which deposits as magnetite on HTS surfaces. The black deposits have predominantly been located immediately downstream of the bearing pads of the fuel bundle. Deposits have also tended to form on the bottom-downstream quadrant of the fuel bundles. The deposits were most prevalent in low power channels, but some deposits have been observed on high power channels. It was reported by the utility that the PHT system chemistry has been maintained in specification for most of the time during normal operation but the chemistry control during outages was inadequate. Due to design constraints, purification circuit was not available during outages and ion

  3. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  4. Chemical engineering division fuel cycle programs. Progress report, January--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel-cycle studies reported for this period include pyrochemical separation of plutonium and americium oxides from contaminated materials of construction such as steel. When slag and actinide-contaminated metal in the same process vessel are heated until liquefied, the actinides are partitioned to a high degree into the slags. Also, studies of advanced solvent extraction techniques are focused on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes. A miniature contactor is to be used for performance studies applicable to larger units. In other work, literature on the process chemistry of zirconium and ruthenium has been reviewed to aid in improving the process when short-residence-time contactors are used. In addition, a review of information on the dispersion of reagents and products during accidents in fuel reprocessing facilities has been initiated to develop systematic data useful in identifying source terms. A review and evaluation of the encapsulation of high-level waste in a metal matrix are continuing. The data will be used to identify the state of the art and the importance of selected features of this process. In other work, criteria for the handling of hulls are being developed on the basis of past work on the pyrophoricity of zirconium alloys and related criteria from several sources. These suggested criteria will be assembled with the necessary technical rationalization into a package for review by interested parties. Other work consists of a brief program to explore the disposal of noble gas fission products by deep-well injection and laboratory-scale experiments to study the migratory characteristics of nuclear waste confined in geologic formations. 28 figures, 26 tables

  5. Chemistry and the development of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphlett, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter traces the chemical industry's involvement in the development of the nuclear industry from wartime projects to provide fissile material for bombs to the challenge of producing nuclear power competitively in the post-war period. Skills in the chemical industry have led to the production of new fuels by simpler methods, improvements in reprocessing and advances in the management and storage of radioactive wastes. (UK)

  6. Iron oxide redox chemistry and nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, D.J.; Lemire, R.J.; Taylor, P.

    1997-04-01

    Solubility and stability data for iron (III) oxides and aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) species are reviewed, and selected values are used to calculate potential-pH diagrams for the iron system at temperatures of 25 and 100 deg C, chloride activities {C1 - } = 10 -2 and 1 mol/kg, total carbonate activity {C T } = 10 -3 mol/kg, and iron(III) oxide/oxyhydroxide solubility products (25 deg C values) K sp = {Fe 3+ }{OH - } 3 = 10 -38.5 , 10 -40 and 10 -42 . The temperatures and anion concentrations bracket the range of conditions expected in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. The three solubility products represent a conservative upper limit, a most probable value, and a minimum credible value, respectively, for the iron oxides likely to be important in controlling redox conditions in a disposal vault for CANDU nuclear reactor fuel. Only in the first of these three cases do the calculated redox potentials significantly exceed values under which oxidative dissolution of the fuel may occur. (author)

  7. A Model for Nitrogen Chemistry in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Hansen, Stine; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    2011-01-01

    , heating and devolatilization of particles, and gas–solid reactions. The model is validated by comparison with entrained flow reactor results from the present work and from the literature on pulverized coal combustion in O2/CO2 and air, covering the effects of fuel, mixing conditions, temperature......In this work, a model for the nitrogen chemistry in the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal has been developed. The model is a chemical reaction engineering type of model with a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas-phase chemistry, together with a simplified description of the mixing of flows......, stoichiometry, and inlet NO level. In general, the model provides a satisfactory description of NO formation in air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal, but under some conditions, it underestimates the impact on NO of replacing N2 with CO2. According to the model, differences in the NO yield between the oxy...

  8. Progress report Chemistry and Materials Division, 1 April - 30 June, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    By a combination of electrostatic and magnetic deflection it has been possible to examine the yield of ions scattered through 180 0 from the surface region of a variety of solid targets. Progress has been made in establishing a basis for quantitative assay of multiple vacancy clusters around single solute atoms in dilute alloys. HF laser-induced decomposition of 2,2,2,-trifluoroethanol has been studied as a function of laser fluence. The oxidation of carbon monoxide adsorbed on the (111) crystal face of platinum has been investigated further. Vacuum pumping systems of the D/H mass spectrometers have been replaced with turbo-molecular pumping systems, reducing the HD + background five-fold. Three iodine species, I-, I0 3 -, and I0 4 -, have been successfully separated and detected in aqueous solutions in the course of iodine specification studies. It has been shown that the occurrence of groups of grains with preferentially tangential basal poles serves to locate any radial hydrides at the inside surface of Zircaloy fuel cladding, but does not make any additional contribution to the susceptibility of the cladding to iodine induced stress corrosion cracking. The orientation relationships between oxide and metal on the (0001), (1120) and (1010) planes of zirconium single crystals show a different relationship for each of the principal planes. Further studies in the High Voltage Electron Microscope at AERE, Harwell confirm that electron irradiation produces only interstitial loops, and does not introduce -component dislocations in zirconium. The microtome has been improved to the point where layers of a ductile metal (zirconium) down to 70 nm can be reproducibly removed. (auth)

  9. Fission gas release and fuel rod chemistry related to extended burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review the state of the art in fission gas release and fuel rod chemistry related to extended burnup. The meeting was held in a time when national and international programmes on water reactor fuel irradiated in experimental reactors were still ongoing or had reached their conclusion, and when lead test assemblies had reached high burnup in power reactors and been examined. At the same time, several out-of-pile experiments on high burnup fuel or with simulated fuel were being carried out. As a result, significant progress has been registered since the last meeting, particularly in the evaluation of fuel temperature, the degradation of the global thermal conductivity with burnup and in the understanding of the impact on fission gas release. Fifty five participants from 16 countries and one international organization attended the meeting. 28 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers. Refs, figs, tabs and photos

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  11. Recommended reactor coolant water chemistry requirements for WWER-1000 units with 235U higher enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, I.; Zaharieva, N.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade worldwide experience of PWRs and WWERs confirms the trends for the improvement of the nuclear power industry electricity production through the implementation of high burn-up or high fuel duty, which are usually accompanied with the usage of UO 2 fuel with higher content of 235 U - 4.0% - 4.5% (5.0%). It was concluded that the onset of sub-cooled nucleate boiling (SNB) on the fuel cladding surfaces and the initial excess reactivity of the core are the primary and basic factors accompanying the implementation of uranium fuel with higher 235 U content, aiming extended fuel cycles and higher burn-up of the fuel in Pressurized Water Reactors. As main consequences of the presence of these factors the modifications of chemical / electrochemical environments of nuclear fuel cladding- and reactor coolant system- surfaces are evaluated. These conclusions are the reason for: 1) The determination of the choices of the type of fuel cladding materials in respect with their enough corrosion resistance to the specific fuel cladding environment, created by the presence of SNB; 2) The development and implementation of primary circuit water chemistry guidelines ensuring the necessary low corrosion rates of primary circuit materials and limitation of cladding deposition and out-of-core radioactivity buildup; 3) Implementation of additional neutron absorbers which allow enough decrease of the initial concentration of H 3 BO 3 in coolant, so that its neutralization will be possible with the permitted alkalising agent concentrations. In this paper the specific features of WWER-1000 units in Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant; use of 235 U higher enriched fuel in the WWER-1000 reactors in the Kozloduy NPP; coolant water chemistry and radiochemistry plant data during the power operation period of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 5, 15 th fuel cycle; evaluation of the approaches and results by the conversion of the WWER-1000 Units at the Kozloduy NPP to the uranium fuel with 4.3% 235 U as

  12. The hot continental division: Oak forests, fire, and ecosystem management frame fuels management questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Matthew B. Dickinson; Gregory J. Nowacki

    2012-01-01

    The Hot Continental Division is one of the larger ecoregions within the continental United States (McNab and Avers 1994), incorporating portions of 19 States and extending from the eastern seacoast to areas west of the Mississippi River (chapter 1). The Division includes the Eastern (Oceanic) and Eastern (Continental) Broadleaf Forest Provinces and two Mountain...

  13. Divisible Atoms or None at All? Facing the European Contributions to Developments of Chemistry and Physics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Južnič, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    atoms is discussed as possible new paradigm which could rename the destructible divisible entities of future physics, and with more difficulties also of chemistry. The word atom meaning indivisible not compound entity is basically in contradiction with the characteristics of item it is supposed to describe. The suffix "a" provides a negation in Ancient Greek language. The suffix should be omitted to use tom (τομος) to manage the actual situation of a-toms (=Toms) as compound of elementary particles. In late 19th century after the European Spring of Nations actually two basically different concepts of atoms of chemists and physicists accomplished a kind of symbioses. The suggestion is put forward that while indivisible atoms soon became contradictions in physics, they still retain some value in chemistry which should be taken into account in the attempt to hange the name of atom. The research of human genome as the atom of genetics is similar in broader sense, while there is no basic problem with the nomenclature of genome. The genome manipulations are far less obstructed with Chinese traditions compared to Christian beliefs.

  14. Fission product tellurium chemistry from fuel to containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed on the speciation of tellurium in-core and inside the primary heat transport system (PHTS) under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. Data from recent Knudsen-cell experiments on the volatilization of Cs 2 Te were incorporated into the calculation. These data were used to recalculate thermodynamic quantities for Cs 2 Te(g), including Δ f G o (298 K)= -118±9 kJ.mol -1 . The description of the condensed high-temperature cesium-tellurium phase was expanded to include Cs 2 Te 3 (c) in addition to Cs 2 Te(c). These modifications were incorporated into the database used in the equilibrium calculations; the net effect was to stabilize the condensed cesium-tellurium phase and reduce the vapour pressure of Cs 2 Te(g) between 1200 and 1600 K. The impact of tellurium speciation in containment, after release from the PHTS, is discussed along with the possible effect of tellurium on iodine chemistry. (author) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  15. Fission product tellurium chemistry from fuel to containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed on the speciation of tellurium in-core and inside the primary heat transport system (PHTS) under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. Data from recent Knudsen-cell experiments on the volatilization of Cs{sub 2}Te were incorporated into the calculation. These data were used to recalculate thermodynamic quantities for Cs{sub 2}Te(g), including {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}(298 K)= -118{+-}9 kJ.mol{sup -1}. The description of the condensed high-temperature cesium-tellurium phase was expanded to include Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(c) in addition to Cs{sub 2}Te(c). These modifications were incorporated into the database used in the equilibrium calculations; the net effect was to stabilize the condensed cesium-tellurium phase and reduce the vapour pressure of Cs{sub 2}Te(g) between 1200 and 1600 K. The impact of tellurium speciation in containment, after release from the PHTS, is discussed along with the possible effect of tellurium on iodine chemistry. (author) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  16. Chemistry research for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.; Garisto, F.; Lemire, R.J.; Paquette, J.; Sagert, N.H.; Saluja, P.P.S.; Sunder, S.; Taylor, P.

    1988-01-01

    This publication reviews chemical research in support of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The overall objective of this research is to develop the fundamental understanding required to demonstrate the suitability of waste immobilization media and processes, and to develop the chemical information required to predict the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the geosphere after the waste form and the various engineered barriers containing it have failed. Key studies towards the above objective include experimental and theoretical studies of uranium dioxide oxidation/dissolution; compilation of thermodynamic databases and an experimental program to determine unavailable thermodynamic data; studies of hydrothermal alteration of minerals and radionuclide interactions with such minerals; and a study examining actinide colloid formation, as well as sorption of actinides on groundwater colloids

  17. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support.

  18. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing 99 Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support

  19. Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels (cambridge series in chemical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. The book examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures, and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented, and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is suitable for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  20. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  1. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: operations of the front-end division of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This fourth session deals with the strategic and financial significance of the Areva mining operations, the Areva chemistry business, the Areva enrichment business and the Areva fuel business. (A.L.B.)

  2. Training Course of Experimental Chemistry in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Solid State and Solution Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju hyeong; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Tae hoon; Park, Hyoung gyu; Kim, Jisu [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyuk jin [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chan ki; Kang, Do kyu; Jeong, Hyeon jun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this experimental study program in Tohoku University, basic experiments were done by the participants. First one is the hydrogen reduction experiment of the mixture of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}. Second one is to observe microscopic structure of solid solution of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} using SEM/EDX and XRD system, simulated fuel debris. Third one is milking process of {sup 239}Np from {sup 243}Am by solvent extraction using Tri-n-Octylamine (TOA). Last one is solvent extraction in PUREX by the simulated mixed aqueous solution of U, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 239}Np which is represented minor actinide elements included in the spent nuclear fuel. Uranium is separated from aqueous phase to organic phase during solvent extraction procedure using TBP and dodecane. Also, neptunium can be extracted to organic phase as nitric acid concentration change. The extraction behavior of neptunium is different by oxidation state in aqueous phase. The behavior of neptunium is represented as a combined form of these oxidation states in experiment. Therefore, because the oxidation states of neptunium can be controlled by controlling the concentration of nitric acid, the extractability of neptunium can be controlled.

  3. Numerical verification of equilibrium chemistry software within nuclear fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, M.H.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.; Simunovic, S.; Besmann, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical tool is in an advanced state of development to compute the equilibrium compositions of phases and their proportions in multi-component systems of importance to the nuclear industry. The resulting software is being conceived for direct integration into large multi-physics fuel performance codes, particularly for providing transport source terms, material properties, and boundary conditions in heat and mass transport modules. Consequently, any numerical errors produced in equilibrium chemistry computations will be propagated in subsequent heat and mass transport calculations, thus falsely predicting nuclear fuel behaviour. The necessity for a reliable method to numerically verify chemical equilibrium computations is emphasized by the requirement to handle the very large number of elements necessary to capture the entire fission product inventory. A simple, reliable and comprehensive numerical verification method called the Gibbs Criteria is presented which can be invoked by any equilibrium chemistry solver for quality assurance purposes. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews

  5. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R ampersand D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1996 are presented

  6. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report for 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, V.K.; Rao, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    The progress report of the Radiochemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, presents the research and development work carried out during 1982 in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: reactor fuel chemistry, heavy element chemistry, radioanalytical chemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Some of the highlights of the R and D activities are: (1) optimisation of the chemical parameters for the preparation of UO 2 microspheres by internal gelation method, (2) synergetic extraction studies of various actinides from aqueous solutions, (3) development of methods of determination of uranium, 241 Am and 239 Pu, (4) fission studies of 232 Th, 236 U, 252 Cf and 229 Th, (5) determination of half-life of 241 Pu by various methods. A list of publications of the members of the Division published during 1982 is also given. (M.G.B.)

  7. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report : 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report provides an account of the research and development activities of the Radiochemistry Division during the year 1990 in the areas of nuclear chemistry, actinide chemistry and spectroscopy. The main area of work in nuclear chemistry is centered around the fission process induced by reactor neutrons, and light and heavy ions on actinides and low Z (Z<80) elements. Actinide chemistry research is concerned mostly with extraction, complexation and separation of actinide ions from aqueous media using a variety of organic reagents under different experimental conditions. Spectroscopic studies include development and optimisation of chemical/analytical methods for separation and determination of trace metallic impurities and rare earths in fuel materials and EPR and microwave studies on several compounds to understand their superconducting, structural and magnetic properties. A list of publications by the scientific staff of the Division during 1990 is also given in the report. (author). 45 figs., 44 tabs

  8. Plan for fully decontaminating and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This volume contains the following 3 attachments: (1) Plan for Fully Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontamination and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA; and (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities

  9. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  10. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  11. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2016-07-23

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition effects on premixed flame chemistry is important. In this study, the combustion chemistry of low-pressure, burner-stabilized, premixed flames of two gasoline fuels was investigated under stoichiometric conditions. Flame speciation was conducted using vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron photoionization time-of-flight molecular beam mass spectroscopy. Stable end-products, intermediate hydrocarbons, and free radicals were detected and quantified. In addition, several isomeric species in the reaction pool were distinguished and quantified with the help of the highly tunable synchrotron radiation. A comparison between the products of both flames is presented and the major differences are highlighted. Premixed flame numerical simulations were conducted using surrogate fuel kinetic models for each flame. Furthermore, a new approach was developed to elucidate the main discrepancies between experimental measurements and the numerical predictions by comparing quantities of interest. © 2016.

  12. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  13. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  14. Water Chemistry and Clad Corrosion/Deposition Including Fuel Failures. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion is a principal life limiting degradation mechanism in nuclear steam supply systems, particularly taking into account the trends in increasing fuel burnup, thermal ratings and cycle length. Further, many plants have been operating with varying water chemistry regimes for many years, and issues of crud (deposition of corrosion products on other surfaces in the primary coolant circuit) are of significant concern for operators. At the meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (TWGFPT) in 2007, it was recommended that a technical meeting be held on the subject of water chemistry and clad corrosion and deposition, including the potential consequences for fuel failures. This proposal was supported by both the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR) and the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors (TWG-HWR), with a recommendation to hold the meeting at the National Nuclear Energy Generating Company ENERGOATOM, Ukraine. This technical meeting was part of the IAEA activities on water chemistry, which have included a series of coordinated research projects, the most recent of which, Optimisation of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plant (FUWAC) (IAEATECDOC-1666), concluded in 2010. Previous technical meetings were held in Cadarache, France (1985), Portland, Oregon, USA (1989), Rez, Czech Republic (1993), and Hluboka nad Vltavou, Czech Republic (1998). This meeting focused on issues associated with the corrosion of fuel cladding and the deposition of corrosion products from the primary circuit onto the fuel assembly, which can cause overheating and cladding failure or lead to unplanned power shifts due to boron deposition in the clad deposits. Crud deposition on other surfaces increases radiation fields and operator dose and the meeting considered ways to minimize the generation of crud to avoid

  15. Radiochemistry Division biennial progress report: 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.; Pujari, P.K.; Mathur, J.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Murali, M.S.; Natarajan, V.; Jayanthakumar, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The research and development activities of Radiochemistry Division during 1995-96 are briefly described under the headings : (1) nuclear chemistry; (2) actinide chemistry; (3) spectroscopy and (4) instrumentation. Nuclear chemistry work deals with the areas of nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear probes and radioanalytical techniques. The research programme in actinide chemistry centered on development of novel procedures for the separation of actinides, guest-host chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and fission products and extractants for solvent extraction. Spectroscopy section activities are summarised under (1) basic research in the solid state chemistry; (2) development of analytical spectroscopic methods for the trace metal determination in nuclear materials; (3) chemical quality control of plutonium 239, uranium 233 and thorium based nuclear fuels. Instrumentation group deals mainly with servicing and maintenance of electronic instruments and allied systems. A list of publications, by the scientific staff of the Divisions is also included. (author)

  16. Radiochemistry Division biennial progress report: 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, B S; Pujari, P K; Mathur, J N; Mohapatra, P K; Murali, M S; Natarajan, V; Jayanthakumar, M L [eds.; Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-12-31

    The research and development activities of Radiochemistry Division during 1995-96 are briefly described under the headings : (1) nuclear chemistry; (2) actinide chemistry; (3) spectroscopy and (4) instrumentation. Nuclear chemistry work deals with the areas of nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear probes and radioanalytical techniques. The research programme in actinide chemistry centered on development of novel procedures for the separation of actinides, guest-host chemistry of lanthanides, actinides and fission products and extractants for solvent extraction. Spectroscopy section activities are summarised under (1) basic research in the solid state chemistry; (2) development of analytical spectroscopic methods for the trace metal determination in nuclear materials; (3) chemical quality control of plutonium 239, uranium 233 and thorium based nuclear fuels. Instrumentation group deals mainly with servicing and maintenance of electronic instruments and allied systems. A list of publications, by the scientific staff of the Divisions is also included. (author)

  17. State-of-the-Art Report on the Progress of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; DelCul, G.D.; Spencer, B.B.; Jubin, R.T.; Maher, C.; Kim, I.-T.; Lee, H.; Federov, Yu. S.; Saprykin, V.F.; Beznosyuk, V.I.; Kolyadin, A.B.; Baron, P.; Miguirditchian, M.; Sorel, C.; Morita, Y.; Taylor, R.; Khaperskaya, A.; Hill, C.; Malmbeck, R.; Law, J.; Angelis, G. de; Boucher, L.; Xeres, X.; Collins, E.; Mendes, E.; Lee, H.-S.; Inoue, T.; Glatz, J.P.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Uhlir, J.; Ignatiev, V.; Serp, J.; Delpech, S.

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of advanced nuclear systems requires that new technologies associated with the back end of the fuel cycle are developed. The separation of minor actinides from other fuel components is one of the advanced concepts being studied to help close the nuclear fuel cycle and to improve the long-term effects on the performance of geological repositories. Separating spent fuel elements and subsequently converting them through transmutation into short-lived nuclides should considerably reduce the long-term risks associated with nuclear power generation. R and D programs worldwide are attempting to address such challenges, and many processes for advanced reprocessing and partitioning minor actinides are being developed. This report provides a comprehensive overview of progress on separation chemistry processes, and in particular on the technologies associated with the separation and recovery of minor actinides for recycling so as to help move towards the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. The report examines both aqueous and pyro processes, as well as the status of current and proposed technologies described according to the hierarchy of separations targeting different fuel components. The process criteria that will affect technology down-selection are also reviewed, as are non-proliferation requirements. The maturity of different reprocessing techniques are assessed using a scale based on the technology readiness level, and perspectives for future R and D are reviewed

  18. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, Ph.; Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  19. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report. Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented

  20. PWR fuel physico chemistry. Improvements of the Sage code to compute thermochemical balance in PWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.; Baron, D.; Piron, J.P.

    1993-02-01

    A physicochemical survey of high burnup fuel has been undertaken in the context of a 3-party action (CEA Cadarache - EDF/DER - FRAMATOME). One of the tasks involved consists in adapting the SAGE code for assessment of the thermochemical equilibria of fission products in solution in the fuel matrix. This paper describes the first stage of this task. Even if other improvements are planned, the oxid oxygen potentials are yet properly reproduced for the simulated burnup. (authors). 63 figs., 4 tabs., 41 refs

  1. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report for 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.H.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    The R and D work carried out in the Radiochemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during 1973 is reported under the following topical headings : process chemistry (of transuranic elements), radioanalytical chemistry and services, chemical quality control of Pu fuels, heavy element chemistry, nuclear chemistry and instrumentation. The major highlights are : preparation of 238 Pu, non-destructive estimation of Pu by X-ray fluorescence and gamma counting, determining impurities in trace amounts in uranium and plutonium fuels, determination of solubility of PuF 3 in molten fluoride mixtures as a part of the chemical development programme for the molten salt reactor concept, studies on correlation between average total kinetic energy, fission asymmetry and shell structure. (M.G.B.)

  2. Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Webster, D.S.; Barney, D.L.; Cafasso, F.A.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Engineering (CEN) Division's activities during 1980 are presented. In this period, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) rechargeable lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and other applications; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) energy-efficient industrial electrochemical processes; (4) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (5) coal technology, mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO 2 sorbent of limestone; (6) heat- and seed-recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (7) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (8) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (9) fuel cycle technology - management of nuclear wastes, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; and (10) magnetic fusion research - systems analysis and engineering experimentation, materials research, and neutron dosimetry and damage analysis. The CEN Division also has a basic energy sciences program, which includes experimental and theoretical research on (1) the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and methanol homologation, (2) the thermodynamic properties of a wide variety of inorganic and organic materials, (3) significant mechanisms for the formation of atmospheric sulfate and nitrogen-bearing aerosols, (4) processes occurring at electrodes and in electrolytes, and (5) the physical properties of salt vapors. In addition, the Division operated the Central Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

  3. The effect of fuel chemistry on UO{sub 2} dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.casella@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-25, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hanson, Brady, E-mail: brady.hanson@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-27, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Miller, William [University of Missouri Research Reactor, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The dissolution rate of both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and used nuclear fuel has been studied by numerous countries as part of the performance assessment of proposed geologic repositories. In the scenario of waste package failure and groundwater contact with the fuel, the effects of variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water and fuel chemistry on the dissolution rates of the fuel are necessary to provide a quantitative estimate of the potential release over geologic time frames. The primary objective of this research was to determine the influence these parameters, with primary focus on the fuel chemistry, have on the dissolution rate of unirradiated UO{sub 2} under oxidizing repository conditions and compare them to the rates predicted by current dissolution models. Both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} doped with varying concentrations of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to simulate used fuel composition after long time periods when radiolysis has minor contributions to dissolution, were examined. In general, a rise in temperature increased the dissolution rate of UO{sub 2} and had a larger effect on pure UO{sub 2} than on those doped with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Oxygen dependence was observed in the UO{sub 2} samples with no dopant and increased as the temperature rose; in the doped fuels less dependence was observed. The addition of gadolinia into the UO{sub 2} matrix resulted in a significant decrease in the dissolution rate. The matrix stabilization effect resulting from the dopant proved even more beneficial in lowering the dissolution rate at higher temperatures and dissolved O{sub 2} concentrations in the leachate where the rates would typically be elevated. - Highlights: • UO{sub 2} dissolution rates were measured for a matrix of repository relevant conditions. • Dopants in the UO{sub 2} matrix lowered the dissolution rate. • Reduction in rates by dopants were increased at elevated temperature and O{sub 2} levels. • UO{sub 2} may be overly

  4. Influence of processing variables and alloy chemistry on the corrosion behavior of ZIRLO nuclear fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comstock, R.J.; Sabol, G.P.; Schoenberger, G.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the thermal heat treatments used during the fabrication of ZIRLO (Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe) fuel clad tubing and in ZIRLO alloy chemistry were explored to develop a further understanding of the relationship between processing, microstructure, and cladding corrosion performance. Heat treatment variables included intermediate tube annealing temperatures as well as a beta-phase heat treatment during the latter stages of the tube reduction schedule. Chemistry variables included deviations in niobium and tin content from the nominal composition. The effects of both heat treatment and chemistry on corrosion behavior were assessed by autoclave tests in both pure and lithiated water and high-temperature steam. Analytical electron microscopy demonstrated that the best out-reactor corrosion performance is obtained for microstructures containing a fine distribution of beta-niobium and Zr-Nb-Fe particles. Deviations from this microstructure, such as the presence of beta-zirconium phase, tend to degrade corrosion resistance. ZIRLO fuel cladding was irradiated in four commercial reactors. In all cases, the microstructure in the cladding included beta-niobium and Zr-Nb-Fe particles. ZIRLO fuel cladding processed with a late-stage beta heat treatment to further refine the second-phase particle size exhibited in-reactor corrosion behavior that was similar to reference ZIRLO cladding. Variations of the in-reactor corrosion behavior of ZIRLO were correlated to tin content, with higher oxide thickness observed in the ZIRLO cladding containing higher tin. The results of these studies indicate that optimum corrosion performance of ZIRLO is achieved by maintaining a uniform distribution of fine second-phase particles and controlled levels of tin

  5. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  6. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing 99 Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  7. Metallography of plutonium, uranium and thorium fuels: two decades of experience in Radiometallurgy Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, J.K.; Pandey, V.D.; Rao, T.S.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Kurup, P.K.D.; Joseph, J.K.; Ganguly, C.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the inception of Radiometallurgy Laboratory (RML) in its early seventies optical metallography has played a key role in development and fabrication of plutonium, uranium and thorium bearing nuclear fuels. In this report, an album of photomicrographs depicts the different types of metallic, ceramic and dispersion fuels and welded section that have been evaluated in RML during the last two decades. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab

  8. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1985 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) advanced batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (3) corrosion-protective coatings for high-strength steel; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methodologies for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) nuclear technology related to waste management, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and proof of breeding in a light water breeder reactor; and (7) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL

  9. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1989 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including high-performance batteries (mainly lithium/iron sulfide and sodium/metal chloride), aqueous batteries (lead-acid and nickel/iron), and advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate and solid oxide electrolytes: (2) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing 99 Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (the Integral Fast Reactor), and waste management; and (5) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be administratively responsible for and the major user of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  10. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  11. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors, thermochemical reactions take place in the gas-phase and on the membrane surface, both of which interact with oxygen permeation. However, this coupling between gas-phase and surface chemistry has not been examined in detail. In this study, a parametric analysis using numerical simulations is conducted to investigate this coupling and its impact on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation rates. A thermochemical model that incorporates heterogeneous chemistry on the membrane surface and detailed chemical kinetics in the gas-phase is used. Results show that fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are strongly influenced by the simultaneous action of both chemistries. It is shown that the coupling somewhat suppresses the gas-phase kinetics and reduces fuel conversion, both attributed to extensive thermal energy transfer towards the membrane which conducts it to the air side and radiates to the reactor walls. The reaction pathway and products, in the form of syngas and C2 hydrocarbons, are also affected. In addition, the operating regimes of ITM reactors in which heterogeneous- or/and homogeneous-phase reactions predominantly contribute to fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are elucidated.

  12. Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems.

  13. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Progress report, January--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    Fuel cycle studies reported for this period include studies of advanced solvent extraction techniques focussed on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes. Miniature single-stage and eight-stage centrifugal contactors are being employed in studies of contactor performance and the kinetics of extraction. A 9-cm-ID centrifugal contactor has been completed, and fabrication drawings are being prepared for a plant-scale contactor. In other work, tricaprylmethyl-ammonium nitrate and di-n-amyl n-amylphosphonate are being evaluated as extractants in the Thorex process. Literature on the dispersion of liquids by explosions is being reviewed. A process was developed for extracting TBP degradation products from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub solutions while the actinides remain with the raffinate. In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing of nuclear fuel, the literature is being reviewed for acceptable materials for containment vessels, decladding methods are being evaluated, salt transport processes are being studied, a candidate flow sheet (based upon the Dow Aluminum Pyrometallurgical process) for reprocessing spent uranium metal fuel was prepared, work was begun on the use of molten salts for reprocessing actinide oxides, and the reprocessing of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in a KCl-LiCl salt containing ThCl/sub 4/ and thorium chips was studied. Work on the encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in a metal matrix includes study of (1) chemical interactions between simulated waste forms and matrix metals, (2) the leach rates of simulated encapsulated waste forms, and (3) the corrosion of candidate matrix metals and canister materials in brine solutions.Work to establish criteria for the handling of waste cladding hulls is continuing. The transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media are being studied to estimate leaching of radionuclides from deep repositories by groundwater.

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste, mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and municipal solid waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, treating water contaminated with volatile organics, and concentrating radioactive waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (EFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials (corium; Fe-U-Zr, tritium in LiAlO{sub 2} in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel` ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, and molecular sieve structures; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  15. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste, mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and municipal solid waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, treating water contaminated with volatile organics, and concentrating radioactive waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (EFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials (corium; Fe-U-Zr, tritium in LiAlO 2 in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel' ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, and molecular sieve structures; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

  16. Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plant (FUWAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plants (FUWAC, 2006-2009). It provides an overview of the results of the investigations into the current state of water chemistry practice and concerns in the primary circuit of water cooled power reactors including: corrosion of primary circuit materials; deposit composition and thickness on the fuel; crud induced power shift; fuel oxide growth and thickness; radioactivity buildup in the reactor coolant system (RCS). The FUWAC CRP is a follow-up to the DAWAC CRP (Data Processing Technologies and Diagnostics for Water Chemistry and Corrosion Control in Nuclear Power Plants 2001-2005). The DAWAC project improved the data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the improved methods for controlling and monitoring water chemistry now available, it was felt that a review of the principles of water chemistry management should be undertaken in the light of new materials, more onerous operating conditions, emergent issues such as CIPS, also known as axial offset anomaly (AOA) and the ageing of operating power plant. In the framework of this CRP, water chemistry specialists from 16 nuclear utilities and research organizations, representing 15 countries, exchanged experimental and operational data, models and insights into water chemistry management. The CD-ROM attached to this IAEA-TECDOC includes the report itself, detailed progress reports of three Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) (Annexes I-III) and the reports and presentations made during the project by the participants.

  17. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  18. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry

  19. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  20. Chemistry of actinides and fission products in the nuclear-fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This colloquium was held under the auspices of the French and Russian Academies of Sciences, from 21 to 23 May 2003, at the 'Ecole nationale superieure de chimie de Paris' (ENSCP), under the cooperative framework agreed between the two Academies. Fifteen specialists from each country were brought together to present their results concerning research in their respective fields (industrial considerations, fundamental chemistry, the environment, new conditioning systems, hydro- and pyro-chemical separation techniques), situating the results in the general context of the two countries'common strategy for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and for the management of radioactive waste. The colloquium brought together 26 oral presentations, and three round table discussions (theoretical chemistry and modelling, the frontiers of research on the nuclear cycle, elemental characterisation). The speakers chosen represented a large section of the organisations involved in the research on these topics, from each country. This thematic issue of the Comptes Rendus Chimie presents some new insights into these topics and some original results. The colloquium was supported financially par the DRI of the French Academy des sciences, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA, Cogema, EDF, and ENSCP. (authors)

  1. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors

  2. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Bates, J.K.; Cannon, T.F.

    1982-05-01

    Methods of measuring rates of leaching from simulated waste glasses using neutron activation analysis and radiotracers have been developed. Laboratory-scale impact tests of solid alternative waste forms are being performed to obtain a size analysis of the fragments. Logging techniques are being developed to measure the relative amount of residual oil in a depleted oil reservoir by injecting gamma-active solution into it. Work to test the behavior of radionuclides leached from proposed nuclear-waste repositories using laboratory-analog experiments is in progress. High potassium levels in crushed granite from a Northern Illinois drill hole are probably derived by the leaching of potassium feldspar. Testing and development of equipment for the destructive analysis of full-length irradiated fuel rods from the LWBR are in progress. 19 figures, 13 tables

  3. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cycle work included hydraulic performance and extraction efficiency of eight-stage centrifugal contactors, flowsheet for the Aralex process, Ru and Zr extraction in a miniature centrifugal contactor, study of Zr aging in the organic phase and its effect on Zr extraction and hydraulic testing of the 9-cm-ID contactor. Work for predicting accident consequences in LWR fuel processing covered the relation between energy input (to subdivide a solid) and the modes of particle size frequency distribution. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program corrosion-testing materials for containment vessels and equipment for studying carbide reactions in bismuth is under way. Analytical studies have been made of salt-transport processes; efforts to spin tungsten crucibles 13 cm dia continue, and other information on tungsten fabrication is being assembled; the process steps of the chloride volatility process have been demonstrated and the thoria powder product used to produce oxide pellets; solubility of UO/sub 2/, PuO/sub 2/, and fission products in molten alkali nitrates is being investigated; work was continued on reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting the actinides into ammonium chloroaluminate from bismuth; the preparation of thorium-uranium carbide from the oxide is being studied as a means of improving the oxide reactivity; studies are in progress on producing uranium metal and decontaminated ThO/sub 2/ by the reaction of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in molten salts containing ThCl/sub 4/ and thorium metal chips. In the molten tin process, no basic thermodynamic or kinetic factors have been found that may limit process development.

  4. Water chemistry management of the spent-fuel pool in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparit, Nitaya; Sukharn, Sumalee; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart

    1999-01-01

    Water chemistry of the OAEP spent-fuel pool has been closely monitored without any pre-treatment for its conductivity, pH, temperature, chloride ion, sulfate ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion, silver ion, and copper ion as well as its gamma activity of Cs-137. Conductivity, pH and temperature were measured using a portable pH and conductivity meter with built in temperature probe. Chloride ion was monitored by an automatic micro-titrator with silver nitrate as titrant and platinum indicator electrode. Nitrate, sulfate and phosphate were analysed by ion-exchange chromatographic method using an anion separator column and salicylate buffer as eluant. Gamma activity of Cs-137 was measured using a Canberra gamma spectrometer with HpGe detector. Silver and copper were analysed by ICP-AES technique within 6 hours after collection. During the study period from March 1996-September 1998, the conductivity was between l.25-4.80 μ/cm, pH in the range of 5-8.1, and temperature from 26.4-29.6 degree celsius. Chloride ion was found between 0.l-0.8 ppm. Silver, copper, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate ions were undetectable. Overall chemical composition of the water shows that the water is kept in standard condition recommended for safety storage. However, the presence of gamma activity of Cs-137 (average value of 138 Bq/l) indicates a slight leak of the spent fuel. (author)

  5. Computational Flame Diagnostics for Direct Numerical Simulations with Detailed Chemistry of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianfeng [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-02-16

    The goal of the proposed research is to create computational flame diagnostics (CFLD) that are rigorous numerical algorithms for systematic detection of critical flame features, such as ignition, extinction, and premixed and non-premixed flamelets, and to understand the underlying physicochemical processes controlling limit flame phenomena, flame stabilization, turbulence-chemistry interactions and pollutant emissions etc. The goal has been accomplished through an integrated effort on mechanism reduction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flames at engine conditions and a variety of turbulent flames with transport fuels, computational diagnostics, turbulence modeling, and DNS data mining and data reduction. The computational diagnostics are primarily based on the chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and a recently developed bifurcation analysis using datasets from first-principle simulations of 0-D reactors, 1-D laminar flames, and 2-D and 3-D DNS (collaboration with J.H. Chen and S. Som at Argonne, and C.S. Yoo at UNIST). Non-stiff reduced mechanisms for transportation fuels amenable for 3-D DNS are developed through graph-based methods and timescale analysis. The flame structures, stabilization mechanisms, local ignition and extinction etc., and the rate controlling chemical processes are unambiguously identified through CFLD. CEMA is further employed to segment complex turbulent flames based on the critical flame features, such as premixed reaction fronts, and to enable zone-adaptive turbulent combustion modeling.

  6. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys, graphite, and SiC in PDPM environments was done. A tungsten-metallized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-3% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ crucible was successfully fabricated. Tungsten microstructure of a plasma-sprayed tungsten crucible was stabilized by nickel infiltration and heat treatment. Solubility measurements of Th in Cd and Cd-Mg alloys were continued, as were experiments to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO also was continued. The method of coprocessing of U and Pu by a salt transport process was modified. Tungsten-coated molybdenum crucibles were fabricated. The proliferation resistance of chloride volatility processing of thorium-based fuels is being evaluated by studying the behavior of fission product elements during chlorination of U and Th. Thermodynamic analysis of the phase relationships in the U-Pu-Zn system was initiated. The Pyro-Civex reprocessing method is being reviewed. Reactivity of UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ is being studied along with the behavior of selected fission product elements. Work was continued on the reprocessing of actinide oxides by extracting the actinides from a bismuth solution. Rate of dissolution of UO/sub 2/ microspheres in LiCl/AlCl/sub 3/ was measured. Nitriding rates of Th and U dissolved in molten tin were measured. In work on the encapsulation of radioactive waste in metal, leach rates of a simulated waste glass were studied. Rates of dissolution of metals (potential barrier materials) in aqueous media are being studied. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, the adsorption of iodate by hematite as a function of pH and iodate concentration was measured. The migration behavior of cesium in limestone was studied in relation to the cesium concentration and pH of simulated groundwater

  7. PHYS: Division of Physical Chemistry 258 - Properties and Origins of Cometary and Asteroidal Organic Matter Delivered to the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nguyen, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Comets and asteroids may have contributed much of the Earth's water and organic matter. The Earth accretes approximately 4x10(exp 7) Kg of dust and meteorites from these sources every year. The least altered meteorites contain complex assemblages of organic compounds and abundant hydrated minerals. These carbonaceous chondrite meteorites probably derive from asteroids that underwent hydrothermal processing within the first few million years after their accretion. Meteorite organics show isotopic and chemical signatures of low-T ion-molecule and grain-surface chemistry and photolysis of icy grains that occurred in cold molecular clouds and the outer protoplanetary disk. These signatures have been overprinted by aqueously mediated chemistry in asteroid parent bodies, forming amino acids and other prebiotic molecules. Comets are much richer in organic matter but it is less well characterized. Comet dust collected in the stratosphere shows larger H and N isotopic anomalies than most meteorites, suggesting better preservation of primordial organics. Rosetta studies of comet 67P coma dust find complex organic matter that may be related to the macromolecular material that dominates the organic inventory of primitive meteorites. The exogenous organic material accreting on Earth throughout its history is made up of thousands of molecular species formed in diverse processes ranging from circumstellar outflows to chemistry at near absolute zero in dark cloud cores and the formative environment within minor planets. NASA and JAXA are currently flying sample return missions to primitive, potentially organic-rich asteroids. The OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2 missions will map their target asteroids, Bennu and Ryugu, in detail and return regolith samples to Earth. Laboratory analyses of these pristine asteroid samples will provide unprecedented views of asteroidal organic matter relatively free of terrestrial contamination within well determined geological context. Studies of

  8. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1990 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for coal- fired magnetohydrodynamics and fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for a high-level waste repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, concentrating plutonium solids in pyrochemical residues by aqueous biphase extraction, and treating natural and process waters contaminated by volatile organic compounds; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 66 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1990 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for coal- fired magnetohydrodynamics and fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for a high-level waste repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams, concentrating plutonium solids in pyrochemical residues by aqueous biphase extraction, and treating natural and process waters contaminated by volatile organic compounds; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 66 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Radiochemistry Division: triennial progress report (for) 1983-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, T.

    1987-01-01

    The present report includes contributions pertaining to the studies of nuclear and chemical properties of actinides. These studies have been mostly concerned with the basic investigation, besides the research and development work connected with chemical quality control of plutonium-based fuels for trace metallic constituents. The nuclear properties are being studied in the Nuclear Chemistry and Instrumentation Section while the chemical properties are being studied in the Actinide Chemistry Section and the Spectroscopy Section. The work in the Actinide Chemistry Section deals essentially with properties of ions in solutions and preparation of solid compounds, to understand the complexing behaviour of actinides. The work in the Spectroscopy Section is concerned essentially with the study of actinide solids using EPR, TSL and optical spectroscopic techniques. The considerable advances made in the basic study of actinides are reflected in the number of publications in well-known international journals. The research and development work of the Division is fully supported by Instrumentation Group of the Division which looks after the maintenance of instruments of not only the Radiochemistry Division but also the Fuel Chemistry Division and design and fabrication of special electronic instruments needed for the research and development work. (author)

  11. A Study of Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Fuel Cell Catalysts: Chemistry - Nanostructure - Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Michael J., Jr.

    Fuel cells have the potential to be a pollution-free, low-cost, and energy efficient alternative to the internal combustion engine for transportation and small-scale stationary power applications. The current state of fuel cell technology has already achieved two of these three lofty goals. The remaining barrier to wide-scale deployment is the high cost, which is primarily caused by dependence on large amounts of platinum to catalyze the energy conversion reactions. To overcome this barrier and facilitate the integration of fuel cells into mainstream applications, research into a new class of catalyst materials that do not require platinum is needed. There has been a significant amount of research effort directed toward the development of platinum-group metal free (PGM-free) catalysts, yet there is a lack of consensus on both the engineering parameters necessary to improve the technology and the fundamental science that would facilitate rational design. I have engaged in research on PGM-free catalysts based on inexpensive and abundant reagents, specifically: nicarbazin and iron. Catalysts made from these precursors have previously proven to be among the best PGM-free catalysts, but their continued advancement suffered from the same lack of understanding that besets all catalysts in this class. The work I have performed address both engineering concerns and fundamental underlying principles. I present results demonstrating correlations between physical structure, chemical speciation, and synthesis parameters, as well as addressing active site chemistry and likely locations. My research presented herein introduces new morphology analysis techniques and elucidates several key structure-to-property characteristics of catalysts derived from iron and nicarbazin. I discuss the development and application of a new length-scale specific surface analysis technique that allows for analysis of well-defined size ranges from a few nm to several microns. The existing technique of

  12. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO/sub 2/ recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO 2 recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Changes in domestic heating fuel use in Greece: effects on atmospheric chemistry and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Brunner, Dominik; Vogel, Heike; Vogel, Bernhard; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos

    2017-09-01

    For the past 8 years, Greece has been experiencing a major financial crisis which, among other side effects, has led to a shift in the fuel used for residential heating from fossil fuel towards biofuels, primarily wood. This study simulates the fate of the residential wood burning aerosol plume (RWB smog) and the implications on atmospheric chemistry and radiation, with the support of detailed aerosol characterization from measurements during the winter of 2013-2014 in Athens. The applied model system (TNO-MACC_II emissions and COSMO-ART model) and configuration used reproduces the measured frequent nighttime aerosol spikes (hourly PM10 > 75 µg m-3) and their chemical profile (carbonaceous components and ratios). Updated temporal and chemical RWB emission profiles, derived from measurements, were used, while the level of the model performance was tested for different heating demand (HD) conditions, resulting in better agreement with measurements for Tmin < 9 °C. Half of the aerosol mass over the Athens basin is organic in the submicron range, of which 80 % corresponds to RWB (average values during the smog period). Although organic particles are important light scatterers, the direct radiative cooling of the aerosol plume during wintertime is found low (monthly average forcing of -0.4 W m-2 at the surface), followed by a minor feedback to the concentration levels of aerosol species. The low radiative cooling of a period with such intense air pollution conditions is attributed to the timing of the smog plume appearance, both directly (longwave radiation increases during nighttime) and indirectly (the mild effect of the residual plume on solar radiation during the next day, due to removal and dispersion processes).

  15. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  16. A detailed approach to model transport, heterogeneous chemistry, and electrochemistry in solid-oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, V.

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation layes out detailed descriptions for heterogeneous chemistry, electrochemistry, and porous media transport models to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). An elementary like heterogeneous reaction mechanism for the steam reforming of CH4 developed in our research group is used throughout this work. Based on assumption of hydrogen oxidation as the only electrochemical reaction and single step electron transfer reaction as rate limiting, a modified Butler-Volmer equation is used to model the electrochemistry. The pertinence of various porous media transport models such as Modified Fick Model (MFM), Dusty Gas Model (DGM), Mean Transport Pore Model, Modified Maxwell Stefan Model, and Generalized Maxwell Stefan Model under reaction conditions are studied. In general MFM and DGM predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. Physically realistic electrochemical model parameters are very important for fuel cell modeling. Button cell simulations are carried out to deduce the electrochemical model parameters, and those parameters are further used in the modeling of planar cells. Button cell simulations are carried out using the commercial CFD code FLUENT coupled with DETCHEM. For all temperature ranges the model works well in predicting the experimental observations in the high current density region. However, the model predicts much higher open circuit potentials than that observed in the experiments, mainly due to the absence of coking model in the elementary heterogeneous mechanism leading to nonequilibrium compositions. Furthermore, the study presented here employs Nernst equation for the calculation of reversible potential which is strictly valid only for electrochemical equilibrium. It is assumed that the electrochemical charge transfer reaction involving H2 is fast enough to be in equilibrium. However, the comparison of model prediction with thermodynamic equilibrium reveals that this assumption is violated under very low current

  17. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  18. 2002 Chemical Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Graziano, D.; Miller, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory; Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services; and Dosimetry and Radioprotection services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by

  19. Quantitative x-ray diffraction analyses of samples used for sorption studies by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1989-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being investigated to determine its suitability to host our nation's first geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of an effort to determine how radionuclides will interact with rocks at Yucca Mountain, the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry (INC) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted numerous batch sorption experiments using core samples from Yucca Mountain. In order to understand better the interaction between the rocks and radionuclides, we have analyzed the samples used by INC with quantitative x-ray diffraction methods. Our analytical methods accurately determine the presence or absence of major phases, but we have not identified phases present below ∼1 wt %. These results should aid in understanding and predicting the potential interactions between radionuclides and the rocks at Yucca Mountain, although the mineralogic complexity of the samples and the lack of information on trace phases suggest that pure mineral studies may be necessary for a more complete understanding. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Gay, E. C.; Miller, J. C.; Boparai, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division (CMT) is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. CMT is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors

  1. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report for 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.H.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The research and development work carried by the Radiochemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1977 in the areas of reactor chemistry, actinide chemistry, process chemistry of neptunium and plutonium-239, radioanalytical chemistry and nuclear chemistry has been reported. (M.G.B.)

  2. Influence of water chemistry on fuel cladding behaviour. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    For the purpose of the meeting water chemistry included the actual practice, the water chemistry monitoring and the on-going research. Corrosion included also hydriding, recent observations made in reactors, modelling and the recent research carried out. Fifty seven participants representing twenty countries attended the thirty formal presentations and the subsequent discussions. The thirty papers presented were split into five sessions covering, Reactor experience, Mechanism and Modelling, Oxidation and hydriding, On-line monitoring of water chemistry and the review of existing and advanced water chemistries. Four panel discussions including ''Corrosion mechanism and Modelling'', ''Corrosion and Hydriding'', ''Plant Experience and Loop Experiments'', Water Chemistry, Current Practice and Emerging Solutions'' and ''On-line Monitoring of Water Chemistry and Corrosion'' were organized. The main points of discussion focussed on the optimization of water chemistry, the compatibility of potassium water chemistry with the utilization of Zircaloy 4 or the utilization of zirconium niobium cladding with lithium water chemistry. The effect of the fabrication route and of the cladding composition (Sn content) on the corrosion kinetics, the state of the art and the correlative gaps in cladding corrosion modelling and the recent developments of on-line monitoring of water chemistry together with examination of suitable developments, were also discussed. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Influence of water chemistry on fuel cladding behaviour. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    For the purpose of the meeting water chemistry included the actual practice, the water chemistry monitoring and the on-going research. Corrosion included also hydriding, recent observations made in reactors, modelling and the recent research carried out. Fifty seven participants representing twenty countries attended the thirty formal presentations and the subsequent discussions. The thirty papers presented were split into five sessions covering, Reactor experience, Mechanism and Modelling, Oxidation and hydriding, On-line monitoring of water chemistry and the review of existing and advanced water chemistries. Four panel discussions including ``Corrosion mechanism and Modelling``, ``Corrosion and Hydriding``, ``Plant Experience and Loop Experiments``, Water Chemistry, Current Practice and Emerging Solutions`` and ``On-line Monitoring of Water Chemistry and Corrosion`` were organized. The main points of discussion focussed on the optimization of water chemistry, the compatibility of potassium water chemistry with the utilization of Zircaloy 4 or the utilization of zirconium niobium cladding with lithium water chemistry. The effect of the fabrication route and of the cladding composition (Sn content) on the corrosion kinetics, the state of the art and the correlative gaps in cladding corrosion modelling and the recent developments of on-line monitoring of water chemistry together with examination of suitable developments, were also discussed. Refs, figs, tabs.

  4. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1989 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including high-performance batteries (mainly lithium/iron sulfide and sodium/metal chloride), aqueous batteries (lead-acid and nickel/iron), and advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate and solid oxide electrolytes: (2) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (4) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (the Integral Fast Reactor), and waste management; and (5) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be administratively responsible for and the major user of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  5. Chemical technology division: Annual technical report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1987 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet and for the purification of ferrous scrap; (6) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (7) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of various minerals; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Chemical technology division: Annual technical report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1987 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet and for the purification of ferrous scrap; (6) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous organic waste; (7) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of various minerals; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 54 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Divisions's activities during 1988 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-performance batteries (mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide, sodium/metal chloride, and sodium/sulfur); (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants and the technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste and techniques for treatment of hazardous chemical water; (6) nuclear technology related to a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste and for producing /sup 99/Mo from low-enriched uranium targets, the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, and waste management; and (7) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting small molecules to desired products; materials chemistry for superconducting oxides and associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, high-temperature superconductivity, and catalysis; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 53 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing 99 Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems

  9. Radiochemistry Division: Annual progress report for 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayadevan, N.C.; Manohar, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    The progress report of the Radiochemistry Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre presents the research and development work carried out during 1981 in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: reactor fuel chemistry, heavy element chemistry, radioanalytical chemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Some of the highlights of the work are: (1) modification of the gelation set-up for making plutonium containing gel particles to get better yields of (U,Pu)O 2 containing up to 15% of plutonium, (2) studies on solvent extraction of Am(III), Cm(III), Bk(III) and Cf(III) by 1-phenyl-2-methyl-4-benzoyl pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP), (3) study of the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of aqueous solutions of plutonium, (4) study of crystal structure of uranyl oxalate and sulphates, (5) ESR study, thermoluminescence and spectral studies of americium doped SrSO 4 , phosphors, (6) determination of uranium and plutonium by spectrophotometry, mass spectroscopy and alpha spectroscopy, (7) determination of isotopic ratios of plutonium isotopes by gamma spectroscopy, (8) studies on several aspects of fission chemistry of 229 Th and 252 Cf, and (9) fabrication of a neutron well coincidence counter. (M.G.B.)

  10. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition

  11. Primary water chemistry optimization for extended fuel cycle operation. Results of the 'Duo experimentation' after three cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viricel, L.; Andrieu, C.; Segura, J.C.; Rocher, A.; Thomazet, J.; Clinard, M.H.; Dacquait, F.

    2002-01-01

    The primary coolant conditioning in French nuclear power plants is essentially based on the boron-lithium coordinated chemistry, with a target pH of 7.2 at 300 C and a maximum lithium concentration of 2.2 mg/kg. In 1996, EDF 1300 MWe units began operating 18-month fuel cycles, increasing boron concentrations at the beginning of the cycles. Since today the maximum lithium concentration in normal operation is 2.2 mg/kg, extended cycle operation results in a decrease in the pH at the beginning of the cycles, which may possibly lead to deposits in RCS, and particularly on the fuel cladding, and increased dose rates. It has to be noted that today, the fuel assemblies maximum burnup is set at 52 GWd/tU. One solution is to adjust the pH by increasing the lithium content at the beginning of the cycles, which is easy to implement and does not require any modification on the units. Hence, EDF is testing a ''modified'' chemistry regime in the > during 4 fuel cycles, with a maximum authorized lithium content of 3.5 mg/kg at the beginning of the cycles in the Cattenom 2 pilot unit. The Golfech 1 reference unit implements a standard boron-lithium coordination pH 300 7.2. The major goal of the experimentation is to assess the impact of elevated lithium concentrations at the beginning of the cycles on fuel cladding oxide behavior, mass transport and dose rates. This paper presents the results of the first three cycles of the Duo experimentation. (author)

  12. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Gay, E. C.; Miller, J. C.; Boparai, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division (CMT) is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. CMT is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory and Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature super-conductors. The Division's wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by governmental and industrial

  13. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  14. Elaboration of Copper-Oxygen Mediated C–H Activation Chemistry in Consideration of Future Fuel and Feedstock Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Yoon; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    To contribute solutions for current energy concerns, improvements in the efficiency of C-H bond cleavage chemistry, e.g., selective oxidation of methane to methanol, could minimize losses in natural gas usage or produce feedstocks for fuels. Oxidative C-H activation is also a component of polysaccharide degradation, affording alternative biofuels from abundant biomass. Thus, an understanding of active-site chemistry in copper monooxygenases, those activating strong C-H bonds is briefly reviewed. Then, recent advances in the synthesis-generation and study of various copper-oxygen intermediates are highlighted. Of special interest are cupric-superoxide, Cu-hydroperoxo and Cu-oxy complexes. Such investigations can contribute to an enhanced future application of C-H oxidation or oxygenation processes using air, as concerning societal energy goals. PMID:25756327

  15. QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH, 1968 REACTOR FUELS AND MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR FUELS AND MATERIALS BRANCH OF USAEC DIVISION OF REACTOR DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J. J.; de Halas, D. R.; Nightingale, R. E.; Worlton, D. C.

    1968-06-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: nuclear graphite; fuel development for gas-cooled reactors; HTGR graphite studies; nuclear ceramics; fast-reactor nitrides research; non-destructive testing; metallic fuels; basic swelling studies; ATR gas and water loop operation and maintenance; reactor fuels and materials; fast reactor dosimetry and damage analysis; and irradiation damage to reactor metals.

  16. Water chemistry control in thermal and nuclear power plants. 9. Nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The chemical management of fuels in nuclear power plants aims at maintenance of the soundness of nuclear fuels and at reduction of the radiation exposure of the working employees. With regard to the former, particular attention should be paid to the fabrication process of fuel assembly, mainly for chemical management for fuel cladding tubes together with fuel pellet-clad chemical interactions, and to the outer tubes in the power plants. With regard to the latter, the fabrication process should be carefully controlled to prevent radioactive impurity increase in primary cooling water systems by maintaining cleaning level and decreasing surface contamination. Reactions of zircalloy with water or hydrogen forming ZrH 2 , sintered density of UO 2 pellet controlling water content, pellet-clad interactions, stress corrosion cracking, crud induced fuel failure, behaviors of such fission products as I, Xe, Kr, and Cs in plants are also important to water and chemical management of nuclear fuels. (S. Ohno)

  17. Comparing in Cylinder Pressure Modelling of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled on Alternative Fuel Using Two Tabulated Chemistry Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngayihi Abbe, Claude Valery; Nzengwa, Robert; Danwe, Raidandi

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents the comparative simulation of a diesel engine fuelled on diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel. Two models, based on tabulated chemistry, were implemented for the simulation purpose and results were compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder diesel engine. The first model is a single zone model based on the Krieger and Bormann combustion model while the second model is a two-zone model based on Olikara and Bormann combustion model. It was shown that both models can predict well the engine's in-cylinder pressure as well as its overall performances. The second model showed a better accuracy than the first, while the first model was easier to implement and faster to compute. It was found that the first method was better suited for real time engine control and monitoring while the second one was better suited for engine design and emission prediction.

  18. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) advanced batteries - mainly lithium alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur for electric vehicles; (2) aqueous batteries - mainly improved lead-acid and nickel/iron for electric vehicles; (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic plants and the technology for pressurized fluidized-bed combustors; (5) methodologies for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) solid and liquid desiccants that allow moisture to be removed with a minium of energy; (7) nuclear technology related to waste management, proof of breeding for a light water reactor, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission, fusion, and other energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of fluid catalysis for converting abundant raw materials to desired products; materials chemistry of liquids and vapors at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; atmospheric chemistry, most notably SO 2 oxidation mechanisms; and the thermochemistry of zeolites, related silicates, and inorganic compounds

  19. Water Chemistry Control Technology to Improve the Performance of Nuclear Power Plants for Extended Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Na, J. W.; Lee, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Ο To Develop the technology to manage the problems of AOA and radiation, corrosion as long term PWR operation. Ο To Establish the advanced water chemical operating systems. - Development of the proper water chemistry guidelines for long term PWR operation. AOA(Axial Offest Anomaly) has been reported in many PWR plants in the world, including Korea, especially in the plants of higher burn-up and longer cycle operation or power up-rate. A test loop has been designed and made by KAERI, in order to investigate and mitigate AOA problems in Korea. This project included the study of hydrodynamic simulation and the modeling about AOA. The analysis of radioactive crud was performed to investigate of NPPs primary water chemical effect on AOA and to reduce the radioactive dose rate. The high temperature measurement system was developed to on-line monitor of water chemistry in nuclear power plants. The effects of various environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate on YSZ-based pH electrode were evaluated for ensuring the accuracy of high-temperature pH measurement. The inhibition technology for fouling and SCC of SG tube was evaluated to establish the water chemistry technology of corrosion control of nuclear system. The high temperature and high pressure crevice chemistry analysis test loop was manufactured to develop the water chemistry technology of crevice chemistry control

  20. Proceedings of the symposium on the joint research program between JAERI and Universities. Current status and future perspectives of the chemistry research in the nuclear fuel cycle back end field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The first Symposium on the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities was held in Tokyo, January 27, 1999, to present the main achievements of the project in these 5 years and to discuss future perspectives of the chemistry research relating to the nuclear fuel cycle. The areas covered by the Joint Research Project are (1) Nuclear Chemistry for TRU Recycling, (2) Solid State Chemistry on Nuclear Fuels and Wastes, (3) Solution Chemistry on Fuel Reprocessing and Waste Management, and (4) Fundamental Chemistry on Radioactive Waste Disposal. The 8 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Post-remedial-action radiological survey of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pennsylvania, October 1-8, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, K.F.; Justus, A.L.; Sholeen, C.M.; Smith, W.H.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The post-remedial-action radiological assessment conducted by the ANL Radiological Survey Group in October 1981, following decommissioning and decontamination efforts by Westinghouse personnel, indicated that except for the Advanced Fuels Laboratory exhaust ductwork and north wall, the interior surfaces of the Plutonium Laboratory and associated areas within Building 7 and the Advanced Fuels Laboratory within Building 8 were below both the ANSI Draft Standard N13.12 and NRC Guideline criteria for acceptable surface contamination levels. Hence, with the exceptions noted above, the interior surfaces of those areas within Buildings 7 and 8 that were included in the assessment are suitable for unrestricted use. Air samples collected at the involved areas within Buildings 7 and 8 indicated that the radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations within the air were well below the limits prescribed by the US Surgeon General, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. The Building 7 drain lines are contaminated with uranium, plutonium, and americium. Radiochemical analysis of water and dirt/sludge samples collected from accessible Low-Bay, High-Bay, Shower Room, and Sodium laboratory drains revealed uranium, plutonium, and americium contaminants. The Building 7 drain lines hence are unsuitable for release for unrestricted use in their present condition. Low levels of enriched uranium, plutonium, and americium were detected in an environmental soil coring near Building 8, indicating release or spillage due to Advanced Reactors Division activities or Nuclear Fuel Division activities undr NRC licensure. 60 Co contamination was detected within the Building 7 Shower Room and in soil corings from the environs of Building 7. All other radionuclide concentrations measured in soil corings and the storm sewer outfall sample collected from the environs about Buildings 7 and 8 were within the range of normally expected background concentrations

  2. Spent fuel dissolution rates as a function of burnup and water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.

    1998-06-01

    To help provide a source term for performance-assessment calculations, dissolution studies on light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel have been conducted over the past few years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This report describes that work for fiscal years 1996 through mid-1998 and includes summaries of some results from previous years for completeness. The following conclusions were based on the results of various flowthrough dissolution rate tests and on tests designed to measure the inventories of 129 I located within the fuel/cladding gap region of different spent fuels: (1) Spent fuels with burnups in the range 30 to 50 MWd/kgM all dissolved at about the same rate over the conditions tested. To help determine whether the lack of burnup dependence extends to higher and lower values, tests are in progress or planned for spent fuels with burnups of 13 and ∼ 65 MWd/kgM. (2) Oxidation of spent fuel up to the U 4 O 9+x stage does not have a large effect on intrinsic dissolution rates. However, this degree of oxidation could increase the dissolution rates of relatively intact fuel by opening the grain boundaries, thereby increasing the effective surface area that is available for contact by water. From a disposal viewpoint, this is a potentially more important consideration than the effect on intrinsic rates. (3) The gap inventories of 129 I were found to be smaller than the fission gas release (FGR) for the same fuel rod with the exception of the rod with the highest FGR. Several additional fuels would have to be tested to determine whether a generalized relationship exists between FGR and 129 I gap inventory for US LWR fuels

  3. European analytical column no. 37 (January 2009) Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format: once more DAC invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year, Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology focuses...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, especially analytical chemistry since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. Already now a decrease of industrial commitment with respect to new...... research projects and sponsoring of conferences can be observed. It is therefore important to strengthen all efforts and to keep the presence of analytical chemists at meetings and conferences unchanged. Recent activities of DAC and details regarding the major analytical-chemistry event this year in Europe...

  4. 2003 Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Graziano, D.; Miller, J. F.; Vandegrift, G.

    2004-01-01

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of six divisions within the Engineering Research Directorate at Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, to promote national security, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which provides a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training in chemistry; physics; materials science; and electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineering. They are specialists in electrochemistry, ceramics, metallurgy, catalysis, materials characterization, nuclear magnetic resonance, repository science, and the nuclear fuel cycle. Our staff have experience working in and collaborating with university, industry and government research and development laboratories throughout the world. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy, national security, and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by governmental and industrial organizations for advice and contributions to problem solving in areas that intersect present and past Division programs and activities. Currently, we are engaged in the development of several technologies of

  5. Quality assurance program for surveillance of fast reactor mixed oxide fuel analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, J.E.; Zeigler, R.K.; Waterbury, G.R.; McClung, W.E.; Praetorius, P.R.; Delvin, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    An effective quality assurance program for the chemical analysis of nuclear fuel is essential to assure that the fuel will meet the strict chemical specifications required for optimum reactor performance. Such a program has been in operation since 1972 for the fuels manufactured for the Fast Flux Test Facility. This program, through the use of common quality control and calibration standards, has consistently provided high levels of agreement among laboratories in all areas of analysis. The paper presented gives a summary of the chemical specifications for the fuel and source material, an outline of the requirements for laboratory qualifications and the preparation of calibration and quality control materials, general administration details of the plan, and examples where the program has been useful in solving laboratory problems

  6. Nuclear Power and Safety Division activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdera, F.

    1991-01-01

    History of the Division is briefly described. Present research is centered on reliability analyses and thermal hydraulic analyses of transients and accidents. Some results of the safety analyses have been applied at nuclear power plants. A characterization is presented of computer codes for analyzing the behavior of fuel in normal and accident conditions. Research activities in the field of water chemistry and corrosion are oriented to the corrosion process at high temperatures and high pressures, and the related mass and radioactivity transfer; the effect of some chemical processes on primary coolant circuit materials; optimization of PWR filtration systems; and the development of the requisite monitoring instrumentation. A computerized operator support system has been developed, and at present it is tested at the Dukovany nuclear power plant. A program of nuclear fuel cycle strategy and economy has been worked out for nuclear fuel performance evaluation. Various options for better fuel exploitation, alternatives for advanced fuelling, and fuel cycle costs are assessed, and out-of-reactor fuel cycle options are compared. (M.D.). 7 refs., 32 refs

  7. Technical Division quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1977. [Fuel cycle research and development; special materials production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slansky, C.M. (ed.)

    1978-02-01

    Results are presented on the fluidized-bed calcination of simulated radioactive waste from the reprocessing of spent commercial nuclear fuel and on the removal of actinide elements from the waste prior to calcination. Other programs include the development of storage technology for /sup 85/Kr waste; and the behavior of volatile radionuclides during the combustion of HTGR graphite-based fuel. The long-term management of defense waste from the ICPP covers post-calcination treatment of ICPP calcined waste; the removal of actinide elements from first-cycle raffinate; the retrieval and handling of calcined waste from ICPP storage vaults; and the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on ICPP waste. Process improvements are reported on the Fluorinel headend process for Zircaloy-clad fuels and on uranium accountability measurements. Other development results cover the process for recovering spent Rover fuel, buried pipeline transfer systems, support to the Waste Management Program, Waste Calcining Facility support, New Waste Calcining Facility support, and effluent monitoring methods evaluation and development. In this category are studies on nuclear materials security, application of a liquid-solid fluidized-bed heat exchanger to the recovery of geothermal heat, inplant reactor source term measurements, burnup methods for fast breeder reactor fuels, absolute thermal fission yield measurements, analytical support to light water breeder reactor development, research on analytical methods, and the behavior of environmental species of iodine.

  8. Workshop on spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters, Lidingoe 2008: Overview and evaluation of recent SKB procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrath, Guenther; Stenhouse, Mike; Brown, Paul; Ekberg, Christian; Jegou, Christophe; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-08-01

    The safety assessment for disposal of spent nuclear fuel canister in the Swedish bedrock should thoroughly address the time period after a containment failure. Such a failure could be expected as a result of corrosion damage or mechanical failure due to rock movement. This report mainly covers some issues connected to parameters used for radionuclide transport calculations in the areas of spent fuel performance (for fuel in contact with groundwater), radionuclide chemistry, and sorption and geosphere transport parameters. Some examples of topics that are elaborated in some detail include statistical treatment of measurement data (for sorption measurements), handling of uncertainties in speciation calculations, use of triangular distributions in safety assessment and physical processes in connection with spent fuel aging. The results emerged from discussions among international experts at a workshop in May 2008. The purpose of this work is providing an overview of ongoing work within the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), to provide ideas and suggestions for methodology development and to develop review capability within the SSM. The authors conclude that SKB's treatment of uncertainty in speciation calculations has improved, but that additional efforts in the area of error propagation are recommended. In efforts to condense the scope of utilised thermodynamic databases, the authors recommend that exclusion criteria should be explicitly stated. In the area of sorption, there is a need for more thorough analysis of errors in order to establish uncertainty ranges. The most essential improvements concern dose-limiting nuclides (e.g. Ra-226). Triangular distributions are often featured in SKB safety assessment, but it is not clear that the use of such distributions is based on a firm understanding of its properties. Regarding fuel performance, while safety assessment parameters are supported by measurement data there is still a need for better

  9. Workshop on spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters, Lidingoe 2008: Overview and evaluation of recent SKB procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinrath, Guenther; Stenhouse, Mike; Brown, Paul; Ekberg, Christian; Jegou, Christophe; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-08-15

    The safety assessment for disposal of spent nuclear fuel canister in the Swedish bedrock should thoroughly address the time period after a containment failure. Such a failure could be expected as a result of corrosion damage or mechanical failure due to rock movement. This report mainly covers some issues connected to parameters used for radionuclide transport calculations in the areas of spent fuel performance (for fuel in contact with groundwater), radionuclide chemistry, and sorption and geosphere transport parameters. Some examples of topics that are elaborated in some detail include statistical treatment of measurement data (for sorption measurements), handling of uncertainties in speciation calculations, use of triangular distributions in safety assessment and physical processes in connection with spent fuel aging. The results emerged from discussions among international experts at a workshop in May 2008. The purpose of this work is providing an overview of ongoing work within the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), to provide ideas and suggestions for methodology development and to develop review capability within the SSM. The authors conclude that SKB's treatment of uncertainty in speciation calculations has improved, but that additional efforts in the area of error propagation are recommended. In efforts to condense the scope of utilised thermodynamic databases, the authors recommend that exclusion criteria should be explicitly stated. In the area of sorption, there is a need for more thorough analysis of errors in order to establish uncertainty ranges. The most essential improvements concern dose-limiting nuclides (e.g. Ra-226). Triangular distributions are often featured in SKB safety assessment, but it is not clear that the use of such distributions is based on a firm understanding of its properties. Regarding fuel performance, while safety assessment parameters are supported by measurement data there is still a need for better

  10. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report : 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Godbole, S.V.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Radiochemistry Division during 1992 are briefly described in the form of individual summaries grouped under the headings: 1) Nuclear Chemistry, 2) Actinide Chemistry, 3) Spectroscopy, and 4) Instrumentation. A list of publications numbering 95 by the scientific staff of the Division is also included in the report. (author). 35 figs., 56 tabs

  11. Chemical Technology Division Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Gay, E. C.; Miller, J. F.; Einziger, R. E.; Green, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division (CMT) is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base through developing industrial technology and transferring that technology to industry. The Chemical Technology Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by ANL's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which provides a broad range of analytical services to ANL and other organizations. The Division is multi-disciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia, urban planning, and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors. In this annual report we present an overview of the technical programs together with representative highlights. The report is not intended to be comprehensive or encyclopedic, but to serve as an indication of the condition

  12. Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plant (FUWAC). Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plants (FUWAC, 2006-2009). It provides an overview of the results of the investigations into the current state of water chemistry practice and concerns in the primary circuit of water cooled power reactors including: corrosion of primary circuit materials; deposit composition and thickness on the fuel; crud induced power shift; fuel oxide growth and thickness; radioactivity buildup in the reactor coolant system (RCS). The FUWAC CRP is a follow-up to the DAWAC CRP (Data Processing Technologies and Diagnostics for Water Chemistry and Corrosion Control in Nuclear Power Plants 2001-2005). The DAWAC project improved the data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the improved methods for controlling and monitoring water chemistry now available, it was felt that a review of the principles of water chemistry management should be undertaken in the light of new materials, more onerous operating conditions, emergent issues such as CIPS, also known as axial offset anomaly (AOA) and the ageing of operating power plant. In the framework of this CRP, water chemistry specialists from 16 nuclear utilities and research organizations, representing 15 countries, exchanged experimental and operational data, models and insights into water chemistry management. This CD-ROM attached to the printed IAEA-TECDOC includes the report itself, detailed progress reports of three Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) (Annexes I-III) and the reports and presentations made during the project by the participants.

  13. Influence of hydrazine primary water chemistry on corrosion of fuel cladding and primary circuit components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iourmanov, V.; Pashevich, V.; Bogancs, J.; Tilky, P.; Schunk, J.; Pinter, T.

    1999-01-01

    Earlier at Paks 1-4 NPP standard ammonia chemistry was in use. The following station performance indicators were improved when hydrazine primary water chemistry was introduced: occupational radiation exposures of personnel; gamma-radiation dose rates near primary system components during refuelling and maintenance outages. The reduction of radiation exposures and radiation fields were achieved without significant expenses. Recent results of experimental studies allowed to explain the mechanism of hydrazine dosing influence on: corrosion rate of structure materials in primary coolant; behaviour of soluble and insoluble corrosion products including long-life corrosion-induced radionuclides in primary system during steady-state and transient operation modes; radiolytic generation of oxidising radiolytic products in core and its corrosion activity in primary system; radiation situation during refuelling and maintenance outages; foreign material degradation and removal (including corrosion active oxidant species) from primary system during abnormal events. Operational experience and experimental data have shown that hydrazine primary water chemistry allows to reduce corrosion wear and thereby makes it possible to extend the life-time of plant components in primary system. (author)

  14. Some aspects of influence of coolant water chemistry on reliability of WWER and RBMK type fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solyany, V.I.; Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Sukhanov, G.I.; Pimenov, Yu.V.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow)

    1983-01-01

    In WWER and RBMK reactors now in operation a good quality of primary coolant is achieved and the required corrosion resistance of structural materials and normal irradiation conditions are ensured. Data on commercial fuel operation and clad material (Zr 1% Nb alloy) condition are briefly generalized. Some results of reactor investigations of corrosion behaviour of commercial Zr 1% Nb alloy under the condition of WWER and RBMK coolant are discussed and compared. It is established that the chemical effect of coolant on fuel cladding does not in itself limit its serviceability at design burn-ups but due to the possible processes of crud formation, corrosion (total and local), fretting-corrosion and hydriding it can influence the fuel reliability. This influence is qualitatively assessed through a rise in the clad temperature, a reduction of material plasticity and clad thickness. (author)

  15. Some aspects of influence of coolant water chemistry on reliability of WWER and RBMK type fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solyany, V I; Bibilashvili, Yu K; Sukhanov, G I; Pimenov, Yu V [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (USSR); Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow)

    1983-12-01

    In WWER and RBMK reactors now in operation a good quality of primary coolant is achieved and the required corrosion resistance of structural materials and normal irradiation conditions are ensured. Data on commercial fuel operation and clad material (Zr 1% Nb alloy) condition are briefly generalized. Some results of reactor investigations of corrosion behaviour of commercial Zr 1% Nb alloy under the condition of WWER and RBMK coolant are discussed and compared. It is established that the chemical effect of coolant on fuel cladding does not in itself limit its serviceability at design burn-ups but due to the possible processes of crud formation, corrosion (total and local), fretting-corrosion and hydriding it can influence the fuel reliability. This influence is qualitatively assessed through a rise in the clad temperature, a reduction of material plasticity and clad thickness.

  16. Research activity of institute of physical chemistry of Russian Academy of sciences in the field of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikaev, A.K. [Institute of Physical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The report is a brief review of the most important directions in research activity of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of RAS (Moscow) in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. The main attention is paid to researches and developments on liquid radioactive waste management including the removal of wastes to deep geological formations and the immobilization of the wastes. In particular, the data from the study on the properties of new, basaltic-like matrices for the immobilization are presented. The results of research on gas evolution from the systems modeling liquid high-level radioactive wastes are considered. The separation of some radionuclides from irradiated nuclear and the production of radiation sources by various methods are discussed. (author)

  17. Actinide Sciences at ITN - Basic Studies in Chemistry with Potential Interest for Partitioning, Fuel Fabrication and More

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.; Dias, M.; Goncalves, A.P.; Henriques, M.S.; Lopes, E.B.; Pereira, L.C.J.; Santos, I.C.; Verbovytskyy, Y.; Waerenborgh, J.C.; Branco, J.B.; Carretas, J.M.; Cruz, A.; Ferreira, A.C.; Gasche, T.A.; Leal, J.P.; Lopes, G.; Lourenco, C.; Marcalo, J.; Maria, L.; Monteiro, B.; Mora, E.; Pereira, C.C.L.; Paiva, I.

    2010-01-01

    The current activities in the area of actinide chemistry at ITN, comprising basic research studies in inorganic and organometallic chemistry, catalysis, gas-phase ion chemistry, thermochemistry, and solid state chemistry, are briefly described. Actinide (and lanthanide) chemistry studies at ITN will be pursued connecting basic research with potential applications in nuclear and non-nuclear areas. (authors)

  18. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel additives from glycerol using green chemistry and supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    For every 3 moles of fatty acid esters produced, 1 mole of glycerol remains, ~11% of the biodiesel volume. One new method of glycerol use could be as a biodiesel fuel additive/extender using eco-friendly heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical fluids (SFs). SFs have advantages such as greater diff...

  19. Defect Chemistry and Electrical Conductivity of Sm-Doped La1-xSrxCoO3-δ for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the electrical conductivity of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode contact material La1-xSrxCoO3-δ at 900 K. Experimental trends in conductivity against x, and against δ for fixed x, are correctly reproduced for x ≲ 0.8. Furthermore, we have studied the chemistry of neutral...

  20. (1) The Relationship of Protein Expression and Cell Division, (2) 3D Imaging of Cells Using Digital Holography, and (3) General Chemistry Enrollment at University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 1: The role of cell division in protein expression is important to understand in order to guide the development of better nonviral gene delivery materials that can transport DNA to the nucleus with high efficiency for a variety of cell types, particularly when nondividing cells are targets of gene therapy. We evaluated the relationship…

  1. Investigating Quantum Mechanical Tunneling at the Nanoscale via Analogy: Development and Assessment of a Teaching Tool for Upper-Division Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Marc N.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel educational activity designed to teach quantum mechanical tunneling to upper-division undergraduate students in the context of nanochemistry. The activity is based on a theoretical framework for analogy and is split into three parts that are linked pedagogically through the framework: classical ball-and-ramp system, tunneling…

  2. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report : 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Godbole, S.V.; Iyer, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Radiochemistry Division during 1991 are briefly described under the headings: (i) Nuclear chemistry, (ii) Actinide chemistry, and (iii) Spectroscopy. In the field of nuclear chemistry, the main emphasis has been on the studies of fission process induced by reactor neutrons and light and heavy ions on actinides and low Z (Z c superconductors. A list of publications by the scientific staff of the Division is given at the end. (author). 31 figs., 49 tabs

  3. Application of green chemistry techniques to prepare electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Wang, Joanna S; Wai, Chien M

    2010-03-25

    A series of green techniques for synthesizing carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles and their high electrocatalytic activity toward methanol fuel cell applications are reported. The techniques utilize either the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide or water as a medium for depositing platinum nanoparticles on surfaces of multiwalled or single-walled carbon nanotubes. The catalytic properties of the carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts prepared by four different techniques are compared for anodic oxidation of methanol and cathodic reduction of oxygen using cyclic voltammetry. One technique using galvanic exchange of Pt(2+) in water with zerovalent iron present on the surfaces of as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes produces a Pt catalyst that shows an unusually high catalytic activity for reduction of oxygen but a negligible activity for oxidation of methanol. This fuel-selective catalyst may have a unique application as a cathode catalyst in methanol fuel cells to alleviate the problems caused by crossover of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane.

  4. Corrosion product balances for the Ringhals PWR plants based on extensive fuel crud and water chemistry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.; Wikmark, G.; Bengtsson, B.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion product balance in a PWR plant is of great importance for the fuel performance as well as for the radiation field buildup. This balance is of special concern in connection to steam generator replacement (SGR) and power uprate projects. The Ringhals PWRs are all of Westinghouse design. Two of the plants have performed Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) to I-690 SG tubes and such a replacement is being planned in the third and last unit in 2011. Two of the units are in different phases of power uprate projects. The plants are all on 10-14-months cycles operating with medium to high fuel duty. Water chemistry is controlled by a pH300 in the range ∼7.2 to 7.4 from beginning of cycle to end of cycle (BOC-EOC) in the units with new SGs while kept at a coordinated pH of 7.2 in the one still using I-600. The maximum Li content has recently been increased to about 4.5 to 5 ppm in all units. In order to be able to improve the assessment of corrosion product balances in the plants, comprehensive fuel crud measurements were performed in 2007. Improved integrated reactor water sampling techniques have also been introduced in order to make accurate mass balances possible. The corrosion products covered in the study are the main constituents, Ni, Fe and Cr in the primary circuit Inconel and stainless steel, together with Co. The activated corrosion products, Co-58, Co-60, Cr-51, Fe-59 and Mn-54, are all mainly produced through neutron irradiation of the covered corrosion products. The main results of the corrosion product balances are presented. Observed differences between the plants, indicating significant impact of pH control and SG tube materials, are presented and discussed. The importance of accurate sampling techniques is especially addressed in this paper. (author)

  5. Summary report for April, May, and June 1950. Chemistry Divison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D. W. [ed.

    1950-07-27

    A summary of activities for the Chemistry Division is reported for April-June 1950. Areas reporting activity include: Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry, Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, and Process Chemistry.

  6. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Division during 1989 are briefly described in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: (1)Nuclear chemistry, (2)Actinide chemistry, and (3)Spectroscopy. In the field of nuclear chemistry, main emphasis is on studies in fission chemistry. R and D work in actinide chemistry area is oriented towards study of solvent extraction behaviour of actinide ions from aqueous solutions. The spectroscpoic studies are mainly concerned with EPR investigations. A list of publications by the scientist of the division is given at the end. (author). 22 figs., 39 tabs

  7. Characterization and chemistry of fission products released from LWR fuel under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, K.S.; Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Wichner, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Segments from commercial LWR fuel rods have been tested at temperatures between 1400 and 2000 0 C in a flowing steam-helium atmosphere to simulate severe accident conditions. The primary goals of the tests were to determine the rate of fission product release and to characterize the chemical behavior. This paper is concerned primarily with the identification and chemical behavior of the released fission products with emphasis on antimony, cesium, iodine, and silver. The iodine appeared to behave primarily as cesium iodide and the antimony and silver as elements, while cesium behavior was much more complex. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  8. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report: Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, October 1977-September 1978. [Summary of research activities at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R. E.; Inokuti, Mitio [eds.

    1978-01-01

    Research presented includes 32 papers, six of which have appeared previously in ERA, and 26 appear in this issue of ERA. Molecular physics and chemistry including photoionization, molecular properties, oscillator strengths, scattering, shape resonances, and photoelectrons are covered. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  9. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  10. Acid in perchloroethylene scrubber solutions used in HTGR fuel preparation processes. Analytical chemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.

    1979-02-01

    Acids and corrosion products in used perchloroethylene scrubber solutions collected from HTGR fuel preparation processes have been analyzed by several analytical methods to determine the source and possible remedy of the corrosion caused by these solutions. Hydrochloric acid was found to be concentrated on the carbon particles suspended in perchloroethylene. Filtration of carbon from the scrubber solutions removed the acid corrosion source in the process equipment. Corrosion products chemisorbed on the carbon particles were identified. Filtered perchloroethylene from used scrubber solutions contained practically no acid. It is recommended that carbon particles be separated from the scrubber solutions immediately after the scrubbing process to remove the source of acid and that an inhibitor be used to prevent the hydrolysis of perchloroethylene and the formation of acids

  11. Bio fuel ash in a road construction: impact on soil solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurdin, R T; van Hees, P A W; Bylund, D; Lundström, U S

    2006-01-01

    Limited natural resources and landfill space, as well as increasing amounts of ash produced from incineration of bio fuel and municipal solid waste, have created a demand for useful applications of ash, of which road construction is one application. Along national road 90, situated about 20 km west of Sollefteå in the middle of Sweden, an experiment road was constructed with a 40 cm bio fuel ash layer. The environmental impact of the ash layer was evaluated from soil solutions obtained by centrifugation of soil samples taken on four occasions during 2001-2003. Soil samples were taken in the ash layer, below the ash layer at two depths in the road and in the ditch. In the soil solutions, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the total concentration of cations (metals) and anions were determined. Two years after the application of the ash layers in the test road, the concentrations in the ash layer of K, SO4, Zn, and Hg had increased significantly while the concentration of Se, Mo and Cd had decreased significantly. Below the ash layer in the road an initial increase of pH was observed and the concentrations of K, SO4, Se, Mo and Cd increased significantly, while the concentrations of Cu and Hg decreased significantly in the road and also in the ditch. Cd was the element showing a potential risk of contamination of the groundwater. The concentrations of Ca in the ash layer indicated an ongoing hardening, which is important for the leaching rate and the strength of the road construction.

  12. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  13. Modeling and experimental validation of CO heterogeneous chemistry and electrochemistry in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkiv, Vitaly

    2010-12-17

    In the present work experimental and numerical modeling studies of the heterogeneously catalyzed and electrochemical oxidation of CO at Nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode systems were performed to evaluate elementary charge-transfer reaction mechanisms taking place at the three-phase boundary of CO/CO{sub 2} gas-phase, Ni electrode, and YSZ electrolyte. Temperature-programmed desorption and reaction experiments along with density functional theory calculations were performed to determine adsorption/desorption and surface diffusion kinetics as well as thermodynamic data for the CO/CO{sub 2}/Ni and CO/CO{sub 2}/YSZ systems. Based on these data elementary reaction based models with four different charge transfer mechanisms for the electrochemical CO oxidation were developed and applied in numerical simulations of literature experimental electrochemical data such as polarization curves and impedance spectra. Comparison between simulation and experiment demonstrated that only one of the four charge transfer mechanisms can consistently reproduce the electrochemical data over a wide range of operating temperatures and CO/CO{sub 2} gas compositions. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden experimentelle und numerische Untersuchungen zur heterogen katalysierten und elektrochemischen Oxidation von CO an Anodensystemen (bestehend aus Nickel und yttriumdotiertem Zirkoniumdioxid, YSZ) von Festoxidbrennstoffzellen (engl. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, SOFCs) ausgefuehrt, um den mikroskopischen Mechanismus der an der CO/CO{sub 2}-Gasphase/Ni-Elektrode/YSZ-Elektrolyt- Dreiphasen-Grenzflaeche ablaufenden Ladungsuebertragungsreaktion aufzuklaeren. Temperaturprogrammierte Desorptionsmessungen (TPD) und Temperaturprogrammierte Reaktionsmessungen (TPR) sowie Dichtefunktionaltheorierechnungen wurden ausgefuehrt, um adsorptions-, desorptions- und reaktionskinetische sowie thermodynamische Daten fuer die CO/CO{sub 2}/Ni- und CO/CO{sub 2}/YSZ

  14. Uranium hexafluoride - chemistry and technology of a raw material of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, W.; Jacob, E.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride exhibits an unusual combination of properties: UF 6 is both a large-scale industrial product, and also one of the most reactive compounds known. Its industrial application arises from the need to use enriched uranium with up to 4% 235 U as fuel in light water reactors. Enrichment is performed in isotope separation plants with UF 6 as the working gas. Its volatility and thermal stability make UF 6 suitable for this application. UF 6 handling is difficult because of its high reactivity and its radioactivity, and special experience and equipment are required which are not commonly available in laboratories or industrial facilities. The chemical reactions of UF 6 are characterized by its marked fluorination efficiency which is similar to that of F 2 . Of special importance in connection with the handling of UF 6 is its extreme sensitivity to hydrolysis. Because they all use UF 6 , the isotope separation processes currently in use (gas diffusion, gas centrifuge, separation nozzle process) have a number of common features. For instance, they are all beset by the problem of formation of solid UF 6 decomposition products, e.g. by radiolysis of UF 6 molecules induced by its own radiation. Reconversion of UF 6 into UO 2 is achieved by three well-known methods (ADU, AUC, IDP-process). To produce uranium metal, UF 6 is first reduced to UF 4 , which is subsequently reduced by Ca 6 or Mg metal. 158 refs

  15. Cofiring of difficult fuels: The effect of Ca-based sorbents on the gas chemistry in fluidised bed combustion; Kalsiumpohjaisten lisaeaineiden vaikutus leijukerrospolton kaasukemiaan vaikeiden polttoaineiden sekapoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Partanen, J.; Fabritius, M.; Elo, T.; Virta, A.K. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish the effects of Ca-based sorbents on sulphur, halogen and alkaline chemistry in fluidised bed combustion of difficult fuels, and to find out any restrictions on the use of these sorbents. The aim is to acquire sufficient knowledge to ensure the operational reliability of power plants and to minimise the emissions and costs of flue gas cleaning. The results enable the owner to anticipate necessary changes associated with slagging, fouling and emission control in the existing power plants, when there are plans to increase the range of fuels used. (orig.)

  16. Chemical Sciences Division: Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of twelve research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a Department of Energy National Laboratory. The CSD is composed of individual groups and research programs that are organized into five scientific areas: Chemical Physics, Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry, Actinide Chemistry, Atomic Physics, and Physical Chemistry. This report describes progress by the CSD for 1992. Also included are remarks by the Division Director, a description of work for others (United States Office of Naval Research), and appendices of the Division personnel and an index of investigators. Research reports are grouped as Fundamental Interactions (Photochemical and Radiation Sciences, Chemical Physics, Atomic Physics) or Processes and Techniques (Chemical Energy, Heavy-Element Chemistry, and Chemical Engineering Sciences)

  17. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  18. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  19. Water chemistry technology. One of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry should be simultaneously satisfied: (1) better reliability of reactor structures and fuel rods; (2) lower occupational exposure and (3) fewer radwaste sources. Various groups in academia have carried out basic research to support the technical bases of water chemistry in plants. The Research Committee on Water Chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ), which has now been reorganized as the Division of Water Chemistry (DWC) of AESJ, has played important roles to promote improvements in water chemistry control, to share knowledge about and experiences with water chemistry control among plant operators and manufacturers and to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation of plant workers engaged in water chemistry. Furthermore, the DWC has tried and succeeded arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through roadmap planning. In the paper, major achievements in plant technologies and in basic research studies of water chemistry in Japan are reviewed. The contributions of the DWC to the long-term safe management of the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant until their decommissioning are introduced. (author)

  20. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The Air Base Technologies Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a logistic fuel processor that removes the sulfur content of the fuel and in the process converts logistic fuel...

  1. Physics division annual report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  2. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: operations of the front-end division of the nuclear fuel cycle; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: les activites du pole Amont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This fourth session deals with the strategic and financial significance of the Areva mining operations, the Areva chemistry business, the Areva enrichment business and the Areva fuel business. (A.L.B.)

  3. Primary water chemistry optimization for extended fuel cycle operation. Results of the 'Duo experimentation' after three cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viricel, L.; Andrieu, C.; Segura, J.C.; Rocher, A. [Electricite de France (France); Thomazet, J.; Clinard, M.H. [Framatome ANP (France); Dacquait, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)

    2002-07-01

    The primary coolant conditioning in French nuclear power plants is essentially based on the boron-lithium coordinated chemistry, with a target pH of 7.2 at 300 C and a maximum lithium concentration of 2.2 mg/kg. In 1996, EDF 1300 MWe units began operating 18-month fuel cycles, increasing boron concentrations at the beginning of the cycles. Since today the maximum lithium concentration in normal operation is 2.2 mg/kg, extended cycle operation results in a decrease in the pH at the beginning of the cycles, which may possibly lead to deposits in RCS, and particularly on the fuel cladding, and increased dose rates. It has to be noted that today, the fuel assemblies maximum burnup is set at 52 GWd/tU. One solution is to adjust the pH by increasing the lithium content at the beginning of the cycles, which is easy to implement and does not require any modification on the units. Hence, EDF is testing a ''modified'' chemistry regime in the << Duo experimentation >> during 4 fuel cycles, with a maximum authorized lithium content of 3.5 mg/kg at the beginning of the cycles in the Cattenom 2 pilot unit. The Golfech 1 reference unit implements a standard boron-lithium coordination pH{sub 300} 7.2. The major goal of the experimentation is to assess the impact of elevated lithium concentrations at the beginning of the cycles on fuel cladding oxide behavior, mass transport and dose rates. This paper presents the results of the first three cycles of the Duo experimentation. (author)

  4. Study of deposited crud composition on fuel surfaces in the environment of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) of a Boiling Water Reactor at Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tsuey-Lin; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Su, Te-Yen; Wen, Tung-Jen; Men, Lee-Chung

    2012-09-01

    This paper aimed at the characterization of metallic composition and surface analysis on the crud of fuel rods for unit-1 of BWR-4 at Nuclear Power Plant. The inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) and the gamma spectrometry were carried out to analyze the corrosion product distributions and to determine the elemental compositions along the fuel rod under conditions of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) switched from normal water chemistry (NWC) of reactor coolant in this study. Most of the crud consisted of the flakes and irregular shapes via SEM morphology. The loosely adherent oxide layer was mostly composed of hematite (α- Fe 2 O 3 ) with amorphous iron oxides by XRD results. The average deposited amounts of crud was the order of 0.5 mg/cm 2 , indicating that the fuel surface of this plant under HWC environment appeared to be one with the lower crud deposition in terms of low iron level of feedwater. It also showed no significant difference in comparison with NWC condition. (authors)

  5. Optimisation of water chemistry to ensure reliable water reactor fuel performance at high burnup and in ageing plant (FUWAC): an International Atomic Energy Agency coordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J.C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nordmann, F. [Advanced Nuclear Technology International Europe AB, Beauchamp (France); Schunk, J. [Paks NPP (Hungary); Vonkova, K. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The IAEA project 'Optimisation of Water Chemistry to ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Aging Plant' (FUWAC) was initiated with the objectives of monitoring, maintaining and optimising water chemistry regimes in primary circuits of water cooled power reactors, taking into account high burnup operation, mixed cores and plant aging, including following issues and remedies. This report provides some highlights of the work undertaken by the project participants. Clad oxidation studies have been undertaken and include operational data from the South Ukraine WWER where no corrosion problems have been seen on either Westinghouse ZIRLO™ or Russian alloy E110 fuel cladding. Work on the Russian alloy E110 showed that potassium in the coolant is preferable to lithium for mitigating fuel cladding oxidation. Studies on crud behaviour in PWR have shown a dependence on crud thickness and pHT. The nature and mechanisms for boron deposition in fuel cladding cruds have been investigated which is the root cause of crud induced power shifts (CIPS). Operational experience at French PWRs shows no difference in the CIPS behaviour between units with Alloy 600 or 690 steam generators, whilst Korean experience provides information on the Ni/Fe ratio on fuel cladding crud and the occurrence of CIPS. Coolant additions have been studied, for example in BWR units using zinc addition, crud is more tenacious. Zinc is also added to PWR units, mainly for dose rate control and in some cases for PWSCC mitigation of Alloy 600. At low levels there has been no clear evidence of any effect of zinc on CIPS, but there is a benefit on fuel oxidation. It is suggested that zinc addition should be considered where there is SG replacement or fuel core management modification. One possibility for the elimination of fuel crud is decontamination. Such an operation is time consuming, expensive, includes several risks of corrosion and induces a large quantity of

  6. Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The division is one of ten LBL research divisions. It is composed of individual research groups organized into 5 scientific areas: chemical physics, inorganic/organometallic chemistry, actinide chemistry, atomic physics, and chemical engineering. Studies include structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates, transients and dynamics of elementary chemical reactions, and heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Work for others included studies of superconducting properties of high-{Tc} oxides. In FY 1994, the division neared completion of two end-stations and a beamline for the Advanced Light Source, which will be used for combustion and other studies. This document presents summaries of the studies.

  7. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matel, L.; Dulanska, S.

    2013-01-01

    This text-book is an introductory text in nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, aimed on university undergraduate students in chemistry and related disciplines (physics, nuclear engineering). It covers the key aspects of modern nuclear chemistry. The text begins with basic theories in contemporary physics. It relates nuclear phenomena to key divisions of chemistry such as atomic structure, spectroscopy, equilibria and kinetics. It also gives an introduction to sources of ionizing radiation, detection of ionizing radiation, nuclear power industry and accident on nuclear installations as well as basic knowledge's of radiobiology. This book is essential reading for those taking a first course in nuclear chemistry and is a useful companion to other volumes in physical and analytical chemistry. It will also be of use to those new to working in nuclear chemistry or radiochemistry.

  8. Organic reactions for the electrochemical and photochemical production of chemical fuels from CO2--The reduction chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives as bent CO2 surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Oana R; Fenwick, Aidan Q

    2015-11-01

    The present review covers organic transformations involved in the reduction of CO2 to chemical fuels. In particular, we focus on reactions of CO2 with organic molecules to yield carboxylic acid derivatives as a first step in CO2 reduction reaction sequences. These biomimetic initial steps create opportunities for tandem electrochemical/chemical reductions. We draw parallels between long-standing knowledge of CO2 reactivity from organic chemistry, organocatalysis, surface science and electrocatalysis. We point out some possible non-faradaic chemical reactions that may contribute to product distributions in the production of solar fuels from CO2. These reactions may be accelerated by thermal effects such as resistive heating and illumination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation chemistry in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    The importance of radiation chemistry in the field of nuclear technology including reactor chemistry, spent fuel reprocessing and radioactive high level waste repository, is summarized and, in parallel, our research activity will be briefly presented. (author)

  10. Fuels Performance | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    chemistry, combustion, and emissions to answer two primary questions: How can improved fuel chemistry lead initiative Combustion and engines Fuel chemistry Emissions and fuel economy Find out about related NREL Chemistry. (2014) Saturated Monoglyceride Effects on Low-Temperature Performance of Biodiesel Blends. G.M

  11. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  12. AECL research programs in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, I.H.; Eastwood, T.A.; Smith, D.R.; Stewart, R.B.; Tomlinson, M.; Torgerson, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    Fundamental or underlying research in chemistry is being done in AECL laboratories to further the understanding of processes involved in current nuclear energy systems and maintain an awareness of progress at the frontiers of chemical research so that new advances can be turned to advantage in future AECL endeavours. The report introduces the current research topics and describes them briefly under the following headings: radiation chemistry, isotope separation, high temperature solution chemistry, fuel reprocessing chemistry, and analytical chemistry. (auth)

  13. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    New results have been obtained by time-of-flight studies for the stopping powers for heavy ions (Ne,Ar) transmitted at O 0 through tin, copper and gold foils. It has been shown that complexes formed between vacancies and solute ions can be dissolved by MeV He + ion irradiation at 70 K. An improved optical absorption spectrum of hypoiodite ion has been obtained. Studies of the radiolysis of gadolinium solutions covered with a vapour space are continuing. Research on hydrogen isotope separation by laser photochemistry and catalytic chemical exchange is going forward. A method for the determination of trace quantities of hexavalent uranium in groundwater and urine has been found. Preliminary experiments have been carried out on zone refining and electrotransport purification of zirconium. Irradiation creep and growth are bieng examined, and an experimental study of recovery in Zircaloy-2 from mechanical deformation has been completed. (LL)

  14. A decade of Radiometallurgy Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.; Bahl, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    The main thrust of the Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Radiometallurgy Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is on (1) R and D work and production of plutonium bearing nuclear fuels, (2) Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of fuels and structural materials, and (3) failure analysis of power reactor components. The main activities and achievements of the Division during the decade beginning from April 1978 are highlighted and the new thrust areas oriented towards installing a series of 235 MWe and 500 MWe PHWR units and prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) of 500 MWe capacity during the next 15 years are described in brief. The major achievements during last ten years are: (1) development and irradiation testing of mixed uranium plutonium oxide (MOX), as an alternative fuel for boiling water reactors at Tarapur, (2) setting up of a 10 tons/year pilot plant for fabrication of oxide fuels and technical support for setting up such plants, (3) development and production of plutonium rich, advanced mixed uranium plutonium monocarbide driver fuel for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor comm issioned at Kalpakkam, (4) development and fabrication of Al- 233 U plate fuel elements for KAMINI reactor, (5) PIE of fuel elements from Indian reactors in operation, (6) failure analysis of reactor components, and (7) in-pile performance analysis of power reactor structural materials. A list of publications during 1978-88 by the scientists of the Division is given at the end. The publications are listed under the headings: (1) fuels, (2) non-destructive evaluation, (3) engineering development, (4) welding development, (5) characterization and property evaluation, and (6) post irradiation examination. The entire text is illustrated with a number of diagrams and photographs - many of them coloured . (M.G.B.)

  15. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Jitsuya; Asaoka, Takumi; Suzuki, Tomoo; Mitani, Hiroshi; Akino, Fujiyoshi

    1977-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1976 are described. Works of the division concern mainly the development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  16. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1979 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committees on Reactor Physics and on Decomissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  17. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1977 are described. Works of the Division are development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and Committee on Reactor Physics. (Author)

  18. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Research activities conducted in Reactor Engineering Division in fiscal 1975 are summarized in this report. Works in the division are closely related to the development of multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering research of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Many achievements are described concerning nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  19. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shojiro; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Takano, Hideki

    1982-09-01

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  20. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    Research activities in fiscal 1974 in Reactor Engineering Division of eight laboratories and computing center are described. Works in the division are closely related with the development of a multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering of thermonuclear fusion reactors. They cover nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and aspects of the computing center. (auth.)

  1. The physico-chemistry of SO2 in the smoke plumes of fossil-fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabroux, Jean-Christophe

    1974-01-01

    An experimental determination was made of the type and speed of chemical-physical transformations occurring in the stack effluents of fossil-fueled power-plants, from their emission into the atmosphere. The homogeneous chemical reactions were taken into consideration, as well as the heterogeneous reactions in the presence of a metal, oxide aerosol or water droplets owed to condensation. The results gave a general indication that the quantitatively important transformations of SO 2 , in a stack plume produced by fuel combustion, took place at the moment of water-vapor condensation; in these conditions the oxidising role of NO 2 became prevailing. (author) [fr

  2. Quantitative mineralogy and preliminary pore-water chemistry of candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The quantitative mineralogy of seven candidate buffer and backfill materials for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is presented. Two of the materials were coarse grained: one a blended very pure silica sand, and the other a crushed plagioclase-rich granite or granodiorite. Five materials were fine-grained soils containing abundant clay minerals. Of these, three were fairly pure, Cretaceous, ash-derived bentonites that contained up to 3 percent of soluble sulphates; one was a freshwater glacial clay containing 59 percent interlayered smectite-illite; and one was a crushed Paleozoic shale containing abundant illite and chlorite. The adsorbed cation regimes and the pore-water chemistry of the clays are discussed

  3. Combustion Chemistry of Fuels: Quantitative Speciation Data Obtained from an Atmospheric High-temperature Flow Reactor with Coupled Molecular-beam Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Markus; Oßwald, Patrick; Krueger, Dominik; Whitside, Ryan

    2018-02-19

    This manuscript describes a high-temperature flow reactor experiment coupled to the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique. This flexible tool offers a detailed observation of chemical gas-phase kinetics in reacting flows under well-controlled conditions. The vast range of operating conditions available in a laminar flow reactor enables access to extraordinary combustion applications that are typically not achievable by flame experiments. These include rich conditions at high temperatures relevant for gasification processes, the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime or investigations of complex technical fuels. The presented setup allows measurements of quantitative speciation data for reaction model validation of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis processes, while enabling a systematic general understanding of the reaction chemistry. Validation of kinetic reaction models is generally performed by investigating combustion processes of pure compounds. The flow reactor has been enhanced to be suitable for technical fuels (e.g. multi-component mixtures like Jet A-1) to allow for phenomenological analysis of occurring combustion intermediates like soot precursors or pollutants. The controlled and comparable boundary conditions provided by the experimental design allow for predictions of pollutant formation tendencies. Cold reactants are fed premixed into the reactor that are highly diluted (in around 99 vol% in Ar) in order to suppress self-sustaining combustion reactions. The laminar flowing reactant mixture passes through a known temperature field, while the gas composition is determined at the reactors exhaust as a function of the oven temperature. The flow reactor is operated at atmospheric pressures with temperatures up to 1,800 K. The measurements themselves are performed by decreasing the temperature monotonically at a rate of -200 K/h. With the sensitive MBMS technique, detailed speciation data is acquired and

  4. Oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX47 fuel subjected to water radiolysis: Solution chemistry and surface characterization by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegou, C., E-mail: christophe.jegou@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Marcoule Reasearch Center, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Caraballo, R.; De Bonfils, J.; Broudic, V.; Peuget, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Marcoule Reasearch Center, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Vercouter, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Saclay Reasearch Center, B.P. 11, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Roudil, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Marcoule Reasearch Center, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2010-04-01

    The mechanisms of oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX fuel (MIMAS TU2 (registered) ) subjected to water radiolysis were investigated experimentally by leaching spent MOX47 fuel samples in pure water at 25 deg. C under different oxidizing conditions (with and without external gamma irradiation); the leached surfaces were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The highly oxidizing conditions resulting from external gamma irradiation significantly increased the concentration of plutonium (Pu(V)) and uranium (U(VI)) compared with a benchmark experiment (without external irradiation). The oxidation behavior of the plutonium-enriched aggregates differed significantly from that of the UO{sub 2} matrix after several months of leaching in water under gamma irradiation. The plutonium in the aggregates appears to limit fuel oxidation. The only secondary phases formed and identified to date by Raman spectroscopy are uranium peroxides that generally precipitate on the surface of the UO{sub 2} grains. Concerning the behavior of plutonium, solution analysis results appear to be compatible with a conventional explanation based on an equilibrium with a Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} phase. The fission product release - considered as a general indicator of matrix alteration - from MOX47 fuel also increases under external gamma irradiation and a change in the leaching mode is observed. Diffusive leaching was clearly identified, coinciding with the rapid onset of steady-state actinide concentrations in the bulk solution.

  5. 4-th EPRI International conference on the water chemistry of the organic-fuel thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, T.I.; Martynova, O.I.

    1995-01-01

    Most actual problems on thermal power engineering are discussed at EPRI conferences on organic fuel, conducted every two years. Experience in realization of economically beneficial, ecologically feasible modes and their monitoring, accumulated in recent years, was formulated at the 4-th conference with wide participation

  6. Chemistry of Uranium in brines related to the spent fuel disposal in a salt repository. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arocas, P.; Grambow, B.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the work performed from september 1991 to december 1992. Our work is focused on the chemistry of uranium in highly saline solution. Experiments were performed to study the formation process and the stability of solid phases of U(VI) in NaCl solution at different ionic strength. The characterization of solid phases and of uranium concentration in solution are reported as a function of time. Experiments in NaClO 4 at low concentration have been performed for comparison. A method is proposed for uranium analyses in highly concentrated salt solution. The work has been carried out in KfK (INE), Germany. (Author) 10 figs

  7. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  8. The impact of new cathode materials relative to baseline performance of microbial fuel cells all with the same architecture and solution chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin

    2017-04-21

    Differences in microbial fuel cell (MFC) architectures, materials, and solution chemistries, have previously hindered direct comparisons of improvements in power production due to new cathode materials. However, one common reactor design has now been used in many different laboratories around the world under similar operating conditions based on using: a graphite fiber brush anode, a platinum cathode catalyst, a single-chamber cube-shaped (4-cm) MFC with a 3-cm diameter anolyte chamber, 50 mM phosphate buffer, and an acetate fuel. Analysis of several publications over 10 years from a single laboratory showed that even under such identical operational conditions, maximum power densities varied by 15%, with an average of 1.36 ± 0.20 W m–2 (n=24), normalized to cathode projected area (34 W m–3 liquid volume). In other laboratories, maximum power was significantly less, with an average of 1.03 ± 0.46 W m–2 (n=11), despite identical conditions. One likely reason for the differences in power is cathode age. Power production with Pt catalyst cathodes significantly declined after one month of operation or more to 0.87 ± 0.31 W m–2 (n=18) based on studies where cathode aging was examined, while in many studies the age of the cathode was not reported. Using these studies as a performance baseline, we review the claims of improvements in power generation due to new anode or cathode materials, or changes in solution conductivities and substrates.

  9. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  10. Nuclear Power Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The 1981-85 research program planned by the Nuclear Power Division of EPRI places major emphasis on the assurance of safety and realiability of light water reactors (LWRs). Of high priority is a better knowledge of LWR-system behavior undeer abnormal conditions and the behavior of structural materials used for pressure vessels, piping, and large nuclear-plant components. Strong emphasis is also placed on achieving the most-effective performance and utilization of nuclear fuels and improving the corrosion resistance of pressurized-water-reactor steam generators. Efforts are underway to reduce radiation exposure and outage duration and to investigate the human factors involved in plant operation and maintenance. Substantial emphasis is placed on short-range goals designed to achieve useful results in the next two to seven years. The Division's mid- and long-range goal is to improve the use of fissionable and fertile materials and aid in the realization of other reactor systems. A series of general goals, categorized into three time frames and planned expenditures shows the trend of work to be undertaken. 53 figures

  11. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1978. [Advanced solvent extraction; accidents; pyrochemical; radwaste in metal matrix; waste migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R. E.

    1979-12-01

    Fuel cycle studies reported include development of centrifugal contactors for Purex processes. Tricaprylmethyl-ammonium nitrate and di-n-amyl-n-amylphosphonate are being evaluated as Thorex extractants. Dispersion of uranium and plutonium by fires, and mechanisms for subdividing and dispersing liquids and solids were reviewed. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program, a facility for testing containment materials is under construction; a flowsheet for carbide fuel processing has been designed and studies of carbide reactions in bismuth are underway; salt transport processes are being studied; process-size refractory metal vessels are being fabricated; the feasibility of AIROX reprocessing is being determined; the solubility of UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/ + fission products, and PuO/sub 2/ in molten alkali metal nitrates, has been investigated; a flowsheet was developed for reprocessing actinide oxides in molten salts; preparation of Th-U carbide from the oxide is being studied; new flowsheets based on the Dow Aluminum Pyrometallurgical process for reprocessing of spent uranium metal fuel have been prepared; the chloride volitility processing of thorium-based fuels is being studied; the reprocessing of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in KCl-LiCl-ThCl/sub 4/-Th is being studied; and a flowsheet for processing spent nuclear fuel in molten tin has been constructed. Leach rates of simulated encapsulated waste forms in a metal matrix were studied. Nine criteria for handling waste cladding hulls were established. Strontium and tin migration in glauconite columns was measured. Radioactive Sr in a stream of water moved through oolitic limestone as rapidly as water, but in a stream of water equilibrated with the limestone, Sr moved through the limestone one-tenth as fast. Migration of trace quantities of Cs and I through kaolinite was studied. 88 figures, 53 tables.

  12. The hard start phenomena in hypergolic engines. Volume 4: The chemistry of hydrazine fuels and nitrogen tetroxide propellant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Y.; Perlee, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The various chemical reactions that occur and that could possibly occur in the RCS engines utilizing hydrazine-type fuel/nitrogen tetroxide propellant systems, prior to ignition (preignition), during combustion, and after combustion (postcombustion), and endeavors to relate the hard-start phenomenon to some of these reactions are discussed. The discussion is based on studies utilizing a variety of experimental techniques and apparatus as well as current theories of chemical reactions and reaction kinetics. The chemical reactions were studied in low pressure gas flow reactors, low temperature homogeneous- and heterogeneous-phase reactors, simulated two-dimensional (2-D) engines, and scaled and full size engines.

  13. The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karik, H.

    1996-01-01

    The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals

  14. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  15. Ontario Hydro Research Division annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Research Division of Ontario Hydro conducts research in the fields of chemistry, civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, and operations. Much of the research has a bearing on the safe, environmentally benign operation of Ontario Hydro's nuclear power plants. Particular emphasis has been placed on nuclear plant component aging and plant life assurance

  16. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals

  17. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, C [comp.

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  18. Thermodynamic modelling of bentonite-groundwater interaction and implications for near field chemistry in a repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.; Wersin, P.; Sierro, N.

    1992-11-01

    Predictions of near field geochemistry are made using a thermodynamic model for bentonite/ground interaction. This model is a refinement and extension of the model developed by the senior author. It is based on recent experiments performed at high solid/water ratio and adapted to the Swedish type of HLW repository design. Thus, from the obtained experimental results on solution composition, the model includes chemical reactions resulting from both the impurities and the main clay fraction within the bentonite. Ion exchange reactions are treated both with and without the contribution of edge sites. Due to its thermodynamic basis, the model exhibits prediction capability over a wide range of conditions in terms of solid/water ratio. The modelling of repository conditions implies, due to the lack of experimental information, simplifications with regard to thermodynamic properties of the bentonite. This mainly involves the non-consideration of the temperature effects and of the acid/base properties of the solid. Nevertheless, our results yield insight into important processes affecting porewater chemistry. Thus, the model suggests that proton exchange reactions may exert a strong control on calcite dissolution within highly compacted bentonite. Estimations of chemical changes over time in the bentonite were done in the basis of a mixing tank model. These results indicate transformation of Na-bentonite to Ca-bentonite over time. The extent of this process, however, critically depends on the amount of carbonate present in the bentonite. (authors) (34 refs.)

  19. Large-scale calculations of solid oxide fuel cell cermet anode by tight-binding quantum chemistry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Michihisa; Kubo, Momoji; Miyamoto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Improvement of anode characteristics of solid oxide fuel cells is important for the better cell performance and especially the direct use of hydrocarbons. A mixture of ceramics and metal is generally used as anode, and different combinations of ceramics and metals lead to different electrode characteristics. We performed large-scale calculations to investigate the characteristics of Ni/CeO 2 and Cu/CeO 2 anodes at the electronic level using our tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics program. Charge distribution analysis clarified the electron transfer from metal to oxide in both anodes. The calculations of density of states clarified different contributions of Ni and Cu orbitals to the energy levels at around Fermi level in each cermet. Based on the obtained results, we made considerations to explain different characteristics of both cermet anodes. The effectiveness of our approach for the investigation of complex cermet system was proved

  20. Atomic pile Directorate, Department of Metallurgy, Departments of Technology, Department of Fuel Elements and Structures, Division of Study of Fuel Elements - Semi annual report on the 1968-10-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.; Tortel, J.; Viallet, H.; Marinot, R.; Rulleau, A.; Lestiboudois, G.; Rousseau, G.; Faussat, A.; Ollier, H.; Truffert, J.; Ferrier, C.; Courcon, P.; Rendu, M.; Dieumegard, M.; Bret, A.

    1968-01-01

    This document gathers a set of reports of studies performed on nuclear fuel elements. The addressed topics are: creep behaviour of UMo and UMoAl tubes and pellets under the action of an external pressure (creep strength of tubes under external pressure, creep strength of pellets under external pressure, uncertainties on irradiation parameters in Pegase), problems related to centring devices (measurements and tests), irradiations of ring elements in power reactors, uranium/sheath metallurgical relationship for Bugey and influence of irradiation (cartridge behaviour in Pegase, long duration irradiation in power reactors, extrapolation in Bugey of results obtained in G2), theoretical study of kinetic oxidation phenomena in metal fuels, tests of leaking cartridges in EdF2, evolution of pressure in EL4 type irradiated fuel rods with ZrCu liners with respect to the conductivity integral, a focus on irradiations of Z0 type fuel elements in Pegase, cluster safety tests with uranium carbide in pile and out of pile, a review of studies performed on fuel elements with blowhole, and application of neutrography to fuel elements

  1. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The report covers the research and development (R and D) work carried out by Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1987-1988. The R and D work is reported in the form of individual summari es grouped under the headings: (1)Actinide Chemistry, (2)Nuclear Chemistry, and (3)Spectroscopy. Some of the highlights of the work are studies on : (a)solvent extraction and complexation behaviour of actinides, (b)helium ion induced fission of 238 U and 165 Ho and fission yield of 252 Cf(sf), (c)separation of rare earths from fission products, (d)positron annihilation spectroscopy of high Tc superconductors, and (e)EPR spectroscopy of high Tc superconductors. Radioanalytical services and radiation sources given to the other Divisions and Organisations are listed. A list of publications and symposia papers by scientists of the Division is also given. 45 figs., 49 tabs

  2. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  3. Future in actinoids coordination chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    Actinoids coordination chemistry is concerned with spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, specifically with solid-state chemistry of nuclear fuels, separation process with radioactive substances, and geological disposal of high-level radioactive substances. In the 21st century, accumulation of minor actinides, Np, Am, Cm, and others will be realized according with the present program of nuclear energy development. The present article briefly introduces general properties of actinide elements, followed by their coordination chemistry compared with rare earths coordination chemistry. Special facility needed to treat actinoids as well as their chemistry is briefly explained, together with the specific experimental apparatus such as X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry (TRLFS) with synchrotron radiation facilities. The effect of coordination with actinoids in the environment chemistry is important in underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. For theoretical analysis of the results with actinoids chemistry, relativistic calculation is needed. (S. Ohno)

  4. On the Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties and Electrochemical Performances As Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials of New La-(Sr/Vac)-Co-Ti-O Perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Gómez-Pérez, Alejandro; Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite-type oxides are well known materials that have been proposed as electrodes and electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The structure, which is referred to the ABO3 stoichiometry, can accommodate many different transition metal ions in the B-site; its electronic conductivity...... materials with valuable properties for SOFCs. We have analysed the effect of La3+ by Sr2+ substitution and vacancies creation in several double perovskites, La2MTiO6 (M = Co, Ni, Cu). Defect chemistry and electrical behavior have been investigated in order to unveil the nature of charge carriers....... Electrochemical performances have been assessed through polarization resistance measurements. In this communication we present the results regarding La2SrTiO6 perovskites. La/Sr substitution in La2-xSrxCoTiO6-δ produces Co2+ to Co3+ oxidation while vacancies in La2-xCoTiO6-δ yield Co2+ oxidation for low A...

  5. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  6. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  7. Cell Division Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the progress in the design and construction of automatic equipment for synchronizing cell division in culture by periodic...Concurrent experiments in hypothermic synchronization of algal cell division are reported.

  8. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This report summarizes main research achievements in the 48th fiscal year which were made by Reactor Engineering Division consisted of eight laboratories and Computing Center. The major research and development projects, with which the research programmes in the Division are associated, are development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor for multi-purpose use, development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor conducted by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and Engineering Research Programme for Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor. Many achievements are reported in various research items such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and activities of Computing Center. (auth.)

  9. Groundwater chemistry around a repository for spent nuclear fuel over a glacial cycle. Evaluation for SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auque, L.F.; Gimeno, M.J.; Gomez, J.B.; Puigdomenech, I.; Smellie, J.; Tullborg, E.L.

    2007-12-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the rock volume surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository is of importance to many factors that affect repository performance. The geochemical characteristics of present-day Swedish groundwater systems are governed by successive mixing events of several waters during the post-glacial evolution of the sites. The expected development of groundwaters at two Swedish sites - Forsmark and Laxemar - during a glacial cycle has been evaluated within the SR-Can project, and the results are presented in this report. For the temperate period following repository closure, an approach is proposed here to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater geochemistry by coupling hydrogeological and geochemical models in a sequential way. The procedure combines hydrogeological results obtained with CONNECTFLOW within the SR-Can project with a mixing and reaction path simulation using PHREEQC. The hydrological results contain mixing proportions of four component waters (a deep brine, glacial meltwater, marine water, and meteoric infiltration) at each time step and at every node of the D regional model domain. In this work the mixing fractions are fed into PHREEQC using software developed to build formatted input files and to extract the information from output files for subsequent plotting and analysis. The geochemical calculations included both chemical mixing and equilibrium reactions with selected minerals: calcite, chalcedony and an Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide. Results for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites are graphically presented as histograms and box-and-whisker plots. Cross sections, where each node is colour-coded with respect to an important variable (pH, Eh or concentrations of main elements), are used to visualize the future evolution of the site. Sensitivity analyses are made to evaluate the effects of the different reactions and/or assumptions. The results reflect the progressive inflow of meteoric waters into the sites

  10. Groundwater chemistry around a repository for spent nuclear fuel over a glacial cycle. Evaluation for SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auque, L.F.; Gimeno, M.J.; Gomez, J.B. [University of Zaragoza (Spain); Puigdomenech, I. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the rock volume surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository is of importance to many factors that affect repository performance. The geochemical characteristics of present-day Swedish groundwater systems are governed by successive mixing events of several waters during the post-glacial evolution of the sites. The expected development of groundwaters at two Swedish sites - Forsmark and Laxemar - during a glacial cycle has been evaluated within the SR-Can project, and the results are presented in this report. For the temperate period following repository closure, an approach is proposed here to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater geochemistry by coupling hydrogeological and geochemical models in a sequential way. The procedure combines hydrogeological results obtained with CONNECTFLOW within the SR-Can project with a mixing and reaction path simulation using PHREEQC. The hydrological results contain mixing proportions of four component waters (a deep brine, glacial meltwater, marine water, and meteoric infiltration) at each time step and at every node of the D regional model domain. In this work the mixing fractions are fed into PHREEQC using software developed to build formatted input files and to extract the information from output files for subsequent plotting and analysis. The geochemical calculations included both chemical mixing and equilibrium reactions with selected minerals: calcite, chalcedony and an Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide. Results for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites are graphically presented as histograms and box-and-whisker plots. Cross sections, where each node is colour-coded with respect to an important variable (pH, Eh or concentrations of main elements), are used to visualize the future evolution of the site. Sensitivity analyses are made to evaluate the effects of the different reactions and/or assumptions. The results reflect the progressive inflow of meteoric waters into the sites

  11. Division of Finance Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards You are here Administration / Finance Division of Finance Updates IRIS Expenditure Object Codes

  12. Argonne Physics Division Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] Physics Division Home News Division Information Contact PHY Org Chart Physics Division Colloquium Auditorium, Building 203, Argonne National Laboratory Fridays at 11:00 AM 2017 : Sereres Johnston 15 Sep 2017 Joint Physics and Materials Science Colloquium J. C. Séamus Davis, Cornell

  13. Chemical Biodynamics Division. Annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Chemical Biodynamics Division of LBL continues to conduct basic research on the dynamics of living cells and on the interaction of radiant energy with organic matter. Many aspects of this basic research are related to problems of environmental and health effects of fossil fuel combustion, solar energy conversion and chemical/ viral carcinogenesis.

  14. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  15. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  16. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  17. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  18. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  19. Radiochemistry Division: annual progress report: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The progress of Research and Development (R and D) activities during the year 1987 are reported in the form of summaries, which are presented under the headings (1) Actinide Chemistry, (2) Nuclear Chemistry, and (3) Spectroscopy. Microwave absorption studies of the high Tsub(c) oxide superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 Osub(7-x) using electron paramagnetic resonance techniques are the new feature during the report year. Radioanalytical services and radiation sources in the form of electrodeposited sources or standard soluti ons were also given to the other Divisions, other units of the Department of Atomic Energy, and other organisations in the country. A list of papers by the members of the Division published in various journals and presented at various symposia, conferences etc. is given at the end of the report. (M.G.B.). refs., 51 tabs., 33 figs

  20. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  1. Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Sowards, Jeffrey W; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Applied Chemicals and Materials Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted a workshop to identify and prioritize research needs in the area of biocorrosion. Materials used to store and distribute alternative fuels have experienced an increase in corrosion due to the unique conditions caused by the presence of microbes and the chemistry of biofuels and biofuel precursors. Participants in this workshop, including experts from the microbiological, fuel, and materials communities, delved into the unique materials and chemical challenges that occur with production, transport, and storage of alternative fuels. Discussions focused on specific problems including: a) the changing composition of "drop-in" fuels and the impact of that composition on materials; b) the influence of microbial populations on corrosion and fuel quality; and c) state-of-the-art measurement technologies for monitoring material degradation and biofilm formation.

  2. Ancient chemistry fuels new biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N

    2001-04-03

    An enormous new greenhouse project in southern Britain aims to heighten awareness of the human relationship with plants and the growing potential of plant-derived compounds to find new uses, reports Nigel Williams

  3. On infinitely divisible semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Rosiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    to non Gaussian infinitely divisible processes. First we show that the class of infinitely divisible semimartingales is so large that the natural analog of Stricker's theorem fails to hold. Then, as the main result, we prove that an infinitely divisible semimartingale relative to the filtration generated...... by a random measure admits a unique decomposition into an independent increment process and an infinitely divisible process of finite variation. Consequently, the natural analog of Stricker's theorem holds for all strictly representable processes (as defined in this paper). Since Gaussian processes...... are strictly representable due to Hida's multiplicity theorem, the classical Stricker's theorem follows from our result. Another consequence is that the question when an infinitely divisible process is a semimartingale can often be reduced to a path property, when a certain associated infinitely divisible...

  4. Inorganic Materials Division annual report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, A.; Hornady, B.

    1976-01-01

    This compilation lists abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1975 at national and international meetings by members of the Geoscience and Engineering Section, Inorganic Materials Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Titles of talks at university and local meetings are also listed when available. The subjects range from the in situ retorting of coal to the temperature profile of the moon. A subject classification is included

  5. Division of atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroell, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Division of Atomic Physics, Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), is responsible for the basic physics teaching in all subjects at LTH and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and Laser Physics. The Division has research activities in basic and applied optical spectroscopy, to a large extent based on lasers. It is also part of the Physics Department, Lund University, where it forms one of eight divisions. Since the beginning of 1980 the research activities of our division have been centred around the use of lasers. The activities during the period 1991-1992 is described in this progress reports

  6. Progress report 1983-1984 Reactor Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Description of the activity developed by the Reactor Chemistry Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission during the period 1983-1984 in its four divisions: Chemical Control; Moderator and Refrigerant Chemistry; Radiation Chemistry and Nuclear Power Plant's Service. A list of the publications made by the personnel during this period is also included. (M.E.L.) [es

  7. Energy Technology Division research summary -- 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Research funded primarily by the NRC is directed toward assessing the roles of cyclic fatigue, intergranular stress corrosion cracking, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking on failures in light water reactor (LWR) piping systems, pressure vessels, and various core components. In support of the fast reactor program, the Division has responsibility for fuel-performance modeling and irradiation testing. The Division has major responsibilities in several design areas of the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The Division supports the DOE in ensuring safe shipment of nuclear materials by providing extensive review of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs). Finally, in the nuclear area they are investigating the safe disposal of spent fuel and waste. In work funded by DOE`s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the high-temperature superconductivity program continues to be a major focal point for industrial interactions. Coatings and lubricants developed in the division`s Tribology Section are intended for use in transportation systems of the future. Continuous fiber ceramic composites are being developed for high-performance heat engines. Nondestructive testing techniques are being developed to evaluate fiber distribution and to detect flaws. A wide variety of coatings for corrosion protection of metal alloys are being studied. These can increase lifetimes significant in a wide variety of coal combustion and gasification environments.

  8. Department of Chemistry, progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The research activities in Department of Chemistry during the last 3 years from 1986 to 1988 were compiled. The researches and works of Department of Chemistry are mainly those concerned with important basic matters and items which are committed to the further development of the nuclear fuels and materials, to the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to the acquisition of data for the environmental safety studies. Intensive efforts were also made on chemical analysis service of various fuels and nuclear materials. (author)

  9. NREL Fuels and Engines Research: Maximizing Vehicle Efficiency and

    Science.gov (United States)

    chemistry, conversion, and combustion to the evaluation of advanced fuels in actual engines and vehicles . With fuel chemistry, our scientific discoveries start out small. We use quantum mechanical modeling to explore how fuels with varying chemistry interact with engine and vehicle design. At our Fuel Combustion

  10. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  11. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  12. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  13. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  14. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  15. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  16. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report: 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Godbole, S.V.; Iyer, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Radiochemistry Division of BARC during the year 1993 are briefly described under the headings: (i) nuclear chemistry; (ii) actinide chemistry; (iii) spectroscopy and (iv) instrumentation. Nuclear chemistry work deals with areas of nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear data measurements and synthesis of transplutonium isotopes. The research programme in actinide chemistry deals mainly with the complexation of actinides, lanthanides and fission products from aqueous media with organic reagents such as amides, diamides, CMPO, crown ethers and macrocyclic ligands. Spectroscopic studies include electron paramagnetic resonance and optical investigations to probe phase transitions in actinide and other compounds, investigation of role of radiation induced radical ions in the thermoluminescence of actinide doped phosphors, photoacoustic spectra of uranium compounds and development of analytical methods for the determination of silver and rare earths from uranium and thorium oxide matrices. The instrumentation group has developed electronic circuitry and software support for installing a pilot plant for the preparation of dry gel microspheres of UO 2 and (U, Pu)O 2 . A list of publications by the scientific staff of the Division is also included. (author). refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs

  17. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report: 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Y.; Seshagiri, T.K.; Iyer, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The research and development activities of Radiochemistry Division during 1994 are briefly described under the headings: (i) nuclear chemistry; (ii) actinide chemistry; (iii) spectroscopy and (iv) instrumentation. Nuclear chemistry work deals with the areas of nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear data measurements, neutron activation analysis and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The research programme in actinide chemistry deals mainly with the complexation of the actinides, lanthanides and fission products from aqueous media with organic reagents such as amides, diamides, HTTA, CMPO, BEHSO and macrocyclic ligands. Spectroscopic studies include electron paramagnetic resonance investigations of actinide and other compounds, investigation of role of radiation induced radical ions in the thermoluminescence of actinide/lanthanide doped phosphors and development of analytical methods for the determination of metallic impurities in plutonium, uranium, thorium oxide and yttrium aluminium garnet matrices. A sinusoidal waveform generator for facilitating electrochemical etching of nuclear tracks and an IBM PC/AT based data station for the IR spectrophotometer were developed by the instrumentation group. A list of publications, numbering 107, by the Scientific staff of the Division is also included in the report. (author). refs., 32 tabs., 31 figs

  18. Chemistry in water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Norring, K.

    1994-01-01

    The international conference Chemistry in Water Reactors was arranged in Nice 24-27/04/1994 by the French Nuclear Energy Society. Examples of technical program areas were primary chemistry, operational experience, fundamental studies and new technology. Furthermore there were sessions about radiation field build-up, hydrogen chemistry, electro-chemistry, condensate polishing, decontamination and chemical cleaning. The conference gave the impression that there are some areas that are going to be more important than others during the next few years to come. Cladding integrity: Professor Ishigure from Japan emphasized that cladding integrity is a subject of great concern, especially with respect to waterside corrosion, deposition and release of crud. Chemistry control: The control of the iron/nickel concentration quotient seems to be not as important as previously considered. The future operation of a nuclear power plant is going to require a better control of the water chemistry than achievable today. One example of this is solubility control via regulation in BWR. Trends in USA: means an increasing use of hydrogen, minimization of SCC/IASCC, minimization of radiation fields by thorough chemistry control, guarding fuel integrity by minimization of cladding corrosion and minimization of flow assisted corrosion. Stellite replacement: The search for replacement materials will continue. Secondary side crevice chemistry: Modeling and practical studies are required to increase knowledge about the crevice chemistry and how it develops under plant operation conditions. Inhibitors: Inhibitors for IGSCC and IGA as well for the primary- (zinc) as for the secondary side (Ti) should be studied. The effects and mode of operation of the inhibitors should be documented. Chemical cleaning: of heat transfer surfaces will be an important subject. Prophylactic cleaning at regular intervals could be one mode of operation

  19. Energy Technology Division research summary 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the U.S. Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into eight sections, four with concentrations in the materials area and four in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officer, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. This Overview highlights some major ET research areas. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water nuclear reactors (LWRs) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) remains a significant area of interest for the Division. We currently have programs on environmentally assisted cracking, steam generator integrity, and the integrity of high-burnup fuel during loss-of-coolant accidents. The bulk of the NRC research work is carried out by three ET sections: Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials; Irradiation Performance; and Sensors, Instrumentation, and Nondestructive Evaluation

  20. Frontiers in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This book contains articles on the landmarks in nuclear and radiochemistry which takes through scientific history spanning over five decades from the times of Roentgen to the middle of this century. Articles on nuclear fission and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle give an insight into the current status of this subject. Reviews on frontier areas like lanthanides, actinides, muonium chemistry, accelerator based nuclear chemistry, fast radiochemical separations and nuclear medicine bring out the multidisciplinary nature of nuclear sciences. This book also includes an article on environmental radiochemistry and safety. Chapters relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Computational Fair Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    Fair division is a fundamental problem in economic theory and one of the oldest questions faced through the history of human society. The high level scenario is that of several participants having to divide a collection of resources such that everyone is satisfied with their allocation -- e.g. two...... heirs dividing a car, house, and piece of land inherited. The literature on fair division was developed in the 20th century in mathematics and economics, but computational work on fair division is still sparse. This thesis can be seen as an excursion in computational fair division divided in two parts....... The first part tackles the cake cutting problem, where the cake is a metaphor for a heterogeneous divisible resource such as land, time, mineral deposits, and computer memory. We study the equilibria of classical protocols and design an algorithmic framework for reasoning about their game theoretic...

  2. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  3. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  4. The ACS-NUCL Division 50th Anniversary: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-10

    The ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was initiated in 1955 as a subdivision of the Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Probationary divisional status was lifted in 1965. The Division’s first symposium was held in Denver in 1964 and it is fitting that we kicked-off the 50th Anniversary in Denver in the spring of 2015. Listed as a small ACS Division with only about 1,000 members, NUCL’s impact over the past fifty years has been remarkable. National ACS meetings have had many symposia sponsored or cosponsored by NUCL that included Nobel Laureates, U.S. Senators, other high-ranking officials and many students as speakers. The range of subjects has been exceptional as are the various prestigious awards established by the Division. Of major impact has been the past 30 years of the NUCL Nuclear Chemistry Summer Schools to help fill the void of qualified nuclear scientists and technicians. In celebrating the 50th Anniversary we honor the past, celebrate the present and shape the future of the Division and nuclear science and technology. To celebrate this auspicious occasion a commemorative lapel pin has been designed for distribution to NUCL Division members.

  5. Water chemistry of Atucha II PHWVR. Design concepts and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Rodriguez, Ivanna; Duca, Jorge; Fernandez, Ricardo; Rico, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Atucha II is a pressurized heavy water vessel reactor designed by Siemens-KWU, currently part of AREVA NP, of 745 MWe and similar to Atucha I, which has been in operation over 25 years. The primary heat transport system (PHTS) is composed by vertical channels (277-313 C degrees) that allocate the fuel elements while the moderator circuit is composed by a partially separated circuit (142-173 C degrees). The moderation power is transferred to the feedwater through the moderator heat exchangers (HX). These HXs operate as the last, high pressure water-steam cycle heaters as well. Materials (with exception of fuel channels and fuel sheaths which are made of zirconium alloys) are all austenitic steels while cobalt containing alloys have been all replaced at the design stage. Steam generator and moderator HX tubing are Alloy 800 made. The core is operated without boron except with the first fresh nucleus. The secondary circuit or Balance of plant (BOP) is similar in conception to that of a PWR but the moderator HXs. It is entirely built of ferrous alloys, has a feedwater-deaerator tank and moisture separator. The energy sink is the Rio de la Plata River. The Reactors Chemistry Department, Chemistry Division, National Atomic Energy Commission, in its character of R and D institution has been committed by CNA II-N.A.S.A Project to prepare the water chemistry specifications, water chemistry engineering and manuals, considering the type of reactor, design and construction aspects and operation characteristics, taking into account the current state-of-the art and worldwide standards. This includes conceptual aspects and implementation and operative aspects as well. This documentation will be released after a designer's review as it has been stated in the respective agreement. Respecting the confidentiality agreement between CNEA and NASA and the confidentiality regarding handling original documentation provided by the designer, it is considered illustrative to

  6. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  7. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases

  8. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions

  10. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  11. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Research activities of the theoretical physics division for 1979 are described. Short summaries are given of specific research work in the following fields: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, elementary particles [fr

  12. Energy Technology Division research summary -- 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Research funded primarily by the NRC is directed toward assessing the roles of cyclic fatigue, intergranular stress corrosion cracking, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking on failures in light water reactor (LWR) piping systems, pressure vessels, and various core components. In support of the fast reactor program, the Division has responsibility for fuel-performance modeling and irradiation testing. The Division has major responsibilities in several design areas of the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The Division supports the DOE in ensuring safe shipment of nuclear materials by providing extensive review of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs). Finally, in the nuclear area they are investigating the safe disposal of spent fuel and waste. In work funded by DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the high-temperature superconductivity program continues to be a major focal point for industrial interactions. Coatings and lubricants developed in the division's Tribology Section are intended for use in transportation systems of the future. Continuous fiber ceramic composites are being developed for high-performance heat engines. Nondestructive testing techniques are being developed to evaluate fiber distribution and to detect flaws. A wide variety of coatings for corrosion protection of metal alloys are being studied. These can increase lifetimes significant in a wide variety of coal combustion and gasification environments

  13. Fuel cycle and waste newsletter. Vol. 3, No. 2, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    The top stories in this issue of the Fuel Cycle and Waste Newsletter highlight some important activities of the Division to reduce the nuclear threats worldwide. It involves conditioning and possible repatriation spent sealed radioactive sources, conversion of research reactors from high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium and return of the fuel to the USA and to the Russian Federation. These activities have great technical challenges and are connected with important legal and administrative work. Topics covered are mobile hot cell (SHARS) for conditioning of spent high-activity sealed radioactive sources and support of global efforts to remove highly enriched uranium from international commerce. The activities of the waste technology section (WTS), and of the nuclear fuel cycle and materials section (NFC and MS) are presented as well as the launch of the IAEA's international decommissioning network. Further discussions include the development and implementation of radioactive waste management policies and strategies, the national reporting tool upgrade of the Net -Enabled Waste Management Data Base (NEWMBD), spent fuel assessment and research, spent fuel treatment options, FUMEX (FUel Modelling at EXtende Burnup), FUWAC (Fuel and Water Chemistry), the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (INFCIS), research reactor availability and reliability, research reactor coalitions and upcoming training course on research reactor water quality management as well as ongoing activities related to Advanced Fuel Cycles (AFC). Recent publications and meetings in 2007 are listed

  14. The ORNL Chemical Technology Division, 1950-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Genung, R.K.; McNeese, L.E.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    This document attempts to reconstruct the role played by the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the atomic era since the 1940`s related to the development and production of nuclear weapons and power reactors. Chem Tech`s early contributions were landmark pioneering studies. Unknown and dimly perceived problems like chemical hazards, radioactivity, and criticality had to be dealt with. New chemical concepts and processes had to be developed to test the new theories being developed by physicists. New engineering concepts had to be developed and demonstrated in order to build facilities and equipment that had never before been attempted. Chem Tech`s role was chemical separations, especially uranium and plutonium, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. With diversification of national and ORNL missions, Chem Tech undertook R&D studies in many areas including biotechnology; clinical and environmental chemistry; nuclear reactors; safety regulations; effective and safe waste management and disposal; computer modeling and informational databases; isotope production; and environmental control. The changing mission of Chem Tech are encapsulated in the evolving activities.

  15. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Ki Suk; Joe, Kih Soo; Jee, Kwang Yong; Jung, Woo Sik; Sohn, Se Chul; Yeo, In Heong; Han, Sun Ho

    1988-12-01

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  16. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  17. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  18. Role of chemistry in uranium leaching from sand stone ore bodies by ISL technique (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Hanif, M.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of uranium for nuclear power generation is increasing day by day in the current energy requirement scenario. The energy sector is reverting to nuclear power generation in many countries. Keeping in view the limited availability of fossil fuels and the problems associated with its exploration. In situ leach mining of uranium is currently employed in many countries for extraction of uranium in soft rocks from subsurface where deposits are lying deeper and the cost of underground mining (UGM) are high. In situ leaching of uranium revolves around injection of leachant (usually bicarbonate) and oxidant into the host rock without disturbing the strata thereby solubilizing the uranium in solution form. The resultant leach is then pumped out and sent to processing plant for production of yellow cake. The Chemistry Division NMC-I, D. G. Khan plays a vital role in ISL Mining of uranium, starting from initial exploration of ore body, analysis of leach liquor and other liquid samples up to the final step of yellow cake formation. During all these analysis to ensure Quality control, Chemistry Division utilizes modern / updated analytical techniques e.g. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry and Potentiometry. R and D studies are also being carried out to optimize and economize the operational parameters accordingly. This presentation basically encompasses the role of Chemistry at various levels and stages at Mining Projects to achieve this goal. (author)

  19. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  20. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  1. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, L.; Davis, T. P.; Stenzel, M. H.; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process is a controlled/'living' free radical polymerisation process that was invented in Australia by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSRIO) group led by Ezio Rizzardo. RAFT polymerisation has proven to be a powerful tool for the synthesis of polymers with predetermined molecular weight and low polydispersity. The RAFT process is capable of effecting living free radical polymerisation control over a great variety of monomers (eg (meth)acrylates, styrenes, acrylamides, vinyl acetate). The RAFT technique uses thiocarbonylthio compounds to mediate the polymerisation via a reversible chain transfer process. This leads to the establishment of an equilibrium under which all the propagating chains have approximately the same chain length at the same instant of time. The RAFT agent typically possesses a thiocarbonylthio group (S=C-S) with substituents R (radical leaving group) and Z (activating/stabilising group), which govern the reaction kinetics and the degree of structural control. In 2001, we reported the synthesis of RAFT agents (phenyl dithio acetates) that can be applied at low/ambient temperatures in the polymerization of alkyl acrylates and styrene. Low/ambient temperature RAFT agents allow the application of γ-radiation as source of initiation. The combination of γ-radiation and ambient temperature RAFT agents allows performing living polymerization at ambient temperature up to high conversions. This technique also opens the possibility to graft narrow polydisperse polymers from existing polymer surfaces. We have applied RAFT polymerization in conjunction with γ-radiation to graft various monomers (e.g. styrene, m-isopropenyl-α,α ' -dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI), N,N ' -dimethyl acrylamide) from solid polypropylene phases that can be used for applications in combinatorial chemistry (eg peptide synthesis and scavenger reactions)

  2. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...... process by reaction between SO2 and calcium containing sorbents and the influence on the NOx chemistry will be treated....

  3. SAF line analytical chemistry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, E.W.; Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    An analytical chemistry system dedicated to supporting the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is discussed. Several analyses are required prior to the fuel pellets being loaded into cladding tubes to assure certification requirements will be met. These analyses, which will take less than 15 minutes, are described. The automated sample transport system which will be used to move pellets from the fabriction line to the chemistry area is also described

  4. Combustion chemistry - activities in the CHEK research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, K.; Johnsson, J.E.; Glarborg, P.; Frandsen, F.; Jensen, A.; Oestberg, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The combustion chemistry in the oxidation of fossil fuels and biofuels determines together with mixing and heat transfer the required size of a furnace, the emission of gaseous pollutants, and the formation of ash and deposits on surfaces. This presentation describes technologies for solid fuels combustion and gives a summary of the fuels, the pollutant chemistry and the inorganic chemistry in combustion processes. Emphasis is put on the work carried out in the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Programme. (orig.)

  5. Chemistry and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Jean-Claude; Brasseur, Guy; Brechet, Yves; Candel, Sebastien; Cazenave, Anny; Courtillot, Vincent; Fontecave, Marc; Garnier, Emmanuel; Goebel, Philippe; Legrand, Jack; Legrand, Michel; Le Treut, Herve; Mauberger, Pascal; Dinh-Audouin, Minh-Thu; Olivier, Daniele; Rigny, Paul; Bigot, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In its first part, this collective publication addresses the decennial and centuries-old variations of climate: perspectives and implications of climate change for the 21. century, questions remaining about the understanding of climate change from its sources to its modelling, extreme climate variations and societies during the last millennium. The contributions of the second part outline how chemistry is a tool to study climate change: ice chemistry as an archive of our past environment, observations and predictions on sea level rise, relationship between atmosphere chemistry and climate. The third set of contributions discusses the transformation of the energy system for a cleaner atmosphere and the management of the climate risk: the chemical processing of CO_2, actions of chemical companies to support the struggle against climate change, relationship between barrel price and renewable energies, relationship between grid complexity and green energy. The last part outlines the role chemistry can have to be able to do without fossil fuels: chemistry in front of challenges of transformation of the energy system, the use of micro-algae, the use of hydrogen as a vector of energy transition

  6. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  7. Minutes of Technical Division Steering Committee Meeting, September 13, 1955 -- Savannah River Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.C.

    1955-09-16

    The Steering Committee approved 8 studies related to separation processes, analytical chemistry, waste handling, and recycle development. Safety and security issues were discussed. Appendices detail the financial status of the Technical Division and estimated man months for development studies approved for the Purex Process, tritium separations, thorium recycle, U-235 separations, and 100-, 200-, and 300-Area studies in analytical chemistry development. The status of 25 other Technical Division studies are listed along with their budget.

  8. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  9. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  10. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  11. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  12. The slow birth of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, I.

    1993-03-12

    Mainstream chemistry is beginning to look at environmental chemistry as an important solution to environmental problems. This can include research into developing cleaner-burning liquid fuels, cleaning up oil spills, or developing better process methods which engender less pollution, as opposed to previous practices of detecting pollutants without preventing their release to begin with. This article discusses the progress of this chemistry discipline, describes some of the ongoing research, and describes the future for environmental chemistry. An impetus for future growth will be generational change, as young scientists in training are beginning to push faculities into creating programs for environmental chemistry.

  13. Actinide separative chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2004-01-01

    Actinide separative chemistry has focused very heavy work during the last decades. The main was nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: solvent extraction processes appeared quickly a suitable, an efficient way to recover major actinides (uranium and plutonium), and an extensive research, concerning both process chemistry and chemical engineering technologies, allowed the industrial development in this field. We can observe for about half a century a succession of Purex plants which, if based on the same initial discovery (i.e. the outstanding properties of a molecule, the famous TBP), present huge improvements at each step, for a large part due to an increased mastery of the mechanisms involved. And actinide separation should still focus R and D in the near future: there is a real, an important need for this, even if reprocessing may appear as a mature industry. We can present three main reasons for this. First, actinide recycling appear as a key-issue for future nuclear fuel cycles, both for waste management optimization and for conservation of natural resource; and the need concerns not only major actinide but also so-called minor ones, thus enlarging the scope of the investigation. Second, extraction processes are not well mastered at microscopic scale: there is a real, great lack in fundamental knowledge, useful or even necessary for process optimization (for instance, how to design the best extracting molecule, taken into account the several notifications and constraints, from selectivity to radiolytic resistivity?); and such a need for a real optimization is to be more accurate with the search of always cheaper, cleaner processes. And then, there is room too for exploratory research, on new concepts-perhaps for processing quite new fuels- which could appear attractive and justify further developments to be properly assessed: pyro-processes first, but also others, like chemistry in 'extreme' or 'unusual' conditions (supercritical solvents, sono-chemistry, could be

  14. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  15. Theoretical Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.G.

    1979-04-01

    This report presents highlights of activities in the Theoretical (T) Division from October 1976-January 1979. The report is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of the Division: its unique function at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and within the scientific community as a whole; the organization of personnel; the main areas of research; and a survey of recent T-Division initiatives. This overview is followed by a survey of the 13 groups within the Division, their main responsibilities, interests, and expertise, consulting activities, and recent scientific accomplisments. The remainder of the report, Parts II and III, is devoted to articles on selected research activities. Recent efforts on topics of immediate interest to energy and weapons programs at LASL and elsewhere are described in Part II, Major National Programs. Separate articles present T-Divison contributions to weapons research, reactor safety and reactor physics research, fusion research, laser isotope separation, and other energy research. Each article is a compilation of independent projects within T Division, all related to but addressing different aspects of the major program. Part III is organized by subject discipline, and describes recent scientific advances of fundamental interest. An introduction, defining the scope and general nature of T-Division efforts within a given discipline, is followed by articles on the research topics selected. The reporting is done by the scientists involved in the research, and an attempt is made to communicate to a general audience. Some data are given incidentally; more technical presentations of the research accomplished may be found among the 47 pages of references. 110 figures, 5 tables

  16. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  17. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  18. Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    A few classes of algorithms to implement division in hardware have been used over the years: division by digit-recurrence, by reciprocal approximation by iterative methods and by polynomial approximation. Due to the differences in the algorithms, a comparison among their implementation in terms o...... of performance and precision is sometimes hard to make. In this work, we use power dissipation and energy consumption as metrics to compare among those different classes of algorithms. There are no previous works in the literature presenting such a comparison....

  19. Digital Arithmetic: Division Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Division is one of the basic arithmetic operations supported by every computer system. The operation can be performed and implemented by either hardware or software, or by a combination of the two. Although division is not as frequent as addition and multiplication, nowadays, most processors impl...... significant hardware resources and is more suitable for software implementation on the existing multiply units. The purpose of this entry is to provide an introductory survey using a presentation style suitable for the interested non-specialist readers as well....

  20. Radiometallurgy Division: current activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Joydipta; Khan, Kirity Bhushan

    2017-01-01

    Radiometallurgy laboratory was set up in mid-1960's as a part of Materials Group with two major objectives: R and D and production of plutonium bearing nuclear fuels, Post irradiation examination (PIE) of fuels and structural materials used in thermal reactors. As a part of the above mandate, flowsheet for laboratory scale production of plutonium metal was established. The first milestone of Radiometallurgy laboratory was the production of PuO_2 fuel core for PURNIMA reactor at BARC in early 70's. This was soon followed by the fabrication of Pu-Be neutron sources and the development of flow sheets for the fabrication of AI-Pu plate fuel elements and (U,Pu)O_2 fuel pins. The hot cells in Radiometallurgy laboratory were commissioned in August 1974. So far, this has been the only facility in DAE where PIE of fuels and critical components from test reactors and power reactors has been carried out

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Professor Mark Holtzapple, developed methods to convert waste biomass (e.g., sewage sludge, agricultural wastes), into animal feed, industrial chemicals, or fuels.

  2. Advanced chemistry management system to optimize BWR chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, K.; Nagasawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    BWR plant chemistry control has close relationships among nuclear safety, component reliability, radiation field management and fuel integrity. Advanced technology is required to improve chemistry control [1,3,6,7,10,11]. Toshiba has developed TACMAN (Toshiba Advanced Chemistry Management system) to support BWR chemistry control. The TACMAN has been developed as response to utilities' years of requirements to keep plant operation safety, reliability and cost benefit. The advanced technology built into the TACMAN allows utilities to make efficient chemistry control and to keep cost benefit. TACMAN is currently being used in response to the needs for tools those plant chemists and engineers could use to optimize and identify plant chemistry conditions continuously. If an incipient condition or anomaly is detected at early stage, root causes evaluation and immediate countermeasures can be provided. Especially, the expert system brings numerous and competitive advantages not only to improve plant chemistry reliability but also to standardize and systematize know-how, empirical knowledge and technologies in BWR chemistry This paper shows detail functions of TACMAN and practical results to evaluate actual plant. (authors)

  3. Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties, and Evaluation of New Oxides Sr2 CoNb1-x Tix O6-δ (0≤x≤1) as Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcondo, María Teresa; Yuste, Mercedes; Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos; Muñoz-Gil, Daniel; García-Martín, Susana; Muñoz-Noval, Alvaro; Orench, Inés Puente; García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Amador, Ulises

    2017-07-21

    The perovskite series Sr 2 CoNb 1-x Ti x O 6-δ (0≤x≤1) was investigated in the full compositional range to assess its potential as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The variation of transport properties and thus, the area specific resistances (ASR) are explained by a detailed investigation of the defect chemistry. Increasing the titanium content from x=0-1 produces both oxidation of Co 3+ to Co 4+ (from 0 up to 40 %) and oxygen vacancies (from 6.0 to 5.7 oxygen atom/formula unit), although each charge compensation mechanism predominates in different compositional ranges. Neutron diffraction reveals that samples with high Ti-contents lose a significant amount of oxygen upon heating above 600 K. Oxygen is partially recovered upon cooling as the oxygen release and uptake show noticeably different kinetics. The complex defect chemistry of these compounds, together with the compositional changes upon heating/cooling cycles and atmospheres, produce a complicated behavior of electrical conductivity. Cathodes containing Sr 2 CoTiO 6-δ display low ASR values, 0,13 Ω cm 2 at 973 K, comparable to those of the best compounds reported so far, being a very promising cathode material for SOFC. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  5. Fuel R and D to improve fuel reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rosa; Cheng, Bo; Deshon, Jeff; Edsinger, Kurt; Ozer, Odelli

    2006-01-01

    Light water reactor fuel is operating in an increasingly challenging environment. Fuel burnup extension and cycle length increase both can increase the local duty. Reactor water chemistry modifications for the purpose of protection the plant system materials have the potential of increasing fuel surface deposition and cladding corrosion and hydriding. The status of fuel performance in US reactors is summarized and an update of the Fuel Reliability Program' established by the utility industry to ensure reliability is provided. (author)

  6. Division of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Natural Resources logo, color scheme Department of Natural Resources Division of Agriculture Search Search DNR's site DNR State of Alaska Toggle main menu visibility Agriculture Home Programs Asset Disposals Alaska Caps Progam Board of Agriculture & Conservation Farm To School Program Grants

  7. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  8. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  9. Order Division Automated System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniemeyer, Justin M.; And Others

    This publication was prepared by the Order Division Automation Project staff to fulfill the Library of Congress' requirement to document all automation efforts. The report was originally intended for internal use only and not for distribution outside the Library. It is now felt that the library community at-large may have an interest in the…

  10. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  11. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is discussed. Sampling difficulties and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are reviewed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered

  12. Radiochemistry Division: annual progress report for 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayadevan, N.C.; Manohar, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Radiochemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, during 1980 are reported in the form of individual summaries under the headings: reactor chemistry, heavy element chemistry, process chemistry (of actinides), nuclear chemistry and instrumentation. Some of the highlights of the R and D activities are: (1) setting up of the facilities for the prepa.ration of (U,Pu)O 2 microspheres by sot-gel process on laboratory scale, (2) studies on synergistic extraction of Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with mixtures of TTA and oxodonor6s like TBP, (3) kinetics of radiation induced oxidation of Pu(IV) and that of reduction of Pu(VII), (4) determination of fission yields of 138 Xe, 139 Cs, 252 Cf and 229 Th, (5) measuring of gamma ray abundance of 229 Th and isotopic ratios in thorium and plutonium and (6) design and fabrication of an osmistor for the determination of the molecular weight of actinide complexes. A list of papers published in journals and papers presented at conference/symposia during the year is also given. (M.G.B.)

  13. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  14. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme

  15. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section

    1997-12-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme.

  16. Progress report - Physical and Environmental Sciences - Physics Division, 1995 January 1 to December 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, M. (ed.)

    1996-05-01

    This document is a Progress Report for the Physical and Environmental Sciences, Physics Division, for the period 1995 January 1 to December 31, at the Chalk River nuclear Labs. The condensed matter science group continued to operate a multi-faceted program involving collaborative basic and applied research with external scientists in the fields of materials science, physics, chemistry and biology. The Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry (And) program gained strength with ever wider applications for the nuclear, aerospace, and manufacturing programs. Steps continued towards making neutron scattering facilities at NRU reactor more user friendly. The neutrino physics group, as part of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Institute, collaborating with scientists from Canada, USA and UK. The accelerator physics group spent considerable effort working with materials and fuels scientists to show the value of accelerators as an out-reactor source of radiation. Specific research activities have included the demonstration of laser plasma deposition of diamond coating, which has potential application for high-wear components in reactors, and the study for a Free Electron Laser upgrade for the IMPELA accelerator. As a result of funding reduction all programs of the Division were dissolved as of 1997 March 31.

  17. Progress report - Physical and Environmental Sciences - Physics Division, 1995 January 1 to December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, M.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a Progress Report for the Physical and Environmental Sciences, Physics Division, for the period 1995 January 1 to December 31, at the Chalk River nuclear Labs. The condensed matter science group continued to operate a multi-faceted program involving collaborative basic and applied research with external scientists in the fields of materials science, physics, chemistry and biology. The Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry (And) program gained strength with ever wider applications for the nuclear, aerospace, and manufacturing programs. Steps continued towards making neutron scattering facilities at NRU reactor more user friendly. The neutrino physics group, as part of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Institute, collaborating with scientists from Canada, USA and UK. The accelerator physics group spent considerable effort working with materials and fuels scientists to show the value of accelerators as an out-reactor source of radiation. Specific research activities have included the demonstration of laser plasma deposition of diamond coating, which has potential application for high-wear components in reactors, and the study for a Free Electron Laser upgrade for the IMPELA accelerator. As a result of funding reduction all programs of the Division were dissolved as of 1997 March 31

  18. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  19. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  20. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  1. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  2. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  3. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  4. Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division progress report for the period January 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poutsma, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides brief summaries of progress in the Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division (CASD) during 1993 and 1994. The first four chapters, which cover the research mission, are organized to mirror the major organizational units of the division and indicate the scope of the research portfolio. These divisions are the Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Nuclear and Radiochemistry Section, Organic Chemistry Section, and Physical and Materials Chemistry Section. The fifth and sixth chapters summarize the support activities within CASD that are critical for research progress. Finally, the appendices indicate the productivity and recognition of the staff in terms of various forms of external publications, professional activities, and awards.

  5. Review of SR-Can: Evaluation of SKB's handling of spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, Mike; Jegou, Christophe; Brown, Paul; Meinrath, Guenther; Nitsche, Heino; Ekberg, Christian

    2008-03-01

    SR-Can covers the containment phase of the KBS-3 barriers as well as the consequences of releases of radionuclides to the rock and eventually the biosphere (after complete containment within fuel canisters has partially failed). The aim of this report is to provide a range of review comments with respect to those parameters related to spent fuel performance as well as radionuclide chemistry and transport. These parameter values are used in the quantification of consequences due to release of radionuclides from potentially leaking canisters. The report does not cover modelling approaches used for quantification of consequences. However, modelling used to derive parameter values is to some extent addressed (such as calculation of maximum radionuclide concentration due to formation of solubility limiting phases). The following are the key highlights and comments generated in the course of the review: Inconsistencies exist between recommendations provided in technical reports and those quoted in the Data Report. One of the reasons for such inconsistencies has been the timing of different pieces of research. It is hoped that the timing of contributions to SR-Site will be such that these inconsistencies can be avoided. Sensitivity analyses need to be carried out and reported in a number of areas to support some of the assumptions or decisions made in the assessment calculations. The likelihood is that SKB has performed many of the sensitivity analyses identified in different parts of this report, but these need to be reported, preferably to complement the recommendations provided

  6. Simplified Model for Reburning Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Hansen, Stine

    2010-01-01

    In solid fuel flames, reburn-type reactions are often important for the concentrations of NOx in the near-burner region. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in these flames, it is necessary to have an adequate model for volatile/NO interactions. Simple models consisting of global steps...

  7. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  9. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in

  10. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  11. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  12. Division of Integrity and Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdarek, J.

    1995-01-01

    The organization structure is described of the Division of Integrity and Materials, Institute of Nuclear Research plc, Rez, and the main fields of their activities given. Listed are the major research projects of the Division in 1994. (Z.S.)

  13. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ferre, Gregoire Robing [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Grantcharov, Vesselin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Krishnapriyan, Aditi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Le Thien, Minh Quan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lim, Jonathan Ng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Low, Thaddeus Song En [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lystrom, Levi Aaron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Nguyen, Hong T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Pogue, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Revard, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Roy, Julien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Sandor, Csanad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Slavkova, Kalina Polet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Weichman, Kathleen Joy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Wu, Fei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Yang, Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-11-29

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  14. 2017 T Division Lightning Talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abeywardhana, Jayalath AMM [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Colin Mackenzie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carter, Austin Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ducru, Pablo Philippe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duignan, Thomas John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gifford, Brendan Joel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hills, Benjamin Hale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hoffman, Kentaro Jack [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Khair, Adnan Ibne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kochanski, Kelly Anne Pribble [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ledwith, Patrick John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leveillee, Joshua Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Sina Genevieve [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Merians, Hugh Drake [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Bryan Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nijjar, Parmeet Kaur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oles, Vladyslav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olszewski, Maciej W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Philipbar, Brad Montgomery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roberts, David Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rufa, Dominic Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sifain, Andrew E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Justin Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Lauren Taylor Wisbey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Svolos, Lampros [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thibault, Joshua Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ushijima-Mwesigwa, Hayato Montezuma [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Claire Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Witzen, Wyatt Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zentgraf, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alred, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-06

    All members of the T Division Community, students, staff members, group leaders, division management, and other interested individuals are invited to come and support the following student(s) as they present their Lightning Talks.

  15. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse; Zaher, Manal S.; Hamdan, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  16. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  17. 3. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period September 1980 - Aug 1981, the studies in theoretical physics divisions have been compiled under the following headings: in nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and intermediate energies; in particle physics, NN and NantiN interactions, dual topological unitarization, quark model and quantum chromodynamics, classical and quantum field theories, non linear integrable equations and topological preons and Grand unified theories. A list of publications, lectures and meetings is included [fr

  18. Optimum coolant chemistry in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Cowan, R.L.; Kiss, E.

    2004-01-01

    LWR water chemistry parameters are directly or indirectly related to the plant's operational performance and for a significant amount of Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs. Obvious impacts are the operational costs associated with water treatment, monitoring and associated radwaste generation. Less obvious is the important role water chemistry plays in the magnitude of drywell shutdown dose rates, fuel corrosion performance and, (probably most importantly) materials degradation such as from stress corrosion cracking of piping and Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internal components. To improve the operational excellence of the BWR and to minimize the impact of water chemistry on O and M costs. General Electric has developed the concept of Optimum Water Chemistry (OWC). The 'best practices' and latest technology findings from the U.S., Asia and Europe are integrated into the suggested OWC Specification. This concept, together with cost effective ways to meet the requirement, are discussed. (author)

  19. Division Quilts: A Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sarah S.; Lupton, Tina M.; Richardson, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    As teachers seek activities to assist students in understanding division as more than just the algorithm, they find many examples of division as fair sharing. However, teachers have few activities to engage students in a quotative (measurement) model of division. Efraim Fischbein and his colleagues (1985) defined two types of whole-number…

  20. Mapping Urban Social Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ball

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of increased levels of interest in space and images beyond the field of geography, this article (re- introduces earlier work on the semiotics of maps undertaken by geographers in the 1960s. The data limitations, purpose and cultural context in which a user interprets a map's codes and conventions are highlighted in this work, which remains relevant to the interpretation of maps—new and old—forty years later. By means of drawing on geography's contribution to the semiotics of maps, the article goes on to examine the concept of urban social divisions as represented in map images. Using a small number of map images, including two of the most widely known maps of urban social division in Europe and North America, the roles of context, data and purpose in the production and interpretation of maps are discussed. By presenting the examples chronologically the article shows that although advances in data collection and manipulation have allowed researchers to combine different social variables in maps of social division, and to interact with map images, work by geographers on the semiotics of maps is no less relevant today than when it was first proposed forty years ago. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002372

  1. Support for chemistry symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, February 17-21 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Charles [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about

  2. Radiochemistry division. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    In radiochemistry, the experiments made in 1976 were in the following fields: in nuclear chemistry, the study of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms of fusion and fission, quasi-elastic transfer reactions; in radiochemistry the study of the physico-chemical properties of the actinides and transuranium elements and the search for natural superheavy elements [fr

  3. Use of a single-zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemistry to study a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junnian; Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Auto-ignition characteristics of a natural gas fueled HCCI engine. ► Engine speed had the greatest effect on the auto-ignition process. ► Increases of C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 improved the auto-ignition process. ► Engine performance was not sensitive to small changes in C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 . ► Nitric oxides concentrations decreased as engine speed or EGR level was increased. - Abstract: A single zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemical kinetics was used to simulate a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model employed Chemkin and used chemical kinetics for natural gas with 53 species and 325 reactions. This simulation was used to complete analyses for a modified 0.4 L single cylinder engine. The engine possessed a compression ratio of 21.5:1, and had a bore and stroke of 86 and 75 mm, respectively. Several sets of parametric studies were completed to investigate the minimal initial temperature, engine performance, and nitric oxide emissions of HCCI engine operation. The results show significant changes in combustion characteristics with varying engine operating conditions. Effects of varying equivalence ratios (0.3–1.0), engine speeds (1000–4000 RPM), EGR (0–40%), and fuel compositions were determined and analyzed in detail. In particular, every 0.1 increase in equivalence ratio or 500 rpm increase in engine speed requires about a 5 K higher initial temperature for complete combustion, and leads to around 0.7 bar increase in IMEP.

  4. Gas-Cooled Reactor Programs annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1973. [HTGR fuel reprocessing, fuel fabrication, fuel irradiation, core materials, and fission product distribution; GCFR fuel irradiation and steam generator modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Coobs, J.H.; Lotts, A.L.

    1976-04-01

    Progress is summarized in studies relating to HTGR fuel reprocessing, refabrication, and recycle; HTGR fuel materials development and performance testing; HTGR PCRV development; HTGR materials investigations; HTGR fuel chemistry; HTGR safety studies; and GCFR irradiation experiments and steam generator modeling.

  5. Progress report - physical sciences TASCC division 1991 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    This is the second in a new series of reports of the work of the TASCC Division since the creation of the Physical Sciences Unit in 1990. Physical Sciences comprises four main sectors, namely the TASCC, Physics and Chemistry Divisions, and the National Fusion Program Management Office. Physics Division is responsible for research and development in the areas of condensed matter physics, neutron and neutrino physics, and accelerator physics, while TASCC Division deals with research performed with the Tandem and Superconducting Cyclotron accelerators, primarily in the field of Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

  6. Radiochemistry Division : annual progress report for 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.S.; Satya Prakash

    1981-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Radiochemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, during 1978 are reported in the form of individual summaries under the headings: reactor chemistry, heavy element chemistry, process chemistry, radioanalytical chemistry and services, nuclear chemistry, and instrumentation. Some of the highlights of the R and D activities are: (1) preparation of microspheres of uranium oxide and uranium-thorium oxides by sol-gel process, (2) study of vaporization thermodynamics of Th and U by transpiration and boiling techniques, (3) preparation and characterisation of uranium(III) sulphates and double sulphates by X-ray, thermal and infra-red analysis, (4) extraction of trivalent actinides and lanthanides by long chain amines from chloride solutions, (5) study of radiation chemical behaviour of U(VI) in hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid media, (6) purification and concentration of neptunium by the primary and secondary amines, (7) development of gamma spectroscopic method for determination of isotopic composition of plutonium using low energy gamma rays of plutonium isotopes, (8) standardisation of method of determination of isotopic abundances of uranium at nanogram level by thermal ionisation mass spectroscopy, (9) extraction photometric determination of Pu(IV) and Np(IV) present in mixtures, (10) study of various aspects of nuclear fission such as charge distribution, mass distribution and fragment angular momentum in low energy fission of actinides, and (11) fabrication of: (a) spark counting unit for counting fission tracks in their plastic films, (b) autoranging alpha monitor to be used with fractionating column, (c) remote pipetter for use in hot cells and (d) a thermoluminescence unit for glovebox operation. (M.G.B.)

  7. Advances in AGR fuel fabrication - now and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleasdale, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    To date, over 3 million AGR fuel pins have been manufactured at Springfields for the UK AGR programme. During this time, AGR fuel design and manufacture has developed and evolved in response to the needs of the reactor operators to enhance fuel reliability and performance. More recently, major advances have been made in the systems and organisational culture which support fuel manufacture at Fuel Division. The introduction of MRP II in 1989 into Fuel Division enabled significant reductions in stock and work-in-progress, together with reductions in manufacturing lead times. Other successful initiatives introduced into Fuel Division have been Just-in-Time (JIT) and AST (Additional Skills Training) which have built on the success of MRP II. All of these initiatives are evidence of Fuel Division's ''Total Quality'' approach to fabricating fuel. Fuel Division is currently in the final stages of commissioning the New Oxide Fuels Complex (NOFC) where both AGR and PWR fuel will be manufactured to the highest standards of quality, safety and environmental protection. NOFC is a totally integrated plant which represents a Pound 200M investment, demonstrating Fuel Division's commitment to building on its 40+ years of fuel fabrication experience and ensuring secure supply of fuel to its customers for years to come. (author)

  8. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  9. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  10. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  11. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter

  12. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  13. General Chemistry Division quarterly report, January--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrar, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reported are: development of analytical capabilities of a submillimeter spectrometer; improved minimum detectibility of laser-induced molecular fluorescence; use of laser photoionization sources for analytical mass spectrometry; photoacoustic spectroscopy of solids; development of time-resolved spectroscopy for multicomponent mixtures; excited-state reactions of Ba + + N 2 O → BaO +N 2 ; development of an ion-cyclotron-resonance spectrometer; development of glow-discharge multielement analytical systems; analysis of deposits on exploding gold bridgeware detonators; results of 13 C-NMR study of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate polymers; analysis of 1,6-hexanediamine and 1,3-dipiperiodylpropane; studies of discrepancies between chromatographic and mass spectrometric data; development of automated oil shale mass spectrometer; determination of minerals in oil shales; determination of H 2 S in geothermal plant flue gas; characterization of geothermal brine and solids; screening of materials for use in geothermal brine; numerical studies of combustion processes; development of emission spectrometer for U in water and sediments; measurements of lanthanide ionization potentials; development of microwave multi-gas analyzer; and studies of coagulation processes of aeresols

  14. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation that is presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is examined. Sampling difficulties including the inlet-probe arrangement and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are discussed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered. Monitoring requirements range from the detection of low-level, routine releases to high-level accidental releases. Both first and second kinds of detection errors are considered in a discussion of adequate detection limits. The presently deployed monitors are critically examined in this light and the drawbacks and limitations of each are noted. Prototype instrumentation is studied, including Argonne's mechanical separation technique, Battelle's mass separation by surface ionization method, and in particular, LLL's transuranic aerosol measurement system. The potentials, sensitivities, advantages, and limitations of each system are enumerated. The additional potential uses of the LLL system are also discussed

  15. 76 FR 24921 - Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation..., Program Director, Chemistry Centers Program, Division of Chemistry, Room 1055, National Science Foundation...

  16. 76 FR 12996 - Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation... Director, Chemistry Centers Program, Division of Chemistry, Room 1055, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  17. 76 FR 6499 - Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation... Director, Chemistry Centers Program, Division of Chemistry, Room 1055, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  18. Advances in BWR water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Mary L.

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) water chemistry control with examples of plant experiences at U.S. designed BWRs. Water chemistry advances provide some of the most effective methods for mitigating materials degradation, reducing fuel performance concerns and lowering radiation fields. Mitigation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of materials remains a high priority and improved techniques that have been demonstrated in BWRs will be reviewed, specifically hydrogen injection combined with noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) and the newer on-line noble metal application process (OLNC). Hydrogen injection performance, an important part of SCC mitigation, will also be reviewed for the BWR fleet, highlighting system improvements that have enabled earlier injection of hydrogen including the potential for hydrogen injection during plant startup. Water chemistry has been significantly improved by the application of pre-filtration and optimized use of ion exchange resins in the CP (condensate polishing) and reactor water cleanup (RWCU) systems. EPRI has monitored and supported water treatment improvements to meet water chemistry goals as outlined in the EPRI BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines, particularly those for SCC mitigation of reactor internals and piping, minimization of fuel risk due to corrosion and crud deposits and chemistry control for radiation field reduction. In recent years, a significant reduction has occurred in feedwater corrosion product input, particularly iron. A large percentage of plants are now reporting <0.1 ppb feedwater iron. The impacts to plant operation and chemistry of lower feedwater iron will be explored. Depleted zinc addition is widely practiced across the fleet and the enhanced focus on radiation reduction continues to emphasize the importance of controlling radiation source term. In addition, shutdown chemistry control is necessary to avoid excessive release of activated corrosion products from fuel

  19. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  20. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  1. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  2. Energy Technology Division research summary 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book. This Overview highlights some major trends. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water nuclear

  3. Energy Technology Division research summary 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-21

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book. This Overview highlights some major trends. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water

  4. The role of electron microscopy in the UKAEA Northern Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, R.; Cawthorn, C.; Slattery, G.; Bilsby, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The role of electron microscopy in the Northern Division of the UKAEA is to assist in the development of safe and efficient nuclear power, particularly in optimising fuel element performance, but also to solve the materials problems which arise in both nuclear and non-nuclear plant. Some of the fuel element investigations under-taken in the past 25 years are reviewed under six headings: compatibility of different materials - fuel, cladding and coolant; dimensional stability of the fuel element; heat transfer from fuel to coolant; fission gas release from the fuel; cladding integrity and causes of failure; and safety. The various types of thermal reactor and fast reactors pose different materials problems, but similarities abound and often experience with one system can be of value in another. Current investigations are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Environmental Sciences Division. Annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Progress for the period ending September 30, 1979 by the Environmental Sciences Division is reported. Sections reporting include terrestrial ecoloy; earth sciences; environmental resources; aquatic ecology; synthetic fuels; nuclear program; environmental impacts program; ecosystem studies; and burial ground technology

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Preview of Coming Attractions: Teaching Chemistry with Instrumental Methods at Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R.; Bushey, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) provide a significant amount of chemical education to undergraduates in the United States. By design, the charge of the 2YCs is to provide coursework at the lower-division level. Nonetheless, general chemistry courses in 2YCs can be enhanced with content to prepare future chemistry majors for upper-division education. The…

  7. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the 14 sections of the Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report. The other 2 sections deal with educational activities. The programs discussed deal with advanced fuel energy, toxic substances, environmental impacts of various energy technologies, biomass, low-level radioactive waste management, the global carbon cycle, and aquatic and terrestrial ecology

  8. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2090. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the 14 sections of the Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report. The other 2 sections deal with educational activities. The programs discussed deal with advanced fuel energy, toxic substances, environmental impacts of various energy technologies, biomass, low-level radioactive waste management, the global carbon cycle, and aquatic and terrestrial ecology. (KRM)

  9. Radiochemistry Division annual progress report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    An account of the work done in the Radiochemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1976 is given. Some of the major highlights are: (1) development of a technique LEADTRAP using lead as a tracer for determination of total uranium and plutonium in the accountability tank in the fuel reprocessing plants, (2) fabrication of a compact unit of each gamma absorptiometer, the acidity monitor and the calorimeter for in-line monitoring of fuel reprocessing streams, (3) design and fabrication of an annular neutron counter, and (4) participation in the international intercomparison experiments PAFEX-II for the determination of plutonium in dissolver solutions and the processing of Ge(Li) gamma spectra, both organised by the IAEA. (M.G.B.)

  10. Fusion energy applied to synthetic fuel production: a report to the DOE Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy based on a preliminary study by an ad-hoc advisory group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1977-10-01

    The general conclusion is that the potential for utilization of fusion energy for synthetic fuel production is favorable. Three basic methods of hydrogen production are identified: high-temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles, and direct radiolysis. Combinations of these and their use as in combined cycles for electric power generation are considered

  11. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  12. The Department of Chemistry of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proksch, E.

    1984-03-01

    The present report describes the R and D work carried out during 1981 to 1983. This work is still almost exclusively devoted to applied research items; a major fraction of the capacity available is devoted to contract research. The main R and D areas are: - applied radiation chemistry - conditioning of wastes - nuclear fuel chemistry and technology - non-nuclear technical chemistry - radioisotopes and labelled compounds - analytical chemistry. (Author) [de

  13. Fuels and Combustion | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuels and Combustion Fuels and Combustion This is the March 2015 issue of the Transportation and , combustion strategy, and engine design hold the potential to maximize vehicle energy efficiency and performance of low-carbon fuels in internal combustion engines with a whole-systems approach to fuel chemistry

  14. Dictionary of the fuel trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A dictionary of liquid and solid fuels and applications for thermal engineering and heating, in understandable terms and explanations with a broad range of terminology, special aspects and definitions Annex: 1. International trade conditions, 2. tables of conversion relations, not calorific value, division of solids fuels etc.

  15. Wavefront division digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Cao, Liangcai; Li, Rujia; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Qiang; Jin, Guofan

    2018-05-01

    Digital holography (DH), mostly Mach-Zehnder configuration based, belongs to non-common path amplitude splitting interference imaging whose stability and fringe contrast are environmental sensitive. This paper presents a wavefront division DH configuration with both high stability and high-contrast fringes benefitting from quasi common path wavefront-splitting interference. In our proposal, two spherical waves with similar curvature coming from the same wavefront are used, which makes full use of the physical sampling capacity of the detectors. The interference fringe spacing can be adjusted flexibly for both in-line and off-axis mode due to the independent modulation to these two waves. Only a few optical elements, including the mirror-beam splitter interference component, are used without strict alignments, which makes it robust and easy-to-implement. The proposed wavefront division DH promotes interference imaging physics into the practical and miniaturized a step forward. The feasibility of this method is proved by the imaging of a resolution target and a water flea.

  16. A review of methods for immobilizing iodine-129 arising from a nuclear fuel recycle plant, with emphasis on waste-form chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1990-07-01

    Possible methods for the separation and immobilization of iodine (mainly iodine-129) in a fuel recycle plant are reviewed, with special emphasis placed on the evaluation of waste forms. A distinction is drawn between waste forms selected by thermodynamic (solubility) or kinetic (dissolution rate) considerations. The most promising solubility-limited waste forms appear to be AgI (or AgI + AgCl) and a combination of Bi 2 O 3 and Bi 5 O 7 I. These materials use relatively scarce metals, Ag and Bi. They also have substantial chemical limitations, such as susceptibility to reductive dissolution and anion-displacement reactions; this calls for special care in the choice of a disposal site. All other organic iodides and iodates considered here and elsewhere appear to be still more limited in this respect. The most promising kinetically limited candidate waste form appears to be iodide-sodalite, but further information is needed on both the fabrication and leaching behaviour of this material. The possibility of disposal in a more soluble but isotopically dilute waste form, employing abundant raw materials, also warrants further consideration

  17. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Where is the future of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The future potentials of nuclear chemistry as a natural science with a strong orientation towards practical applications has been discussed at this meeting of 45 experts coming from research institutes and laboratories working in the fields of radiochemistry, nuclear chemistry, inorganic and applied chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, radiobiology, and nuclear biology, and from the two nuclear research centres at Juelich and Karlsruhe. The discussion centred around the four main aspects of future work, namely 1. basic research leading to an extension of the periodic table, nuclear reactions, the chemistry of superheavy elements, cosmochemistry; 2. radionuclide technology and activation analysis; 3. nuclear fuel cycle and reprocessing processes together with ultimate disposal methods; 4. radiochemistry in the life sciences, including nuclear chemistry and applications. (HK) [de

  19. Developments in nuclear power plant water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzetti, K.; Wood, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the changing role of water chemistry in current operation of nuclear power plants. Water chemistry was sometimes perceived as the cause of materials problems, such as denting in PWR steam generators and intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. However, starting in the last decade, new chemistry options have been introduced to mitigate stress corrosion cracking and reduce fuel performance concerns. In BWRs and PWRs alike, water chemistry has evolved to successfully mitigate many problems as they have developed. The increasing complexity of the chemistry alternatives, coupled with the pressures to increase output and reduce costs, have demonstrated the need for new approaches to managing plant chemistry, which are addressed in the final part of this paper. (orig.)

  20. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr