WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel cell elements

  1. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  2. Fuel cell elements with improved water handling capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Lee, Albany (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell components for use in liquid feed fuel cell systems are provided. The components include biplates and endplates, having a hydrophilic surface and allow high efficiency operation. Conductive elements and a wicking device also form a part of the fuel cell components of the invention.

  3. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley, NJ

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  4. FUEL ELEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  5. A combined wet/dry sipping cell for investigating failed triga fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Gallhammer, H.; Hammer, J.; Israr, M.

    1987-08-01

    A sipping cell to detect failed triga fuel has been designed and constructed at the Atominstitut. The cell allows both wet- and dry sipping of one single standard triga fuel element. In the dry sipping method the fuel element may be electrically heated up to a maximum temperature of about 300 0 C to allow the detection of temperature dependent fission product release from the fuel element. 20 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  6. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Remote real time x-ray examination of fuel elements in a hot cell environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapuncich, F.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the Remote Real Time X-ray System which will allow for detailed examination of fuel elements. This task will be accomplished in a highly radioactive hot cell environment. Two remote handling systems win be utilized at the examination station. One handling system will transfer the fuel element to and from the shielded x-ray system. A second handling system will allow for vertical and rotational inspection of the fuel elements. The process win include removing a single nuclear fuel element from a element fabrication magazine(EFM), positioning the fuel element within the shielding envelope of the x-ray system and transferring the fuel element from the station manipulator to the x-ray system manipulator, performing the x-ray inspection, and then transferring the fuel element to either the element storage magazine(ESM) or a reject bin

  8. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  9. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  10. Fuel element development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, G.

    1983-01-01

    The studies concerning breeders for the development of fuel elements carried out in Karlsruhe aim at: - optimization of fuel, - support of fuel rod and fuel element concepts from steady-state and field irradiation experiments and their evaluation, and - developing appropriate cladding and structural material and its adaptation to the requirements of high-output breeder reactors.

  11. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley Heights, NJ; Heinz, Robert [Ludwigshafen, DE

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  12. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  13. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  14. Dimensional analysis system for fuel elements experience in hot cells plate format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Orozimbo J.; Dutra Neto, Aimore; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Dias, Ailton F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a system for visual and dimensional analysis of compact-core reactors fuel elements in plate format. The system, composed of a co-ordinated x, y, z computerized table, has to be operative inside of a hot cell for the visual inspection and dimensional measurements of the post irradiated fuel elements. The control method of the x, y, z table axes, the data acquisition and the process control technique using computer, are described. Experimental data handling and the expected future of the project are presented and commented. This work expand previous investigations on a dimensional analysis system carried out by Brazilian Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP). (author)

  15. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  16. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  17. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.M.; Cowan, R.L. II; Davies, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described. It includes a central nuclear fuel core and a composite cladding composed of a substrate, the inner face of which is coated with copper, nickel, iron or one of their alloys. The nuclear fuel is selected from uranium compounds, plutonium compounds or mixtures thereof. The substrate is selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys [fr

  18. Fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooie, D. T.; Harrington, B. C., III; Mayfield, M. J.; Parsons, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  20. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.M.; Cowan, R.L. II.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described. It includes a central nuclear fuel core and a composite cladding, composed of a substrate with two coatings on its inner face, the first coating being a diffusion barrier and the second a metal coating. The metal coating is in copper, nickel or iron. The substrate is a zirconium alloy. The diffusion barrier is in chromium or chromium alloy. The nuclear fuel is a uranium or plutonium compound or a mixture of both [fr

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  3. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    >A rib arrangement and an end construction for nuclearfuel elements laid end to end in a coolant tube are described. The rib arrangement is such that each fuel element, when separated from other fuel elements, fits loosely in the coolant tube and so can easily be inserted or withdrawn from the tube. The end construction of the fuel elements is such that the fuel elements when assembled end to end are keyed against relative rotation, and the ribs of each fuel element cooperate with the ribs of the adjacent fuel elements to give the assembled fuel elements a tight fit with the coolant tube. (AEC)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  5. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A fuel element of a PWR has a deflector projection outside on the intermediate strip of the spacer to avoid hooking up during fuelling and fuel removal, which is placed in the direction of the diagonals of the corner grid mesh between the two outer bars on the intermediate strip and is oblique to the two ends of the intermediate strip in the longitudinal direction of the bars. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The grid-shaped spacer for PWR fuel elements consists of flat, upright metal bars at right angles to the fuel rods. In one corner of a grid mesh it has a spring with two end parts for the fuel rod. The cut-outs for the end parts start from an end edge of the metal bar parallel to the fuel rods. The transverse metal bar is one of four outer metal bars. Both end parts of the spring have an extension parallel to this outer metal arm, which grips a grid mesh adjacent to this grid mesh at the side in one corner of the spacer and forms an end part of a spring for the fuel rod there on the inside of the outer metal bar. (HP) [de

  8. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  9. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  10. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  12. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  15. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel element box for a BWR is situated with a corner bolt on the inside in one corner of its top on the top side of the top plate. This corner bolt is screwed down with a bolt with a corner part which is provided with leaf springs outside on two sides, where the bolt has a smaller diameter and an expansion shank. The bolt is held captive to the bolt head on the top and the holder on the bottom of the corner part. The holder is a locknut. If the expansion forces are too great, the bolt can only break at the expansion shank. (HP) [de

  17. Hydrogen in CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Manzer, A.M.; Surette, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unirradiated and irradiated CANDU fuel cladding was tested to compare the role of stress-corrosion cracking and of hydrogen in the development of fuel defects. The results of the tests are compared with information on fuel performance in-reactor. The role of hydriding (deuteriding) from the coolant and from the fuel element inside is discussed, and the control of 'hydrogen gas' content in the element is confirmed as essential for defect-free fuel performance. Finally, implications for fuel element design are discussed. (author)

  18. Thermionic fuel element technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Horner, M. W.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of research, conducted between the mid-1960s and 1973, on the multiconverter thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) that comprise the reactor core of an SP-100 thermionic reactor system are presented. Fueled-emitter technology, insulator technology and cell and TFE assembly technology of the prototypical TFEs which were tested in-pile and out-of-pile during these years are described. The proto-TFEs have demonstrated reproducible performance within 5 percent and no premature failures within the 1.5 yr of operation (with projected 3-yr lifetimes). The two primary life-limiting factors had been identified as thermionic emitter dimensional increase due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to 7 yr or longer are available and will be investigated in the 1984-1985 SP-100 program for resolution of critical technology issues. Design diagrams and test graphs are included.

  19. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  20. Nuclear Fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Hiromasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the stress gradient resulted in the fuel can in fuel rods adapted to control the axial power distribution by the combination of fuel pellets having different linear power densities. Constitution: In a fuel rod comprising a first fuel pellet of a relatively low linear power density and a second fuel pellet of a relatively high linear power density, the second fuel pellet is cut at its both end faces by an amount corresponding to the heat expansion of the pellet due to the difference in the linear power density to the adjacent first fuel pellet. Thus, the second fuel pellet takes a smaller space than the first fuel pellet in the fuel can. This can reduce the stress produced in the portion of the fuel can corresponding to the boundary between the adjacent fuel pellets. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. RECONDITIONING FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, H.L.

    1962-02-20

    A process is given for decanning fuel elements that consist of a uranium core, an intermediate section either of bronze, silicon, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers or of lead, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers around said core, and an aluminum can bonded to said intermediate section. The aluminum can is dissolved in a solution of sodium hydroxide (9 to 20 wt%) and sodium nitrate (35 to 12 wt %), and the layers of the intermediate section are dissolved in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution of a minimum concentration of 50 wt%. (AEC) A method of selectively reducing plutonium oxides and the rare earth oxides but not uranium oxides is described which comprises placing the oxides in a molten solvent of zinc or cadmium and then adding metallic uranium as a reducing agent. (AEC)

  2. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed which has a composite cladding having a substrate, a metal barrier metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the substrate and an inner layer metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the metal barrier. In this composite cladding, the inner layer and the metal barrier shield the substrate from any impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material held within the composite cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 4 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of niobium, aluminum, copper, nickel, stainless steel, and iron. The inner layer and then the metal barrier serve as reaction sites for volatile impurities and fission products and protect the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate and the inner layer of the composite cladding are selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably are a zirconium alloy. Also in a preferred embodiment the substrate and the inner layer are comprised of the same material, preferably a zirconium alloy. 19 claims, 2 figures

  3. Fabrication of Tungsten-UO 2 Hexagonal-Celled Fuel-Element Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, R.R.; Cover, P.W.; Gripshover, P.J.; Wilson, W.J.

    1964-12-04

    The gas-pressure-bonding process is being evaluated as a means of fabricating tungsten-UO 2 hexagonal-celled fuel geometries. A two-part study was initiated to optimize the fuel materials and to develp the required fixturing and loading techniques. Production of fueled tungsten-coated UO 2 particles in in progress so that geometries embodying coated particles or coated particles plus fine tungsten powder can be evaluated. Tests to data have shown the rquirement for a pretreatment in which a gaseous oxide phase is removed. Initial loading and fixturing procedures were proven satisfactory by the fabrication of a 19-cylindrical-hole hexagonal-type composite.

  4. Rack for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.; Gordon, C.B.; Robison, A.; Clark, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed spent fuel elements. Each fuel element is supported at the lower end thereof by a respective support that rests on the floor of the spent fuel pool for a nuclear power plant. An open rack frame is employed as an upright support for the enclosures containing the spent fuel elements. Legs at the lower corners of the frame rest on the floor of the pool to support the frame. In one exemplary embodiment, the support for the fuel element is in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base is supported by legs. In another exemplary embodiment, each fuel element is supported on the pool floor by a self-adjusting support in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base rests on a ball or swivel joint for self-alignment. The lower four corners of the frame are supported by legs adjustable in height for leveling the frame. Each adjustable frame leg is in the form of a base resting on the pool floor and the base supports a threaded post. The threaded post adjustably engages a threaded column on which rests the lower end of the frame. 16 claims, 14 figures

  5. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  6. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  7. Thermal insulation of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovcak, P.; Pec, V.; Pitonak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The claim of the invention concerns thermal insulation of fuel elements heated for measurement of uranium fuel physical properties. For this, layers of aluminium film and of glass fibre are wound onto the inner tube of the element cladding. The space between the inner and the outer tubes is evacuated and the tubes are spaced using spacer wires. (M.S.)

  8. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  9. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  10. Fuel element services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, H.; Alvarez, P.; Jimenez, J.

    2006-01-01

    Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning, fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  12. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  13. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  14. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seigoro.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of a thermal neutron absorber showing ultraplasticity is dispersed in oxide ceramic fuels by more than 1% to 10% or lower. The ultrafine particles of the thermal neutron absorber showing ultrafine plasticity is selected from any one of ZrGd, HfEu, HfY, HfGd, ZrEu, and ZrY. The thermal neutron absorber is converted into ultrafine particles and solid-solubilized in a nuclear fuel pellet, so that the dispersion thereof into nuclear fuels is made uniform and an absorbing performance of the thermal neutrons is also made uniform. Moreover, the characteristics thereof, for example, physical properties such as expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the nuclear fuels are also improved. The neutron absorber, such as ZrGd or the like, can provide plasticity of nuclear fuels, if it is mixed into the nuclear fuels for showing the plasticity. The nuclear fuel pellets are deformed like an hour glass as burning, but, since the end portion thereof is deformed plastically within a range of a repulsive force of the cladding tube, there is no worry of damaging a portion of the cladding tube. (N.H.)

  16. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  17. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Quality assurance of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerber, J.

    1980-01-01

    The quality assurance activities for reactor fuel elements are based on a quality assurance system which implies the requirements resulting from the specifications, regulations of the authorities, national standards and international rules and regulations. The quality assurance related to production of reactor fuel will be shown for PWR fuel elements in all typical fabrication steps as conversion into UO 2 -powder, pelletizing, rodmanufacture and assembling. A wide range of destructive and nondestructive techniques is applied. Quality assurance is not only verified by testing techniques but also by process monitoring by means of parameter control in production and testing procedures. (RW)

  19. Fuel element tomography by gammametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.; Pineira, T.

    1982-03-01

    As from transversal gamma determinations of a cylindrical fuel element, the TOMOGAM program reconstitutes the distribution of fission products in a section. This direct, fast and non destructive method, makes it possible to have access to the behaviour of the fuel at any time: - the soluble fission products in the matrix represent the fuel itself and the distribution of the fissions, - the migrating elements inform on the temperature reached in accordance with the permitted powers, - the volatile nuclides build up in particular points where physical-chemical phenomena of fuel-cladding interaction are liable to corrode the latter. Hence, gamma spectrometry extends its possibilities of analysis relative to the performance of reactor elements [fr

  20. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  1. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  2. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 0 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (DG) [de

  3. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1980-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (orig.)

  4. Cells for the examination of irradiated plutonium fuel elements - two years operation - may 1961/may 1963 (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, A.

    1963-01-01

    Within the framework of the 'Rapsodie' fast reactor program, prototype plutonium fuel elements are irradiated and then examined in an α β γ laboratory at Saclay. This laboratory consists of five in line cells and a lead enclosure microscope. Each cell contains an α sealed removable box 4 ft 3 in. high, 4 ft 11 in. wide and 5 ft 1 in. deep, fitted with one or two magnetic transmission indirect manipulators. The boxes are contained in an β γ shielded enclosure whose front face is constructed of cast iron panels 21-2/3 in. thick. Nitrogen circulating in a closed loop forms the atmosphere of the boxes. This laboratory is essentially intended for metallurgical research. The functions of the various cells are as follows: transferring and packing, cutting, density measurement and cathodic etching, storage and metallography. Work on radioactive materials began in April 1961. Operational incidents have always been of a material nature only. (author) [fr

  5. Unified fuel elements development for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Stetsky, Y.; Dobrikova, I.

    1998-01-01

    Square cross-section rod type fuel elements have been developed for russian pool-type research reactors. new fuel elements can replace the large nomenclature of tubular fuel elements with around, square and hexahedral cross-sections and to solve a problem of enrichment reduction. the fuel assembly designs with rod type fuel elements have been developed. The overall dimensions of existing the assemblies are preserved in this one. the experimental-industrial fabricating process of fuel elements, based on a joint extrusion method has been developed. The fabricating process has been tested in laboratory conditions, 150 experimental fuel element samples of the various sizes were produced. (author)

  6. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  7. Storage device for fuel elements in pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjean, J.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel elements are stored in compartments set at the bottom of the pools and separated by water spaces; the walls of the cells are coated on the external side with a cadmium liner acting as a neutronic protection associated with the water space [fr

  8. Automatic welding of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, J.

    1958-01-01

    The welding process depends on the type of fuel element, the can material and the number of cartridges to be welded: - inert-gas welding (used for G2 and the 1. set of EL3), - inert atmosphere arc welding (used for welding uranium and zirconium), - electronic welding (used for the 2. set of EL3 and the tank of Proserpine). (author) [fr

  9. Fuel element database: developer handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2004-09-01

    The fuel elements database which was developed for Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities is described. The software uses standards like HTML, PHP and SQL. For the standard installation freely available software packages such as MySQL database or the PHP interpreter from Apache Software Foundation and Java Script were used. (nevyjel)

  10. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  11. Transportation of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction (explaining the special interest of the London Borough of Brent, as forming part of the route for transportation of irradiated fuel elements); nuclear power (with special reference to transport of spent fuel and radioactive wastes); the flask aspect (design, safety regulations, criticisms, tests, etc.); the accident aspect (working manual for rail staff, train formation, responsibility, postulated accident situations); the emergency arrangements aspect; the monitoring aspect (health and safety reports); legislation; contingency plans; radiation - relevant background information. (U.K.)

  12. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  13. Fuel cells seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  14. Detector for failed fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide automatic monitor for the separation or reactor water and sampling water, in a failed fuel element detector using a sipping chamber. Constitution: A positional detector for the exact mounting of a sipping chamber on a channel box and a level detector for the detection of complete discharge of cooling water in the sipping chamber are provided in the sipping chamber. The positional detector is contacted to the upper end of the channel box and operated when the sipping chamber is correctly mounted to the fuel assemblies. The level detector comprises a float and a limit switch and it is operated when the water in the sipping chamber is discharged by a predetermined amount. Isolation of reactor water and sampling water are automatically monitored by the signal from these two detectors. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Finite element analysis of turbulent flow in fast reactor fuel subassembly elementary flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, P.

    1987-03-01

    The method is described of calculating fully developed longitudinal steady-state turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid through an infinite bundle of parallel smooth rods, based on the finite element method and one-equation turbulence model. Theoretical calculation results are compared with experimental results. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

  16. METHOD OF MAKING FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, C.H.; Macherey, R.E.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for fabricating fuel elements, particularly for enclosing a plate of metal with a second metal by inserting the plate into an aperture of a frame of a second plate, placing a sheet of the second metal on each of opposite faces of the assembled plate and frame, purging with an inert gas the air from the space within the frame and the sheets while sealing the seams between the frame and the sheets, exhausting the space, purging the space with air, re-exhausting the spaces, sealing the second aperture, and applying heat and pressure to bond the sheets, the plate, and the frame to one another.

  17. Drying of mock spent nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, J.C.; Reese, S.; McIlroy, H.M. Jr. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lords, R.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Spent nuclear fuel elements are stored in underwater cooling pools until the elements can be safely handled and prepared for interim dry storage. The fuel was intended for short-term storage in water before it was to be reprocessed. However, the fuel will no longer be reprocessed, and extended storage in water has caused many of the aluminum-clad elements to degrade, exposing the uranium fuel. In addition, sludge, comprised of corroded aluminum and sediment, has accumulated in and around the fuel plates. The water in the sludge must be removed before the spent fuel elements can be placed in dry storage. Experiments have been performed on mock spent fuel elements with simulated corrosion product applied between the plates. A series of vacuum and heating cycles were used to dry the elements, and a mixture of clay and aluminum oxide was used to simulate corrosion products on the elements. The procedures used in the experiments were determined to be adequate to dry the mock spent fuel elements, and the temperature behavior of the simulated corrosion product within the fuel elements could be used to determine when the element was dry. On plates where areas of wet simulant were found, a sharp frying front was observed that separated the wet and dry parts of the simulated corrosion product. The drying front propagated inward towards the center of the mock fuel elements over time.

  18. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element's cladding is also the thermionic convertor's emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years

  19. Chilean fuel elements fabrication progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, J.; Contreras, H.; Chavez, J.; Klein, J.; Mansilla, R.; Marin, J.; Medina, R.

    1993-01-01

    Due to HEU-LEU core conversion necessity for the Chilean MTR reactors, the Fuel Elements Plant is being implemented to LEU nuclear fuel elements fabrication. A glove box line for powder-compact processing designed at CCHEN, which supposed to operate under an automatic control system, is at present under initial tests. Results of first natural uranium fuel plates manufacturing runs are shown

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  1. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel element sub-assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, J.A.; Ashton, M.W.; Aubertin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to fuel element sub-assemblies for use in a Na cooled fast reactor. Such sub-assemblies may comprise a hexagonal bundle of slender fuel elements enclosed in a tubular sleeve, often referred to as a 'wrapper'. The fuel elements are spaced apart by helical wire wraps forming fins and which also space the wrapper from the bundle. The wire wraps make contact with the sheaths of adjacent elements and with the wrapper, so that each fuel element is well supported against thermal, bowing, rattling and vibration, whilst allowing adequate coolant flow passages through the bundle. The arrangement of the fuel elements usually provides two groups of passageways for coolant flow through the bundle -an inner group each bounded by four fuel elements, and an outer group each bounded by two outer fuel elements and the wrapper. It has been found, however, that this arrangement results in over-cooling of the outer fuel elements. An arrangement is described that overcomes this disadvantage to a considerable extent. The fuel elements are arranged in three groups - an inner group, and intermediate group and an outer group. The fins on the outer group elements are helically wound at half the pitch of the other two groups and alternate outer group elements are wound opposite handed to abutting outer row elements; elements of the outer and intermediate groups are orientated and end located to enable them to nest together. By utilising half pitch helical fins on the outer elements a greater number of lateral support points is obtained for the outer and intermediate groups of elements and the increased number of turns of fins on the outer elements assist in reducing overcooling of the outer elements. (U.K.)

  3. A novel microbial fuel cell sensor with a gas diffusion biocathode sensing element for water and air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2018-03-26

    Toxicity monitoring is essential for the protection of public health and ecological safety. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensors demonstrated good potential in toxicity monitoring, but current MFC sensors can only be used for anaerobic water monitoring. In this study, a novel gas diffusion (GD)-biocathode sensing element was fabricated using a simple method. The GD-biocathode MFC sensor can directly be used for formaldehyde detection (from 0.0005% to 0.005%) in both aerobic and anaerobic water bodies. Electrochemical analysis indicated that the response by the sensor was caused by the toxic inhibition to the microbial activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This study for the first time demonstrated that the GD-biocathode MFC sensor has a detection limit of 20 ppm for formaldehyde and can be used to monitor air pollution. Selective sensitivity to formaldehyde was not achieved as the result of using a mixed-culture, which confirms that it can serve as a generic biosensor for monitoring gaseous pollutants. This study expands the realm of knowledge for MFC sensor applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1979-01-01

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  5. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout

  6. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  7. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  8. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases. 13 claims, 5 drawing figures

  9. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases

  10. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  11. Hydriding failure in water reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, D.N.; Ramadasan, E.; Unnikrishnan, K.

    1980-01-01

    Hydriding of the zircaloy cladding has been one of the important causes of failure in water reactor fuel elements. This report reviews the causes, the mechanisms and the methods for prevention of hydriding failure in zircaloy clad water reactor fuel elements. The different types of hydriding of zircaloy cladding have been classified. Various factors influencing zircaloy hydriding from internal and external sources in an operating fuel element have been brought out. The findings of post-irradiation examination of fuel elements from Indian reactors, with respect to clad hydriding and features of hydriding failure are included. (author)

  12. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  13. Dissolution of aluminium-cladded fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, G.; Boessert, W.; Hladik, O.; Schwarzbach, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the molybdenum production plant at Rossendorf (AMOR) short-term irradiated aluminium-cladded fuel elements from the Rossendorf research reactor RFR are dissolved for the purpose of molybdenum 99 production. The dissolution behaviour of these fuel elements and the appropriate dissolver are described. (author)

  14. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, F.L.

    1961-12-12

    Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

  15. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  16. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel element sub-assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to fuel element sub-assemblies for use in a Na cooled fast reactor. Such sub-assemblies may comprises a hexagonal bundle of slender fuel elements enclosed in a tubular sleeve, often referred to as a 'wrapper'. The fuel elements are spaced apart by helical wire wraps forming fins and which also space the wrapper from the bundle. The wire wraps make contact with the sheaths of adjacent elements and with the wrapper, so that each fuel element is well supported against thermal bowing, rattling and vibration, whilst allowing adequate coolant flow passages through the bundle. It has been found, however, that the outer fuel elements of the bundle are subject to over-cooling in this arrangement; this problem can, however, be largely overcome by reducing the flow passage between the bundle and the wrapper. In the arrangement described a wire filler is employed, extending along each outer coolant flow passage, and constructed in wave form. Fillers of such form have been found to reduce over-cooling considerably and they avoid the need for varied height wraps on the fuel elements. The fuel elements also have improved lateral support by contact with the fillers. (U.K.)

  18. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND FUEL ELEMENT THEREFOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilard, L.; Young, G.J.

    1958-03-01

    This patent relates to a reactor design of the type which employs solid fuel elements disposed in channels within the moderator through which channels and around the fuel elements is conveyed a coolant fiuid. The coolant channels are comprised of aluminum tubes extending through a solid moderator such as graphite and the fuel elements are comprised of an elongated solid body of natural uranium jacketed in an aluminum jacket with the ends thereof closed by aluminum caps of substantially greater thickness than the jacket was and in good thermal contact with the fuel material to facilitate the conduction of heat from the central portion of said ends to the coolant surrounding the fuel element to prevent overheating of said central portion.

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  1. Fuel elements containing burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, K.J.; Eaton, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A burnable poison such as gadolinia is introduced into a nuclear fuel pin by way of thermal insulating pellets which serve to protect end caps from exposure to the intense heat generated by the fuel during irradiation. The pellets may comprise a sintered mixture of aluminia and gadolinia. (author)

  2. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-01-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay

  3. Nonstationary temperature field in the fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehauc, A.; Spasojevic, D.

    1970-03-01

    Nonstationary temperature field in the fuel element was examined for spatial and time distribution of the specific power generated in the fuel element. Analytical method was developed for calculating the temperature variation in the fuel element of a nuclear reactor for a typical shape of the heat generation function. The method is based on series expansion of the temperature field by self functions and application of Laplace transformation in time coordinate. For numerical calculation of the temperature distribution a computer code was developed based on the proposed method and applied on the ZUSE-Z-23 computer [sr

  4. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal to a r......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  5. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  6. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  7. Method for inspecting nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled is described. A traveling bridge and trolley span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool and support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  9. Identification of failed fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, R.M.; Matlock, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    A passive fission product gas trap is provided in the upper portion of each fuel subassembly in a nuclear reactor. The gas trap consists of an inverted funnel of less diameter than the subassembly having a valve at the apex thereof. An actuating rod extends upwardly from the valve through the subassembly to a point where it can be contacted by the fuel handling mechanism for the reactor. Interrogation of the subassembly for the presence of fisson products is accomplished by lowering the fuel handling machine onto the subassembly to press down on the actuating rod and open the valve. 1 claim, 4 drawing figures

  10. Fluid pressure method for recovering fuel pellets from nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for removing fuel pellets from a nuclear fuel element without damaging the fuel pellets or fuel element sheath so that both may be reused. The method comprises holding the fuel element while a high pressure stream internally pressurizes the fuel element to expand the fuel element sheath away from the fuel pellets therein so that the fuel pellets may be easily removed

  11. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO 2 , fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO 2 , radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies

  12. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  13. Fuel element for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linning, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement of the fuel element for a fast nuclear reactor described in patent 15 89 010 is proposed which should avoid possible damage due to swelling of the fuel. While the fuel element according to patent 15 89 010 is made in the form of a tube, here a further metal jacket is inserted in the centre of the fuel rod and the intermediate layer (ceramic uranium compound) is provided on both sides, so that the nuclear fuel is situated in the centre of the annular construction. Ceramic uranium or plutonium compounds (preferably carbide) form the fuel zone in the form of circular pellets, which are surrounded by annular gaps, so that gaseous fission products can escape. (UWI) [de

  14. Apparatus for inspecting fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, B.J.; Oakley, D.J.; Groves, O.J.

    1984-12-21

    This disclosure describes an alpha monitor usable in an automated nuclear fuel pin loading and processing unit. Fuel pins or other elongated pins are fed laterally into the alpha monitor in a singular fashion and are translated by a first roller assembly into a weld flare machining and decontamination substation not forming a part of the invention. Pins return and are lifted upwardly and transferred across to a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means which lifts the pins upwardly into a clamshell electrode assembly which is spread open by a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means. Once inserted the clamshell type electrode arrangement closes around the fuel pins so that inspection can occur. Fuel pins are inspected by charging electrodes to a negative potential and measuring the change in charge occurring when positively charged alpha particles strike the negatively charged electrodes. After inspection, the fuel pins are lowered by the pin lifting and electrode operating means into a second roller assembly which longitudinally conveys approved pins from the airtight enclosure in which the alpha monitor is mounted. If the fuel pins are rejected then they are moved laterally by a second transfer means and onto another system for further processing.

  15. Fuel elements handling device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear equipment and more particularly to methods and apparatus for the non-destructive inspection, manipulation, disassembly and assembly of reactor fuel elements and the like. (author)

  16. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  17. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  18. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  19. Liquid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  20. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1963-11-01

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  1. A CAREM type fuel element dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoia, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A first analysis on the dynamic behaviour of a fuel element designed for the CAREM nuclear reactor (Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares) was performed. The model used to represent this dynamic behaviour was satisfactorily evaluated. Using primary estimations for some of its numerical parameters, a first approximation to its natural vibrational modes was obtained. Results obtained from fuel elements frequently used in nuclear power plants of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) type, are compared with values resulting from similar analysis. (Author) [es

  2. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  3. Fuel cells : emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan Jerram, L.; Adamson, K.A.; Butler, J.; Huleatt-James, N.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlighted the findings of the 2009 review of the fuel cell industry and emerging markets as they appeared in Fuel Cell Today (FCT), a benchmark document on global fuel cell activity. Since 2008, the industry has seen a 50 per cent increase in fuel cell systems shipped, from 12,000 units to 18,000 units. Applications have increased for backup power for datacentres, telecoms and light duty vehicles. The 2009 review focused on emerging markets which include non-traditional regions that may experience considerable diffusion of fuel cells within the next 5 year forecast period. The 2009 review included an analysis on the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Brazil and India and reviewed primary drivers, likely applications for near-term adoption, and government and private sector activity in these regions. The presentation provided a forecast of the global state of the industry in terms of shipments as well as a forecast of countries with emerging markets

  4. Hydraulic modelling of the CARA Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasnarof, Daniel O.; Juanico, Luis; Giorgi, M.; Ghiselli, Alberto M.; Zampach, Ruben; Fiori, Jose M.; Yedros, Pablo A.

    2004-01-01

    The CARA fuel element is been developing by the National Atomic Energy Commission for both Argentinean PHWRs. In order to keep the hydraulic restriction in their fuel channels, one of CARA's goals is to keep its similarity with both present fuel elements. In this paper is presented pressure drop test performed at a low-pressure facility (Reynolds numbers between 5x10 4 and 1,5x10 5 ) and rational base models for their spacer grid and rod assembly. Using these models, we could estimate the CARA hydraulic performance in reactor conditions that have shown to be satisfactory. (author) [es

  5. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  6. Technique for mass-spectrometric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurillovich, A.N.; Pimonov, Yu.I.; Biryukov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for mass-spectroimetric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuek claddings in the 2x10 -4 -1.5x10 -2 g range is developed. The relative standard deviation is 0.13. A character of moisture extraction from oxide uranium fuels in the 20-700 deg C temperature range is studied. Approximately 80% of moisture is extracted from the fuels at 300 deg C. The moisture content in fuel elements with granular uranium oxide fuels is measured. Dependence of fuel element moisture content on conditions of hot vacuum drying is shown. The technique permits to optimize the fuel element fabrication process to decrease the moisture content in them. 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Element bow profiles from new and irradiated CANDU fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennier, D.; Manzer, A.M.; Ryz, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Improved methods of measuring element profiles on new CANDU fuel bundles were developed at the Sheridan Park Engineering Laboratory, and have now been applied in the hot cells at Whiteshell Laboratories. For the first time, the outer element profiles have been compared between new, out-reactor tested, and irradiated fuel elements. The comparison shows that irradiated element deformation is similar to that observed on elements in out-reactor tested bundles. In addition to the restraints applied to the element via appendages, the element profile appears to be strongly influenced by gravity and the end loads applied by local deformation of the endplate. Irradiation creep in the direction of gravity also tends to be a dominant factor. (author)

  8. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  9. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  10. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  11. Fuel cell sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of fuel cell technology is summarized, and the potential for utility-type fuel cell installations is assessed on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the construction of the first fuel cell by Sir William Grove. The only functional fuel-cell systems developed to date, the hydrogen-oxygen cells used by NASA, are indicated, and hydrazine and alcohol (methanol) cells are considered. Areas requiring development before the implementation of fuel cells as general purpose utility-type electric generators include catalysts for naturally occurring hydrocarbons or processes for low-cost methanol or hydrazine production, efficient means of scrubbing and enriching air, self-regulating systems, and 15- to 20-fold power density increases. It is argued that although ideas for eliminating certain of the above-mentioned problems have been proposed, fuel-cell systems can never be expected to equal the efficiency, reliability and low cost of conventional power plants, and thus developmental support should be discontinued.

  12. Fuel cell electronics packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuang, Ken; Easler, Keith

    2007-01-01

    ... more energy independent. Despite the fact that the primary focus of the new initiative revolved around automotive technologies, the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative was crafted into a balanced program that benefited a wide range of technologies and applications, including micro, portable, stationary fuel cells. This massive effort was given an addition...

  13. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  14. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  15. Structural analysis of reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of fuel-element modeling is presented that traces the development of codes for the prediction of light-water-reactor and fast-breeder-reactor fuel-element performance. It is concluded that although the mathematical analysis is now far advanced, the development and incorporation of mechanistic constitutive equations has not kept pace. The resultant reliance on empirical correlations severely limits the physical insight that can be gained from code extrapolations. Current efforts include modeling of alternate fuel systems, analysis of local fuel-cladding interactions, and development of a predictive capability for off-normal behavior. Future work should help remedy the current constitutive deficiencies and should include the development of deterministic failure criteria for use in design

  16. Spherical coated particle fuel for fuel elements of HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, A.S.; Permyakov, L.N.; Mikhailichenko, L.I.; Nezhevenko, L.B.; Gudovich, A.P.; Landin, N.A.; Ljutikov, R.A.; Solovjev, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    The main results of the investigations on the development of spherical particles fuel for fuel elements of HTGR are described. Typical characteristics of UO 2 spherical particles (size, shape, density, microstructure etc.) and PyC and SiC protective layers (thickness, density, fission product release etc.) are presented. Sol-gel technique and slip casting are used for spheroidization; deposition of protective layers is carried out in the fluidized bed apparatus

  17. Fuel cells: principles, types, fuels, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrette, L; Friedrich, K A; Stimming, U

    2000-12-15

    During the last decade, fuel cells have received enormous attention from research institutions and companies as novel electrical energy conversion systems. In the near future, they will see application in automotive propulsion, distributed power generation, and in low power portable devices (battery replacement). This review gives an introduction into the fundamentals and applications of fuel cells: Firstly, the environmental and social factors promoting fuel cell development are discussed, with an emphasis on the advantages of fuel cells compared to the conventional techniques. Then, the main reactions, which are responsible for the conversion of chemical into electrical energy in fuel cells, are given and the thermodynamic and kinetic fundamentals are stated. The theoretical and real efficiencies of fuel cells are also compared to that of internal combustion engines. Next, the different types of fuel cells and their main components are explained and the related material issues are presented. A section is devoted to fuel generation and storage, which is of paramount importance for the practical aspects of fuel cell use. Finally, attention is given to the integration of the fuel cells into complete systems. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  18. Fuel elements and safety engineering goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Bonnenberg, H.

    1990-01-01

    There are good prospects for silicon carbide anti-corrosion coatings on fuel elements to be realised, which opens up the chance to reduce the safety engineering requirements to the suitable design and safe performance of the ceramic fuel element. Another possibility offered is combined-cycle operation with high efficiencies, and thus good economic prospects, as with this design concept combining gas and steam turbines, air ingress due to turbine malfunction is an incident that can be managed by the system. This development will allow economically efficient operation also of nuclear power reactors with relatively small output, and hence contribute to reducing CO 2 emissions. (orig./DG) [de

  19. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  20. Biological and microbial fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen Hao; Ghangrekar, Makarand Madhao; Erable, Benjamin; Duţeanu, Narcis Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Biological fuel cells have attracted increasing interest in recent years because of their applications in environmental treatment, energy recovery, and small-scale power sources. Biological fuel cells are capable of producing electricity in the same way as a chemical fuel cell: there is a constant supply of fuel into the anode and a constant supply of oxidant into the cathode; however, typically the fuel is a hydrocarbon compound present in the wastewater, for example. Microbial fuel cells (M...

  1. DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots E2S2 Conference May 7, 2009 Rob Hardison LMI rhardison@lmi.org Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and fuel cells offer potential „green‟ solutions •DLA‟s efforts to measure and improve viability of fuel cells DoD is supporting long term solutions

  2. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  3. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  4. Identification of cytoskeletal elements enclosing the ATP pools that fuel human red blood cell membrane cation pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S; Hoffman, Joseph F

    2012-07-31

    The type of metabolic compartmentalization that occurs in red blood cells differs from the types that exist in most eukaryotic cells, such as intracellular organelles. In red blood cells (ghosts), ATP is sequestered within the cytoskeletal-membrane complex. These pools of ATP are known to directly fuel both the Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+) pumps. ATP can be entrapped within these pools either by incubation with bulk ATP or by operation of the phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase reactions to enzymatically generate ATP. When the pool is filled with nascent ATP, metabolic labeling of the Na(+)/K(+) or Ca(2+) pump phosphoproteins (E(Na)-P and E(Ca)-P, respectively) from bulk [γ-(32)P]-ATP is prevented until the pool is emptied by various means. Importantly, the pool also can be filled with the fluorescent ATP analog trinitrophenol ATP, as well as with a photoactivatable ATP analog, 8-azido-ATP (N(3)-ATP). Using the fluorescent ATP, we show that ATP accumulates and then disappears from the membrane as the ATP pools are filled and subsequently emptied, respectively. By loading N(3)-ATP into the membrane pool, we demonstrate that membrane proteins that contribute to the pool's architecture can be photolabeled. With the aid of an antibody to N(3)-ATP, we identify these labeled proteins by immunoblotting and characterize their derived peptides by mass spectrometry. These analyses show that the specific peptides that corral the entrapped ATP derive from sequences within β-spectrin, ankyrin, band 3, and GAPDH.

  5. Design and Response of a Structural Multifunctional Fuel Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    South, Joseph; Baechle, Daniel; Hilton, Corydon; DeSchepper, Daniel; Wetzel, Eric

    2008-01-01

    .... In this study, structural fuel cells are proposed and evaluated. A structural multifunctional fuel cell system is designed so that material elements participating in power and energy processes are also carrying significant structural loads...

  6. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  7. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  8. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  9. Storage container for radioactive fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The interim storage cask for spent fuel elements or the glass moulds for high-level radioactive waste are made up of heat-resistant, reinforced concrete with chambers and highgrade steel lining. Cooling systems with natural air circulation are connected with the chambers. (HP) [de

  10. Prevention of criticality accidents. Fuel elements storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, S.I.; Capadona, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    Before the need to store fuel elements of the plate type MTR (Materials Testing Reactors), produced with enriched uranium at 20% in U235 for research reactors, it requires the design of a deposit for this purpose, which will give intrinsic security at a great extent and no complaints regarding its construction, is required. (Author) [es

  11. Fuel Cell Testing - Degradation of Fuel Cells and its Impact on Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    PFRANG Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells could become an integral part in future cars. Reduction of degradation of fuel cell performance while keeping fuel cell cost under control is the key for an introduction into mass markets.

  12. Fuel cells flows study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, R.; Bador, B.; Marchand, M.; Lebaigue, O.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel cells are energy converters, which directly and continuously produce electricity from paired oxidation reduction-reactions: In most cases, the reactants are oxygen and hydrogen with water as residue. There are several types of fuel cells using various electrolytes and working at different temperatures. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells are, in particular, studied in the GESTEAU facility. PEMFC performance is chiefly limited by two thermal-hydraulic phenomena: the drying of membranes and the flooding of gas distributors. Up to now, work has been focused on water flooding of gas channels. This has showed the influence of flow type on the electrical behaviour of the cells and the results obtained have led to proposals for new duct geometries. (authors)

  13. Catalogue of fuel elements - 1. addendum October 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, A.

    1957-01-01

    This document contains sheets presenting various characteristics of nuclear fuel elements which are distinguished with respect to their shape: cylinder bar, plate, tube. Each sheet comprises an indication of the atomic pile in which the fuel element is used, dimensions, cartridge data, data related to cooling, to combustion rate, and to fuel handling. A drawing of the fuel element is also given

  14. Research and Test Reactor Fuel Elements (RTRFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Brett W.; Marinak, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    BWX Technologies Inc. (BWXT) has experienced several production improvements over the past year. The homogeneity yields in 4.8 gU/cc U 3 Si 2 plates have increased over last year's already high yields. Through teamwork and innovative manufacturing techniques, maintaining high quality surface finishes on plates and elements is becoming easier and less expensive. Currently, BWXT is designing a fabrication development plan to reach a fuel loading of 9 gU/cc within 2 - 4 years. This development will involve a step approach requested by ANL to produce plates using U-8Mo at a loading of 6 gU/cc first and qualify the fuel at those levels. In achieving the goal of a very high-density fuel loading of 9 gU/cc, BWXT is considering employing several new, state of the art, ultrasonic testing techniques for fuel core evaluation. (author)

  15. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  16. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  17. An automated fuel element scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.; Hobbs, R.W.; Dyer, F.F.; Pugh, L.P.; Teasley, N.A. Jr.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an automated fuel element scanning system, based upon gamma-ray spectroscopy, that has been developed at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The scanning system is located in the reactor pool and allows fuel elements to be scanned nondestructively at various intervals during their core life. Gamma-ray measurements are made using a GeLi detector positioned above the pool water. Measurements of 137 Cs count rates from relatively 'cold' elements indicate that the counting data obtained using this apparatus is reproducible within 5%. Power distribution in the reactor's core is derived from 140 La counting data. The method of determining power is discussed briefly and some example results are presented. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. Burnup determination of a fuel element concerning different cooling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, C.; Navarro, G.; Pereda, C.; Mutis, O.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we report a complete set of measurements and some relevant results regarding the burnup process of a fuel element containing low enriched nuclear fuel. This fuel element was fabricated at the Plant of Fuel Elements of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). Measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy and the absolute burnup of the fuel element was determined. (author)

  19. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  20. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  1. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  3. Laser assisted decontamination of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Nilaya, J.; Biswas, Dhruba J.; Kumar, Aniruddha

    2010-04-01

    Laser assisted removal of loosely bound fuel particulates from the clad surface following the process of pellet loading has decided advantages over conventional methods. It is a dry and noncontact process that generates very little secondary waste and can occur inside a glove box without any manual interference minimizing the possibility of exposure to personnel. The rapid rise of the substrate/ particulate temperature owing to the absorption of energy from the incident laser pulse results in a variety of processes that may lead to the expulsion of the particulates. As a precursor to the cleaning of the fuel elements, initial experiments were carried out on contamination simulated on commonly used clad surfaces to gain a first hand experience on the various laser parameters for which as efficient cleaning can be obtained without altering the properties of the clad surface. The cleaning of a dummy fuel element was subsequently achieved in the laboratory by integrating the laser with a work station that imparted simultaneous rotational and linear motion to the fuel element. (author)

  4. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  5. Failure analysis for WWER-fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmert, J.; Huettig, W.

    1986-10-01

    If the fuel defect rate proves significantly high, failure analysis has to be performed in order to trace down the defect causes, to implement corrective actions, and to take measures of failure prevention. Such analyses are work-consuming and very skill-demanding technical tasks, which require examination methods and devices excellently developed and a rich stock of experience in evaluation of features of damage. For that this work specifies the procedure of failure analyses in detail. Moreover prerequisites and experimental equipment for the investigation of WWER-type fuel elements are described. (author)

  6. Automatic inspection for remotely manufactured fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E.; Gibbs, K.S.; Benedict, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two classification techniques, standard control charts and artificial neural networks, are studied as a means for automating the visual inspection of the welding of end plugs onto the top of remotely manufactured reprocessed nuclear fuel element jackets. Classificatory data are obtained through measurements performed on pre- and post-weld images captured with a remote camera and processed by an off-the-shelf vision system. The two classification methods are applied in the classification of 167 dummy stainless steel (HT9) fuel jackets yielding comparable results

  7. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  8. Fuel temperature characteristics of the 37-element and CANFLEX fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Rho, Gyu Hong; Park, Joo Hwan

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the fuel temperature characteristics of CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles for a different burnup of fuel. The program was consisted for seeking the fuel temperature of fuel bundles of CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles by using the method in NUCIRC. Fuel temperature has an increasing pattern with the burnup of fuel for CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles. For all the case of burnup, the fuel temperature of CANFLEX fuel bundles has a lower value than that of 37-element fuel bundles. Especially, for the high power channel, the CANFLEX fuel bundles show a lower fuel temperature as much as about 75 degree, and the core averaged fuel temperature has a lower fuel temperature of about 50 degree than that of 37-element fuel bundles. The lower fuel temperature of CANFLEX fuel bundles is expected to enhance the safety by reducing the fuel temperature coefficient. Finally, for each burnup of CANFLEX fuel bundles and 37-element fuel bundles, the equation was present for predicting the fuel temperature of a bundle in terms of a coolant temperature and bundle power

  9. Nuclear criticality assessment of LEU and HEU fuel element storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Criticality aspects of storing LEU (20%) and HEU (93%) fuel elements have been evaluated as a function of 235 U loading, element geometry, and fuel type. Silicide, oxide, and aluminide fuel types have been evaluated ranging in 235 U loading from 180 to 620 g per element and from 16 to 23 plates per element. Storage geometry considerations have been evaluated for fuel element separations ranging from closely packed formations to spacings of several centimeters between elements. Data are presented in a form in which interpolations may be made to estimate the eigenvalue of any fuel element storage configuration that is within the range of the data. (author)

  10. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefor...

  11. Fuel element radiometry system for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Gaur, Swati; Sridhar, Padmini; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Vaidya, P.R.; Das, Sanjoy; Sinha, A.K.; Bhatt, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    An indigenous and fully automatic PC based radiometry system has been designed and developed. The system required a vibration free scanning with various automated sequential movements to scan the fuel pin of size 5.8 mm (OD) x 1055 mm (L) along its full length. A mechanical system with these requirements and precision controls has been designed. The system consists of a tightly coupled and collimated radiation source-detector unit and data acquisition and control system. It supports PLC based control electronics to control and monitor the movement of fuel element, nuclear data acquisition and analysis system and feedback system to the mechanical scanner to physically accept or reject the fuel pin based on the decision derived by the software algorithms. (author)

  12. Nuclear fuel element nut retainer cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A typical embodiment has an end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel element that is joined to the control rod guide tubes by means of a nut plate assembly. The nut plate assembly has an array of nuts, each engaging the respective threaded end of the control rod guide tubes. The nuts, moreover, are retained on the plate during handling and before fuel element assembly by means of hollow cylindrical locking cups that are brazed to the plate and loosely circumscribe the individual enclosed nuts. After the nuts are threaded onto the respective guide tube ends, the locking cups are partially deformed to prevent one or more of the nuts from working loose during reactor operation. The locking cups also prevent loose or broken end fitting parts from becoming entrained in the reactor coolant

  13. Method of detecting a fuel element failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for detecting a fuel element failure in a liquid-sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor consisting of equilibrating a sample of the coolant with a molten salt consisting of a mixture of barium iodide and strontium iodide (or other iodides) whereby a large fraction of any radioactive iodine present in the liquid sodium coolant exchanges with the iodine present in the salt; separating the molten salt and sodium; if necessary, equilibrating the molten salt with nonradioactive sodium and separating the molten salt and sodium; and monitoring the molten salt for the presence of iodine, the presence of iodine indicating that the cladding of a fuel element has failed. (U.S.)

  14. Fuel element cluster for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Hutchinson, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The claim refers to the constructional design of a fuel element cluster the elements of which are held by upper and lower end plates connected to each other in upright position, the bearing being formed by a screw connection between at least one guide tube for control rods and the two end plates. The claims are directed, especially, to the connection of the parts as well as to the materials selection which are determined to a high degree by the thermal expansion coefficients. (UA) [de

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  16. FUEL CELL BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    References in this bibliography on fuel cells are arranged alphabetically by the authors. References for which no author is cited are arranged alphabetically by title under the general heading, Anon. The numerous references cover the time period of 1895 to 1961.

  17. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  18. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  19. Development of the Fuel Element Database of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhayati Ramli; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Nurfazila Husain; Yahya Ismail; Mat Zin Mat Husin; Mohd Fairus Abd Farid

    2015-01-01

    Since June 28th, 1982, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) operates safely with an accumulated energy release of about 17,200 MWhr, which corresponds to about 882 g of uranium burn-up. The reactor core has been reconfigured 15th times. Presently, there are 111 TRIGA fuel elements in the core, which 66 of the fuel elements are from the initial criticality while the rest of the fuel elements have been added to compensate the uranium consumption. As 59 % of the fuel elements are older than 30 years old, it is necessary to put the history of every fuel element in a database for easy access of the fuel element movement, inspection results history and integrity status. This paper intends to describe how the fuel element database is developed and related formulae used in determining the RTP fuel element elongation. (author)

  20. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  1. Design of fuel element for RA10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, Esteban A.; Markiewicz, Mario; Gerding, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The RA-10 reactor is an open pool multipurpose reactor. It is intended for radioisotopes production, fuel irradiation and use of neutron beam experiments. The nominal configuration core consists of 19 fuel elements (FE) and 6 in-core irradiation positions. With regard to the FE, although both conceptual design and manufacturing technology are similar to the already developed and qualified by CNEA (MTR fuel flat plate), the conditions imposed by the new reactor on FE's are more demanding that previous supplies. Here it should be mentioned the magnitude of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the FE caused by coolant flow through the core (upward) and mainly by the high coolant velocity between fuel plates (greater than 5 times than those currently in operation). Moreover, the high power density results in higher heat flux in fuel plates and greater temperature gradient. As a result of these increased demands present during irradiation, and in order to maintain a high level of reliability, it is necessary carry out some modifications in the mechanical design of the FE (with respect to the so-called ECBE design or s tandard ) . Design verification is performed through analytical and code calculations, and hydrodynamic tests on a full-scale prototype. This article describes the design of the FE for RA 10 reactor, with special emphasis on those aspects that represent innovations in the traditional design (ECBE). It also presents the functional requirements, design criteria and design limits established according to the reactor operational states (author)

  2. An improved assembly for the transport of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, G.

    1979-01-01

    An improved assembly for the transport and storage of radioactive nuclear fuel elements is described. The fuel element transport canister is of the type in which the fuel elements are submerged in liquid with a self regulating ullage system, so that the fuel elements are always submerged in the liquid even when the assembly is used in one orientation during loading and another orientation during transportation. (UK)

  3. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  4. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  5. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  6. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  7. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  8. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  9. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  10. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  11. Transport and reprocessing of irradiated TRIGA fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staake, Theo R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a review of the transport of irradiated TRIGA fuel elements, and the selection of the transport casks. The information presented is based on the experience TRANSNUKLEAR GmbH has gained over the last 14 years in the transport and reprocessing of irradiated MTR fuel elements. During this period over 2000 fuel elements were delivered to various destinations for reprocessing (about 1000 fuel elements - to European reprocessing plants (Eurochemic in Belgium, and CEA Marcoule in France), and, since 1977, over 1000 fuel elements - to the US-DOE Savannah River reprocessing plant)

  12. Reformate fuel cell system durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Uribe, F. A. (Francisco A.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the factors limiting the durability of fuel cells and fuel processors. This includes identifying PEM fuel cell durability issues for operating on pure hydrogen, and those that arise from the fuel processing of liquid hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline) as a function of fuel composition and impurity content. Benchmark comparisons with the durability of fuel cells operating on pure hydrogen are used to identify limiting factors unique to fuel processing. We describe the design, operation and operational results of the durability system, including the operating conditions for the system, fuel processor sub-section operation over 1000 hours, post-mortem characterization of the catalysts in the fuel processor, and single cell operation.

  13. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  14. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...running on JP-8 / diesel fuel & 250W RMFC Aspen : 5kWe integrated desulfurizer and JP-8 / diesel fuel processor Altex: 2-kWe integrated desulfurizer...and JP-8 / diesel fuel processor Precision Combustion : 5-kWt integrated desulfurizer and JP-8 and diesel fuel processor Customers Partners Army

  15. Status of work on the concept for direct spent fuel element disposal in fuel element canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, W.; Wehrmann, J.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Graf, R.; Fopp, S.

    2009-01-01

    The reference concept for direct final disposal of spent fuel elements is the storage in POLLUC casks in an underground facility in salt formations. The reference concept includes also the borehole storage of high-level waste and CSD-C-canisters in vertical boreholes. In the frame of the optimized final repository concept from 1998 the unshielded fuel element canisters BSK 3 were introduced. The concept aims to an enhanced heat input control into the host rock, reduced storage area demand, reduction of the gas problems (less metal masses), faster process of canisters compared with the POLLUX cask storage, and economic optimization by avoiding expensive casks.

  16. Development of experimental methods for measuring fuel elements burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEREDA, C; HENRIQUEZ, C; NAVARRO, G; TORRES, H; KLEIN, J; CALDERON, D; MEDEL, J; MUTIS, O; DAIE, J; ITURRIETA, L; LONCOMILLA, M; ZAMBRANO, J; KESTELMAN, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the work carried out during the last two years in fuel burning measurements at RECH-1 for different enrichments, cooling times and burning rates. The measurements were made in two gamma-spectrometric facilities, one is installed in a hot cell and the other inside of the secondary pool of the RECH-1, where the element is under 2 meters of water. The hot cell measurements need at least 100 cooling days because of the problems generated by the transport of highly active fuel elements from the Reactor to the cell. This was the main reason for using the in-pool facility because of its capability to measure the burning of fuel elements without having to wait so long, that is with only 5 cooling days. The accumulated experience in measurements achieved in both facilities and the encouraging results show that this measuring method is reliable. The results agreed well with those obtained using the reactor's physics codes, which was the way they were obtained previously (Cw)

  17. Features of spherical uranium-graphite HTGR fuel elements control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreindlin, I.I.; Oleynikov, P.P.; Shtan, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Control features of spherical HTGR uranium-graphite fuel elements with spherical coated fuel particles are mainly determined by their specific construction and fabrication technology. The technology is chiefly based on methods of ceramic fuel (fuel microspheres fabrication) and graphite production practice it is necessary to deal with a lot of problems from determination of raw materials properties to final fuel elements testing. These procedures are described

  18. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  19. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  20. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel...with the national grid. Source: US DOE 1/2011 6 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Biogas Resource Example

  1. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  2. The calculation - experimental investigations of the HTGR fuel element construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, V.S.; Kolesov, V.S.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the HTGR development is the creation of the fuel element gas-tight for the fission products. This problem is being solved by using fuel elements of dispersion type representing an ensemble of coated fuel particles dispersed in the graphite matrix. Gas-tightness of such fuel elements is reached at the expense of deposing a protective coating on the fuel particles. It is composed of some layers serving as diffusion barriers for fission products. It is apparent that the rate of fission products diffusion from coated fuel particles is determined by the strength and temperature of the protective coating

  3. Nuclear fuel element with axially aligned fuel pellets and fuel microspheres therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sease, J.D.; Harrington, F.E.

    1973-12-11

    Elongated single- and multi-region fuel elements are prepared by replacing within a cladding container a coarse fraction of fuel material which includes plutonium and uranium in the appropriate regions of the fuel element and then infiltrating with vibration a fine-sized fraction of uranium-containing microspheres throughout all interstices in the coarse material in a single loading. The fine, rigid material defines a thin annular layer between the coarse fraction and the cladding to reduce adverse mechanical and chemical interactions. (Official Gazette)

  4. A procedure validation for high conversion reactors fuel elements calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, V.N.; Patino, N.E.; Abbate, M.J.; Sbaffoni, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The present work includes procedure validation of cross sections generation starting from nuclear data and the calculation system actually used at the Bariloche Atomic Center Reactor and Neutrons Division for its application to fuel elements calculation of a high conversion reactor (HCR). To this purpose, the fuel element calculation belonging to a High Conversion Boiling water Reactor (HCBWR) was chosen as reference problem, employing the Monte Carlo method. Various cases were considered: with and without control bars, cold of hot, at different vacuum fractions. Multiplication factors, reaction rates, power maps and peak factors were compared. A sensitivity analysis of typical cells used, the approximations employed to solve the transport equation (Sn or Diffusion), the 1-D or 2-D representation and densification of the spatial network used, with the aim of evaluating their influence on the parameters studied and to come to an optimum combination to be used in future design calculations. (Author) [es

  5. Cells for the examination of irradiated plutonium fuel elements - two years operation - may 1961/may 1963 (1963); Cellules pour examen d'elements combustibles au plutonium irradies - deux ans d'exploitation - mai 1961/mai 1963 (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Within the framework of the 'Rapsodie' fast reactor program, prototype plutonium fuel elements are irradiated and then examined in an {alpha} {beta} {gamma} laboratory at Saclay. This laboratory consists of five in line cells and a lead enclosure microscope. Each cell contains an {alpha} sealed removable box 4 ft 3 in. high, 4 ft 11 in. wide and 5 ft 1 in. deep, fitted with one or two magnetic transmission indirect manipulators. The boxes are contained in an {beta} {gamma} shielded enclosure whose front face is constructed of cast iron panels 21-2/3 in. thick. Nitrogen circulating in a closed loop forms the atmosphere of the boxes. This laboratory is essentially intended for metallurgical research. The functions of the various cells are as follows: transferring and packing, cutting, density measurement and cathodic etching, storage and metallography. Work on radioactive materials began in April 1961. Operational incidents have always been of a material nature only. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet de reacteur rapide Rapsodie, des elements combustibles prototypes au plutonium sont, apres irradiation, examines a Saclay dans un laboratoire {alpha} {beta} {gamma}. Celui-ci comprend cinq cellules en ligne et une enceinte en plomb contenant un microscope telecommande. Chaque cellule est constituee d'un caisson etanche (1, 3 m x 1, 5 m x 1, 56m) equipee d'un ou deux manipulateurs indirects a transmissions magnetiques. Les caissons sont places, dans une enceinte {beta} {gamma} dont la face avant est formee de blocs en fonte ayant 55 cm d'epaisseur. L'atmosphere des caissons est de l'azote, circulant en circuit ferme. Ce laboratoire est destine essentiellement a des recherches metallurgiques. Les fonctions des differentes cellules sont: conditionnement et transferts, tronconnage, mesure de densite et polissage ionique, stockage, metallographie. Le travail sur materiaux radioactifs a commence en avril 1961. Les incidents d

  6. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  7. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  8. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  9. Orbiter fuel cell improvement assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    The history of fuel cells and the theory of fuel cells is given. Expressions for thermodynamic and electrical efficiencies are developed. The voltage losses due to electrode activation, ohmic resistance and ionic diffusion are discussed. Present limitations of the Orbiter Fuel Cell, as well as proposed enhancements, are given. These enhancements are then evaluated and recommendations are given for fuel cell enhancement both for short-range as well as long-range performance improvement. Estimates of reliability and cost savings are given for enhancements where possible

  10. Trunnions for spent fuel element shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.

    1989-01-01

    Trunnions are used on spent fuel element shipping casks for one or more of a combination of lifting, tilting or securing to a transport vehicle. Within the nuclear transportation industry there are many different philosophies on trunnions, concerning the shape, manufacture, attachment, inspection, maintenance and repair. With the volume of international transport of spent fuel now taking place, it is recognized that problems are occurring with casks in international traffic due to the variance of the philosophies, national standards, and the lack of an international standard. It was agreed through the ISO that an international standard was required to harmonize. It was not possible to evolve an international standard. It was only possible to evolve an international guide. To evolve a standard would mean superseding any existing national standards which already cover particular aspects of trunnions i.e. deceleration forces imposed on trunnions used as tie down features. Therefore the document is a guide only and allows existing national standards to take precedence where they exist. The guide covers design, manufacture, maintenance, repair and quality assurance. The guide covers trunnions used on spent fuel casks transported by road, rail and sea. The guide details the considerations which should be taken account of by cask designers, i.e. stress intensity, design features, inspection and test methods etc. Manufacture, attachment and pre-service testing is also covered. The guide details user requirements which should also be taken account of, i.e. servicing frequency, content, maintenance and repair. The application of quality assurance is described separately although the principles are used throughout the guide

  11. Some properties for modeling of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.A.

    1979-01-01

    Two areas key to the materials modeling of fuel element behavior are discussed. The relative importance of atomic diffusion vs. bubble migration is first surveyed and the interplay of bubble mobility and re-solution parameter is highlighted. It is concluded that biased bubble migration at higher temperatures is required to explain available gas-release data, especially during transients. At intermediate temperatures, random bubble migration is required to explain both gas-release rates and the observation of large (approx. 700A) intragranular bubbles following in-pile and post-irradiation transients. Different fuel models employ different values of re-solution parameter, both below and above an experimentally determined value. Bubble mobilities are deduced to approach theoretical, surface diffusion-controlled values during transients, but they may be somewhat less mobile during steady-state operation. Next, the present understanding of radiation-induced hardening and creep is discussed, highlighting the interplay of these two phenomena. An overall constitutive scheme is presented and predictions of failure limits are deduced therefrom employing instability analysis

  12. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  13. News from the fuel elements industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, R.; Delannay, M.; Dehon, C.; Jouan, J.; Beuneche, M.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals successively with: the re-structuring of the PWR fuel industry in France, with the setting up of Fragema and Cogema Framatome Combustible; Fragema products, from standard fuel assembly to the development of a new advanced fuel assembly; Framatome's experience with PWR fuel; fuel performances in the light of requirements imposed by network needs follow-up; devices developed by Fragema for on-site analysis of irradiated fuel [fr

  14. The development of fuel elements for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Kilian, P.

    1984-01-01

    The longevity of today's standard fuel elements constitutes a sound basis for designing advanced fuel elements for higher discharge burnups. Operating experience as well as postirradiation examinations of discharged fuel elements indicate that the technical limits have not reached by far. However, measures to achieve an economic and reliable fuel cycle are not restricted to the design of fuel elements, but also extend into such fields as fuel management and the mode of reactor operation. Fuel elements can be grouped together in zones in the core as a function of burnup and reactivity. The loading scheme can be aligned to this approach by concentrating on typical control rod positions. Reloads can also be made up of two sublots of fuel elements with different gadolinium contents. Longer cycles, e.g., of eighteen instead of twelve months, are easy to plan reactivitywise by increasing the quantity to be replaced from at present one quarter to one third. In fuel elements designed for higher burnups, the old scheme of reloading one quarter of the fuel inventory can be retained. The measures already introduced or in the planning stage incorporate a major potential for technical and economic optimization of the fuel cycle in boiling water reactors. (orig.) [de

  15. Remarks on the transportation of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1992-01-01

    Information and data are provided on several aspects of the transportation of spent fuel elements. These aspects include contract, transportation, reprocessing batch size, and economical considerations. (author)

  16. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  17. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  19. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas [Buxerolles, FR; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM; Choi, Jong-Ho [Los Alamos, NM; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL; Cao, Dianxue [Urbana, IL

    2009-09-15

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  20. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  1. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  2. Methodology for substantiation of the fast reactor fuel element serviceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Maershin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methodological aspects of fast reactor fuel element serviceability substantiation are presented. The choice of the experimental program and strategies of its realization to solve the problem set in short time, taking into account available experimental means, are substantiated. Factors determining fuel element serviceability depending on parameters and operational conditions are considered. The methodological approach recommending separate studing of the factors, which points to the possibility of data acquisition, required for the development of calculational models and substantiation of fuel element serviceability in pilot and experimental reactors, is described. It is shown that the special-purpose data are more useful for the substantiation of fuel element serviceability and analytical method development than unsubstantial and expensive complex tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, which should be conducted only at final stages for the improvement of the structure on the whole

  3. Means for supporting fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Harry N.; Keller, Herbert W.

    1980-01-01

    A grid structure for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a plurality of connecting members forming at least one longitudinally extending opening peripheral and inner fuel element openings through each of which openings at least one nuclear fuel element extends, said connecting members forming wall means surrounding said each peripheral and inner fuel element opening, a pair of rigid projections longitudinally spaced from one another extending from a portion of said wall means into said each peripheral and inner opening for rigidly engaging said each fuel element, respectively, yet permit individual longitudinal slippage thereof, and resilient means formed integrally on and from said wall means and positioned in said each peripheral and inner opening in opposed relationship with said projections and located to engage said fuel element to bias the latter into engagement with said rigid projections, respectively

  4. Storage device for a long nuclear reactor fuel element and/or a long nuclear reactor fuel element part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, M.; Schoenwitz, H.P.; Dassbach, W.

    1986-01-01

    The storage device can be erected in a dry storage room for new fuel elements and also in a storage pond for irradiated fuel elements. It consists of shells, which are arranged vertically and which have a lid. A suspension for the fuel element is provided on the underside of the lid, which acts as a support against squashing or bending in case of vertical forces acting (earthquake). (DG) [de

  5. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  6. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  7. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  8. ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF FUEL CELL ELECTRODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    optimization of fuel cell electrodes. Hydrogen oxidation and reduction, the reduction of oxygen, and the oxidation of formic acid, a soluble organic...substance, were selected for these studiees because of their relevance to fuel cell systems and because of their relative simplicity. The electrodes

  9. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  10. Assembly for transport and storage of radioactive nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, G.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns the self-control of coolant deficiencies on the transport of spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors. It guarantees that drying out of the fuel elements is prevented in case of a change of volume of the fluid contained in storage tanks and accumulators and serving as coolant and shielding medium. (TK) [de

  11. Attempt to produce silicide fuel elements in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.; Suripto, A.

    1991-01-01

    After the successful experiment to produce U 3 Si 2 powder and U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel plates using depleted U and Si of semiconductor quality, silicide fuel was synthesized using x -Al available at the Fuel Element Production Installation (FEPI) at Serpong, Indonesia. Two full-size U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel elements, having similar specifications to the ones of U 3 O 8 -Al for the RSG-GAS (formerly known as MPR-30), have been produced at the FEPI. All quality controls required have been imposed to the feeds, intermediate, as well as final products throughout the production processes of the two fuel elements. The current results show that these fuel elements are qualified from fabrication point of view, therefore it is expected that they will be permitted to be tested in the RSG-GAS, sometime by the end of 1989, for normal (∝50%) and above normal burn-up. (orig.)

  12. Report on the result of the technical development of fuel cells at the Urban Energy Center, etc. Development for the practical application of commercial/residential use distributed power source optimal systems (research on the element technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper made an element study of compact and high performance reformers which are suitable for small sized fuel cells as commercial/residential use distributed power sources. As to small sized methanol reformers, a double cylinder type which is compactible was developed, and thermal efficiency of 92.8% and excellent reforming characteristics were confirmed. DC output of 3kw was obtained by combining it with fuel cell, but the reformer thermal efficiency at 100% loads stayed at 84% because the reforming raw fuel was not preheated. Especially at low loads, the thermal efficiency lowered. As to small sized natural gas reformers, by the same compactible double cylinder type, the thermal efficiency of 86% and excellent reforming characteristics were obtained. The excellent catalyst was also developed. DC output of 3.3kw was obtained by combining it with fuel cell, but the reforming thermal efficiency was approximately 80% at 50-100% loads because the raw fuel was not preheated. At low loads (25%), the thermal efficiency reduced to 67%, lower than at other loads, because of the thermal loss. Both reformers have a possibility of being practically used in the commercial/residential sector if further improvement of efficiency is made such as the reduction of thermal loss at low loads. 47 figs., 35 tabs.

  13. Hydrogen fuel cell engines and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The manual documents the first training course developed on the use of hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The manual contains eleven modules covering hydrogen properties, use and safety; fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine desi...

  14. Fuel element shipping shim for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehri, A.

    1975-01-01

    A shim is described for use in the transportation of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It comprises a member preferably made of low density polyethylene designed to have three-point contact with the fuel rods of a fuel assembly and being of sufficient flexibility to effectively function as a shock absorber. The shim is designed to self-lock in place when associated with the fuel rods. (Official Gazette)

  15. LOAD-CHECK. Disposal planning for LWR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freunek, M.; Braun, A.; Graf, R.; Gutermuth, F.

    2012-01-01

    With the changes of the German atomic law from November 8, 2011 the operation licensing of LWR plants expire latest 2022, for eight NPPs the operation licenses are already expired. In order to optimize the fuel element management in the still operated but also in the decommissioned nuclear power plants the computer code module LOAD-CHECK was developed. LOAD-CHECK allows the foresight container planning for an optimized schedule and the container amount for loading campaigns esp. in case of the disposal of special fuel elements (MOX fuel elements or high-burnup fuel elements). The program can also be used a s tool for development of transport licensing and storage licensing according of CASTOR registered V casks. In the contribution the LOAD-CHECK program for the PWR and BWR fuel element disposal management in CASTOR registered B casks is presented.

  16. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  18. Simple electrolytic cell for production of elemental fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dides F, M.; Padilla S, U.

    1990-01-01

    It was constructed and tested a simple electrolytic cell for the production of elemental fluorine. The fluorine production is essential in the obtainment of uranium hexafluoride, a compound for the nuclear fuel cycle. (A.C.A.S.)

  19. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  20. Thermal analysis of IRT-T reactor fuel elements

    OpenAIRE

    Naymushin, Artem Georgievich; Chertkov, Yuri Borisovich; Lebedev, Ivan Igorevich; Anikin, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the method and results of thermo-physical calculations of IRT-T reactor core. Heat fluxes, temperatures of cladding, fuel meat and coolant were calculated for height of core, azimuth directions of FA and each fuel elements in FA. Average calculated values of uniformity factor of energy release distribution for height of fuel assemblies were shown in this research. Onset nucleate boiling temperature and ONB-ratio were calculated. Shows that temperature regimes of fuel ele...

  1. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  2. CARA, new concept of advanced fuel element for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P.C.; Crimello, R.O.; Bergallo, J.E.; Marino, A.C.; Delmastro, D.F.; Brasnarof, D.O.; Gonzalez, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    All Argentinean NPPs (2 in operation, 1 under construction), use heavy water as coolant and moderator. With very different reactor concepts (pressure Vessel and CANDU type designs), the fuel elements are completely different in its concepts too. Argentina produces both types of fuel elements at a manufacturing fuel element company, called CONUAR. The very different fuel element's designs produce a very complex economical behavior in this company, due to the low production scale. The competitiveness of the Argentinean electric system (Argentina has a market driven electric system) put another push towards to increase the economical competitiveness of the nuclear fuel cycle. At present, Argentina has a very active Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) Program for the pressure vessel HWR type, but without strong changes in the fuel concept itself. Then, the Atomic Energy Commission in Argentina (CNEA) has developed a new concept of fuel element, named CARA, trying to achieve very ambitious goals, and substantially improved the competitiveness of the nuclear option. The ambitious targets for CARA fuel element are compatibility (a single fuel element for all Argentinean's HWR) using a single diameter fuel rod, improve the security margins, increase the burnup and do not exceed the CANDU fabrication costs. In this paper, the CARA concept will be presented, in order to explained how to achieve all together these goals. The design attracted the interest of the nuclear power operator utility (NASA), and the fuel manufacturing company (CONUAR). Then a new Project is right now under planning with the cooperation of three parts (CNEA - NASA - CONUAR) in order to complete the whole development program in the shortest time, finishing in the commercial production of CARA fuel bundle. At the end of the this paper, future CARA development program will be described. (author)

  3. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  4. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  5. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  6. Fuel cell design using a new heuristic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes T, J. L.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper a new method for the pre-design of a typical fuel cell with a structural array of 10 x 10 fuel elements for a BWR is presented. The method is based on principles of maximum dispersion and minimum peaks of local power within the array of fuel elements. The pre-design of the fuel cells is made by simulation in two dimensions (2-D) through the cells physics code CASMO-4. For this purpose of pre-design the search process is guided by an objective function which is a combination of the main neutronic parameters of the fuel cell. The results show that the method is a promising tool that could be used for the design of fuel cells for use in a nuclear plant BWR. (Author)

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Statistical estimation of fast-reactor fuel-element lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proshkin, A.A.; Likhachev, Yu.I.; Tuzov, A.N.; Zabud'ko, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a statistical analysis, the main parameters having a significant influence on the theoretical determination of fuel-element lifetimes in the operation of power fast reactors in steady power conditions are isolated. These include the creep and swelling of the fuel and shell materials, prolonged-plasticity lag, shell-material corrosion, gap contact conductivity, and the strain diagrams of the shell and fuel materials obtained for irradiated materials at the corresponding strain rates. By means of deeper investigation of these properties of the materials, it is possible to increase significantly the reliability of fuel-element lifetime predictions in designing fast reactors and to optimize the structure of fuel elements more correctly. The results of such calculations must obviously be taken into account in the cost-benefit analysis of projected new reactors and in choosing the optimal fuel burnup. 9 refs

  9. Desulfurization of Logistic Fuels for Fuel Cell Apus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    ppmw S). The effective utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds...utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds) to below 0.1 ppm. Low

  10. Fuel cell research: Towards efficient energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available fuel cells by optimising the loading of catalyst (being expensive noble metals) and ionomer; 2) Improving conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells by developing more efficient catalysts and by investigating other fuels than methanol; 3...) Investigating anionic membranes for use in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells, as cheaper and more efficient alternatives to conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells. The aim of the authors’ research activities is to develop fuel cell...

  11. Operational requirements of spherical HTR fuel elements and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roellig, K.; Theymann, W.

    1985-01-01

    The German development of spherical fuel elements with coated fuel particles led to a product design which fulfils the operational requirements for all HTR applications with mean gas exit temperatures from 700 deg C (electricity and steam generation) up to 950 deg C (supply of nuclear process heat). In spite of this relatively wide span for a parameter with strong impact on fuel element behaviour, almost identical fuel specifications can be used for the different reactor purposes. For pebble bed reactors with relatively low gas exit temperatures of 700 deg C, the ample design margins of the fuel elements offer the possibility to enlarge the scope of their in-service duties and, simultaneously, to improve fuel cycle economics. This is demonstrated for the HTR-500, an electricity and steam generating 500 MWel eq plant presently proposed as follow-up project to the THTR-300. Due to the low operating temperatures of the HTR-500 core, the fuel can be concentrated in about 70% of the pebbles of the core thus saving fuel cycle costs. Under all design accident conditions fuel temperatures are maintained below 1250 deg C. This allows a significant reduction in the engineered activity barriers outside the primary circuit, in particular for the loss of coolant accident. Furthermore, access to major primary circuit components and the reuse of the fuel elements after any design accident are possible. (author)

  12. Elements of nuclear reactor fueling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with a review of the simple batch size effect, a more general theory of nuclear fueling is derived to describe the behavior and physical requirements of operating cycle sequences and fueling strategies having practical use in the management of nuclear fuel. The generalized theory, based on linear reactivity modeling, is analytical and represents the effects of multiple-stream, multiple-depletion-batch fueling configurations in systems employing arbitrary, non-integer batch size strategies, and containing fuel with variable energy generation rates. Reactor operating cycles and cycle sequences are represented with realistic structure that includes the effects of variable cycle energy production, cycle lengths, end-of-cycle operating extensions and maneuvering allowances. Results of the analytical theory are first applied to the special case of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences, yielding several fundamental principles related to the selection of refueling strategy, and which govern fueling decisions normally made by the fuel manager. It is also demonstrated in this application that the simple batch size effect is not valid for non-integer fueling strategies, even in the simplest sequence configurations, and that it systematically underestimates the fueling requirements of degenerate sequences in general

  13. Multiscale NTP Fuel Element Materials Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project will leverage a multiscale modeling approach pioneered for light water reactor (LWR) fuels to simulate performance in a prototypical environment. The...

  14. ELOCA: fuel element behaviour during high temperature transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, H.E.

    1979-03-01

    The ELOCA computer code was developed to simulate the uniform thermal-mechanical behaviour of a fuel element during high-temperature transients such as a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Primary emphasis is on the diametral expansion of the fuel sheath. The model assumed is a single UO2/zircaloy-clad element with axisymmetric properties. Physical effects considered by the code are fuel expansion, cracking and melting; variation, during the transient, of internal gas pressure; changing fuel/sheath heat transfer; thermal, elastic and plastic sheath deformation (anisotropic); Zr/H 2 O chemical reaction effects; and beryllium-assisted crack penetration of the sheath. (author)

  15. Shore Facility Fuel Cell Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lund, Christian; Weaver, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    ...) Air Station Cape Cod. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine whether fuel cell technology could be a reliable, more environmentally friendly, and cost-effective alternative to commercially procured electricity...

  16. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, E.; Gonzalez, E. R.

    The faster kinetics of the alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells (ADAFCs), opening up the possibility of using less expensive metal catalysts, as silver, nickel and palladium, makes the alkaline direct alcohol fuel cell a potentially low cost technology compared to acid direct alcohol fuel cell technology, which employs platinum catalysts. A boost in the research regarding alkaline fuel cells, fuelled with hydrogen or alcohols, was due to the development of alkaline anion-exchange membranes, which allows the overcoming of the problem of the progressive carbonation of the alkaline electrolyte. This paper presents an overview of catalysts and membranes for ADAFCs, and of testing of ADAFCs, fuelled with methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol, formed by these materials.

  17. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  18. Solid Acid Based Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haile, Sossina M

    2005-01-01

    ...) without pressurization. In this configuration, the thin-film fuel cell is supported on a porous stainless steel gas diffusion layer and the electrocatalyst and electrolyte layers are spray-deposited...

  19. Hybrid membranes for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, S. S.; Shashkina, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Fuel cells are a very efficient, reliable, durable, and environmentally friendly energy source. Membranes for fuel cells were developed based on nitrogen-containing high-molecular compounds and organic–inorganic composites. Their electrical conductivities were measured. The influence of a silicon block of composites on the proton exchange properties of membranes was proved.The comparative characterization of the studied materials was performed.

  20. Sodium removal of fuel elements by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, E.; Haubold, W.; Jansing, W.; Kirchner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Cleaning of sodium-wetted core components can be performed by using either lead, moist nitrogen, or alcohol. The advantages of these methods for cleaning fuel elements without causing damage are well known. The disadvantage is that large amounts of radioactive liquids are formed during handling in the latter two cases. In this paper a new method to clean components is described. The main idea is to remove all liquid metal from the core components within a comparatively short period of time. Fuel elements removed from the reactor must be cooled because of high decay heat release. To date, vacuum distillation of fuel elements has not yet been applied

  1. Method of removing crud deposited on fuel element clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu; Yashima, Akira; Tajima, Jun-ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable easy elimination of claddings deposited on the surface of fuel element. Method: An operator manipulates a pole from above a platform, engages the longitudinal flange of the cover to the opening at the upper end of a channel box and starts up a suction pump. The suction amount of the pump is set such that water flow becomes within the channel box at greater flow rate than the operational flow rate in the channel box of the fuel element clusters during reactor operation. This enables to remove crud deposited on the surface of individual fuel elements with ease and rapidly without detaching the channel box. (Moriyama, K.)

  2. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  3. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  4. Nuclear fuel elements and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for a high temperature gas nuclear reactor that has an average operating temperature in excess of 2000.degree. C., and a method of making such a fuel element. The fuel element is characterized by having fissionable fuel material localized and stabilized within pores of a carbon or graphite member by melting the fissionable material to cause it to chemically react with the carbon walls of the pores. The fissionable fuel material is further stabilized and localized within the pores of the graphite member by providing one or more coatings of pyrolytic carbon or diamond surrounding the porous graphite member so that each layer defines a successive barrier against migration of the fissionable fuel from the pores, and so that the outermost layer of pyrolytic carbon or diamond forms a barrier between the fissionable material and the moderating gases used in an associated high temperature gas reactor. The method of the invention provides for making such new elements either as generally spherically elements, or as flexible filaments, or as other relatively small-sized fuel elements that are particularly suited for use in high temperature gas reactors.

  5. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the regenerative fuel cell project element is to develop power and energy storage technologies that enable new capabilities for future human space...

  6. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  7. Experimental Study of Elements Promoting Mixing in Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Juanico, Luis; Delmastro, Dario

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a thermal tracing technique is used to measure the increase of the mixing between subchannels in the presence of different mixing elements.As representative elements a spacer, a spacer with mixing vanes and turbulence promoter buttons were considered.The performance of these elements was evaluated by studying the behavior of a thermal trace in each case.Also the pressure drop for each case is presented.The results present a qualitative and quantitative guide for the application of each one of these appendages in future nuclear elements

  8. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable of...

  9. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Fuels Resources for DFC • Natural Gas and LNG • Propane • Biogas (by Anaerobicnaerobic Digestion) - Municipal Waste...FUEL RESOURCES z NATURAL GAS z PROPANE z DFC H2 (50-60%) z ETHANOL zWASTE METHANE z BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency...trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. DFC Advantages for Biogas • More power for given amount of biogas : Higher efficiency than

  10. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Fairchild, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    The fifth in a projected series of six postirradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements is described. The element analyzed received an equivalent of 897 full-power days of irradiation prior to the scheduled termination of Core 2 operation. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a 137 Cs inventory of 20.3 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.1 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides 134 Cs, /sup 110 m/Ag, 60 Co, and 154 Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the beta-emitters 3 H, 14 C, and 90 Sr were obtained at four axial locations of the fueled region of the element sleeve and two axial locations of the element spine. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. In addition to fission product distributions, the appearance of the component parts of the element was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed

  11. Thermomechanical analysis of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez L, H.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents development of a code to obtain the thermomechanical analysis of fuel rods in the fuel assemblies inserted in the core of BWR reactors. The code uses experimental correlations developed in several laboratories. The development of the code is divided in two parts: a) the thermal part and b) the mechanical part, extending both the fuel and the cladding materials. The thermal part consists of finding the radial distribution of temperatures in the pellet, from the fuel centerline up to the coolant, along the total active length, considering one and two phase flow in the coolant, as a result of the pressure drop in the system. The mechanical part analyzes the effects of temperature gradients, pressure and irradiation, to which the fuel rod is subjected. The strains produced by swelling, creep and thermal stress in the fuel material are analyzed. In the same way the strains in the cladding are analyzed, considering the effects produced by the pressure exerted on the cladding by pellet swelling, by the pressure caused by fission gas release toward the cavities, and by the strain produced on the cladding by the pressure changes of the system. (Author)

  12. Examination of irradiated fuel elements using gamma scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichim, O.; Mincu, M.; Man, I.; Stanica, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to validate the gamma scanning technique used to calculate the activity of gamma fission products from CANDU/TRIGA irradiated fuel elements. After a short presentation of the equipments used and their characteristics, the paper describes the calibration technique for the devices and how computed tomography reconstruction is done. Following the previously mentioned steps is possible to obtain the axial and radial profiles and the computed tomography reconstruction for calibration sources and for the irradiated fuel elements. The results are used to validate the gamma scanning techniques as a non-destructive examination method. The gamma scanning techniques will be used to: identify the fission products in the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements, construct the axial and radial distributions of fission products, get the distribution in cross section through computed tomography reconstruction, and determine the nuclei number and the fission products activity of the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements. (authors)

  13. Fuel Element for an Affordable NTR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Howe Industries LLC will investigate, design, and demonstrate the fabrication of fuel elements for a safe, robust NTR - the Scored Plate Reactor as an Innovative...

  14. Optimization of FBR fuel element for high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, G.; Millet, P.

    1985-03-01

    After a brief historical background showing evolution of the French fast reactor fuel element from RAPSODIE to PHENIX and SUPER PHENIX we have examined the main points which have permitted to increase irradiation performance of the subassembly

  15. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  16. Capacity of the equipment family SICOM to inspect fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Siguero, A.; Sola, A.

    2013-01-01

    To check the status where the fuel assemblies are after has been operating in the core of nuclear plants, inspections have been conducted to carry out an improvement in the behavior of alloys used in pods of fuel, the control of corrosion of these pods because of heat, reducing the transfer of heat due to the oxide and with the support of visual inspections monitor the physical integrity of the fuel elements.

  17. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  18. LEU fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, W.I.

    2000-01-01

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a Material Testing Reactor type (MTR) fuel element facility, for producing the specified fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant uses uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 , 19.75% U 235 by wt) as a raw material which is processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection and test plan to produce the final specified fuel elements. Radiological safety aspects during design, construction, operation, and all reasonably accepted steps should be taken to prevent or reduce the chance of accidents occurrence. (author)

  19. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  20. Method for fuel element leak detection in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, U.

    1983-01-01

    The method is aimed at detecting fuel element leaks during reactor operation. It is based on neutron flux measurements at many points in the core, using at least two detectors at a time. The detectors must be arranged in the direction of the coolant flow. Values obtained from periodic measurements are compared with threshold values. The location of fuel element leaks is determined from those values exceeding the threshold of individual detectors

  1. A computer program for structural analysis of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equivalent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  2. Method to mount defect fuel elements i transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgers, H.; Deleryd, R.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching or otherwise failed fuel elements are mounted in special containers that fit into specially designed chambers in a transportation cask for transport to reprocessing or long-time storage. The fuel elements are entered into the container under water in a pool. The interior of the container is dried before transfer to the cask. Before closing the cask, its interior, and the exterior of the container are dried. 2 figs

  3. Dynamic characterization of the CAREM fuel element prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiselli, Alberto M.; Fiori, Jose M.; Ibanez, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    As a previous step to make a complete test plan to evaluate the hydrodynamic behavior of the present configuration of the CAREM type fuel element, a dynamic characterization analysis is required, without the dynamic response induced by the flowing fluid. This paper presents the tests made, the methods and instrumentation used, and the results obtained in order to obtain a complete dynamic characterization of the CAREM type fuel element. (author)

  4. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements from the Netherlands. An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.; Harry, R.J.S.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Konings, R.J.M.; Versteegh, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    The results of an analysis of a route for the processing and storage of spent fission fuel elements from Dutch nuclear power plants (Borssele and Dodewaard) are presented. Also an alternative route in which the fuel elements are stored without being reprocessed is discussed in detail. Environmental effects, proliferation aspects and the costs for each step in both routes are discussed where appropriate. 2 figs., 10 tabs., 14 refs

  5. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR THERMAL-FISSION NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, O.

    1961-01-10

    Fuel elements for thermal-fission nuclear reactors are described. The fuel element is comprised of a core of alumina, a film of a metal of the class consisting of copper, silver, and nickel on the outer face of the core, and a coating of an oxide of a metal isotope of the class consisting of Un/sup 235/, U/ sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/ on the metal f ilm.

  6. The Calculation Of Total Radioactivity Of Kartini Reactor Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budisantoso, Edi Trijono; Sardjono, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The total radioactivity of Kartini reactor fuel element has been calculated by using ORIGEN2. In this case, the total radioactivity is the sum of alpha, beta, and gamma radioactivity from activation products nuclides, actinide nuclides and fission products nuclides in the fuel element. The calculation was based on irradiation history of fuel in the reactor core. The fuel element no 3203 has location history at D, E, and F core zone. The result is expressed in graphics form of total radioactivity and photon radiations as function of irradiation time and decay time. It can be concluded that the Kartini reactor fuel element in zone D, E, and F has total radioactivity range from 10 Curie to 3000 Curie. This range is for radioactivity after decaying for 84 days and that after reactor shut down. This radioactivity is happened in the fuel element for every reactor operation and decayed until the fuel burn up reach 39.31 MWh. The total radioactivity emitted photon at the power of 0.02 Watt until 10 Watt

  7. Elements of nuclear reactor fueling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with a review of the simple batch size effect, a more general theory of nuclear fueling is derived to describe the behaviour and physical requirements of operating cycle sequences and fueling strategies having practical use in fuel management. The generalized theory, based on linear reactivity modeling, is analytical and represents the effects of multiple-stream, multiple-depletion-batch fueling configurations in systems employing arbitrary, non-integer batch size strategies, and containing fuel with variable energy generation rates. Reactor operating cycles and cycle sequences are represented with realistic structure that includes the effects of variable cycle energy production, cycle lengths, end-of-cycle operating extensions and manoeuvering allowances. Results of the analytical theory are first applied to the special case of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences, yielding several fundamental principles related to the selection of refueling strategy. Numerical evaluations of degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences are then performed for a typical PWR core, and accompanying fuel cycle costs are calculated. The impact of design and operational limits as constraints on the performance mappings for this reactor are also studied with respect to achieving improved cost performance from the once-through fuel cycle. The dynamics of transition cycle sequences are then examined using the generalized theory. Proof of the existence of non-degenerate equilibrium cycle sequences is presented when the mechanics of the fixed reload batch size strategy are developed analytically for transition sequences. Finally, an analysis of the fixed reload enrichment strategy demonstrates the potential for convergence of the transition sequence to a fully degenerate equilibrium sequence. (author)

  8. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  9. Operation experience of the automated pilot plant for the BOR-60 vibropac fuel element and subassembly fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunk, R.; Leske, U.; Krompass, R.; Steinkopff, H.; Rudolph, K.; Herbig, R.; Pietsch, H.; Tsykanov, V.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Makarov, V.A.; Bol'shakov, L.P.; Porodnov, P.T.; Maershin, A.A.; Keruchenko, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Brief characteristics of the automated, remote pilot plant for vibropac uranium-plutonium oxide fuel element and fuel subassembly fabrication for the Soviet experimental fast reactor BOR-60 are presented. The plant was created under scientific and technical cooperation of the USSR and the GDR. The flow sheet of fuel element and fuel subassembly production process, their quality control, service, and maintenance of the equipment arranged in two shielded cells is described. About 10000 fuel elements (270 fuel subassemblies) have been fabricated at the plant which were further used for the BOR-60 transition to a new uranium-plutonium core since 1981. Design and 10 years' operating experience of the plant may be used to develop the automated lines for commercial production of high-level uranium-plutonium fast reactor fuel elements and fuel subassemblies. (orig.)

  10. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makmal, T.; Aviv, O.; Gilad, E.

    2016-10-01

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections.

  11. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  12. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2011-07-31

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Fanglin [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Popov, Branko [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chao, Yuh [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Xue, Xingjian [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  15. Fuel cell catholyte regenerating apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A catholyte regenerating apparatus for a fuel cell having a cathode section containing a catholyte solution and wherein fuel cell reaction reduces the catholyte to gas and water. The apparatus includes means to conduct partically reduced water diluted catholyte from the fuel cell and means to conduct the gas from the fuel cell to a mixing means. An absorption tower containing a volume of gas absorbing liquid solvent receives the mixed together gas and diluted catholyte from the mixing means within the absorption column, the gas is absorbed by the solvent and the gas ladened solvent and diluted catholyte are commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled solvent and electrolyte from the absorption column to an air supply means wherein air is added and commingled therewith and a stoichiometric volume of oxygen from the air is absorbed thereby. A second liquid transfer means conducts the gas ladened commingled solvent and diluted catholyte into a catalyst column wherein the oxygen and gas react to reconstitute the catholyte from which the gas was generated wna wherein the reconstituted diluted catholyte is separated from the solvent. Recirculating means conducts the solvent from the catalyst column back into the absorption column and liquid conducting means conducts the reconstituted catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for recirculation through the cathode section of the fuel cell

  16. Sipping test on a failed MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da

    2002-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to determinate which one failed in the core during a routine operation of the reactor. radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure indicators, were detected in samples corresponding to the fuel element IEA-156. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (author)

  17. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2004-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs

  18. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  19. Sipping tests on a failed irradiated MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, C. A.; Terremoto, L. A. A.; Da Silva, J. E. R.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (authors)

  20. Repair of fuel elements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, K.; Holley, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Already in the early seventies, technical and economical advantages gave occasion for the development of methods and equipment suited to the repair of damaged fuel elements. In later years, normal technology, the replacement of defective fuel rods was supplemented by special processes and tools in order to make even structurally damaged fuel elements useable again. The suitability of the repair methods was confirmed by good operational experience. More recent developments aim to reduce working time further by automation with integrated data recording. 23 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  1. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Chuang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  2. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  3. Process for assembling a nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtendonk, H.J. von.

    1984-01-01

    Before insertion into the spacers, the fuel rocks are coated with a self-hardening layer of water-soluble polyvinyl and/or polyether polymer to prevent scratches on the cladding tubes. After insertion, the protective conting is removed by means of water. (orig.) [de

  4. Fuel cells for portable, mobile and hybrid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.; Kaufman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of fuel cell systems for a variety of low-power applications (below 1000 watts) means they can be used for applications such as portable power sources and mobile power sources. The energy and power are separate elements in a fuel cell system. The power is provided by the fuel cell stack (output characteristics are dependent on the cell active area, number of cells, and operating conditions), and the energy is defined by the fuel (hydrogen) storage. The authors indicated that proton exchange membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate for small fuel cell systems, since they have a temperature range ambient to 90 Celsius, ambient air (non-humidified), and load following response. In addition, they possess a solid electrolyte, high power density and specific power, and low-pressure operation. Simplicity of operation is the key to the design of a fuel cell system. The parameters to be considered include hydrogen supply, air supply, water management, and thermal management. Some of the options available for fuels are: compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and carbon-based hydrogen storage. Some of the factors that will help in determining market penetration are: rapid cost reduction with volume, fuel infrastructure, proven reliability, and identification of applications where fuel cells provide superior performance. 2 figs

  5. End plug welding of nuclear fuel elements-AFFF experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, R.B.; Singh, S.; Aniruddha Kumar; Amit; Arun Kumar; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility is engaged in the fabrication of mixed oxide (U,Pu)O 2 fuel elements of various types of nuclear reactors. Fabrication of fuel elements involves pellet fabrication, stack making, stack loading and end plug welding. The requirement of helium bonding gas inside the fuel elements necessitates the top end plug welding to be carried out with helium as the shielding gas. The severity of the service conditions inside a nuclear reactor imposes strict quality control criteria, which demands for almost defect free welds. The top end plug welding being the last process step in fuel element fabrication, any rejection at this stage would lead to loss of effort prior to this step. Moreover, the job becomes all the more difficult with mixed oxide (MOX) as the entire fabrication work has to be carried out in glove box trains. In the case of weld rejection, accepted pellets are salvaged by cutting the clad tube. This is a difficult task and recovery of pellets is low (requiring scrap recovery operation) and also leads to active metallic waste generation. This paper discusses the experience gained at AFFF, in the past 12 years in the area of end plug welding for different types of MOX fuel elements

  6. RA-3 core with uranium silicide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2000-01-01

    Following on with studies on uranium silicide fuel elements, this paper reports some comparisons between the use of standard ECN [U 3 O 8 ] fuel elements and type P-06 [from U 3 Si 2 ] fuel elements in the RA-3 core.The first results showed that the calculated overall mean burn up is in agreement with that reported for the facility, which gives more confidence to the successive ones. Comparing the mentioned cores, the silicide one presents several advantages such as: -) a mean burn up increase of 18 %; -) an extraction burn up increase of 20 %; -) 37.4 % increase in full power days, for mean burn up. All this is meritorious for this fuel. Moreover, grouped and homogenized libraries were prepared for CITVAP code that will be used for planning experiments and other bidimensional studies. Preliminary calculations were also performed. (author)

  7. Gap's dimensions in fuel elements from neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notea, A.; Segal, Y.; Trichter, F.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative Nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) is of upmost importance in the design and manufacture of nuclear fuel elements. Accurate non-destructive measurements of gaps, cracks, displacements, etc. supply vital information for optimizing fuel manufacturing. Neutron radiography is a powerful NDT method for examining spent fuel elements. However, it turned out that the extraction of dimensions, especially in the submillimetric range is questionable. In this paper neutron radiography of pellet-to-pellet gaps in fuel elements is modelled and two procedures for dimension extraction are presented. It is shown that for a wide gap the dimension is preferable, extracted from the width of the film profile, while for narrow gaps it is preferable to extract it from the maximum of the density profile

  8. Quality control in the fuel elements production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic-Popovic, J.; Spasic, Z.; Djuricis, Lj.

    1977-01-01

    Recently great attention has been paid at the international level to the analysis of production processes and quality control of fuel and fuel elements with the aim to speed up activity of proposing and accepting standards and measurement methods. IAEA also devoted great interest to these problems appealing to more active participation of all users and producers fuel elements in a general effort to secure successful work of nuclear plants. For adequate and timely participation in future in the establishment and analysis of general requirements and documentation for the control of purchased or self produced fuel elements in out country it is necessary to be well informed and to follow this activity at the international level. (author)

  9. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING FUEL ELEMENTS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, E.M.V.; Bauer, D.T.; Hahn, H.T.

    1963-09-01

    A process is described for dissolving stainless-steelor zirconium-clad uranium dioxide fuel elements by immersing the elements in molten lead chloride, adding copper, cuprous chloride, or cupric chloride as a catalyst and passing chlorine through the salt mixture. (AEC)

  10. Development of the new generation fuel elements and assemblies for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Vatulin, A.V.; Stetskij, Yu.A.; Dobrikova, I.V.; Ivanov, A.V.; Kruglov, A.A.; Leonov, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The fuel elements and fuel assemblies for the research reactors (RR) of the new generation are described. In particular, the designs of the rod and tubular fuel elements and fuel assemblies are developed and their optimal dimensions are determined in three versions. These fuel elements make it possible to arrange fuel assemblies for any RR without changing the dimensions and configuration of the existing RR cores. The technology for the fuel elements manufacture is worked out under laboratory conditions [ru

  11. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  12. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  13. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various thermopl......A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  14. Validation of structural design of JHR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisson, S.; Miras, G.; Le Bourdonnec, L.; Lemoine, P.; Anselmet, M.C.; Marelle, V.

    2010-01-01

    The validation of the structural design of the Jules Horowitz Reactor fuel element was made by the Finite Element Method, starting from the Computer Aided Design. The JHR fuel element is a cylindrical assembly of three sectors composed of eight rolled fuel plates. A roll-swaging process is used to join the fuel plates to three aluminium stiffeners. The hydraulic gap between each plate is 1.95 mm. The JHR fuel assembly is fastened at both ends to the upper and lower endfittings by riveting. The main stresses are essentially thermal loads, imposed on the fuel zone of the plates. These thermal loads result from the nuclear heat flux (W/cm 2 ). The mechanical loads are mainly hydraulic thrust forces. The average coolant velocity is 15 m/s. Seismic effects are also studied. The fuel assembly is entirely modelled by thin shells. The model takes into account asymmetric thermal loads which often appear in Research Reactors. The mechanics of the fuel plates vary in function of the burn up. These mechanical properties are derived from the data sets used in the MAIA code, and the validity of the structure is demonstrable at throughout the life of the fuel. Results concerning displacement are compared to functional criteria, while results concerning stress are compared to RCC-MX criteria. The results of this analysis show that the mechanical and geometrical integrity of the JHR fuel elements is respected for Operating Categories 1 and 2. This paper presents the methodology of this demonstration for the results obtained. (author)

  15. A method for limitation of probability of accumulation of fuel elements claddings damage in WWER

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey N. Pelykh; Mark V. Nikolsky; S. D. Ryabchikov

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to reduce the probability of accumulation of fuel elements claddings damage by developing a method to control the properties of the fuel elements on stages of design and operation of WWER. An averaged over the fuel assembly WWER-1000 fuel element is considered. The probability of depressurization of fuel elements claddings is found. The ability to predict the reliability of claddings by controlling the factors that determine the properties of the fuel elements is proved. The expedi...

  16. Temperature distribution calculations in TRIGA fuel element after the pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Ravnik, M.

    1992-01-01

    The computer program TEMPUL for calculating radial temperature distribution in a fuel element after the pulse operation is shortly described. It is based on one-dimensional diffusion equation for heat transfer in cylindrical geometry and implicit boundary condition at the element-coolant interface, defined by empirical boiling curve, which relates the heat flux from the rod and the difference between the fuel element surface temperature and water boiling point. As an example the results of such analysis of maximal allowed pulse at TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana are presented. (author) [sl

  17. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Ilka A.; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.

    2011-01-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Onboard fuel processor for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Brian J.; Zhao, Jian L.; Ruffo, Michael; Khan, Rafey; Dattatraya, Druva; Dushman, Nathan [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc, 20 Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Beziat, Jean-Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien [Renault, Service 64240 - FR TCR GRA 0 75, Technocentre Renault - 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France)

    2007-07-15

    To lower vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are exploring fuel cell technologies, which combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain issues, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells are developing an onboard fuel processor, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The fuel processor is now small enough and powerful enough for use on a vehicle. The catalysts and heat exchangers occupy 80 l and can be packaged with balance of plant controls components in a 150-l volume designed to fit under the vehicle. Recent systems can operate on gasoline, ethanol, and methanol with fuel inputs up to 200 kWth and hydrogen efficiencies above 77%. The startup time is now less than 4 min to lower the CO in the hydrogen stream to the target value for the fuel cell. (author)

  20. Rover fuel element development activities: July-September 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, J.M.; Marrow, G.B.

    1971-11-30

    Experimental studies designed to fabricate NERVA graphite fuel elements capable of cyclic operations at exit gas temperatures of approximately 4400/degree/R were continued during this report period. Carbon precursor materials, manufacturing parameters, and deposition of carbide films are included in these studies. Accomplishments include the following: three commercial powders were extruded into elements having a desirable coefficient of thermal expansion; molded graphites using low-fired filler carbons and uncured short organic fibers produced graphites having an improved strain-to-failure value; thick-walled tubes of vapor-deposited zirconium carbide were produced, and the chemical composition was determined; vapor-deposited zirconium carbide coatings were applied to fuel-element bores; experimental graphite fuel elements were hot-gas tested; uranium-loaded ion exchange beads survived a heat treatment cycle of 2800/degree/C for three hours. Organic precursor carbon studies were oriented toward modification of the CAI polymers. 2 refs., 66 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todosow, M.; Bezler, P.; Ludewig, H.; Kato, W.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., is a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. Initial results suggests that full-scale PBR elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of ∼60--80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperture limit, average energy deposition of ∼100 MW/L may be achievable

  2. Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosow, Michael; Bezler, Paul; Ludewig, Hans; Kato, Walter Y.

    1993-01-01

    The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., is a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. Initial results suggests that full-scale PBR elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of ˜60-80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperture limit, average energy deposition of ˜100 MW/L may be achievable.

  3. An improved assembly for the transport of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, G.

    1979-01-01

    An improved assembly is described for the transport and storage of radioactive fuel elements. The system consists of a transport flask in which the fuel element holder is placed in such a way that the elements may be submerged in liquid within the flask and the assembly used in one orientation for loading the fuel elements and in another orientation for transporting them. The assembly has a self-regulating ullage system comprising reservoirs for containing liquid and pressurising gas, the arrangement for the reservoirs being such that in either orientation of the assembly liquid is maintained in all the reservoirs to prevent egress of the pressurised gas and to compensate for volume changes arising from temperature variations within the flask. (U.K.)

  4. PEM fuel cell durability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ofstad, Axel B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization for stationary and transportation power applications. For transportation applications, the durability target for fuel cell power systems is a 5,000 hour lifespan and able to function over a range of vehicle operating conditions (-40{sup o} to +40{sup o}C). However, durability is difficult to quantify and improve because of the quantity and duration of testing required, and also because the fuel cell stack contains many components, for which the degradation mechanisms, component interactions and effects of operating conditions are not fully understood. These requirements have led to the development of accelerated testing protocols for PEM fuel cells. The need for accelerated testing methodology is exemplified by the times required for standard testing to reach their required targets: automotive 5,000 hrs = {approx} 7 months; stationary systems 40,000 hrs = {approx} 4.6 years. As new materials continue to be developed, the need for relevant accelerated testing increases. In this investigation, we examine the durability of various cell components, examine the effect of transportation operating conditions (potential cycling, variable RH, shut-down/start-up, freeze/thaw) and evaluate durability by accelerated durability protocols. PEM fuel cell durability testing is performed on single cells, with tests being conducted with steady-state conditions and with dynamic conditions using power cycling to simulate a vehicle drive cycle. Component and single-cell characterization during and after testing was conducted to identify changes in material properties and related failure mechanisms. Accelerated-testing experiments were applied to further examine material degradation.

  5. Multiphysics modeling of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serincan, Mustafa Fazil

    Fuel cells are expected to resist permanent changes in performance over time, to tolerate unexpected changes in the ambient conditions for a stable operation, and to sustain a structural integrity under different operating conditions. However, during the operation, both solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) are prone to many hazards that may cause degradation of the performance even to the extent of complete failure of these devices. In this study performance and degradation of SOFCs and PEFCs is studied. A computational modeling framework has been established to investigate the transport phenomena and the electrochemical performance as well as the mechanical behavior of SOFCs and PEFCs. The electrochemical performance of the SOFC is investigated both in steady-state and transient operations while elucidating the transport phenomena related to the fuel cell operation. The proposed computational framework for the SOFC comprises two separate models for the test furnace and the single cell in order to more accurately model the actual test system while decreasing the computational cost. The fuel cell performance in transient operation is also studied. The performance of the SOFC is investigated in case of a failure in the fuel supply system. Mechanical behavior of the SOFC is also considered to help assessing the durability of the cells. The same modeling framework is utilized for the PEFCs to investigate electrochemical and mechanical degradation during the fuel cell operation. To assess the performance degradation as a result of gas contamination, a cation transport model is presented. It is found that the effect of fuel side contamination of cationic species is much more significant than the air side contamination while there still is a significant performance degradation associated with the latter. Further, the stresses induced during the PEFC operation due to the swelling and shrinkage of the membrane with hydration changes are

  6. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  7. Brazing process in nuclear fuel element fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katam, K.; Sudarsono

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the brazing process is to join the spacers and pads of fuel pins, so that the process is meant as a soldering technique and not only as a hardening or reinforcing process such as in common brazing purposes. There are some preliminary processes before executing the brazing process such as: materials preparation, sand blasting, brazing metal coating tack welding the spacers and pads on the fuel cladding. The metal brazing used is beryllium in strip form which will be evaporated in vacuum condition to coat the spacers and pads. The beryllium vapor and dust is very hazardous to the workers, so all the line process of brazing needs specials safety protection and equipment to protect the workers and the processing area. Coating process temperature is 2470 deg C with a vacuum pressure of 10 -5 mmHg. Brazing process temperature process is 1060 deg C with a vacuum pressure of 10 -6 mmHg. The brazing process with beryllium coating probably will give metallurgical structural change in the fuel cladding metal at the locations of spacers and pads. The quality of brazing is highly influenced by and is depending on the chemical composition of the metal and the brazing metal, materials preparations, temperature, vacuum pressure, time of coating and brazing process. The quality control of brazing could be performed with methods of visuality geometry, radiography and metallography. (author)

  8. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  9. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E11-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Bate, L.C.

    1977-04-01

    This is the second in a projected series of six post-irradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements. Element E11-07, the subject of this report, received an equivalent of 701 full-power days of irradiation prior to scheduled withdrawal. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a 137 Cs inventory of 17 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.3 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides 134 Cs, /sup 110m/Ag, 60 Co, and 154 Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the distribution of the beta emitters 3 H, 14 C, and 90 Sr were obtained at six axial locations, four within the fueled region and one each above and below. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. These profiles reveal an increased degree of penetration of 134 Cs, relative to 137 Cs, evidently due to a longer time spent as xenon precursor. In addition to fission product distribution, the appearance of the element components was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed

  10. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  11. Mobile fuel cell development at Siemens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recent mobile fuel cell developments are reported with particular attention given to fuel cell technology based on photon exchange membrane (PEM) as electrolyte. Advantages of PEM fuel cells over conventional systems include their overload capacity, low power degradation, long lifetime, and the possibility to operate the fuel cell at different temperatures. The PEM fuel cells can be operated with CO2-containing reactants and have a considerable potential for increasing power. These facts make it possible to construct energy storage systems with H2/air fuel cells for electric cars or long-term storage facilities for regenerative energy systems.

  12. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This year's theme, 'Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,' focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  13. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  14. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  15. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  16. Highest average burnups achieved by MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damy, Margaret A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN)]. E-mail: madamy@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Different nuclear fuels were employed in the manufacture of plate type at IPEN , usually designated as Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements. These fuel elements were used at the IEA-R1 research reactor. This work describes the main characteristics of these nuclear fuels, emphasizing the highest average burn up achieved by these fuel elements. (author)

  17. Highest average burnups achieved by MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damy, Margaret A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso A.

    2007-01-01

    Different nuclear fuels were employed in the manufacture of plate type at IPEN , usually designated as Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements. These fuel elements were used at the IEA-R1 research reactor. This work describes the main characteristics of these nuclear fuels, emphasizing the highest average burn up achieved by these fuel elements. (author)

  18. Commercial Aspect of Research Reactor Fuel Element Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G; Suripto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects affecting the commercialization of the Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (RR FEPI) under a BUMN (state-owned company)have been studied. The break event point (BEP) value based on total production cost used is greatly depending upon the unit selling price of the fuel element. At a selling price of USD 43,500/fuel element, the results of analysis shows that the BEP will be reached at 51% of minimum available capacity. At a selling price of US$ 43.500/fuel element the total income (after tax) for 7 years ahead is US $ 4.620.191,- The net present value in this study has a positive value is equal to US $ 2.827.527,- the internal rate of return will be 18% which is higher than normal the bank interest rare (in US dollar) at this time. It is concluded therefore that the nuclear research reactor fuel element produced by state-owned company BUMN has a good prospect to be sold commercially

  19. Fire and blast safety manual for fuel element manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, U.; Koehler, B.; Mester, W.; Riotte, H.G.; Sehrbrock, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The manual aims to enable people involved in the planning, operation, supervision, licensing or appraisal of fuel element factories to make a quick and accurate assessment of blast safety. In Part A, technical plant principles are shown, and a summary lists the flammable materials and ignition sources to be found in fuel element factories, together with theoretical details of what happens during a fire or a blast. Part B comprises a list of possible fires and explosions in fuel element factories and ways of preventing them. Typical fire and explosion scenarios are analysed more closely on the basis of experiments. Part B also contains a list and an assessment of actual fires and explosions which have occurred in fuel element factories. Part C contains safety measures to protect against fire and explosion, in-built fire safety, fire safety in plant design, explosion protection and measures to protect people from radiation and other hazards when fighting fires. A distinction is drawn between UO 2 , MOX and HTR fuel elements. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Fuel element production at BWX technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Brett

    1997-01-01

    Effective July 1, 1997, the Government Group portion of the Babcock and Wilcox company was incorporated separately to become BWX Technologies, Inc. (BWXT) a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Babcock and Wilcox Company. The names of the divisions and other business units of the former Babcock and Wilcox Government Group (Advanced Systems Operations, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division, and Nuclear Equipment Division) will remain unchanged, but they are now known as divisions or business units of BWXT. The management of all units and their reporting relationships will likewise remain unchanged. (author)

  1. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  2. Method of making a graphite fuel element having carbonaceous fuel bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miertschin, G.N.; Leary, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    Particulate nuclear fuel material, particulate carbon and pitch are combined with an additive which is effective to reduce the coke yield upon carbonization to mold a green fuel body. The additive may be polystyrene, a styrene-butadiene copolymer, an aromatic hydrocarbon having a molecular weight between about 75 and 300 or a saturated hydrocarbon polymer. The green fuel body is inserted in a complementary cavity within a porous nuclear fuel element body and heated in situ to decompose the pitch and additive, leaving a relatively close-fitting fuel body in the cavity

  3. An analysis of spent fuel characteristics for reactor RA spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Vukadin, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The need for reducing the intrinsic conservatism in the criticality safety assessment has led to the development of validated methods for assessing the reactivity effects associated with fuel burnup. This paper gives an overview of the work being performed to investigate the spent fuel characteristics and nuclear criticality safety of the reactor RA spent fuel storage. An analysis methodology is presented along with information representing the validation of the methods and geometrical models. Finally, the criticality safety analysis of the stainless steel containers and aluminum barrels, filled with spent fuel elements, is presented to demonstrate that an adequate margin of subcriticality is proved for the reactor RA spent fuel storage.(author)

  4. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  5. Support grid for fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Lester M.

    1977-01-01

    A support grid is provided for holding nuclear fuel rods in a rectangular array. Intersecting sheet metal strips are interconnected using opposing slots in the strips to form a rectangular cellular grid structure for engaging the sides of a multiplicity of fuel rods. Spring and dimple supports for engaging fuel and guide rods extending through each cell in the support grid are formed in the metal strips with the springs thus formed being characterized by nonlinear spring rates.

  6. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  7. Finite element simulation of thermal, elastic and plastic phenomena in fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia C.

    1999-01-01

    Taking as starting point an irradiation experiment of the first Argentine MOX fuel prototype, performed at the HFR reactor of Petten, Holland, the deformation suffered by the fuel element materials during burning has been numerically studied. Analysis of the pellet-cladding interaction is made by the finite element method. The code determines the temperature distribution and analyzes elastic and creep deformations, taking into account the dependency of the physical parameters of the problem on temperature. (author)

  8. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  9. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  10. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  11. Development and testing of the EDF-2 reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeyroux, P.

    1964-01-01

    This technical report reviews the work which has been necessary for defining the EDF-2 fuel element. After giving briefly the EDF-2 reactor characteristics and the preliminary choice of parameters which made it possible to draw up a draft plan for the fuel element, the authors consider the research proper: - Uranium studies: tests on the passage into the β phase of an internal crown of a tube, bending of the tube under the effect of a localized force, welding of the end-pellets and testing for leaks. The resistance of the tube to crushing and of the pellets to yielding under the external pressure have been studied in detail in another CEA report. - Can studies: conditions of production and leak proof testing of the can, resistance of the fins to creep due to the effect of the gas flow. - Studies of the extremities of the element: creep under compression and welding of the plugs to the can. - Cartridge studies: determination of the characteristics of the can fuel fixing grooves and of the canning conditions, verification of the resistance of the fuel element to thermal cycling, determination of the temperature drop at the can-fuel interface dealt with in more detail in another CEA report. - Studies of the whole assembly: this work which concerns the graphite jacket, the support and the cartridge vibrations has been carried out by the Mechanical and Thermal Study Service (Mechanics Section). In this field the Fuel Element Study Section has investigated the behaviour of the centering devices in a gas current. The outcome of this research is the defining of the plan of the element the production process and the production specifications. The validity of ail these out-of-pile tests will be confirmed by the in-pile tests already under way and by irradiation of the elements in the EDF-2 reactor itself. In conclusion the programme is given for improving the fuel element and for defining the fuel element for the second charge. (authors) [fr

  12. LMFBR fuel-design environment for endurance testing, primarily of oxide fuel elements with local faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warinner, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy LMFBR Lines-of-Assurance are briefly stated and local faults are given perspective with an historical review and definition to help define the constraints of LMFBR fuel-element designs. Local-fault-propagation (fuel-element failure-propagation and blockage propagation) perceptions are reviewed. Fuel pin designs and major LMFBR parameters affecting pin performance are summarized. The interpretation of failed-fuel data is aided by a discussion of the effects of nonprototypicalities. The fuel-pin endurance expected in the US, USSR, France, UK, Japan, and West Germany is outlined. Finally, fuel-failure detection and location by delayed-neutron and gaseous-fission-product monitors are briefly discussed to better realize the operational limits

  13. Neutronic analysis of a fuel element with variations in fuel enrichment and burnable poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Rochkhudson B. de; Martins, Felipe; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Fortini, Angela; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: rochkdefaria@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the goal was to evaluate the neutronic behavior during the fuel burnup changing the amount of burnable poison and fuel enrichment. For these analyses, it was used a 17 x 17 PWR fuel element, simulated using the 238 groups library cross-section collapsed from ENDF/BVII.0 and TRITON module of SCALE 6.0 code system. The results confirmed the effective action of the burnable poison in the criticality control, especially at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) and in the burnup kinetics, because at the end of the fuel cycle there was a minimal residual amount of neutron absorbers ({sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd), as expected. At the end of the cycle, the fuel element was still critical in all simulated situations, indicating the possibility of extending the fuel burn. (author)

  14. Shock absorber for a fuel element storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, M.

    1986-01-01

    The invention describes a shock absorber device for a nuclear fuel element deposited in a sheath provided with a bottom portion comprising centrally a hole of a diameter slightly larger than that of the lower portion of the fuel element, within a fuel storage rack, characterised in that it comprises a non-deformable annulus connected to a collar bearing on a transverse member of the storage rack, by means of a plurality of elastically and/or plastically deformable elements, and in that the non-deformable annulus, coaxial with the sheath, is provided with a central aperture having a diameter substantially equal to that of the hole in the bottom portion of the sheath and serves as a support for the bottom portion of the sheath

  15. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF

  16. Fuel Element for a Nuclear Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jr., J. G.

    1961-05-30

    A lattice-type fissionable fuel structure for a nuclear reactor is offered. The fissionable material is formed into a plurality of rod-like bodies each encased in a fluid-tight jacket. A plurality of spaced longitudinal fins are mounted on the exterior of and extend radially from each jacket, and a portion of the fins extends radially beyond the remainder of the fins. A collar of short lengih for each body is mounted on the extended fins for spacing the bodies, and adjacent bodies abut each other through these collars. Should distortion of the bodies take place, collapse of the outer fins is limited by the shorter fins thereby insuring some coolant flow therethrough at all times.

  17. Calculating the plutonium in spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnham, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Many members of the public are concerned about plutonium. They are worried about its environmental, health and proliferation risks. Fundamental to all such considerations are two related questions: how much plutonium do nuclear reactors produce ? and how accurately do the relevant authorities know these production figures ? These two questions have been studied with particular reference to the UK civil Magnox reactors. In 1990 these were still the only UK civil reactors whose spent fuel had been reprocessed to extract plutonium in routine production. It has not been possible to conclude that the relevant government industry and safeguard authorities are aware of how much plutonium these reactors produce and that the figures are known to the highest achievable accuracy. To understand why, this chapter will outline some of the history of the attempts to get answers to these two questions. (author)

  18. Fundamentals of fuel cell system integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kumar, Romesh; Myles, Kevin M.

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cells are theoretically very efficient energy conversion devices that have the potential of becoming a commercial product for numerous uses in the civilian economy. We have analyzed several fuel cell system designs with regard to thermal and chemical integration of the fuel cell stack into the rest of the system. Thermal integration permits the use of the stack waste heat for the endothermic steps of fuel reforming. Chemical integration provides the steam needed for fuel reforming from the water produced by the electrochemical cell reaction. High-temperature fuel cells, such as the molten carbonate and the solid oxide fuel cells, permit this system integration in a relatively simple manner. Lower temperature fuel cells, such as the polymer electrolyte and phosphoric acid systems, require added system complexity to achieve such integration. The system economics are affected by capital and fuel costs and technical parameters, such as electrochemical fuel utilization, current density, and system complexity. At today's low fuel prices and the high fuel cell costs (in part, because of the low rates of production of the early prototypes), fuel cell systems are not cost competitive with conventional power generation. With the manufacture and sale of larger numbers of fuel cell systems, the total costs will decrease from the current several thousand dollars per kW, to perhaps less than $100 per kW as production volumes approa ch a million units per year.

  19. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  1. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  2. Methods for making a porous nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L; Williams, Brian E; Benander, Robert E

    2014-12-30

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  3. Methods for making a porous nuclear fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L; Williams, Brian E; Benander, Robert E

    2014-12-30

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  4. Verdon: code of mechanical and thermal behavior of fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, C.; Truffert, J.

    1979-01-01

    Verdon code must be used for analysis and simulation of mechanical, two-dimensional, thermal and physico-chemical behavior of fuel oxide pin in steady-state and transient conditions. Calculation can be done in plane or axisymmetric geometry. Radial, one dimensional, thermal analysis works with finite differences. It takes into account the fissile material's evolution (radial redistribution, flux deepening ...) and the main fuel physico-chemical properties (conductivity, migration, fission gas release ...). Only thermal consequences of fuel mechanical behavior: fuel-cladding gap width, crack formation, creep ... are submitted to a two dimensional analysis. Mechanical analysis works in two dimensional, finite elements, plane or axisymmetric geometry. The mesh represents a part of fuel and cladding pin [fr

  5. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  6. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  7. Design and fabrication procedures of Super-Phenix fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclere, J.; Vialard, J.-L.; Delpeyroux, P.

    1975-01-01

    For Super-Phenix fuel assemblies, Phenix technological arrangements will be used again, but they will be simplified as far as possible. The maximum fuel can temperature has been lowered in order to obtain a good behavior of hexagonal tubes and cans at high irradiation levels. An important experimental programme and the experience gained from Phenix operation will confirm the merits of the options retained. The fuel element fabrication is envisaged to take place in the plutonium workshop at Cadarache. Usual procedures will be employed and both reliability and automation will be increased [fr

  8. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor

  9. Design and research of fuel element for pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Sheng

    1994-05-01

    The fuel element is the key component for pulsed reactor and its design is one of kernel techniques for pulsed reactor. Following the GA Company of US the NPIC (Nuclear Power Institute of China) has mastered this technique. Up to now, the first pulsed reactor in China (PRC-1) has been safely operated for about 3 years. The design and research of fuel element undertaken by NPIC is summarized. The verification and evaluation of this design has been carried out by using the results of measured parameters during operation and test of PRC-1 as well as comparing the design parameters published by others

  10. Fuel element load/unload machine for the PEC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    GEC Energy Systems Limited are providing two fuel element load/unload machines for use in the Italian fast reactor programme. One will be used in the mechanism test facility (IPM) at Casaccia, to check the salient features of the machine operating in a sodium environment prior to the second machine being installed in the PEC Brasimone Reactor. The machine is used to handle fuel elements, control rods and other reactor components in the sodium-immersed core of the reactor. (U.K.)

  11. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  12. Experimental study of some mounting brackets to support fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Poglia, S.; Roche, R.

    1958-09-01

    In an atomic pile with vertical channels, fuel elements are stacked on one another. According to a possible assembly, fuel element can be contained by a graphite sleeve and be supported by a mounting bracket in this sleeve. Sleeves are then stacked on one another. The authors report the investigation of different designs for these mounting brackets. They describe their mechanical role and their mechanical, aerodynamic, neutronic and test conditions. They report tests performed on brackets made in graphite and on brackets made in stainless steel and graphite, and discuss the obtained results

  13. Postirradiation examination of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallroth, C.F.; Holzgraf, J.F.; Jensen, D.D.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1977-07-01

    The report presents the irradiation results and their evaluation for Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4. It describes in detail the efforts by General Atomic Company over the last two years to establish a system for extracting meaningful performance information from a fuel test element. This has been done with the goal of making direct comparisons between as-measured data and core design code predictions. Special emphasis has been placed on determining the 95% confidence limits on most of the preirradiation and postirradiation measurements in order to allow a better comparison with GAUGE, FEVER, and TREVER code calculations which are used in HTGR core thermal and mechanical design

  14. Method and apparatus for diagnosing breached fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenny C.; Lambert, John D. B.; Nomura, Shigeo

    1988-01-01

    The invention provides an apparatus and method for diagnosing breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A detection system measures the activity of isotopes from the cover-gas in the reactor. A data acquisition and processing system monitors the detection system and corrects for the effects of the cover-gas clean up system on the measured activity and further calculates the derivative cure of the corrected activity as a function of time. A plotting system graphs the derivative curve, which represents the instantaneous release rate of fission gas from a breached fuel element.

  15. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  16. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  17. Direct liquid methanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfei; Peng, Ranran; Dong, Dehua; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    Anode coking problem of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) when using hydrocarbon fuels has been the major barrier for the practice and commercialization of well-developed high performance SOFC. In this work, based on fuels consideration, we chose liquid methanol as the candidate fuel for SOFC with the configuration of NiO/SDC-SDC-SSC/SDC. For comparison, traditional fuels, hydrogen and ammonia, were tested. With methanol as fuel, the maximum power densities were 698, 430 and 223 mW cm -2 at 650, 600 and 550 °C, respectively, which were higher than that with ammonia and lower than that of hydrogen. The electrochemical properties of the cells with the three fuels were investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. The long-term stability of the cell with methanol, methane and ethanol were also studied at a constant output voltage of 0.5 V.

  18. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  19. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  20. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, W.E.; Kopelman, B.; Hausner, H.H.

    1963-07-01

    A fuel element consisting of uranium nitride and uranium carbide in the form of discrete particles in a solid coherent matrix of a metal such as steel, beryllium, uranium, or zirconium and clad with a metal such as steel, aluminum, zirconium, or beryllium is described. The element is made by mixing powdered uranium nitride and uranium carbide with powdered matrix metal, then compacting and sintering the mixture. (AEC)

  2. Fabrication of fuel elements interplay between typical SNR Mark Ia specifications and the fuel element fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, W.K.; Heuvel, H.J.; Pilate, S.; Vanderborck, Y.; Pelckmans, E.; Vanhellemont, G.; Roepenack, H.; Stoll, W.

    1987-01-01

    The core and fuel were designed for the SNR-300 first core by Interatom GmbH and Belgonucleaire. The fuel was fabricated by Alkem/RBU and Belgonucleaire. Based on the preparation of drawings and specifications and on the results of the prerun fabrication, an extensive interplay took place between design requirements, specifications, and fabrication processes at both fuel plants. During start-up of pellet and pin fabrication, this solved such technical questions as /sup 239/Pu equivalent linear weight, pellet density, stoichiometry of the pellets, and impurity content. Close cooperation of designers and manufacturers has allowed manufacture of 205 fuel assemblies without major problems

  3. American fuel cell market development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past three decades several attempts have been made to introduce fuel cells into commercial markets. The prospective users recognized the attractive features of fuel cells, however they were unwilling to pay a premium for the features other than the easily-calculated fuel cost savings. There was no accepted method for a user to calculate and the accrue the economic value of the other features. The situation is changing. The Clean Air Act signed into law by President Bush on November 15, 1990, mandates a nation wide reduction in SO 2, NO x and ozone emissions. This law affects specific utilities for SO 2 reduction, and specific regions of the country for NO x and ozone reductions — the latter affecting the utility-, industrial- and transportation-sectors in these regions. The Act does not direct how the reductions are to be achieved; but it specifically establishes a trading market for emission allowances whereby an organization that reduces emissions below its target can sell its unused allowance to another organization. In addition to the Clean Air Act, there are other environmental issues emerging such as controls on CO 2 emissions, possible expansion of the list of controlled emissions, mandated use of alternative fuels in specific transportation districts and restrictions on electrical transmission systems. All of these so-called 'environmental externalities' are now recognized as having a real cost that can be quantified, and factored in to calculations to determine the relative economic standing of various technologies. This in turn justifies a premium price for fuel cells hence the renewed interest in the technology by the utility and transportation market segments.

  4. Platinum and Palladium Alloys Suitable as Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt, Pd and mixtures thereof alloyed with a further element selected from Sc, Y and La as well as any mixtures thereof, wherein said alloy is supported on a conductive......The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...

  5. Fission product release from defected nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The release of gaseous (krypton and xenon) and iodine radioactive fission products from defective fuel elements is described with a semi-empirical model. The model assumes precursor-corrected 'Booth diffusional release' in the UO 2 and subsequent holdup in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Transport in the gap is separately modelled with a phenomenological rate constant (assuming release from the gap is a first order rate process), and a diffusivity constant (assuming transport in the gap is dominated by a diffusional process). Measured release data from possessing various states of defection are use in this analysis. One element (irradiated in an earlier experiment by MacDonald) was defected with a small drilled hole. A second element was machined with 23 slits while a third element (fabricated with a porous end plug) displayed through-wall sheath hydriding. Comparison of measured release data with calculated values from the model yields estimates of empirical diffusion coefficients for the radioactive species in the UO 2 (1.56 x 10 -10 to 7.30 x 10 -9 s -1 ), as well as escape rate constants (7.85 x 10 -7 to 3.44 x 10 -5 s -1 ) and diffusion coefficients (3.39 x 10 -5 to 4.88 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s) for these in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Analyses also enable identification of the various rate-controlling processes operative in each element. For the noble gas and iodine species, the rate-determining process in the multi-slit element is 'Booth diffusion'; however, for the hydrided element an additional delay results from diffusional transport in the fuel-to-heath gap. Furthermore, the iodine species exhibit an additional holdup in the drilled element because of significant trapping on the fuel and/or sheath surfaces. Using experimental release data and applying the theoretical results of this work, a systematic procedure is proposed to characterize fuel failures in commercial power reactors (i.e., the number of fuel failures and average leak size)

  6. Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

  7. Facilities for post-irradiation examination of experimental fuel elements at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizzan, E.; Chenier, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Expansion of post-irradiation facilities at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories and steady improvement in hot-cell techniques and equipment are providing more support to Canada's reactor fuel development program. The hot-cell facility primarily used for examination of experimental fuels averages a quarterly throughput of 40 elements and 110 metallographic specimens. New developments in ultrasonic testing, metallographic sample preparation, active storage, active waste filtration, and fissile accountability are coming into use to increase the efficiency and safety of hot-cell operations. (author)

  8. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  9. Review of fuel element development for nuclear rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taub, J.M.

    1975-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) entered the nuclear propulsion field in 1955 and began work on all aspects of a nuclear propulsion program involving uranium-loaded graphite fuels, hydrogen propellant, and a target exhaust temperature of approximately 2500 0 C. A very extensive uranium-loaded graphite fuel element technology evolved from the program. Selection and composition of raw materials for the extrusion mix had to be coupled with heat treatment studies to give optimum element properties. The highly enriched uranium in the element was incorporated as UO 2 , pyrocarbon-coated UC 2 , or solid solution UC . ZrC particles. An extensive development program resulted in successful NbC or ZrC coatings on elements to withstand hydrogen corrosion at elevated temperatures. Hot gas, thermal shock, thermal stress, and NDT evaluation procedures were developed to monitor progress in preparation of elements with optimum properties. Final evaluation was made in reactor tests at NRDS. Aerojet-General, Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant of Union Carbide Nuclear Company entered the program in the early 1960's, and their activities paralleled those of LASL in fuel element development. (U.S.)

  10. The OSU Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility: Standard Fuel Element Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade R. Marcum; Brian G. Woods; Ann Marie Phillips; Richard G. Ambrosek; James D. Wiest; Daniel M. Wachs

    2001-10-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or standard fuel element (SFE), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates due to hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the fuel development program and will take place at OSU in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Discussion of a preliminary test matrix, SFE design, measurement and instrumentation techniques, and facility description are detailed in this paper.

  11. Annular fuel element for high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujas, R.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a compacted fuel element of annular shape which is enclosed in a graphite casing constituted by an inner tube and an outer tube. The inner tube is formed of graphite having a lower coefficient of shrinkage than the graphite of the outer tube under irradiation and is of smaller thickness than the outer tube

  12. Facility for electrochemical dissolution of rejected fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniskin, V.P.; Filatov, O.N.; Konovalov, E.A.; Kolesnikov, B.P.; Bukharin, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    A facility for electrochemical dissolution of rejected fuel elements with the stainless steel can and uranium of 90% enrichment is described. The start-adjustment works and trial-commercial tests of the facility are carried out. A s a result its technological parameters are determined [ru

  13. Method to fabricate block fuel elements for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1977-01-01

    The fabrication of block fuel elements for gas-cooled high temperature reactors can be improved upon by adding 0.2 to 2 wt.% of a hydrocarbon compound to the lubricating mixture prior to pressing. Hexanol or octanol are named as substances. The dimensional accuracy of the block is thus improved. 2 examples illustrate the method. (RW) [de

  14. Fuel element for high-temperature nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloesser, J.

    1974-01-01

    The fuel element of the HTGR consists of a spherical graphite body with a spherical cavity. A deposit of fissile material, e.g. coated particles of uranium carbide, is fixed to the inner wall using binders. In addition to the fissile material, there are concentric deposits of fertile material, e.g. coated thorium carbide particles. The remaining cavity is filled with a graphite mass, preferably graphite powder, and the filling opening with a graphite stopper. At the beginning of the reactor operation, the fissile material layer provides the whole power. With progressing burn-up, the energy production is taken over by the fertile layer, which provides the heat production until the end of burn-up. Due to the relatively small temperature difference between the outer wall of the outer graphite body and the maximum fuel temperature, the power of the fuel element can be increased. (DG) [de

  15. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  16. Waste to Watts and Water: Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    biofuels and biomass, hydrogen 5 fuel cells, protein - or enzyme-based fuel cells, solar power, wind power, and desalination plants. A brief...Waste to Watts and Water Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells Amanda Sue Birch, P. E. Major, USAFR Air Command and...Water: Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  17. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  18. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Černý, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 44-47 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0983; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrocatalysis * hydrogen electrode Ionex membrane * membrane fuel cell Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  19. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  20. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  1. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  2. Study on the performance of fuel elements with carbide and carbide-nitride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchenko, Yu.M.; Davydov, E.F.; Maershin, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, test conditions and basic results of material testing of fuel elements with carbide and carbonitride fuel irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor up to 3-10% burn-up at specific power rate of 55-70 kW/m and temperatures of the cladding up to 720 deg C are described. Increase of cladding diameter is stated mainly to result from pressure of swelling fuel. The influence of initial efficient porosity of the fuel on cladding deformation and fuel stoichiometry on steel carbonization is considered. Utilization of carbide and carbonitride fuel at efficient porosity of 20% at the given test modes is shown to ensure their operability up to 10% burn-up

  3. Quality control procedures for HTGR fuel element components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delle, W.W.; Koizlik, K.; Luhleich, H.; Nickel, H.

    1976-08-01

    The growing use of nuclear reactors for the production of electric power throughout the world, and the consequent increase in the number of nuclear fuel manufacturers, is giving enhanced importance to the consideration of quality assurance in the production of nuclear fuels. The fuel is the place, where the radioactive fission products are produced in the reactor and, therefore, the integrity of the fuel is of utmost importance. The first and most fundamental means of insuring that integrity is through the exercise of properly designed quality assurance programmes during the manufacture of the fuel and other fuel element components. The International Atomic Energy Agency therefore conducted an International Seminar on Nuclear Fuel Quality Assurance in Oslo, Norway from 24 till 28 May, 1976. This KFA report contains a paper which was distributed preliminary during the seminar and - in the second part - the text of the oral presentation. The paper gives a summary of the procedures available in the present state for the production control of HTGR core materials and of the meaning of the particular properties for reactor operation. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  5. Fuel cell with internal reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, H.C.; Patel, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system provided with a first passage means in communication with and adjacent to a cell diffusion electrode and with a second passage means having a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons and communicating with the first passage means through a gas porous member. Differential pressure means is further provided to establish a pressure differential between the passage means for promoting reformed gas flow from the second passage means to the first passage means and retarding electrolyte vapor passage from the first passage means to the second passage means

  6. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  7. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  8. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  9. Random hydrodynamic loads and the vibration of fuel elements in the turbulent coolant flow in WWER fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevezentsev, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The generalizing empirical dependences of vibration movements on the random hydrodynamic loads have been obtained. Two characteristic regions of the influence of random hydrodynamic loads on the vibration movements have been discovered. With the values of random hydrodynamic loads more than 80 N/m, a considerable increase in the intensity of vibrations has been observed. It can be explained by the slippage of fuel element in the cell of the spacing lattice [ru

  10. Trioxane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1995-01-01

    Trioxane identified as high-energy, nontoxic, solid substitute for formaldehyde as water-soluble fuel for use in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electrochemical oxidation to water and carbon dioxide at platinum and platinum-alloy electrodes in liquid-feed-type fuel cells that contain acid electrolytes or solid proton-exchange membrane electrolytes. Exhibits less crossover than do such conventional fuels as methanol and formaldehyde. Being solid at ambient temperature, trioxane offers significant advantages in handling and transportation. Synthesized from natural gas with relative ease.

  11. Dimethoxymethane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Halpert, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Dimethoxymethane (DMM) identified as one of several high-energy fuels for direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electro-oxidation to carbon dioxide and water, with methanol as possible intermediate product. Fuel electro-oxidized at sustained high rates without poisoning electrodes. Performance superior to that of methanol at same temperature. Synthesized from natural gas (methane) and is thus viable alternative to methanol in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Better performance expected at higher temperature and by use of Pt/Sn catalyst. Alternatively, low boiling temperature of DMM also makes it candidate for gas-feed operation.

  12. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  13. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  14. The fabrication of nuclear fuel elements in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Morillo, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The situation of nuclear electricity generation in Mexico in 1976 is described: two nuclear reactors were under construction but no definite programme on the type and start-up dates for the next power plants existed. However, the existence of a general plan on nuclear power plants is mentioned, which, according to the latest estimates, will provide 10,000MW installed by 1990. The national intention, as laid down in an appropriate Law, is to supply domestic nuclear fuel to the power reactors operating in the country, starting with the first reloading of the two BWRs at the first national station in Laguna Verde, required at the end of 1981 and 1982, respectively. Before this can be achieved and to provide the relatively small amounts of fuel elements for the two reactors, Mexico must adopt a strategy of fuel elements fabrication. The two main options are analysed: (1) to delay local fabrication until a national nuclear programme has been defined, meanwhile purchasing abroad the necessary initial cores and refuelling; (2) to start local fabrication of fuel elements as soon as possible in order to provide the first refuelling of the first unit of Laguna Verde, confronting the economic risks of such a decision with the advantages of immediate action. Both options are analysed in detail, comparing them especially from the economic point of view. Current information from potential licensors for design and manufacture are used in the analysis. (author)

  15. Fuel Element Mechanical Design for CAREM-25 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, Esteban; Markiewicz, Mario; Gerding, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The Fuel Element mechanical design and spider-control reactivity and security rods assembly for the CAREM-25 reactor is introduced. The CAREM-25 Fuel Element has a hexagonal cross section with 127 positions, in a triangular arrangement.There are 108 positions for the fuel rods while the guide tubes and instrumentation tube occupy the 19 remaining positions.From the structural point of view, the fuel element is being composed by a framework formed by the guides and instrumentation tubes, 4 spacer grids and the upper and lower coupling pieces.The spider is a plane piece, with a central body and six radial branches in T form, which has holes where the absorber rods are fitted.The central body ends in a joint in the upper side, which allows connect the assembly whit the reactor control mechanisms.The absorber rods are made of a neutron absorber material (Ag-In-Cd) hermetically closed in a stainless steel cladding. In this work are determined, in addition to the basic design, the operational conditions, the functional requirements to be satisfied and in agreement with those, the adopted criteria and limits to avoid systematics failure during normal operation conditions. The proposed program for the verification and evaluation of design is detailed.To consolidate the design, a prototype was manufactures, based on drawings and specifications needed for its construction

  16. Elastic plastic analysis of fuel element assemblies - hexagonal claddings and fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoun, M.M.; Wu, T.S.; Chopra, P.S.; Rardin, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical studies have been conducted to investigate the structural, thermal, and mechanical behavior of fuel rods, claddings and fuel element assemblies of several designs for a conceptual Safety Test Facility (STF). One of the design objectives was to seek a geometrical configuration for a clad by maximizing the volume fraction of fuel and minimizing the resultant stresses set-up in the clad. The results of studies conducted on various geometrical configurations showed that the latter design objective can be achieved by selecting a clad of an hexagonal geometry. The analytical studies necessitated developing solutions for determining the stresses, strains, and displacements experienced by fuel rods and an hexagonal cladding subjected to thermal fuel-bowing loads acting on its internal surface, the external pressure of the coolant, and elevated temperatures. This paper presents some of the initially formulated analytical methods and results. It should be emphasized that the geometrical configuration considered in this paper may not necessarily be similar to that of the final design. Several variables have been taken into consideration including cladding thickness, the dimensions of the fuel rod, the temperature of the fuel and cladding, the external pressure of the cooling fluid, and the mechanical strength properties of fuel and cladding. A finite-element computer program, STRAW Code, has also been employed to generate several numerical results which have been compared with those predicted by employing the initially formulated solutions. The theoretically predicted results are in good agreement with those of the STRAW Code. (orig.)

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  18. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies......The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...

  19. Method of locating a leaking fuel element in a fast breeder power reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, John R.; Fryer, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    Leaking fuel elements in a fast reactor are identified by measuring the ratio of .sup.134 Xe to .sup.133 Xe in the reactor cover gas following detection of a fuel element leak, this ratio being indicative of the power and burnup of the failed fuel element. This procedure can be used to identify leaking fuel elements in a power breeder reactor while continuing operation of the reactor since the ratio measured is that of the gases stored in the plenum of the failed fuel element. Thus, use of a cleanup system for the cover gas makes it possible to identify sequentially a multiplicity of leaking fuel elements without shutting the reactor down.

  20. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  1. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Carroll, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium. 5 claims, 1 figure

  3. Radial heat conduction in a power reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two radial conduction models, one for steady state and another for unsteady state, in a nuclear power reactor fuel element are developed. The objective is to obtain the temperatures in the fuel pellet and the cladding. The lumped-parameter hypothesis are adopted to represent the system. Both models are verified and their results are compared with similar ones. A method to calculate the conductance in the gap between the UO 2 pellet and the clad and its associated uncertainty is included in the steady state model. (author) [es

  4. FISSILE MATERIAL AND FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, B.E.

    1961-08-15

    The fissile material consists of about 64 to 70% (weight) zirconium dioxide, 15 to 19% uranium dioxide, and 8 to 17% calcium oxide. The fissile material is formed into sintered composites which are disposed in a compartmented fuel element, comprising essentially a flat filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein, enclosed in cladding plates of the same material as the filler plate. The resultant fuel has good resistance to corrosion in high temperature pressurized water, good dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, and good resistance to thermal shock. (AEC)

  5. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new type of direct oxidation ammonia fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix...EMF’s of 0.5 to 0.6 volts. At practical levels of current density the direct ammonia fuel cell has an overall efficiency of about 60% compared to 30-35% for the indirect-type fuel cell . (Author)

  7. Operational experience in remote handling during the reprocessing of PFR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, G.

    1982-01-01

    The reprocessing of PFR fuel elements at DNE was achieved using new techniques of remote handling as well as standard manipulative procedures. This engineering balance was justified in the successful completion of two PFR reprocessing campaigns, where the personnel involved received low radiation doses. Development work is progressing along the lines of minimizing in-cell equipment, improved remote viewing, and the modular assembly and construction of equipment and cells

  8. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Holland, J.W.; Kramer, J.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses three furnace heating tests which were conducted with irradiated, HT9-clad and U-19wt.%Pu-l0wt.%Zr-alloy fuel, Mk-V-type fuel elements in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois. In general, very significant safety margins for fuel-element cladding breaching have been demonstrated in these tests, under conditions that would envelop a bounding unlikely loss-of-flow event in EBR-II. Highlights of the test results will be given, as well as discussions of the cladding breaching mechanisms, axial fuel motion, and fuel surface liquefaction found in high-temperature testing of irradiated metallic fuel elements.

  9. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  10. Optimization of thorium-uranium content in a 54-element fuel bundle for use in a CANDU-SCWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A new 54-element fuel bundle design has been proposed for use in a pressure-tube supercritical water-cooled reactor, a pre-conceptual evolution of existing CANDU reactors. Pursuant to the goals of the Generation IV International Forum regarding advancement in nuclear fuel cycles, optimization of the thorium and uranium content in each ring of fuel elements has been studied with the objectives of maximizing the achievable fuel utilization (burnup) and total thorium content within the bundle, while simultaneously minimizing the linear element ratings and coolant void reactivity. The bundle was modeled within a reactor lattice cell using WIMS-AECL, and the uranium and thorium content in each ring of fuel elements was optimized using a weighted merit function of the aforementioned criteria and a metaheuristic search algorithm. (author)

  11. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  12. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Kobyłecki, Rafał; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  13. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  14. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  15. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  16. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  17. Drying results of K-Basin fuel element 3128W (run 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Marshman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.; Flament, T.A.

    1998-07-01

    An N-Reactor outer fuel element that had been stored underwater in the Hanford 100 Area K-East Basin was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments. These studies are part of a series of tests being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the drying behavior of N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel elements removed from both the K-West and K-East Basins. The drying test series was designed to test fuel elements that ranged from intact to severely damaged. The fuel element discussed in this report was removed from an open K-East canister (3128W) during the first fuel selection campaign conducted in 1995, and has remained in wet storage in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) since that time. Although it was judged to be breached during in-basin (i.e., K-Basin) examinations, visual inspection of this fuel element in the hot cell indicated that it was likely intact. Some scratches on the coating covering the cladding were identified before the furnace test. The drying test was conducted in the Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in G-Cell within the PTL. This test system is composed of three basic systems: the in-cell furnace equipment, the system gas loop, and the analytical instrument package. Element 3128W was subjected to the drying processes based on those proposed under the Integrated Process Strategy, which included a hot drying step. Results of the Pressure Rise and Gas Evolution Tests suggest that most of the free water in the system was released during the extended CVD cycle (68 hr versus 8 hr for the first run). An additional ∼0.34 g of water was released during the subsequent HVD phase, characterized by multiple water release peaks, with a principle peak at ∼180 C. This additional water is attributed to decomposition of a uranium hydrate (UO 4 ·4H 2 O/UO 4 ·2H 2 O) coating that was observed to be covering the surface of the fuel element to a thickness of ∼1.6 mg/cm 2 . A

  18. Fuel composition optimization in a 78-element fuel bundle for use in a pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    A 78-element fuel bundle containing a plutonium-thorium fuel mixture has been proposed for a Generation IV pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor. In this work, using a lattice cell model created with the code DRAGON,the lattice pitch, fuel composition (fraction of PuO 2 in ThO 2 ) and radial enrichment profile of the 78-element bundle is optimized using a merit function and a metaheuristic search algorithm.The merit function is designed such that the optimal fuel maximizes fuel utilization while minimizing peak element ratings and coolant void reactivity. A radial enrichment profile of 10 wt%, 11 wt% and 20 wt% PuO 2 (inner to outer ring) with a lattice pitch of 25.0 cm was found to provide the optimal merit score based on the aforementioned criteria. (author)

  19. Fuel composition optimization in a 78-element fuel bundle for use in a pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A 78-element fuel bundle containing a plutonium-thorium fuel mixture has been proposed for a Generation IV pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor. In this work, using a lattice cell model created with the code DRAGON,the lattice pitch, fuel composition (fraction of PuO{sub 2} in ThO{sub 2}) and radial enrichment profile of the 78-element bundle is optimized using a merit function and a metaheuristic search algorithm.The merit function is designed such that the optimal fuel maximizes fuel utilization while minimizing peak element ratings and coolant void reactivity. A radial enrichment profile of 10 wt%, 11 wt% and 20 wt% PuO{sub 2} (inner to outer ring) with a lattice pitch of 25.0 cm was found to provide the optimal merit score based on the aforementioned criteria. (author)

  20. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  1. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  2. HTGR spherical fuel elements and their experimental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, A.S.; Koshelev, Yu.V.; Mikhailichenko, L.I.; Kuznetzov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Present constructions of uranium-graphite spherical fuel elements (SE) for the VGR-50 and VG-400 high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) being designed in the USSR, which are based on using coated fuel particle elements (CP) are unified to a large degree (outer diameter 60 mm, cladding thickness 5 mm) and differ in loading and uranium enrichment, as well as in density of matrix graphite (MG), whose values are determined by the neutron-physical features of nuclear devices. The characteristic of SE operation in the reactor VGR-50 is their repeated (up to 2000 cycles) circulation through the core and irradiator, connected by ball-leads. Therefore strict requirements are imposed on their dynamical strength and wear resistance as well as on their operability under different temperature conditions

  3. Block fuel element for gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a block fuel element consisting of only one carbon matrix which is almost isotropic of high crystallinity into which the coated particles are incorporated by a pressing process. This block element is produced under isostatic pressure from graphite matrix powder and coated particles in a rubber die and is subsequently subjected to heat treatment. The main component of the graphite matrix powder consists of natural graphite powder to which artificial graphite powder and a small amount of a phenol resin binding agent are added

  4. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U 3 O 8 powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated

  5. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated.

  6. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... parts, where also the temperatures are measured. The heat balance of the system involves a fuel cell model to describe the heat added by the fuel cells when a current is drawn. Furthermore the model also predicts the temperatures, when heating the stack with external heating elements for start-up, heat...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  7. Convective parameters in fuel elements for research nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of a prototype for the simulation of fuel elements for research nuclear reactors by natural convection in water is presented in this paper. This project is carry out in the thermofluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research. The fuel prototype has already been test for natural convection in air, and the first results in water are presented in this work. In chapter I, a general description of Triga Mark III is made, paying special atention to fuel-moderator components. In chapter II and III an approach to convection subject in its global aspects is made, since the intention is to give a general idea of the events occuring around fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. In chapter II, where an emphasis on forced convection is made, some basic concepts for forced convection as well as for natural convection are included. The subject of flow through cylinders is annotated only as a comparative reference with natural convection in vertical cylinders, noting the difference between used correlations and the involved variables. In chapter III a compilation of correlation found in the bibliography about natural convection in vertical cylinders is presented, since its geometry is the more suitable in the analysis of a fuel rod. Finally, in chapter IV performed experiments in the test bench are detailed, and the results are presented in form of tables and graphs, showing the used equations for the calculations and the restrictions used in each case. For the analysis of the prototypes used in the test bench, a constant and uniform flow of heat in the whole length of the fuel rod is considered. At the end of this chapter, the work conclusions and a brief explanation of the results are presented (Author)

  8. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  9. Cooling flow measurement in fuel elements of the RA-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brollo, F; Silin, N

    2009-01-01

    Under the UBERA6 project for the core change and power increase of the RA-6 reactor, the total coolant flow was increased to meet the requirements imposed by the new operating conditions. The flow through the fuel elements is an important parameter and is difficult to determine due to the geometric complexity of the core. To ensure safe operation of the reactor, adequate safety margins must be kept for all operating conditions. In the present work we performed the direct measurement of the cooling flow rate of a fuel in the reactor core, for which we used a turbine flowmeter built specifically for this use. This helped to confirm previous results obtained during the launch, made by an indirect method based on measuring the pressure difference of the core. The turbine flowmeter was chosen due to its robustness, ease of operation and low disturbance of the input stream to the fuel. We describe the calibration of this instrument and the results of flow measurements made on some of the RA6 reactor fuel elements under conditions of zero power. [es

  10. Design verification testing for fuel element type CAREM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Ghiselli, A.; Bonifacio Pulido, K.; Villabrille, G.; Rozembaum, I.

    2013-01-01

    The hydraulic and hydrodynamic characterization tests are part of the design verification process of a nuclear fuel element prototype and its components. These tests are performed in a low pressure and temperature facility. The tests requires the definition of the simulation parameters for setting the test conditions, the results evaluation to feedback mathematical models, extrapolated the results to reactor conditions and finally to decide the acceptability of the tested prototype. (author)

  11. Dissolution of the RA nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasovic, V.; Tolic, A.; Petkovic, Dj.

    1967-10-01

    Natural uranium 2% enriched fuel element with aluminium cladding from the RA reactor was dissolved in the laboratory device specially adapted for this experiment. This report includes the description of the equipment, experiment and results. First step of the procedure, removal of the aluminium cladding was completed successfully, by dissolving in sodium hydroxide. Metal uranium was dissolved in nitric acid. These experiments have provided data about the stoichiometry and kinetics of the process

  12. Hydraulic Design Criteria for Spacer Grids of Nuclear Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a hydraulic model for calculating the pressure drop on the CARA spacer grids is extended.This model is validated and feedback from experimental hydraulic test performed in a low pressure loop.The importance of the spacer grid geometric parameter (that is, its thickness and length, the number and kind of their fix spacer), developing hydraulic design criteria for spacer grid on fuel element

  13. CARA CVN: inherently safe fuel element for PHWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasnarof, Daniel O.; Lestani, Hector A.; Agueda, Horacio C.; Marino, Armando C.; Florido, Pablo C.; Daverio, Hernando

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents design alternatives of the CARA fuel element with negative void reactivity coefficient (CVN) enhancing the PHWR safety for L-LOCA sequences. This design enhances the safety and the operation performance in Atucha and Embalse without changes in the operation conditions. This new design balances wide performance margins of CARA SEU 0.9% previous design, with new intrinsic safety requirements without economic penalties. (author) [es

  14. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EXAMINING FUEL ELEMENTS FOR LEAKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.R.; Echo, M.W.; Doe, C.B.

    1963-12-31

    A process and a device for the continuous monitoring of fuel elements while in use in a liquid-metal-cooled, argonblanketed nuclear reactor are presented. A fraction of the argon gas is withdrawn, contacted with a negative electrical charge for attraction of any alkali metal formed from argon by neutron reaction, and recycled into the reactor. The electrical charge is introduced into water, and the water is examined for radioactive alkali metals. (AEC)

  15. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS AND PROCESS OF MAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roake, W.E.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for producing uranium metal granules for use in reactor fuel elements. The granules are made by suspending powdered uramiunn metal or uranium hydride in a viscous, non-reactive liquid, such as paraffin oil, aad pouring the resulting suspension in droplet, on to a bed of powdered absorbent. In this manner the liquid vehicle is taken up by the sorbent and spherical pellets of uranium metal are obtained. The

  16. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  17. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  18. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  19. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  1. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  2. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  3. Improvements in the fabrication of HTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brähler, Georg; Hartung, Markus; Fachinger, Johannes; Grosse, Karl-Heinz; Seemann, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The application of High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Technology in the course of the continuously increasing world wide demand on energy is taken more and more under serious consideration in the power supply strategy of various countries. Especially for the emerging nations the HTR Technology has become of special interest because of its inherent safety feature and due to the alternative possibilities of applications, e.g. in the production of liquid hydrocarbons or the alternative application in H 2 generation. The HTR fuel in its various forms (spheres or prismatic fuel blocks) is based on small fuel kernels of about 500 μm in diameter. Each of these uranium oxide or carbide kernels are coated with several layers of pyrocarbon (PyC) as well as an additional silicon carbide (SiC) layer. While the inner pyrocarbon layer is porous and capable to absorb gaseous fission products, the dense outer PyC layer forms the barrier against fission product release. The SiC layer improves the mechanical strengths of this barrier and considerably increases the retention capacity for solid fission products that tent to diffuse at these temperatures. Especially the high quality German LEU TRISO spherical fuel based on the NUKEM design, has demonstrated the best fission product release rate, particular at high temperatures. The ∼10% enriched uranium triple-coated particles are embedded in a moulded graphite sphere. A fuel sphere consists of approximately 9 g of uranium (some 15,000 particles) and has a diameter of 60 mm. As the unique safety features, especially the inherent safety of the HTR is based on the fuel design, this paper shall reflect the complexity but also developments and economical aspects of the fabrication processes for HTR fuel elements.

  4. The fabrication of nuclear fuel elements in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Morillo, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The situation of the nucleoelectrical generation in Mexico by 1976 is described: two nuclear reactors under construction but no defined program on the type and start-up dates for the next power plants. However the existence of a general plan on nuclear power plants is mentioned, which, according to the last estimates reaches to 10,000 MW installed by 1990. The national intension, definitely expressed in the Law, is to supply domestic nuclear fuel to the power reactors operating in the country, starting with the first reload for the two BWR's at the first national station in Laguna Verde, which will be required at the end of 1981 and of 1982, respectively. Before such circumstances and the relatively short amounts of fuel elements that should be produced for those two unique reactors, Mexico already has to adopt a strategy to follow in respect to fuel elements fabrication. The two main options are analyzed: 1. To delay the local fabrication until a National Nuclear Program may be defined, meanwhile purchasing abroad the necessary reloads and initial cores; and 2. To start as soon as possible the local fuel elements fabrication in order to supply fuel for the first reload of the first unit of Laguna Verde, confronting the economical risks of such posture with the advantages of an immediate action. Both options are analyzed in detail comparing them specially under the economic point of view, standing out immediately the big effect of some factors which are economically imponderable, as experience and independance that would be gained with the second option. Emphasis is made on the advantages and risks of any case. According to the first option and once a National Program is defined, the work would be heavy but of simple strategy. On the contrary, the second option requires the adoption of a more complicated strategy, as either the project of the factory as its initial operation should be made under transient conditions, in view of the expected future expansion still

  5. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  6. Compact Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Yipeng

    2003-01-01

    In Phase I, we demonstrate the feasibility of making supported electronically insulating, proton conducting inorganic thin films on metal hydride foils for intermediate temperature fuel cell electrolytes...

  7. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  8. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  9. Fuel cell vehicle technologies, infrastructure and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) use hydrogen as fuel and exhaust only water and heat. They : provide driving ranges and fueling times comparable to gasoline vehicles. Despite the advantages, : FCEVs have been in and out of the spot light of the a...

  10. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  11. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  12. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  13. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; York, Cynthia A [Newington, CT; Waszczuk, Piotr [White Bear Lake, MN; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  14. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  15. Mathematical modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ruy; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.

    Fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been receiving more and more attention. Modeling plays an important role in the development of fuel cells. In this paper, the state-of-the-art regarding modeling of fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane is reviewed. Modeling has allowed detailed studies concerning the development of these cells, e.g. in discussing the electrocatalysis of the reactions and the design of water-management schemes to cope with membrane dehydration. Two-dimensional models have been used to represent reality, but three-dimensional models can cope with some important additional aspects. Consideration of two-phase transport in the air cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell seems to be very appropriate. Most fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel. Besides safety concerns, there are problems associated with production, storage and distribution of this fuel. Methanol, as a liquid fuel, can be the solution to these problems and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are attractive for several applications. Mass transport is a factor that may limit the performance of the cell. Adsorption steps may be coupled to Tafel kinetics to describe methanol oxidation and methanol crossover must also be taken into account. Extending the two-phase approach to the DMFC modeling is a recent, important point.

  16. Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain Distributed Generation Through Non-Conventional Fuels and Fuel Cells

    CERN Document Server

    McPhail, Stephen J; Moreno, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    As the availability of fossils fuels becomes more limited, the negative impact of their consumption becomes an increasingly relevant factor in our choices with regards to primary energy sources. The exponentially increasing demand for energy is reflected in the mass generation of by-products and waste flows which characterize current society’s development and use of fossil sources. The potential for recoverable material and energy in these ever-increasing refuse flows is huge, even after the separation of hazardous constituent elements, allowing safe and sustainable further exploitation of an otherwise 'wasted' resource.  Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores the concept of waste-to-energy through a 5 step process which reflects the stages during the transformation of  refuse flows to a valuable commodity such as clean energy. By providing selected, integrated alternatives to the current centralized, wasteful, fossil-fuel based infrastructure, Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores ho...

  17. Regenerative fuel cell engineering - FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Inbody; Rodney L. Borup; James C. Hedstrom; Jose Tafoya; Byron Morton; Lois Zook; Nicholas E. Vanderborgh

    2000-01-01

    The authors report the work conducted by the ESA-EPE Fuel Cell Engineering Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY99 on regenerative fuel cell system engineering. The work was focused on the evaluation of regenerative fuel cell system components obtained through the RAFCO program. These components included a 5 kW PEM electrolyzer, a two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack, and samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode. The samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode were analyzed to determine their structure and operating characteristics. Tests were conducted on the two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack to characterize its operation as an electrolyzer and as a fuel cell. The 5 kW PEM electrolyzer was tested in the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Test Facility. These tests served to characterize the operation of the electrolyzer and, also, to verify the operation of the newly completed test facility. Future directions for this work in regenerative fuel cell systems are discussed.

  18. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  19. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  20. The DACC system. Code burnup of cell for projection of the fuel elements in the power net work PWR and BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.; Boeriu, St.; Gheorghiu, E.; Cristian, I.; Patrulescu, I.; Cimporescu, D.; Ciuvica, P.; Velciu, E.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation system DACC-5 is a zero-dimensional reactor physics code used to calculate the criticality and burn-up of light-water reactors. The code requires as input essential extensive reactor parameters (fuel rod radius, water density, etc.). The nuclear constants (intensive parameters) are calculated with a five-group model (2 thermal and 3 fast groups). A fitting procedure is systematically employed to reduce the computation time of the code. Zero-dimensional burn-up calculations are made in an automatic way. Part one of the paper contains the code physical model and computer structure. Part two of the paper will contain tests of DACC-5 credibility for different light-water power lattices

  1. Design of the Fuel Element for the RRR Reactor (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez, E.A.; Markiewicz, M.E.; Gerding, R.

    2003-01-01

    The supply to the Replacement Research Reactor ( RRR ) to Australia represents a technological goal for our country, as much for the designers and manufacturers of this irradiation facility ( Invap SE ), as well for the responsibles of the fuel elements ( FE ) design and the suppliers of the first core ( CNEA ).In relation with the FE, although the conceptual design and fabrication technology of the FE are similar to the just developed and qualified by CNEA ( plane plates MTR fuel type ), the characteristics of this new reactor imposes most severe operation conditions on them than in previous supplies.In that sense, two distinguishing characteristics deserve to be shown: a) The magnitude of the hydrodynamics loads acting on the FE due to the coolant ascendent flow direction, and mainly, the very high flow velocities between the fuel plates ( aproximately five times higher than which presents in others Argentine FE actually in operation. b) The use of U3Si2 as fuel material.CNEA has started a programme to qualify this type of fuel.As result of these higher loads under irradiations and with the objective to maintain the high reliability level reached by our FE ( very low failure rates ), it was necessary to introduce FE mechanical-structural design modifications respect to the ECBE or standard design version, and to verify these changes through hydrodynamics tests on a 1:1 scale prototype.In this paper it is described the mechanical-structural FE design with special emphasis in the innovatives aspects incorporated.The design criteria established in function of the solicitations and limitating effects present under irradiation conditions.Also, a brief description of the proposed programme to verify and evaluate this design is presented, including analytical and numerical calculus of stresses acting on the fuel plates and others FE components, pressure loss hydrodynamics tests and endurance essays

  2. Rapid prototyping methods for the manufacture of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The potential for the application of this method for the manufacture of metallic bipolar plates (BPP for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs is presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of light elements for the construction of PEMFC stacks designed for mobile applications such as aviation technology and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  3. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A. E-mail: laaterre@net.ipen.br; Zeituni, C.A.; Perrotta, J.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2000-08-11

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits.

  4. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A.; Perrotta, J.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2000-01-01

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  6. Determination of heterogeneous medium parameters by single fuel element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, M.A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron pulse propagation technique was employed to study an heterogeneous system consisting of a single fuel element placed at the symmetry axis of a large cylindrical D 2 O tank. The response of system for the pulse propagation technique is related to the inverse complex relaxation length of the neutron waves also known as the system dispersion law ρ (ω). Experimental values of ρ (ω) were compared with the ones derived from Fermi age - Diffusion theory. The main purpose of the experiment was to obtain the Feinberg-Galanin thermal constant (γ), which is the logaritmic derivative of the neutron flux at the fuel-moderator interface and a such a main input data for heterogeneous reactor theory calculations. The γ thermal constant was determined as the number giving the best agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of ρ (ω). The simultaneous determination of two among four parameters η,ρ,τ and L s is possible through the intersection of dispersion laws of the pure moderator system and the fuel moderator system. The parameters τ and η were termined by this method. It was shown that the thermal constant γ and the product η ρ can be computed from the real and imaginary parts of the fuel-moderator dispersion law. The results for this evaluation scheme showns a not stable behavior of γ as a function of frequency, a result not foreseen by the theoretical model. (Author) [pt

  7. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  8. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-07-27

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  9. Molybdenum Carbide Synthesis Using Plasmas for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    containing a dissolved metal precursor salt (e.g., platinum chloride ) to a high surface area refractory oxide (e.g., alumina). The liquid is added in an...Acid Fuel Cells, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, and Direct and Indirect Methanol Fuel Cell

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  11. The modeling experience of fuel element units operation under MSC.MARC and MENTAT 2008R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakov, G.; Kashirin, B.; Kosaurov, A.; Konovalov, Y.; Kuznetsov, A.; Medvedev, A.; Novikov, V.; Vatulin, A.

    2009-01-01

    MSC Software is leading developer of CAE-software in the world, so behaviour of fuel elements modeling with MSC.MARC use is of great practical importance. Behaviour of fuel elements usually is modeled in the elastic-viscous-plastic statement with account on fuel swelling during irradiation. For container type fuel elements contact interaction between fuel pellets and cladding or other parts of fuel element in top and bottom plugs must be in account. Results of simulated behaviour of various type fuel elements - container type fuel elements for PWR and RBMK reactors, dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors are presented. (authors)

  12. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  13. Fuel cell and membrane therefore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aindow, Tai-Tsui

    2016-08-09

    A fuel cell includes first and second flow field plates, and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode between the flow field plates. A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is arranged between the electrodes. At least one of the flow field plates influences, at least in part, an in-plane anisotropic physical condition of the PEM that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM has an in-plane physical property that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM is oriented with its high value direction substantially aligned with the high value direction of the flow field plate.

  14. Fuel cells for telephone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.D.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Critical telephone network systems are currently protected from electric utility power failures by a backup system consisting of lead-acid batteries and an engine-alternator. It is considered here an alternate power system where less expensive off-peak commercial electricity electrolyses water, while fuel cells draw continuously on the stored gas products to provide direct current for the protected equipment. The lead acid batteries are eliminated. The benefits and costs of the existing and alternate systems in scenarios with various system efficiencies, capital costs, and electric utility rates and incentives, are compared. In today's conditions, the alternate system is not economical; however, cost and performance feasibility domains are identified. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  15. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  16. IEA-R1 reactor spent fuel element surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Teodoro, Celso A.; Lucki, Georgi; Castanheira, Myrthes

    2005-01-01

    The irradiation surveillance is an important part of a qualification program of the U 3 O 8 -Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion nuclear fuels manufactured in IPEN/CNEN-SP. This work presents the surveillance results regarding the fuel and control elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor during the period from June/1999 until December/2003, which embraced register of visual inspections, irradiation conditions, burn-up calculations, thermal hydraulic parameters and failure occurrences. Also providing information that helps the safe operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor, the irradiation surveillance is a collaboration work involving researchers of the Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN) and the operators' staff of the Centro do Reator de Pesquisas (CRPq), both from IPEN/CNEN-SP. (author)

  17. Improved moulding material for addition to nuclear fuel particles to produce nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miertschin, G.N.; Leary, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made to improve the moulding materials used to produce carbon-contained nuclear fuel particles by a coke-reducing added substance. The nuclear fuel particles are meant for the formation of fuel elements for gas-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactors. The moulding materials are above all for the formation of coated particles which are burnt in situ in nuclear fuel element chambers out of 'green' nuclear fuel bodies. The added substance improves the shape stability of the particles forming and prevents a stiding or bridge formation between the particles or with the surrounding walls. The following are named as added substances: 1) Polystyrene and styrene-butadiene-Co polymers (mol. wt. between 5oo and 1,000,000), 2) aromatic compounds (mol. wt. 75 to 300), 3) saturated hydrocarbon polymers (mol. wt. 5,000 to 1,000,000). Additional release agents further improve the properties in the same direction (e.g. alcohols, fatty acids, amines). (orig.) [de

  18. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  19. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  20. The fuel cell; development and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijnsoever, J.W.M.

    Activities on fuel cells and fuel cell development in the USA and Japan are surveyed. Possibilities for large scale application are mentioned. Attention is given to efficiency and environmental aspects. There are no problems about hazardous emissions. Besides electric power some heat is generated, which is not always a disadvantage. In many cases both are useful products. (A.V.)