WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel cell electrocatalyst

  1. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    and adsorbents. Ordered mesoporous carbon ( OMC ) has the advantages of high surface area, tunable pore size, interconnected pore network, and...tailorable surface properties. Recently, OMC as support for metal nanocatalysts for electrode materials in low-temperature fuel cells has been attracting much

  2. Electrocatalyst advances for hydrogen oxidation in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.

    1984-01-01

    The important considerations that presently exist for achieving commercial acceptance of fuel cells are centered on cost (which translates to efficiency) and lifetime. This paper addresses the questions of electrocatalyst utilization within porous electrode structures and the preparation of low-cost noble metal electrocatalyst combinations with extreme dispersions of the metal. Now that electrocatalyst particles can be prepared with dimensions of 10 A, either singly or in alloy combinations, a very large percentage of the noble metal atoms in a crystallite are available for reaction. The cost savings for such electrocatalysts in the present commercially driven environment are considerable.

  3. Electrocatalyst advances for hydrogen oxidation in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.

    1984-01-01

    The important considerations that presently exist for achieving commercial acceptance of fuel cells are centered on cost (which translates to efficiency) and lifetime. This paper addresses the questions of electrocatalyst utilization within porous electrode structures and the preparation of low-cost noble metal electrocatalyst combinations with extreme dispersions of the metal. Now that electrocatalyst particles can be prepared with dimensions of 10 A, either singly or in alloy combinations, a very large percentage of the noble metal atoms in a crystallite are available for reaction. The cost savings for such electrocatalysts in the present commercially driven environment are considerable.

  4. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells; Electrocatalizadores para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M. A.; Fernandez V, S. M. [ININ, Depto. de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Mexico 11801, D. F. (Mexico); Vargas G, J. R. [IPN, Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Mexico 07300, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  5. Platinum monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junliang

    Fuel cells are expected to be one of the major clean energy sources in the near future. However, the slow kinetics of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the high loading of Pt for the cathode material are the urgent issues to be addressed since they determine the efficiency and the cost of this energy source. In this study, a new approach was developed for designing electrocatalysts for the ORR in fuel cells. These electrocatalysts consist of only one Pt monolayer, or mixed transition metal-Pt monolayer, on suitable carbon-supported metal, or alloy nanoparticles. The synthesis involved depositing a monolayer of Cu on a suitable transition metal or metal alloy surface at underpotentials, followed by galvanic displacement of the Cu monolayer with Pt or mixed metal-Pt. It was found that the electronic properties of Pt monolayer could be fine-tuned by the electronic and geometric effects introduced by the substrate metal (or alloy) and the lateral effects of the neighboring metal atoms. The role of substrates was found reflected in a "volcano" plot of the monolayer activity for the ORR as a function of their calculated d-band centers. The Pt mass-specific activity of the new Pt monolayer electrocatalysts was up to twenty times higher than the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalysts. The enhancement of the activity is caused mainly by decreased formation of PtOH (the blocking species for ORR), and to a lesser degree by the electronic effects. Fuel cell tests showed a very good long term stability of the new electrocatalysts. Our results demonstrated a viable way to designing the electrocatalysts which could successfully alleviate two issues facing the commercialization of fuel cells---the costs of electrocatalysts and their efficiency.

  6. Electrocatalysis and electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells: fundamentals, state of the art, research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with electrocatalysis and electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells and also with established means and methods in electrocatalyst research, development and characterization. The intention is to inform about the fundamentals, state of the art, research and development of noble metal electrocatalysts for fuel cells operating at low temperatures.

  7. Rational Design of Competitive Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbov, Sergey; Alcántara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2012-02-16

    The large-scale application of one of the most promising clean and renewable sources of energy, hydrogen fuel cells, still awaits efficient and cost-effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurring on the cathode. We demonstrate that truly rational design renders electrocatalysts possessing both qualities. By unifying the knowledge on surface morphology, composition, electronic structure, and reactivity, we solve that trimetallic sandwich-like structures are an excellent choice for optimization. Their constituting species are expected to couple synergistically yielding reaction-environment stability, cost-effectiveness, and tunable reactivity. This cooperative-action concept enabled us to predict two advantageous ORR electrocatalysts: Pd/Fe/W(110) and Au/Ru/W(110). Density functional theory calculations of the reaction free-energy diagrams suggest that these materials are more active toward ORR than the so-far best Pt-based catalysts. Our designing concept advances also a general approach for engineering advanced materials.

  8. Surface science studies of model fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, N.M.; Ross, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Sciences Division, University of California, 94720 Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss progress in the understanding of electrocatalytic reactions through the study of model systems with surface spectroscopies. Pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys have been used quite successfully as models for real (commercial) electrocatalysts. Given the sheer volume of all work in electrocatalysis that is on fuel cell reactions, we will focus on electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Since Pt is the model fuel cell electrocatalyst, we will focus entirely on studies of pure Pt and Pt bimetallic alloys. The electrode reactions discussed include hydrogen oxidation/evolution, oxygen reduction, and the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide, formic acid, and methanol. Surface spectroscopies emphasized are FTIR, STM/AFM and surface X-ray scattering (SXS). The discussion focuses on the relation between the energetics of adsorption of intermediates and the reaction pathway and kinetics, and how the energetics and kinetics relate to the extrinsic properties of the model system, e.g. surface structure and/or composition. Finally, we conclude by discussing the limitations that are reached by using pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys as models for real catalysts, and suggest some directions for developing more realistic systems.

  9. Surface science studies of model fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, N. M.; Ross, P. N.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss progress in the understanding of electrocatalytic reactions through the study of model systems with surface spectroscopies. Pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys have been used quite successfully as models for real (commercial) electrocatalysts. Given the sheer volume of all work in electrocatalysis that is on fuel cell reactions, we will focus on electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Since Pt is the model fuel cell electrocatalyst, we will focus entirely on studies of pure Pt and Pt bimetallic alloys. The electrode reactions discussed include hydrogen oxidation/evolution, oxygen reduction, and the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide, formic acid, and methanol. Surface spectroscopies emphasized are FTIR, STM/AFM and surface X-ray scattering (SXS). The discussion focuses on the relation between the energetics of adsorption of intermediates and the reaction pathway and kinetics, and how the energetics and kinetics relate to the extrinsic properties of the model system, e.g. surface structure and/or composition. Finally, we conclude by discussing the limitations that are reached by using pure metal single crystals and well-characterized bulk alloys as models for real catalysts, and suggest some directions for developing more realistic systems.

  10. Tungsten based electrocatalyst for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Joel B. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Global Tungsten and Powders R and D, Hawes Street, Towanda, PA 18848 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Smith, Sean P.E. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Global Tungsten and Powders R and D, Hawes Street, Towanda, PA 18848 (United States); Whittingham, M. Stanley [Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Abruna, Hector D. [Cornell University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Ithaca, NY 14653 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A barrier to the widespread use of fuel cells is their reliance on expensive and scarce platinum and other precious metal catalysts. We present a catalyst for hydrogen oxidation, prepared electrochemically from high-purity aqueous tungstate salt precursors. The 24-electron reduction of ammonium metatungstate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]) yields a material with electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydrogen in acid electrolyte which approaches 25% that of platinum. Moreover, the tungstate catalyst is unusually tolerant to CO and H{sub 2}S contaminants in the fuel stream. (author)

  11. Electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Celorrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of CNC as well as their surface chemistry can be tuned by an adequate choice of synthesis conditions, favouring the formation of surface oxygen groups. Platinum-based catalysts have been supported on CNCs through different synthesis methods and their catalytic activity has been proven. These results prove that CNCs are promising candidates as alternative to replace Vulcan in order to improve the performance of the direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, it can be affirmed that the reactivity of Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures toward CO and HCOOH electro-oxidation is not only determined by the composition and structure of Pd overlayer but also by interaction with the support.

  12. Pt/Pd electrocatalyst electrons for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.

    1981-11-03

    This invention relates to improved electrochemical cells and to novel electrodes for use therein. In particular, the present invention comprises a fuel cell used primarily for the consumption of impure hydrogen fuels containing carbon monoxide or carbonaceous fuels where the electrode in contact with the fuel is not substantially poisoned by carbon monoxide. The anode of the fuel cell comprises a Pd/Pt alloy supported on a graphitized or partially graphitized carbon material. Fuel cells which comprise as essential elements a fuel electrode, an oxidizing electrode, and an electrolyte between said electrodes are devices for the direct production of electricity through the electrochemical combustion of a fuel and oxidant. These devices are recognized for their high efficiency as energy conversion units, since unlike conventional combustion engines, they are not subject to the limitations of the Carnot heat cycle. It is the primary object of the present invention to provide an electrode having high electrochemical activity for an electrochemical cell. It is another object of the present invention to provide an electrode having an electro-catalyst which is highly resistant to the corrosive environment of an electrochemical cell.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of advanced electrocatalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hochmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two cooperative phenomena are required the development of highly efficient porous electrocatalysts: (1) is an increase in the electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst particle; and (2) is the availability of that electrocatalyst particle for the electromechanical reaction. The two processes interact with each other so that improvements in the electrochemical activity must be coupled with improvements in the availability of the electrocatalyst for reaction. Cost effective and highly reactive electrocatalysts were developed. The utilization of the electrocatalyst particles in the porous electrode structures was analyzed. It is shown that a large percentage of the electrocatalyst in anode structures is not utilized. This low utilization translates directly into a noble metal cost penalty for the fuel cell.

  14. Novel niobium carbide/carbon porous nanotube electrocatalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil, Y.; Cavaliere, S.; Harkness, I. A.; Sharman, J. D. B.; Jones, D. J.; Rozière, J.

    2017-09-01

    Niobium carbide/carbon nanotubular porous structures have been prepared using electrospinning and used as electrocatalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. They were functionalised with 3.1 nm Pt particles synthesised by a microwave-assisted polyol method and characterised for their electrochemical properties. The novel NbC-based electrocatalyst demonstrated electroactivity towards the oxygen reduction reaction as well as greater stability over high potential cycling than a commercial carbon-based electrocatalyst. Pt/NbC/C was integrated at the cathode of a membrane electrode assembly and characterised in a single fuel cell showing promising activity and power density.

  15. Robust Platinum-Based Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eric James

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) are energy conversion devices that exploit the energetics of the reaction between hydrogen fuel and O 2 to generate electricity with water as the only byproduct. PEMFCs have attracted substantial attention due to their high conversion efficiency, high energy density, and low carbon footprint. However, PEMFC performance is hindered by the high activation barrier and slow reaction rates at the cathode where O2 undergoes an overall 4-electron reduction to water. The most efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst materials to date are Pt group metals due to their high catalytic activity and stability in a wide range of operating conditions. Before fuel cells can become economically viable, efforts must be taken to decrease Pt content while maintaining a high level of ORR activity. This work describes the design and synthesis of a Pt-Cu electrocatalyst with ORR activity exceeding that of polycrystalline Pt. Production of this novel catalyst is quite simple and begins with synthesis of a porous Cu substrate, formed by etching Al from a Cu-Al alloy. The porous Cu substrate is then coated with a Pt layer via a spontaneous electrochemical process known as galvanic replacement. The Pt layer enhances the ORR activity (as measured by a rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE)) and acts as a barrier towards corrosion of the Cu understructure. Growth of the Pt layer can be manipulated by time, temperature, concentration of Pt precursor, and convection rate during galvanic replacement. Data from analytical and electrochemical techniques confirm multiple Pt loadings have been achieved via the galvanic replacement process. The boost in ORR activity for the PtCu catalyst was determined to be a result of its lower affinity towards (site-blocking) OH adsorption. A unique catalyst degradation study explains the mechanism of initial catalyst ORR deactivation for both monometallic and bimetallic Pt-based catalysts. Finally, a rigorous and

  16. Influence of carbon nanofiber properties as electrocatalyst support on the electrochemical performance for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, D.; Suelves, I.; Moliner, R.; Lazaro, M.J. [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Energy and Environment, C/Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Calderon, J.C.; Gonzalez-Exposito, J.A.; Pastor, E. [Universidad de La Laguna, Dpto de Quimica-Fisica, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martinez-Huerta, M.V. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Novel carbonaceous supports for electrocatalysts are being investigated to improve the performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Within several supports, carbon nanofibers blend two properties that rarely coexist in a material: a high mesoporosity and a high electrical conductivity, due to their particular structure. Carbon nanofibers have been obtained by catalytic decomposition of methane, optimizing growth conditions to obtain carbon supports with different properties. Subsequently, the surface chemistry has been modified by an oxidation treatment, in order to create oxygen surface groups of different nature that have been observed to be necessary to obtain a higher performance of the electrocatalyst. Platinum has then been supported on the as-prepared carbon nanofibers by different deposition methods and the obtained catalysts have been studied by different electrochemical techniques. The influence of carbon nanofibers properties and functionalization on the electrochemical behavior of the electrocatalysts has been studied and discussed, obtaining higher performances than commercial electrocatalysts with the highest electrical conductive carbon nanofibers as support. (author)

  17. Benchmarking Pt-based electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cell reactions with the rotating disk electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov; Escribano, Maria Escudero; Velazquez-Palenzuela, Amado Andres

    2015-01-01

    We present up-to-date benchmarking methods for testing electrocatalysts for polymer exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. We focus on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in the presence of CO. We have chosen...

  18. Highly Porous Carbon Derived from MOF-5 as a Support of ORR Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif; Zhao, Dan

    2016-07-13

    The development of highly competent electrocatalysts for the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at cathodes of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is extremely important for their long-term operation and wide applications. Herein, we present highly efficient ORR electrocatalysts based on Pt/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles dispersed on highly porous carbon obtained via pyrolysis of a metal-organic framework MOF-5. In comparison to the commercial Pt/C (20%), the electrocatalyst Pt-Ni/PC 950 (15:15%) in this study exhibits a pronounced positive shift of 90 mV in Eonset. In addition, it also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and durability during the 500-cycle continue-oxygen-supply (COS) accelerating durability tests (ADTs). The significantly improved activity and stability of Pt-Ni/PC 950 (15:15%) can be attributed to the Pt electron interaction with Ni and carbon support as has been proved in X-ray and microscopic analysis.

  19. Nano-electrochemical deposition of fuel cells electrocatalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available technological applications in fuel cell eclectrodes. The paper demonstrates the versatility of part-by-part (sequential) electrodeposition of binary alloys composed of Platinum and Ruthenium, to produce catalytic-active layers on an inert carbon substrate...

  20. Oxygen reduction electrocatalyst in solid polymer fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, T.R.; Keating, J.E.; Collis, N.J.; Hyde, T.I.

    1997-10-01

    The overall objective of the project was to determine the feasibility of achieving a 50 mV cell performance improvement at typical solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC) operating conditions from the application of platinum/base metal alloy electrocatalysts in the cathode. A secondary aim was to resolve the performance enhancement into that due to improved oxygen reduction kinetics and that due to electrode structural effects such as enhanced platinum utilisation. (UK)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2003-04-24

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the available chemical free energy directly into electrical energy, without going through heat exchange process. Of all different types of fuel cells, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

  2. Self-supported interconnected Pt nanoassemblies as highly stable electrocatalysts for low-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bao Yu; Ng, Wan Theng; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Xin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-07-16

    In it for the long haul: Clusters of Pt nanowires (3D Pt nanoassemblies, Pt NA) serve as an electrocatalyst for low-temperature fuel cells. These Pt nanoassemblies exhibit remarkably high stability following thousands of voltage cycles and good catalytic activity, when compared with a commercial Pt catalyst and 20 % wt Pt catalyst supported on carbon black (20 % Pt/CB).

  3. Platinum-carbon black-titanium dioxide nanocomposite electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satheesh Sambandam; Vinodh Valluri; Wilaiwan Chanmanee; Norma R De Tacconi; Wesley A Wampler; Wen-Yuan Lin; Thomas F Carlson; Vijay Ramani; Krishnan Rajeshwar

    2009-09-01

    New-generation Pt/C-TiO2 nanocomposite electrocatalysts for fuel cells, prepared by a heterogeneous photocatalytic method, have been characterized using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Importantly, galvanostatic data confirm the superior stability of these materials against corrosion under anodic polarization conditions relative to commercial benchmark fuel cell electrocatalysts. EIS spectra from ETEK 5, SIDCAT 405 and SIDCAT 410 membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fit to a Randles equivalent circuit with a Warburg element to show the presence of O2 transport limitation arising from the use of thicker electrodes (lower Pt loading on carbon). The use of a constant phase element (CPE) instead of pure capacitor was justified from the fit procedure as CPE represents the porous electrode system more precisely with its distributive elements. EIS spectra from Tanaka, SIDCAT 451 and SIDCAT 452 MEAs (thinner electrodes) were fit to a Randles circuit with a pure capacitor and no Warburg element. The use of a transmission line model for fitting these data independently provided information about the catalyst layer resistance while all other parameters matched well with that of the Randles circuit. The effective proton transport in cathodes was quantified using polarization data for both classes of MEAs. Trends in the previously reported performance of MEAs prepared using these electrocatalysts were justified based on the relative contributions of kinetic, Ohmic and mass transfer losses to the overall overpotential, which in turn were estimated from impedance and polarization data analyses.

  4. Mechanisms for enhanced performance of platinum-based electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liang; Jia, Wenzhao; Li, Chang-Ming; Lei, Yu

    2014-02-01

    As a new generation of power sources, fuel cells have shown great promise for application in transportation. However, the expensive catalyst materials, especially the cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), severely limit the widespread commercialization of fuel cells. Therefore, this review article focuses on platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts for ORR with better catalytic performance and lower cost. Major breakthroughs in the improvement of activity and durability of electrocatalysts are discussed. Specifically, on one hand, the enhanced activity of Pt has been achieved through crystallographic control, ligand effect, or geometric effect; on the other hand, improved durability of Pt-based cathode catalysts has been realized by means of the incorporation of another noble metal or the morphological control of nanostructures. Furthermore, based on these improvement mechanisms, rationally designed Pt-based nanoparticles are summarized in terms of different synthetic strategies such as wet-chemical synthesis, Pt-skin catalysts, electrochemically dealloyed nanomaterials, and Pt-monolayer deposition. These nanoparticulate electrocatalysts show greatly enhanced catalytic performance towards ORR, aiming not only to outperform the commercial Pt/C, but also to exceed the US Department of Energy 2015 technical target ($30/kW and 5000 h).

  5. Durability enhancement of intermetallics electrocatalysts via N-anchor effect for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; An, Li; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Nanlin; Xia, Dingguo; Huang, Weifeng; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-11-18

    Insufficient durability and catalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst are key issues that have to be solved for the practical application of low temperature fuel cell. This paper introduces a new catalyst design strategy using N-anchor to promote the corrosion resistance of electrocatalyst. The as-synthesized N-Pt3Fe1/C shows a high electrocatalytic activity and a superior durability towards ORR. The kinetic current density of N-Pt3Fe1/C as normalized by ECSA is still as high as 0.145 mA cm(-2) and only 7% loss after 20,000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.2 V (vs. NHE) in O2-bubbling perchloric acid solution, whereas Pt3Fe1/C shows 49% loss under the same tests. The N-anchor approach offers novel opportunities for the development of ORR catalyst with excellent electrochemical properties.

  6. Binary and ternary palladium based electrocatalysts for alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; da Silva, Dionisio Furtunato; e Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; dos Santos, Mauro Coelho

    2015-10-01

    Pd/C, PdAu/C 50:50, PdSn/C 50:50, PdAuSn/C 50:40:10 and PdAuSn/C 50:10:40 electrocatalysts are prepared using an electron beam irradiation reduction method and tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) are used to characterize the resulting materials. The activity for glycerol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium at room temperature using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC) at temperature range of 60-90 °C. EDX analysis demonstrate that Pd:Au:Sn atomic ratios are very similar to the nominal ones. X-ray diffractograms of PdAuSn/C electrocatalysts evidence the presence of Pd (fcc), Au (fcc) and SnO2 phases. TEM analysis demonstrates a good dispersion of the nanoparticles on the carbon support with some agglomerates. Cyclic Voltammetry experiments suggest that PdAuSn/C electrocatalysts demonstrate better results. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 glycerol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalyst PdAuSn/C 50:40:10 demonstrate highest power density (51 mW cm-2) and the 120 h durability tests demonstrate a 210 μV h-1 degradation rate.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Highly Active and Robust Ni-Mo Bimetallic Electrocatalyst for Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon o

  8. Recent Progress on Fe/N/C Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the overall system cost, the development of inexpensive, high-performance and durable oxygen reduction reaction (ORRN, Fe-codoped carbon-based (Fe/N/C electrocatalysts to replace currently used Pt-based catalysts has become one of the major topics in research on fuel cells. This review paper lays the emphasis on introducing the progress made over the recent five years with a detailed discussion of recent work in the area of Fe/N/C electrocatalysts for ORR and the possible Fe-based active sites. Fe-based materials prepared by simple pyrolysis of transition metal salt, carbon support, and nitrogen-rich small molecule or polymeric compound are mainly reviewed due to their low cost, high performance, long stability and because they are the most promising for replacing currently used Pt-based catalysts in the progress of fuel cell commercialization. Additionally, Fe-base catalysts with small amount of Fe or new structure of Fe/Fe3C encased in carbon layers are presented to analyze the effect of loading and existence form of Fe on the ORR catalytic activity in Fe-base catalyst. The proposed catalytically Fe-centered active sites and reaction mechanisms from various authors are also discussed in detail, which may be useful for the rational design of high-performance, inexpensive, and practical Fe-base ORR catalysts in future development of fuel cells.

  9. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present

  10. New electrocatalysts for hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattabriga, R. A.; Giner, J.; Parry, J.; Swette, L. L.

    1970-01-01

    Platinum-silver, palladium-gold, and platinum-gold alloys serve as oxygen reduction catalysts in high-current-density cells. Catalysts were tested on polytetrafluoroethylene-bonded cathodes and a hydrogen anode at an operating cell temperature of 80 degrees C.

  11. Carbon-Supported PtRuMo Electrocatalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L.G. Fierro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The review article discusses the current status and recent findings of our investigations on the synthesis and characterization of carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In particular, the effect of the carbon support and the composition on the structure, stability and the activity of the PtRuMo nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of CO, methanol and ethanol have been studied. Different physicochemical techniques have been employed for the analysis of the catalysts structures: X-ray analytical methods (XRD, XPS, TXRF, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, as well as a number of electrochemical techniques like CO adsorption studies, current-time curves and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Furthermore, spectroscopic methods adapted to the electrochemical systems for in situ studies, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS, have been used to evaluate the oxidation process of CO, methanol and ethanol over the carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts.

  12. A PEM fuel cell based on electrocatalyst and membrane materials modified by PANAM dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Chapman, T.W.; Godinez, L.A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    Due to its high energy conversion efficiency and low emission of pollutants, fuel-cell technology has been generally recognized as a key twenty-first century energy source. For polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), it has been found that platinum and its alloys exhibit the best electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction. The highest electrocatalytic activity of platinum and its alloys can be achieved when the particles are produced in the nanometer range. In this context, organic molecules have been adopted as templates to control the size of metal nanoparticles. Dendrimers, in particular, have shown promising properties for this application, and strategies that include direct adsorption, electrostatic attachment and covalent bonding have been developed for connecting metal-bearing dendrimers to conducting substrates. This paper reported on the preliminary results of a study that involved the construction and testing of a hydrogen-oxygen PEM fuel cell based on carbon-fiber-paper electrodes coated with hydroxyl-terminated dendrimers that encapsulated nanoparticles of platinum. This prototype cell also employed an ion exchange membrane comprising a cellulose acetate filter functionalized with proton-exchanging dendrimers. A proton-exchange membrane was prepared by binding duplex amine-carboxylate dendrimers to a cellulose-acetate support. With these dendrimer-based materials, a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell was assembled and the performance compared with cells prepared with Nafion-based membranes. The voltage-current profiles and the power-density curves from the new cell provide encouragement to continue work with these dendrimer-modified materials. The paper discussed the experimental methods, with particular reference to materials; electrode preparation and characterization; proton-exchange membrane preparation; and PEM fuel-cell assembly and testing. It was concluded that the use of the dendritic macromolecules as supports for the nanoparticulate

  13. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries: A Selected Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yuyan; Cheng, Yingwen; Duan, Wentao; Wang, Wei; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2015-12-04

    PEM fuel cells and redox flow batteries are two very similar technologies which share common component materials and device design. Electrocatalysts are the key components in these two devices. In this Review, we discuss recent progress of electrocatalytic materials for these two technologies with a focus on our research activities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the past years. This includes (1) nondestructive functionalization of graphitic carbon as Pt support to improve its electrocatalytic performance, (2) triple-junction of metal–carbon–metal oxides to promote Pt performance, (3) nitrogen-doped carbon and metal-doped carbon (i.e., metal oxides) to improve redox reactions in flow batteries. A perspective on future research and the synergy between the two technologies are also discussed.

  14. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel

  15. New electrocatalyst support for high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, M.; Brandao, L.; Mendes, A. [Porto Univ. (PT). Lab. de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente e Energia (LEPAE)

    2010-07-01

    This work compares the performance of electrocatalysts based on platinum supported in single-wall carbon nanohorns (Pt-SWNH) and supported in carbon black (Pt-carbon black) during high temperature PEM fuel operation. MEAs made of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) were characterized by polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), at 160 C. The Pt-SWNH electrocatalyst presented a higher electrochemical surface area (ESA) when compared to Pt-carbon black. However, electrochemical experiments showed a higher ohmic resistance of the Pt-SWNH electrode related to a higher hydrophobic character of the SWNH carbon. (orig.)

  16. Best Practices and Testing Protocols for Benchmarking ORR Activities of Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Using Rotating Disk Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, Shyam S; Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W; Myers, Deborah J.; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Nowicki, Tammi L.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Kang, Yijin; Li, Dongguo; Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    Abstract Thin-film-rotating disk electrodes (TF-RDEs) are the half-cell electrochemical system of choice for rapid screening of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of novel Pt supported on carbon black supports (Pt/C) electrocatalysts. It has been shown that the magnitude of the measured ORR activity and reproducibility are highly dependent on the system cleanliness, evaluation protocols, and operating conditions as well as ink formulation, composition, film drying, and the resultant film thickness and uniformity. Accurate benchmarks of baseline Pt/C catalysts evaluated using standardized protocols and best practices are necessary to expedite ultra-low-platinum group metal (PGM) catalyst development that is crucial for the imminent commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. We report results of evaluation in three independent laboratories of Pt/C electrocatalysts provided by commercial fuel cell catalyst manufacturers (Johnson Matthey, Umicore, Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo—TKK). The studies were conducted using identical evaluation protocols/ink formulation/film fabrication albeit employing unique electrochemical cell designs specific to each laboratory. The ORR activities reported in this work provide a baseline and criteria for selection and scale-up of novel high activity ORR electrocatalysts for implementation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  17. Theoretical means for searching bimetallic alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct liquid-feed fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Umit B.

    The present paper reviews the best anode electrocatalysts, mainly the alloys, which have been tested in direct liquid-feed fuel cells fed with methanol, ethanol or formic acid. It attempts to interpret the alloys catalytic behaviours by using the Nørskov and co-workers' theoretical work [A. Ruban, B. Hammer, P. Stoltze, H.L. Skriver, J.K. Nørskov, J. Mol. Catal. A 115 (1997) 421; B. Hammer, J.K. Nørskov, Adv. Catal. 45 (2000) 71; J. Greeley, J.K. Nørskov, M. Maurikakis, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 53 (2002) 319], who proposed surface theories and databases about the metals d-band centre shift and the segregation. It also attempts to suggest new alloys combinations. For example, for the methanol oxidation, the best catalyst is Pt-Ru and the following features make this catalyst stand out: the d-band centre of Pt shifts down what supposes weaker molecules adsorption and Pt strongly segregates. From this analysis, it is suggested that the Pd-Ni alloy may be a potentially good catalyst. Similar interpretations are given for the three fuel cell systems regarded in the present paper.

  18. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-09-22

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5-3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm(2)) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications.

  19. Investigation of titanium nitride as catalyst support material and development of durable electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, Bharat K.

    The impending energy and climatic crisis makes it imperative for human society to seek non-fossil based alternative sources for our energy needs. Although many alternative energy technologies are currently being developed, fuel cell technology provides energy solutions, which satisfy a wide range of applications. But the current fuel cell technology is far from its target of large scale commercialization mainly because of its high cost and poor durability. Considerable work has been done in reducing the cost but its durability still needs significant improvement. Of the various materials in a PEM fuel cell, the degradation of electrocatalyst affects its durability the most, leading to performance loss. Carbon black (C) support corrosion plays a significant role in the electrocatalyst degradation and its severe affects due to potential cycling has been identified through my research. Through my resaerch, I introduce titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiN NP) as alternative catalyst supports replacing carbon black. TiN NP has higher electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance compared to that of C. The physical and electrochemical properties of TiN NP were studied and the Pt/TiN electrocatalyst was synthesized using polyol process. Upon optimizing using DOE, for desired catalyst particle size and activity, Pt/TiN is shown to have higher catalytic performance than conventional Pt/C. TiN NP are significantly influenced by the electrochemical conditions and show 'active' or 'passive' nature depending on the temperature and acidic concentration; and a temperature dependence model is proposed to understand the active/passive nature of TiN NP. A one-to-one comparison between TiN NP and C electrodes under similar electrochemical conditions show a superior performance of TiN NP as a catalyst support. The durability of the Pt/TiN electrocatalyst is also tested and it agrees well with the proposed model of active/passive nature of the TiN NP. Through theoretical calculation

  20. Investigation of nano Pt and Pt-based alloys electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Suo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalysts used in micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC, such as Pt/C and Pt alloy/C, prepared by liquid-phase NaBH4 reduction method have been investigated. XC-72 (Cobalt corp. Company, U.S.A is chosen as the activated carrier for the electrocatalysts to keep the catalysts powder in the range of several nanometers. The XRD, SEM, EDX analyses indicated that the catalysts had small particle size in several nanometers, in excellent dispersed phase and the molar ratio of the precious metals was found to be optimal. The performances of the DMFCs using cathodic catalyst with Pt percentage of 30wt% and different anodic catalysts (Pt-Ru, Pt-Ru-Mo were tested. The polarization curves and power density curves of the cells were measured to determine the optimal alloy composition and condition for the electrocatalysts. The results showed that the micro direct methanol fuel cell with 30wt% Pt/C as the cathodic catalyst and n(Pt:n(Ru:n(Mo = 3:2:2 PtRuMo/C as the anodic catalyst at room temperature using 2.0mol/L methanol solution has the best performances.

  1. Nanostructured Carbon Materials as Supports in the Preparation of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Lázaro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Different advanced nanostructured carbon materials, such as carbon nanocoils, carbon nanofibers, graphitized ordered mesoporous carbons and carbon xerogels, presenting interesting features such as high electrical conductivity and extensively developed porous structure were synthesized and used as supports in the preparation of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The main advantage of these supports is that their physical properties and surface chemistry can be tailored to adapt the carbonaceous material to the catalytic requirements. Moreover, all of them present a highly mesoporous structure, diminishing diffusion problems, and both graphitic character and surface area can be conveniently modified. In the present work, the influence of the particular features of each material on the catalytic activity and stability was analyzed. Results have been compared with those obtained for commercial catalysts supported on Vulcan XC-72R, Pt/C and PtRu/C (ETEK. Both a highly ordered graphitic and mesopore-enriched structure of these advanced nanostructured materials resulted in an improved electrochemical performance in comparison to the commercial catalysts assayed, both towards CO and alcohol oxidation.

  2. Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes in fuel cells and water electrolyzers for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Tryk, Donald; Yeager, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    In most instances separate electrocatalysts are needed to promote the reduction of O2 in the fuel cell mode and to generate O2 in the energy storage-water electrolysis mode in aqueous electrochemical systems operating at low and moderate temperatures (T greater than or equal to 200 C). Interesting exceptions are the lead and bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores in alkaline electrolytes. These catalysts on high area carbon supports have high catalytic activity for both O2 reduction and generation (1,2). Rotating ring-disk electrode measurements provide evidence that the O2 reduction proceeds by a parallel four-electron pathway. The ruthenates can also be used as self-supported catalysts to avoid the problems associated with carbon oxidation, but the electrode performance so far achieved in the research at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is considerably less. At the potentials involved in the anodic mode the ruthenate pyrochlores have substantial equilibrium solubility in concentrated alkaline electrolyte. This results in the loss of catalyst into the bulk solution and a decline in catalytic activity. Furthermore, the hydrogen generation counter electrode may become contaminated with reduction products from the pyrochlores (lead, ruthenium). A possible approach to this problem is to immobilize the pyrochlore catalyst within an ionic-conducting solid polymer, which would replace the fluid electrolyte within the porous gas diffusion O2 electrode. For bulk alkaline electrolyte, an anion-exchange polymer is needed with a transference number close to unity for the Oh(-) ion. Preliminary short-term measurements with lead ruthenates using a commercially available partially-fluorinated anion-exchange membrane as an overlayer on the porous gas-fed electrode indicate lower anodic polarization and virtually unchanged cathodic polarization.

  3. Iron-containing N-doped carbon electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daems, Nick; Sheng, Xia; Alvarez-Gallego, Yolanda; Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.; Pescarmona, Paolo P.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing N-doped carbon materials were investigated as electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell. This electrochemical route for the production of hydroxylamine is a greener alternative to the present industrial synthesis, because it

  4. Use of PtAu/C electrocatalysts toward formate oxidation: electrochemical and fuel cell considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlane G. da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the use of PtAu/C electrocatalysts with different atomic ratios (90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 supported on Vulcan XC 72 carbon and prepared by the sodium borohydride method toward formate electro-oxidation in alkaline media. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing peaks characteristics of Pt and Au face-centered-cubic structures, and also by transmission electron micrographs that show the nanoparticles well dispersed on carbon and a mean particle size between 4 and 5 nm for all electrocatalysts. Electrochemical experiments show PtAu/C as promising catalysts toward formate oxidation, while single cell experiments reveal PtAu/C 90:10 as the best material since it provides a power density higher than Pt/C. The incorporation of Au could increase formate oxidation for more than one reason: (i a facilitated rupture of C–H bond; (ii the Au/oxide interface or (iii by regenerating active sites.

  5. Radiolytic Preparation of Electrocatalysts with Pt-Co and Pt-Sn Nanoparticles for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyum Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Pt-Sn/VC and Pt-Co/VC electrocatalysts were prepared by a one-step radiation-induced reduction (30 kGy process using distilled water as the solvent and Vulcan XC72 as the supporting material. While the Pt-Co/VC electrodes were compared with Pt/VC (40 wt%, HiSpec 4000, in terms of their electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of H2, the Pt-Co/VC electrodes were evaluated in terms of their activity towards the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR and compared with Pt/VC (40 wt%, HiSpec 4000, Pt-Co/VC, and Pt-Sn/VC in a single cell. Additionally, the prepared electrocatalyst samples (Pt-Co/VC and Pt-Sn/VC were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electrochemical surface area (ECSA, and fuel cell polarization performance.

  6. Iron-rich nanoparticle encapsulated, nitrogen doped porous carbon materials as efficient cathode electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Lu, Lu; Xu, Kongliang; Wang, Heming; Jin, Yinghua; Jason Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Developing efficient, readily available, and sustainable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral medium is of great importance to practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, a porous nitrogen-doped carbon material with encapsulated Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-Nx/C) has been developed and utilized as an efficient ORR catalyst in MFCs. The material was obtained through pyrolysis of a highly porous organic polymer containing iron(II) porphyrins. The characterizations of morphology, crystalline structure and elemental composition reveal that Fe-Nx/C consists of well-dispersed Fe-based nanoparticles coated by N-doped graphitic carbon layer. ORR catalytic performance of Fe-Nx/C has been evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode measurements, and its application as a cathode electrocatalyst in an air-cathode single-chamber MFC has been investigated. Fe-Nx/C exhibits comparable or better performance in MFCs than 20% Pt/C, displaying higher cell voltage (601 mV vs. 591 mV), maximum power density (1227 mW m-2 vs. 1031 mW m-2) and Coulombic efficiency (50% vs. 31%). These findings indicate that Fe-Nx/C is more tolerant and durable than Pt/C in a system with bacteria metabolism and thus holds great potential for practical MFC applications.

  7. Investigation of IrO2/Pt Electrocatalysts in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Baglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IrO2/Pt catalysts (at different concentrations were synthesized by incipient wetness technique and characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. Water electrolysis/fuel cell performances were evaluated in a 5 cm2 single cell under Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC configuration. The IrO2/Pt composition of 14/86 showed the highest performance for water electrolysis and the lowest one as fuel cell. It is derived that for fuel cell operation an excess of Pt favours the oxygen reduction process whereas IrO2 promotes oxygen evolution. From the present results, it appears that the diffusion characteristics and the reaction rate in fuel cell mode are significantly lower than in the electrolyser mode. This requires the enhancement of the gas diffusion properties of the electrodes and the catalytic properties for cathode operation in fuel cells.

  8. Realization of Both High-Performance and Enhanced Durability of Fuel Cells: Pt-Exoskeleton Structure Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yoon-Hwan; Jeon, Tae-Yeol; Kim, Jung Won; Cho, Yong-Hun; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-07-01

    Core-shell structure nanoparticles have been the subject of many studies over the past few years and continue to be studied as electrocatalysts for fuel cells. Therefore, many excellent core-shell catalysts have been fabricated, but few studies have reported the real application of these catalysts in a practical device actual application. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of platinum (Pt)-exoskeleton structure nanoparticles as cathode catalysts with high stability and remarkable Pt mass activity and report the outstanding performance of these materials when used in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) within a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The stability and degradation characteristics of these materials were also investigated in single cells in an accelerated degradation test using load cycling, which is similar to the drive cycle of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell used in vehicles. The MEAs with Pt-exoskeleton structure catalysts showed enhanced performance throughout the single cell test and exhibited improved degradation ability that differed from that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  9. Hollow-spherical Co/N-C nanoparticle as an efficient electrocatalyst used in air cathode microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Li, Kexun; Pu, Liangtao; Liu, Ziqi; Ge, Baochao; Pan, Yajun; Liu, Ying

    2016-12-15

    The hollow-spherical Co/N-C nanoparticle, which is synthesized via a simple hydrothermal reaction followed by heat treatment, is firstly used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC). The maximum power density of MFC with 10% Co/N-C air-cathode is as high as 2514±59mWm(-2), which is almost 174% higher than the control. The exchange current density (i0) of cathode equipped with 10% Co/N-C is 238% higher than that of untreated AC. While the total resistance of treated samples decreases from 13.017 to 10.255Ω. The intensity ratio of Raman D to G band (ID/IG) decreases from 0.93 (N-C) to 0.73 (Co/N-C), indicating the catalyst forms graphite structure. Both XRD and XPS testify that Co is bonded to N within graphitic sheets and serves as the active sites in ORR. The four-electron pathway of the Co/N-C also plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. As a result, it can be expected that the as-synthesized Co/N-C, with extraordinary electro-catalytic performance towards ORR, will be a promising alternative to the state-of-the-art non-precious metal ORR electro-catalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  10. Highly Stable and Active Pt/Nb-TiO2 Carbon-Free Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are not sufficiently durable for commercial deployment. One of the major challenges lies in the development of an inexpensive, efficient, and highly durable and active electrocatalyst. Here a new type of carbon-free Pt/Nb-TiO2 electrocatalyst has been reported. Mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by the sol-gel method using polystyrene (PS sphere templates. Pt nanoparticles (NPs were then deposited onto mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres via a simple wet-chemical route in aqueous solution, without the need for surfactants or potentiostats. The growth densities of Pt NPs on Nb-TiO2 supports could be easily modulated by simply adjusting the experimental parameters. Electrochemical studies of Pt/Nb-TiO2 show much enhanced activity and stability than commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. PtNP/Nb-TiO2 is a promising new cathode catalyst for PEMFC applications.

  11. Surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide used as high efficient electrocatalyst in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Zhong; Li, Kexun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Di; Wang, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report a simplistic method to fabricate the surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanocrystals (NCs), which is used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for the first time. The corallite-like CoP NCs are successfully prepared by a hydrothermal reaction following a phosphating treatment in N2 atmosphere. When used as an ORR catalyst, cobalt phosphide shows comparable onset potential, inferior resistance, as well as a small Tafel slope with long-term stability in neutral media. The maximum power density of MFC embellished with 10% CoP reached 1914.4 ± 59.7 mW m-2, which is 108.5% higher than the control. The four-electron pathway, observed by the RDE, plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. In addition, material characterizations indicate that the surface oxide layer (CoOx) around the metallic CoP core is important and beneficial for ORR. Accordingly, it can be expected that the as-synthesized CoP will be a promising candidate of the non-precious metal ORR electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  12. Improved Durability of Electrocatalyst Based on Coating of Carbon Black with Polybenzimidazole and their Application in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Hirata, Shinsuke; Berber, Mohamed R; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-06-15

    Improvement of durability of the electrocatalyst has been the key issue to be solved for the practical application of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. One of the promising strategies to improve the durability is to enhance the oxidation stability of the carbon-supporting materials. In this report, we describe in detail the mechanism of the stability improvement of carbon blacks (CBs; Vulcan and Ketjen) by coating with polybenzimidazole (PBI). Nitrogen adsorption experiments reveal that the PBI coating of CBs results in the capping of the gates of the CB-micropores by the PBI. Since the surface of the micropores inside the CBs are inherently highly oxidized, the capping of such pores effectively prevents the penetration of the electrolyte into the pore and works to avoid the further oxidation of interior of the micropore, which is proved by cyclic voltammogram measurements. Above mechanism agrees very well with the dramatic enhancement of the durability of the membrane electrode assembly fabricated using Pt on the PBI-coated CBs as an electrocatalyst compared to the conventional Pt/CB (PBI-non coated) catalyst.

  13. Nano-electrocatalyst materials for low temperature fuel cells:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Vignarooban; J. Lin; A. Arvay; S. Kolli; I. Kruusenberg; K. Tammeveski; L. Munukutla; A. M. Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature fuel cells are an attractive technology for transportation and residential applica‐tions due to their quick start up and shut down capabilities. This review analyzed the current status of nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and alkaline membrane fuel cells. The preparation process influences the performance of the nanocatalyst. Several synthesis methods are covered for noble and non‐noble metal catalysts on various catalyst supports including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, nanowires, and graphenes. Ex situ and in situ characterization methods like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fuel cell testing of the nanocatalysts on various supports for both proton exchange and alkaline membrane fuel cells are discussed. The accelerated durability estimate of the nanocat‐alysts, predicted by measuring changes in the electrochemically active surface area using a voltage cycling method, is considered one of the most reliable and valuable method for establishing durabil‐ity.

  14. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    Even though solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have a high potential with respect to efficiency and fuel flexibility they are not yet competitive in terms of cost and durability with conventional chemical energy conversion technologies. The potential cost reduction can be achieved through the develop...

  15. Nanostructured platinum-free electrocatalysts in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells: catalyst design, principles and applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available to their several advantages over conventional proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC); these include the emergence of anion-exchange membranes (AEM), easy handling of liquid alcohol fuels compared to hydrogen, higher volumetric energy densities of alcohols...

  16. Analysis of electrocatalyst degradation in PEMFC caused by cell reversal during fuel starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Akira; Akita, Tomoki; Yasuda, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Yoshinori

    The damage caused by cell reversal during proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operation with fuel starvation was investigated by a single cell experiment. The samples from degraded membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) were characterized. Chemical analysis of the anode catalyst layer of MEA samples by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) clearly showed ruthenium dissolution from the anode catalyst particles. Severe ruthenium loss was observed especially in the fuel outlet region. A reduced carbon monoxide (CO) tolerance was found by CO stripping voltammetry and measurement of deteriorated the fuel cell performance. Surface area loss of the cathode platinum by sintering was also detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and cyclic voltammetry.

  17. Enhancing Electrode Performance by Exsolved Nanoparticles: A Superior Cobalt-Free Perovskite Electrocatalyst for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangming; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Meilin; Shao, Zongping

    2016-12-28

    The successful development of low-cost, durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at intermediate temperatures is critical for broad commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells. Here, we report our findings in design, fabrication, and characterization of a cobalt-free SrFe0.85Ti0.1Ni0.05O3-δ cathode decorated with NiO nanoparticles. Exsolved from and well bonded to the parent electrode under well-controlled conditions, the NiO nanoparticles uniformly distributed on the surface of the parent electrode greatly enhance cathode performance, demonstrating ORR activity better than that of the benchmark cobalt-based Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Further, a process for regeneration of the NiO nanoparticles was also developed to mitigate potential performance degradation due to coarsening of NiO particles under practical operating conditions. As a general approach, this exsolution-dissolution of electrocatalytically active nanoparticles on an electrode surface may be applicable to the development of other high-performance cobalt-free cathodes for fuel cells and other electrochemical systems.

  18. Reduction of Pt Usage in Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Using Carbon Nanotubes and Non-Pt Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Nakamura; Y. Nagashima; T. Yamazaki; T. Matsumoto; E. Yoo

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The high-priced and limited Pt constitutes a high barrier to commercialization of fuel cells. Pt is essential for the electrode catalyst of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). A reduction in Pt usage is one of the key requirements for the commercialization of fuel cells for use in everyday life, because of its high price and limited availability, and the difficulty of finding suitable substitutes. Non-Pt fuel cell catalysts will decrease the demand for Pt by PEFCs, enabling more Pt to be available for use in other essential products, and make fuel cells more popular[1]. The cheaper Mo2C is known to possess similar catalytic activities and electronic structures to Pt[2]. Carbon black (CB) is widely used as the support for Pt nanoparticles. However, we found that when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rather than CB are used as the support, the performance is improved, especially below 600 mA/cm2[3,4]. Here, we show that a combination of Mo2C catalyst and carbon nanotubes in the anode provides performance as high as half that of the current PEFCs with Pt catalysts below 600mA/cm2.

  19. In Situ Polymer Graphenization Ingrained with Nanoporosity in a Nitrogenous Electrocatalyst Boosting the Performance of Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaogang; Zamani, Pouyan; Choi, Ja-Yeon; Hassan, Fathy M; Jiang, Gaopeng; Higgins, Drew C; Zhang, Yining; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-02-01

    Rich, porous graphene frameworks decorated with uniformly dispersed active sites are prepared by using polyaniline as a graphene precursor and introducing phenanthroline as a pore-forming agent. The unprecedented fuel-cell performance of this electrocatalyst is linked to the graphene frameworks with vast distribution of pore sizes, which maximizes the active-sites accessibility, facilitates mass-transport properties, and improves the carbon corrosion resistance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmy; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performance and stability of the planar metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-SOFC) with two different electrocatalytically active materials, namely, Ni:GDC and Ru:GDC were investigated. Ru:GDC with an ASR of 0.322 Ωcm2 performed better than Ni:GDC with an ASR of 0.453 Ωc...

  1. Survey on aging on electrodes and electrocatalysts in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Hochmuth, J.

    1981-01-01

    The processes which contribute to the decay in performance of electrodes used in phosphoric acid fuel cell systems are discussed. Loss of catalytic surface area, corrosion of the carbon support, electrode structure degradation, electrolyte degradation, and impurities in the reactant streams are identified as the major areas for concern.

  2. The Effect of Platinum Electrocatalyst on Membrane Degradation in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Merit; Cermenek, Bernd; Rami, Mija; Hacker, Viktor

    2015-12-08

    Membrane degradation is a severe factor limiting the lifetime of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Therefore, obtaining a deeper knowledge is fundamental in order to establish fuel cells as competitive product. A segmented single cell was operated under open circuit voltage with alternating relative humidity. The influence of the catalyst layer on membrane degradation was evaluated by measuring a membrane without electrodes and a membrane-electrode-assembly under identical conditions. After 100 h of accelerated stress testing the proton conductivity of membrane samples near the anode and cathode was investigated by means of ex situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The membrane sample near the cathode inlet exhibited twofold lower membrane resistance and a resulting twofold higher proton conductivity than the membrane sample near the anode inlet. The results from the fluoride ion analysis have shown that the presence of platinum reduces the fluoride emission rate; which supports conclusions drawn from the literature.

  3. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sandesh Y.; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored. PMID:28029116

  4. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Y. Sawant

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored.

  5. Controlled synthesis of Pt/CS/PW12-GNs composite as an anodic electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongshui; Lei, Fengling; Ye, Lingting; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Shen

    2015-04-01

    Controlled assembly in aqueous solution was used to synthesize the well-organized Pt/CS/PW12-GNs composite. By the aid of linear cationic polysaccharide chitosan, 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles with their length and width of 15-20 and 3-4 nm, respectively, were formed on the surface of CS/PW12-GNs using HCOOH as a reducing agent at room temperature. The introduction of CS leads to well dispersion of worm-like Pt nanoparticles, the electroactivity of H3PW12O40 (PW12) alleviates CO poisoning toward Pt particles, and graphene nanosheets (GNs) ensure excellent electrical conductivity of the composites. The combined action among different components results in significantly enhanced catalytic activity of Pt/CS/PW12-GNs toward methanol oxidation and better tolerance of CO. The as-synthesized Pt/CS/PW12-GNs exhibit the forward peak current density of 445 mA mg-1, which is much higher than that (220 mA mg-1) for Pt/C-JM (the commercially available Johnson Matthey Hispec4000 catalyst, simplified as Pt/C-JM) and some recently reported Pt/graphene-based nanomaterials. The construction of 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles and facile wet chemical synthesis strategy provide a promising way to develop superior performance electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells applications.

  6. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sandesh Y; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-12-24

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored.

  7. Controlled synthesis of Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs composite as an anodic electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhongshui; Lei, Fengling; Ye, Lingting; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Shen, E-mail: shenlin@fjnu.edu.cn [Fujian Normal University, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-04-15

    Controlled assembly in aqueous solution was used to synthesize the well-organized Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs composite. By the aid of linear cationic polysaccharide chitosan, 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles with their length and width of 15–20 and 3–4 nm, respectively, were formed on the surface of CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs using HCOOH as a reducing agent at room temperature. The introduction of CS leads to well dispersion of worm-like Pt nanoparticles, the electroactivity of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PW{sub 12}) alleviates CO poisoning toward Pt particles, and graphene nanosheets (GNs) ensure excellent electrical conductivity of the composites. The combined action among different components results in significantly enhanced catalytic activity of Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs toward methanol oxidation and better tolerance of CO. The as-synthesized Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs exhibit the forward peak current density of 445 mA mg{sup −1}, which is much higher than that (220 mA mg{sup −1}) for Pt/C-JM (the commercially available Johnson Matthey Hispec4000 catalyst, simplified as Pt/C-JM) and some recently reported Pt/graphene-based nanomaterials. The construction of 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles and facile wet chemical synthesis strategy provide a promising way to develop superior performance electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells applications.

  8. Development of plurimetallic electrocatalysts prepared by decomposition of polymeric precursors for EtOH/O{sub 2} fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Livia M.; Almeida, Thiago S.; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    This work aimed to develop plurimetallic electrocatalysts composed of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Sn supported on C by decomposition of polymeric precursors (DPP), at a constant metal:carbon ratio of 40:60 wt.%, for application in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). The obtained nanoparticles were physico-chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD results revealed a face-centered cubic crystalline Pt with evidence that Ni, Ru, and Sn atoms were incorporated into the Pt structure. Electrochemical characterization of the nanoparticles was accomplished by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) in slightly acidic medium (0.05 mol L{sup -1}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), in the absence and presence of ethanol. Addition of Sn to PtRuNi/C catalysts significantly shifted the ethanol and CO onset potentials toward lower values, thus increasing the catalytic activity, especially for the quaternary composition Pt{sub 64}Sn{sub 15}Ru{sub 13}Ni{sub 8}/C. Electrolysis of ethanol solutions at 0.4 V vs. RHE allowed determination of acetaldehyde and acetic acid as the main reaction products. The presence of Ru in alloys promoted formation of acetic acid as the main product of ethanol oxidation. The Pt{sub 64}Sn{sub 15}Ru{sub 13}Ni{sub 8}/C catalyst displayed the best performance for DEFC. (author)

  9. Application of green chemistry techniques to prepare electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Wang, Joanna S; Wai, Chien M

    2010-03-25

    A series of green techniques for synthesizing carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles and their high electrocatalytic activity toward methanol fuel cell applications are reported. The techniques utilize either the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide or water as a medium for depositing platinum nanoparticles on surfaces of multiwalled or single-walled carbon nanotubes. The catalytic properties of the carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts prepared by four different techniques are compared for anodic oxidation of methanol and cathodic reduction of oxygen using cyclic voltammetry. One technique using galvanic exchange of Pt(2+) in water with zerovalent iron present on the surfaces of as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes produces a Pt catalyst that shows an unusually high catalytic activity for reduction of oxygen but a negligible activity for oxidation of methanol. This fuel-selective catalyst may have a unique application as a cathode catalyst in methanol fuel cells to alleviate the problems caused by crossover of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane.

  10. Pt supported on carbon nanofibers as electrocatalyst for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaide, Francisco; Alvarez, Garbine; Miguel, Oscar [Dpto. de Energia, CIDETEC, Paseo Miramon, 196, 20009 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain); Lazaro, Maria Jesus; Moliner, Rafael [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez-Cudero, Ana; Solla-Gullon, Jose; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio [Instituto de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Carbon nanofibers synthesized via the thermo catalytic decomposition of methane were investigated for the first time as an electrocatalyst support in PEMFC cathodes. Their textural and physical properties make them a highly efficient catalyst support for cathodic oxygen reduction in low temperature PEMFC. Tests performed in MEAs showed that Pt supported on carbon nanofibers exhibited an enhancement of ca. 94% in power density at 0.600 V, in comparison with a commercial catalyst supported on conventional carbon black, Pt/Vulcan XC-72R. (author)

  11. Effect of Different Support Morphologies and Pt Particle Sizes in Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sevjidsuren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a low temperature fuel cell is strongly correlated with parameters like the platinum particle size, platinum dispersion on the carbon support, and electronic and protonic conductivity in the catalyst layer as well as its porosity. These parameters can be controlled by a rational choice of the appropriate catalyst synthesis and carbon support. Only recently, particular attention has been given to the support morphology, as it plays an important role for the formation of the electrode structure. Due to their significantly different structure, mesoporous carbon microbeads (MCMBs and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were used as supports and compared. Pt nanoparticles were decorated on these supports using the polyol method. Their size was varied by different heating times during the synthesis, and XRD, TEM, SEM, CV, and single cell tests used in their detailed characterization. A membrane-electrode assembly prepared with the MCMB did not show any activity in the fuel cell test, although the catalyst's electrochemical activity was almost similar to the MWCNT. This is assumed to be due to the very dense electrode structure formed by this support material, which does not allow for sufficient mass transport.

  12. Recent Development of Pd-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Meng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review selectively summarizes the latest developments in the Pd-based cataysts for low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells, especially in the application of formic acid oxidation, alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction. The advantages and shortcomings of the Pd-based catalysts for electrocatalysis are analyzed. The influence of the structure and morphology of the Pd materials on the performance of the Pd-based catalysts were described. Finally, the perspectives of future trends on Pd-based catalysts for different applications were considered.

  13. Highly dispersed TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk

    2013-06-06

    Based on the chemical stability of group IV and V elements in acidic solutions, TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition in an ethanol-based Ta plating bath at room temperature were investigated as novel nonplatinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Electrodeposition conditions of Ta complexes and subsequent various heat treatments for the deposited TaOx were examined for the best performance of the ORR. TaOx particles on carbon black (CB), electrodeposited at a constant potential of -0.5 V Ag/AgCl for 10 s and then heat-treated by pure H2 flow at 523 K for 1 h, showed excellent catalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.93 VRHE (for 2 μA cm-2) for the ORR. Surface characterizations of the catalysts were performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The loading amounts of the electrodeposited material on the CB were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All the physical results suggested that high dispersion of TaOx particles on the CB surface with 2-3 nm size was critical and key for high activity. The chemical identity and modified surface structure for the deposited TaOx catalysts before and after H 2 heat treatment were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of more exposed active sites on the electrode surface and enhanced electroconductivity of the tantalum oxide promoted from the H 2 treatment greatly improved the ORR performance of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles on CB. Finally, the highly retained ORR activity after an accelerated durability test in an acidic solution confirmed and proved the chemical stability of the oxide nanoparticles. The high utilization of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on CB for the ORR was comparable to that of commercial Pt/CB catalysts

  14. 聚合物电解质膜燃料电池电催化剂的进展%Progress in electrocatalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗军; 黄成德; 王宇新

    2011-01-01

    The progress in electrocatalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell(PEMFC) was reviewed. It included many aspects, such as core/shell structure, hollow structure and shape-control Pt-based catalysts, no-precious metal catalysts and new type supports-graphene, ordered mesoporous carbons. The development prospects of the electrocatalyst were prospected.%评述了近年来聚合物电解质膜燃料电池(PEMFC)电催化剂的进展,其中包括核/壳结构、中空结构等结构及形状可控的Pt基催化剂、非贵金属催化剂及石墨烯、有序介孔碳等新型载体,并对发展前景进行了展望.

  15. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of a fuel-cell electrocatalyst deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucernak, A.R.; Chowdhury, P.B.; Wilde, C.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemistry; Kelsall, G.H. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Huxley School; Zhu, Y.Y.; Williams, D.E. [University College London, (United Kingdom). Department of Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has been examined on a platinum electrocatalysts (Johnson Matthey HSA platinum black) dispersed onto a flat highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode using an atomic force microscope (AFM) modified to perform scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). For both STM and SECM experiments the same Pt/Ir tips produced by electrochemical etching of Pt/Ir wire followed by coating with varnish have been used. The coating process leaves only the very end of the tip exposed. Positioning the SECM tip 42 nm from one of the particles allows monitoring of hydrogen evolution from that particle as a function of substrate potential. In a separate experiment the substrate has been polarized at a potential at which hydrogen evolution occurs and the SECM tip rastered over the surface to obtain images of the local concentration of hydrogen. This map indicates the activity of hydrogen production as a function of position. (author)

  16. Oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in solid polymer fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, T.R.; Keating, J.E.; Collis, N.J.; Hyde, T.I.

    1997-07-01

    The feasibility of using platinum/base metal alloy electrodes in the cathode to improve the performance of a 50 mV solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC) under typical operating conditions was investigated. A range of alloys of platinum with iron, manganese, titanium, chromium, copper and nickel were prepared at a nominal 50:50 platinum to base metal ratio and supported on Vulcan Xc72R carbon black. The catalysts were fired in an inert atmosphere at temperatures between 650{sup o}C and 930{sup o}C to create the alloy catalysts, which were then incorporated into Nafion coated cathodes. Cell performance was assessed using a standard anode structure in membrane-based electrode assembles (MEAs). A clear electrokinetic benefit for some alloys (eg Pt/Fe, Pt/Mn and Pt/Cr over the range of alloying temperatures and Pt/Ti at 930{sup o}C) was found. This benefit was found to be due to improved rates of oxygen reduction with the alloys.

  17. Pt@Pd(x)Cu(y)/C core-shell electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochell, T; Manthiram, A

    2012-01-17

    A series of carbon-supported core-shell nanoparticles with Pd(x)Cu(y)-rich cores and Pt-rich shells (Pt@Pd(x)Cu(y)/C) has been synthesized by a polyol reduction of the precursors followed by heat treatment to obtain the Pd(x)Cu(y)/C (1 ≤ x ≤ 3 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 5) cores and the galvanic displacement of Pd(x)Cu(y) with [PtCl(4)](2-) to form the Pt shell. The nanoparticles have also been investigated with respect to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggests that the cores are highly alloyed and that the galvanic displacement results in a certain amount of alloying between Pt and the underlying Pd(x)Cu(y) alloy core. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the Pt@Pd(x)Cu(y)/C catalysts (where y > 0) have mean particle sizes of <8 nm. Compositional analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly shows Pt enrichment in the near-surface region of the nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammograms show a positive shift of as much as 40 mV for the onset of Pt-OH formation in the Pt@Pd(x)Cu(y)/C electrocatalysts compared to that in Pt/C. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements of Pt@PdCu(5)/C show an increase in the Pt mass activity by 3.5-fold and noble metal activity by 2.5-fold compared to that of Pt/C. The activity enhancements in RDE and PEMFC measurements are believed to be a result of the delay in the onset of Pt-OH formation.

  18. A novel electroless method to prepare a platinum electrocatalyst on diamond for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiao; Hu, Jingping; Foord, John S.; Wang, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    A novel electroless deposition method was demonstrated to prepare a platinum electrocatalyst on boron doped diamond (BDD) substrates without the need for pre-activation. This green method addresses the uniformity and particle size issues associated with electrodeposition and circumvents the pre-activation procedure which is necessary for conventional electroless deposition. The inert BDD substrate formed a galvanic couple with an iron wire, to overcome the activation barrier associated with conventional electroless deposition on diamond, leading to the formation of Pt nanoparticles on the electrode surface in a galvanic process coupled to a chemical process. When sodium hypophosphite was employed as the reducing agent to drive the electroless reaction Pt deposits which were contaminated with iron and phosphorus resulted. In contrast, the reducing agent ascorbic acid gave rise to high purity Pt nanoparticles. Optimal deposition conditions with respect to bath temperature, pH value and stabilizing additives are identified. Using this approach, high purity and uniformly distributed platinum nanoparticles are obtained on the diamond electrode surface, which demonstrate a high electrochemical activity towards methanol oxidation.

  19. Pyrolyzed binuclear-cobalt-phthalocyanine as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baitao; Wang, Mian; Zhou, Xiuxiu; Wang, Xiujun; Liu, Bingchuan; Li, Baikun

    2015-10-01

    A novel platinum (Pt)-free cathodic materials binuclear-cobalt-phthalocyanine (Bi-CoPc) pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300-1000 °C) were examined as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, and compared with unpyrolyzed Bi-CoPc/C and Pt cathode in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs). The results showed that the pyrolysis process increased the nitrogen abundance on Bi-CoPc and changed the nitrogen types. The Bi-CoPc pyrolyzed at 800 °C contained a significant amount of pyrrolic-N, and exhibited a high electrochemical catalytic activity. The power density and current density increased with temperature: Bi-CoPc/C-800 > Bi-CoPc/C-1000 > Bi-CoPc/C-600 > Bi-CoPc/C-300 > Bi-CoPc/C. The SCMFC with Bi-CoPc/C-800 cathode had a maximum power density of 604 mW m(-2). The low cost Bi-CoPc compounds developed in this study showed a potential in air-breathing MFC systems, with the proper pyrolysis temperature being chosen.

  20. Facile solvothermal synthesis of highly active and robust Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn electrocatalyst towards direct ethanol fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Dhiman, Shikha; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-08-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn ternary electrocatalyst has been synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of precursor salts Pd(acac)2, CuCl2.2H2O and SnCl2 using one-pot solvothermal synthesis method at 220 °C with a reaction time of 24 h. To the best of our knowledge, here for the first time we report surfactant free synthesis of a novel ordered intermetallic ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn nanoparticles. The ordered structure of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Composition and morphology of the nanoparticles have been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and TEM. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the ternary electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The catalyst is proved to be highly efficient and stable upto 500th cycle and even better than commercially available Pd/C (20 wt%) electrocatalysts. The specific and mass activity of the as synthesized ternary catalyst are found to be ∼4.76 and ∼2.9 times better than that of commercial Pd/C. The enhanced activity and stability of the ordered ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn catalyst can make it as a promising candidate for the alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell application.

  1. Self-assembled platinum nanoparticles on sulfonic acid-grafted graphene as effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinlin; Li, Yanhong; Li, Shengli; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-02-01

    In this article, sulfonic acid-grafted reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) were synthesized using a one-pot method under mild conditions, and used as Pt catalyst supports to prepare Pt/S-rGO electrocatalysts through a self-assembly route. The structure, morphologies and physicochemical properties of S-rGO were examined in detail by techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The S-rGO nanosheets show excellent solubility and stability in water and the average particle size of Pt nanoparticles supported on S-rGO is ~3.8 nm with symmetrical and uniform distribution. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt/S-rGO were investigated for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In comparison to Pt supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/VC) and Pt/rGO, the Pt/S-rGO electrocatalyst exhibits a much higher electrocatalytic activity, faster reaction kinetics and a better stability. The results indicate that Pt/S-rGO is a promising and effective electrocatalyst for MOR of DMFCs.

  2. A Novel Method for Synthesis of OMC and M-OMC for PEM Fuel Cell Pt-electrocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Dereje G.

    Abstract Commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become an important challenge since platinum (Pt), which is being used as the primary catalyst is highly expensive and susceptible to CO poisoning. Thus improving the catalytic efficiency and increase CO tolerance of the electrocatalyst is vital for commercialization of PEMFC. The aim of this research is to synthesize ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and modified ordered mesoporous carbon (mOMC) supports with high surface area that will allow low platinum loading minimizing the cost. OMC is synthesized using house made SBA-15 as a template whereas the mOMC is synthesized using 10%M/SBA-15 (M: Ni, Co, Fe, W) as templates and sugar as a carbon source prepared via impregnation method that is optimized through different techniques such as selection of precursor, precursor solvent, and its pH medium. The mOMCs with high surface area and improved electrical conductivity, and durability are obtained by optimizing the parameters employed in the synthesis processes of mOMC such as carbonization temperature. The objective of using mOMC as catalyst support is but not limited to enhance the transport of reactant gases by providing uniform interconnected pores and higher uniform Pt dispersion. The catalysts were tested for performance and polarization on 5 cm 2 membrane electrode assembly (MEAs) for 20 wt% Pt loading under controlled experimental conditions using well equipped Fuel Cell Testing Station (Model 850, Scribner Associates Inc.). The synthesized OMC and mOMC were also characterized by nitrogen adsorption desorption analysis (BET), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the pore size, specific surface area, and the ordered structure. BET analysis of the OMC and mOMC synthesized shows a specific surface area and pore size of 1239 m2/g (3.73 nm), 1228 m2/g (3.67nm) ,1321 m2/g (3.73 nm) and 1367 m2/g (3.59 nm) for Co, Ni, Fe, and W respectively with OMC being the highest with specific

  3. Selective deposition of Pt onto supported metal clusters for fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Tae-Yeol; Pinna, Nicola; Yoo, Sung Jong; Ahn, Docheon; Choi, Sun Hee; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Cho, Yong-Hun; Lee, Kug-Seung; Park, Hee-Young; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2012-09-01

    We report a new method for deposition of Pt on a metal core to develop real electrocatalysts with significantly reduced amounts of expensive Pt as well as enhanced activity for oxygen reduction reaction. Ru and Pd have different crystal structures and modify the electronic structure of Pt to a different extent (shifts in d-band center). They were chosen as core materials to examine whether hydroquinone dissolved in ethanol can be used to deposit additional Pt atoms onto preformed core nanoparticles, and whether the modified d-character of Pt on different host metals can result in the enhanced ORR activity. The physicochemical characteristics of Pd-Pt and Ru-Pt core-shell nanoparticles are investigated. The core-shell structure was identified through a combination of experimental methods, employing electron microscopy, electrochemical measurements, and synchrotron X-ray measurements such as powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The hydroquinone reduction method proved to be an excellent route for the epitaxial growth of a Pt shell on the metal cores, leading to enhanced ORR activities.We report a new method for deposition of Pt on a metal core to develop real electrocatalysts with significantly reduced amounts of expensive Pt as well as enhanced activity for oxygen reduction reaction. Ru and Pd have different crystal structures and modify the electronic structure of Pt to a different extent (shifts in d-band center). They were chosen as core materials to examine whether hydroquinone dissolved in ethanol can be used to deposit additional Pt atoms onto preformed core nanoparticles, and whether the modified d-character of Pt on different host metals can result in the enhanced ORR activity. The physicochemical characteristics of Pd-Pt and Ru-Pt core-shell nanoparticles are investigated. The core-shell structure was identified through a combination of experimental methods, employing electron microscopy

  4. Development of Novel Non-Pt Group Metal Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, Sanjeev [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barton, Scott [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dale, Nilesh [Nissan Technical Center North America (NTCNA), Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Halevi, Bar [Pajarito Powder LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The objective of this multi-institutional effort was to comprehensively pursue the goal of eliminating noble metal (Pt group metals, PGM) from the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrode thereby providing a quantum leap in lowering the overall PGM loading in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC). The overall project scope encompassed (a) comprehensive materials discovery effort, (b) a concomitant effort to scale up these materials with very high ( ±5%) reproducibility, both intra and inter, (c) understanding mass transport in porous medium both in gas diffusion and micro-porous layers for enhanced areal activity, (d) understanding mechanistic aspects of active site structure and ORR electrocatalytic pathway. Overall project milestones and metrics were (a) first phase effort based on performance in oxygen where the project’s Go/No-Go decision point milestone of 100 mA/cm2 at 0.8 V (internal resistance-free, iR-free) at 80°C, pure H2/O2, with 1.5 bar total pressure was met. Subsequently, the principle objectives were to (a) transition the project from H2/O2 to H2/Air with slated target of exceeding 30 mA/cm2 @ 0.8 V, 2.5 bar total pressure and an end of the project target of 1 A/cm2 @ 0.4 V (same total pressure), both under 100% relative humidity. The target for catalyst material scale up was to achieve 100 g batch size at the end of the program. This scale up target had a quality control milestone of less than 5% variation of activity measured with H2/Air (2.5 bar total pressure) at 0.8 V. In addition, the project also aimed at arriving at a unified understanding of the nature of active sites in these catalysts as well as some preliminary understanding of the mechanistic pathway. Also addressed is the development of an integrated method for determination of mass transport parameters using a combination of Helox experiments and modeling of the gas

  5. Synthesis of electrocatalysts by the Bönnemann method for the oxidation of methanol and the mixture H2/CO in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ternary electrocatalysts Pt/Ru/Mo type were performed according to the Bönnemann method and characterized by the following techniques: energy dispersive analysis (EDX, X-rays diffraction (XRD, cyclic voltammetry (CV and polarization curves (E vs. i for the oxidation of H2, H2/CO and methanol in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC. Catalysts structure consists of highly dispersed nanocrystals in carbon support, with an average particle size of 2 nm. The results of cyclic voltammetry suggest an enhancement of the catalyst electroactivity with the addition of cocatalysts. Polarization curves indicate that Pt/Ru/Mo systems could be employed as electrode material for PEM fuel cell for technological application.

  6. Engineering the Activity and Stability of Pt-Alloy Cathode Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts by Tuning the Pt-Pt Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Malacrida, Paolo; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    2014-01-01

    with a thickness of few Pt layers is formed. Accordingly, the effect of alloying Pt is to impose strain onto the Pt overlayer [3,4]. It is likely that this strain would be relaxed by defects [6]. Moreover, the activity of the Pt5Ln catalysts vs. the Pt-Pt distance shows a volcano relationship (Fig. A) [5]. Pt5Ln......One of the main obstacles to the commercialisation of low-temperature fuel cells is the slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In order to decrease the ORR overpotential and reduce the Pt loading we need to develop more active and stable electrocatalysts. A fruitful strategy...... for enhancing the cathode activity is to alloy Pt with transition metals [1-2]. However, alloys of Pt and late transition metals are typically unstable under fuel-cell conditions. Herein, we present experimental and theoretical studies showing the trends in activity and stability of novel cathode catalysts...

  7. Carbon-supported Pd-Pt cathode electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongfu; Zhang, Huamin; Zhong, Hexiang; Xu, Ting; Jin, Hong

    A series of carbon-supported Pd-Pt alloy (Pd-Pt/C) catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with low-platinum content are synthesized via a modified sodium borohydride reduction method. The structure of as-prepared catalysts is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The prepared Pd-Pt/C catalysts with alloy form show face-centered-cubic (FCC) structure. The metal particles of Pd-Pt/C catalysts with mean size of around 4-5 nm are uniformly dispersed on the carbon support. The electrocatalytic activities for ORR of these catalysts are investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE), cyclic voltammetry (CV), single cell measurements and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements. The results suggest that the electrocatalytic activities of Pd-Pt/C catalysts with low platinum are comparable to that of the commercial Pt/C with the same metal loading. The maximum power density of MEA with a Pd-Pt/C catalyst, the Pd/Pt mass ratio of which is 7:3, is about 1040 mW cm -2.

  8. Electrochemical corrosion studies of carbon supports and electrocatalysts and their effects on the durability of low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlapalli, Madhusudhana R.

    Performance of a PEM fuel cell relies heavily on the durability of the platinum and platinum-alloy based electrocatalysts supported on carbon blacks. Carbon corrosion has been widely accepted as an important issue affecting the degradation of the catalytic layer in PEMFCs. Traditional carbon blacks used in today's fuel cell industry are not tailored to suit the corrosive conditions encountered in PEMFCs. Advanced carbon supports should have excellent electrochemical corrosion resistance, good conductivity, high surface area and optimum hydrophilic properties. The principal objective of this work is to investigate the corrosive behavior of carbon blacks and electrocatalysts supported on such carbon blacks in conditions that are typical for fuel cells. Physical and chemical changes during oxidation of these carbon blacks have been reviewed along with methodology for studying their corrosion in a low-temperature fuel cell environment. This study provides an ex-situ corrosion measurement protocol and a gas diffusion electrode half-cell setup to study the electrochemical oxidation resistance behavior of standard carbon blacks, modified carbon blacks, and advanced carbon supports in acid electrolyte at 25°C. Corrosion current-time relationships were evaluated and transient mode of corrosion study was employed to simulate automobile startup/shutdown. The effects of various surface modifications on carbon corrosion behavior have been studied in detail. The aggravated corrosion of carbon supports at potentials higher than the thermodynamic stable regime of water was investigated and a mechanism is proposed to address the same. The role of the metal phase on carbon corrosion at the catalyst-support interphase has also been investigated. The corrosion current dependence on the microstructure and nature of surface groups present on these carbons was examined. Further, measuring carbon corrosion effects on the durability of a single membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) cathode

  9. Screening of electrocatalysts for direct ammonia fuel cell: Ammonia oxidation on PtMe (Me: Ir, Rh, Pd, Ru) and preferentially oriented Pt(1 0 0) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Iglesias, F.J.; Solla-Gullon, J.; Montiel, V.; Feliu, J.M.; Aldaz, A. [Instituto de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2007-09-27

    Ammonia has attracted attention as a possible fuel for direct fuel cells since it is easy to handle and to transport as liquid or as concentrated aqueous solution. However, on noble metal electrodes ammonia oxidation is a sluggish reaction and the electrocatalyst needs to be improved for developing efficient ammonia fuel cells. In this work, ammonia electrooxidation reaction on 3-4-nm bimetallic PtMe (Ir, Rh, Pd, Ru) and on preferentially oriented Pt(1 0 0) nanoparticles is reported. PtMe nanoparticles have been prepared by using water-in-oil microemulsions to obtain a narrow size distribution whereas preferentially oriented Pt nanoparticles have been prepared through colloidal routes. Among all the bimetallic samples tested, only Pt{sub 75}Ir{sub 25} and Pt{sub 75}Rh{sub 25} nanoparticles show, at the low potential range, an enhancement of the oxidation density current with respect to the behaviour found for pure platinum nanoparticles prepared by the same method. In addition, two Pt(1 0 0) preferentially oriented nanoparticles of different particle size (4 and 9 nm) have been also studied. These oriented nanoparticles show higher current densities than polycrystalline Pt nanoparticles due to the sensitivity of ammonia oxidation toward the presence of surface sites with square symmetry. The reactivity of the different 4-nm nanoparticles parallels well with that expected from bulk PtMe alloys and Pt single crystal electrodes. (author)

  10. 车载燃料电池用铂基催化剂的研究进展%Research Progress of Pt-Based Electro-catalyst for Automotive Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永万; 马宝华; 栗云彦; 杨冬霞; 赵云昆; 卢军; 刘锋

    2014-01-01

    Energy crisis and environmental pollution are the main driving forces for the development of automotive fuel cell. However, the performance and cost of electrocatalyst become one of the key factors, which limit the large scale commercial application of fuel cells. So far, Pt-based catalysts have been mainly used for fuel cell. Three kinds of automotive fuel cell electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cell, direct methanol fuel cell and formic acid fuel cell are discussed in detail, and their problems and solutions are analyzed.%能源危机和环境污染是车载燃料电池发展的主要驱动力。电催化剂的性能和成本是制约其实现商业化的关键因素之一。目前,车载燃料电池用催化剂主要是铂(Pt)基催化剂,文章对质子交换膜燃料电池、直接甲醇燃料电池和甲酸燃料电池三种车载燃料电池用铂基催化剂的研究进行综述,并对其存在的问题进行了分析和讨论。

  11. Achieving high-powered Zn/air fuel cell through N and S co-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tunable active-sites as oxygen electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiaowei; Wang, Luming; Wu, Mingjie; Xu, Nengneng; Jiang, Lei; Qiao, Jinli

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical reduction of oxygen is the heart of the next-generation energy technologies to fuel cells and metal-air batteries, of which the reference catalysts suffer from two critical bottlenecks lying in their insufficient electroactivities and unclear active site structures. Herein, we introduce the effectively hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs) as the active-sites enriched platform for oxygen electroreduction. Three quaternized copolymers (PUB, PAADDA and PICP) with different chemical structures are used to pursue Fe/N/S-tailored ORR electrocatalysts. The most efficient one prepared by PAADDA gives the onset potential of 0.94 V and a half-wave potential of 0.85 V in basic solution, as well as superb electroactivities of low H2O2% and high electron transfer number in both alkaline and acidic medium. Surprisingly, they all display high discharge power density as applied to Zn-air fuel cells, and the HPCs-PAADDA catalyst thrillingly reaches 516.3 mW cm-2 when catalyst loading is optimized to 5.0 mg cm-2. The results elucidate that the polymer with long aliphatic chain is propitious to trap metals to create active sites and enwrap silica template to construct uniform pore structure. Only two kinds of nitrogen configuration (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) are found with distinct structure in these HPCs, which happens to be active sites.

  12. Hexadecacarbonylhexarhodium as a novel electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation in the presence of fuel cell contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Cinvestav), Unidad Queretaro. Apartado Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Hernandez-Castellanos, R. [Universidad Tecnologica de San Juan del Rio, Av. La Palma No. 125, Col. Vista Hermosa, San Juan del Rio, Qro. 76800 (Mexico)

    2010-11-01

    The electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation of a discrete metal carbonyl cluster with a well defined molecular and crystal structure, Rh{sub 6}(CO){sub 16}, is reported. The exchange current density of this compound for oxygen reduction is one order of magnitude higher than that of platinum, and its resistance degree to PEM fuel cell contaminants such as methanol and CO is as high as 2 mol L{sup -1} and 0.5%, respectively. These properties make the metal complex a potential alternative for use as electrode in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. (author)

  13. An efficient electrocatalyst as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells: BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feifei; Ni, Meng; He, Wei; Chen, Yubo; Yang, Guangming; Chen, Dengjie; Shao, Zongping

    2016-09-01

    The B-site substitution with the minor amount of tin in BaFeO3-δ parent oxide is expected to stabilize a single perovskite lattice structure. In this study, a composition of BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ (BFS) as a new cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) is synthesized and characterized. Special attention is paid to the exploration of some basic properties including phase structure, oxygen non-stoichiometry, electrical conductivity, oxygen bulk diffusion coefficient, and surface exchange coefficient, which are of significant importance to the electrochemical activity of cathode materials. BFS holds a single cubic perovskite structure over temperature range of cell operation, determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope. A high oxygen vacancy concentration at cell operating temperatures is observed by combining thermo-gravimetric data and iodometric titration result. Furthermore, electrical conductivity relaxation measurement illustrates the fast oxygen bulk diffusion and surface exchange kinetics. Accordingly, testing cells based on BFS cathode material demonstrate the low polarization resistance of 0.033 Ω cm2 and high peak power density of 1033 mW cm-2 at 700 °C, as well as a relatively stable long-term operation for ∼300 h. The results obtained suggest that BFS perovskite oxide holds a great promise as an oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for IT-SOFCs.

  14. Electrocatalysts using porous polymers and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Goenaga, Gabriel A.

    2016-08-02

    A method of producing an electrocatalyst article using porous polymers. The method creates a porous polymer designed to receive transition metal groups disposed at ligation sites and activating the transition metals to form an electrocatalyst which can be used in a fuel cell. Electrocatalysts prepared by this method are also provided. A fuel cell which includes the electrocatalyst is also provided.

  15. No cytotoxic nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiying; Zhu, Luping; Bing, Naicing; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Lijun

    2014-04-01

    Bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) with different nitrogen content have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under different reaction temperature of 600-900 °C. The butylamine and FeY have been used as precursor and catalyst, respectively. The electrocatalytic property of the NCNTs catalyst in oxygen reduction was examined by cyclic voltammetry. The results revealed that the NCNTs catalyst has higher catalytic activity than the commonly used Pt/C catalyst (Pt-CNTs, 20% of Pt/C, BASF), suggesting potential applications in fuel cells. On the other hand, the cytotoxic effects of NCNTs materials showed no cytotoxic to SPCA-1 cells, of which Pt-CNTs and CNTs particles indicated notably high cytotoxic. From these results, more application fields might be found for NCNTs except for as cathodic catalyst in fuel cells (FCs).

  16. Self-assembly of mixed Pt and Au nanoparticles on PDDA-functionalized graphene as effective electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation of fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyin; Wang, Xin; Jiang, San Ping

    2011-04-21

    Pt and Au nanoparticles with controlled Pt : Au molar ratios and PtAu nanoparticle loadings were successfully self-assembled onto poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized graphene (PDDA-G) as highly effective electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). The simultaneously assembled Pt and Au nanoparticles on PDDA-G showed superb electrocatalytic activity for HCOOH oxidation, and the current density associated with the preferred dehydrogenation pathway for the direct formation of CO(2) through HCOOH oxidation on a Pt(1)Au(8)/PDDA-G (i.e., a Pt : Au ratio of 1 : 8) is 32 times higher than on monometallic Pt/PDDA-G. The main function of the Au in the mixed Pt and Au nanoparticles on PDDA-G is to facilitate the first electron transfer from HCOOH to HCOO(ads) and the effective spillover of HCOO(ads) from Au to Pt nanoparticles, where HCOO(ads) is further oxidized to CO(2). The Pt : Au molar ratio and PtAu nanoparticle loading on PDDA-G supports are the two critical factors to achieve excellent electrocatalytic activity of PtAu/PDDA-G catalysts for the HCOOH oxidation reactions.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of highly tolerant Pd electrocatalysts as cathodes in Direct Ethylene Glycol Fuel Cells (DEGFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, F. J.; Fraire Luna, S. [Grupo de Recursos Naturales y Energeticos, Cinvestav Unidad Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13.5, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, C.P. 25900 (Mexico); Savadogo, O. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Materiaux Energetiques, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Highly selective Pd electrocatalysts were synthesized by the formic acid (FA) method and evaluated as cathodes for DEGFC applications. In rotating disc measurements in acid medium, the Pd/C cathode showed important catalytic activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). In the presence of ethylene glycol (EG, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), Pd/C exhibited a noteworthy electrochemical behavior and full tolerance to the organic molecule. No current density peaks associated to the EG oxidation reaction emerged and the shift in onset potential for the ORR (E{sub onset}) toward more negative potentials was negligible on this cathode. As a comparison, commercial Pt/C was tested under the same conditions showing a poor selectivity for the ORR when EG was present. The detrimental effect of EG on the Pt electrocatalysts resulted in high intensity current density peaks due to the oxidation of EG and a significant shift in E{sub onset}. The evaluation of Pd/C in a DEGFC operating at 80 {sup o}C demonstrated its good performance as cathode material. Given these results, it is expected that highly efficient Pd-based cathodes can find application in DEGFCs. (author)

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of Highly Tolerant Pd Electrocatalysts as Cathodes in Direct Ethylene Glycol Fuel Cells (DEGFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumarou Savadogo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Highly selective Pd electrocatalysts were synthesized by the formic acid (FA method and evaluated as cathodes for DEGFC applications. In rotating disc measurements in acid medium, the Pd/C cathode showed important catalytic activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR. In the presence of ethylene glycol (EG, C2H6O2, Pd/C exhibited a noteworthy electrochemical behavior and full tolerance to the organic molecule. No current density peaks associated to the EG oxidation reaction emerged and the shift in onset potential for the ORR (Eonset toward more negative potentials was negligible on this cathode. As a comparison, commercial Pt/C was tested under the same conditions showing a poor selectivity for the ORR when EG was present. The detrimental effect of EG on the Pt electrocatalysts resulted in high intensity current density peaks due to the oxidation of EG and a significant shift in Eonset. The evaluation of Pd/C in a DEGFC operating at 80 °C demonstrated its good performance as cathode material. Given these results, it is expected that highly efficient Pd-based cathodes can find application in DEGFCs.

  19. Effect of precursor nature on the performance of palladium-cobalt electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexey; Nedoseykina, Tatyana; Shvachko, Oleg; Kwak, Chan

    The performance of platinum-free palladium-cobalt catalysts in oxygen reduction was investigated for a direct methanol fuel cell. The dependence of catalytic activity on precursor nature was determined for two classes of precursors; namely, palladium chloride and palladium nitrate. The nitrate precursor exhibits much higher catalytic performance than the chloride precursor. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra indicate that the structure of palladium catalyst prepared from nitrate is much closer to Pd 3Co structure that can explain high catalytic activity. The MEA prepared from the nitrate catalyst achieved the peak power density of 125 mW cm -2, which is much higher than 19 mW cm -2 measured on the cell prepared from the chloride catalyst.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on the activity and stability of carbon supported PtMo alloy electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Carreras, Alejo; Trincavelli, Jorge; Ticianelli, Edson Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the activity, stability and CO tolerance of PtMo/C catalysts was studied, due to their applicability in the anode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). To this purpose, a carbon supported PtMo (60:40) alloy electrocatalyst was synthesized by the formic acid reduction method, and samples of this catalyst were heat-treated at various temperatures ranging between 400 and 700 °C. The samples were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS). Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the stability, and polarization curves were used to investigate the performance of all materials as CO tolerant anode on a PEM single cell text fixture. The catalyst treated at 600 °C, for which the average crystallite size was 16.7 nm, showed the highest hydrogen oxidation activity in the presence of CO, giving an overpotential induced by CO contamination of 100 mV at 1 Acm-2. This catalyst also showed a better stability up to 5000 potential cycles of cyclic voltammetry, as compared to the untreated catalyst. CV, SEM and WDS results indicated that a partial dissolution of Mo and its migration/diffusion from the anode to the cathode occurs during the single cell cycling. Polarization results showed that the catalytic activity and the stability can be improved by a heat treatment, in spite of a growth of the catalyst particles.

  1. Highly dispersed molybdenum carbide as non-noble electrocatalyst for PEM fuel cells: Performance for CO electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guil-Lopez, R.; Martinez-Huerta, M.V.; Pena, M.A.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Guillen-Villafuerte, O.; Pastor, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, E-38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    CO electrooxidation on nanocrystalline molybdenum carbide has been studied through CO stripping measurements using cyclic voltammetry. The active molybdenum carbide was obtained from the carbothermic reduction of really very small molybdenum oxide particles supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black (CB). In order to obtain highly dispersed molybdenum carbide particles, low molybdenum loading and control of the carbothermic reduction conditions of CB-supported molybdenum oxide were employed to avoid Mo sintering during the carburization process. This work provides experimental evidence on the CO electrooxidation capability of the Mo carbide phase, which to the best of our knowledge is reported for the first time. The small particle size of carbide electrocatalyst exhibited better performance for CO electrooxidation than the commercial bulk molybdenum carbide sample. (author)

  2. CO-Tolerant Pt–BeO as a Novel Anode Electrocatalyst in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjung Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs requires less expensive catalysts and higher operating voltage. Substantial anodic overvoltage with the usage of reformed hydrogen fuel can be minimized by using CO-tolerant anode catalysts. Carbon-supported Pt–BeO is manufactured so that Pt particles with an average diameter of 4 nm are distributed on a carbon support. XPS analysis shows that a peak value of the binding energy of Be matches that of BeO, and oxygen is bound with Be or carbon. The hydrogen oxidation current of the Pt–BeO catalyst is slightly higher than that of a Pt catalyst. CO stripping voltammetry shows that CO oxidation current peaks at ~0.85 V at Pt, whereas CO is oxidized around 0.75 V at Pt–BeO, which confirms that the desorption of CO is easier in the presence of BeO. Although the state-of-the-art PtRu anode catalyst is dominant as a CO-tolerant hydrogen oxidation catalyst, this study of Be-based CO-tolerant material can widen the choice of PEMFC anode catalyst.

  3. Nanostructured carbon electrocatalyst supports for intermediate-temperature fuel cells: Single-walled versus multi-walled structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandrew, Alexander B.; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Tian, Mengkun; Tennyson, Wesley D.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Geohegan, David B.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown if nanostructured carbons possess the requisite electrochemical stability to be used as catalyst supports in the cathode of intermediate-temperature solid acid fuel cells (SAFCs) based on the CsH2PO4 electrolyte. To investigate this application, single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were used as supports for Pt catalysts in SAFCs operating at 250 °C. SWNH-based cathodes display greater maximum activity than their MWNT-based counterparts at a cell voltage of 0.8 V, but are unstable in the SAFC cathode as a consequence of electrochemical carbon corrosion. MWNT-based cells are resistant to this effect and capable of operation for at least 160 h at 0.6 V and 250 °C. Cells fabricated with nanostructured carbon supports are more active (52 mA cm-1vs. 28 mA cm-1 at 0.8 V) than state-of-the-art carbon-free formulations while simultaneously displaying enhanced Pt utilization (40 mA mgPt-1vs. 16 mA mgPt-1 at 0.8 V). These results suggest that MWNTs are a viable support material for developing stable, high-performance, low-cost air electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices operating above 230 °C.

  4. Novel methanol-tolerant Ir-S/C chalcogenide electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction in DMFC fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyu Ma; Desheng Ai; Xiaofeng Xie; Jianwei Guo

    2011-01-01

    Novel methanol-tolerant oxygen-reduction catalysts, iridium-sulphur (Ir-S) chalcogenides with differ ent Ir/S atomic ratios, were synthesized via a precipitation method using H21rCI6 and Na2SO3 as the Ir and S precursors. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the IrxSl-x/C chalcogenide catalysts. Particle size ranging from 2.5 to 2.8 nm though obvious agglomeration was found on carbon support. However, these chalcogenide catalysts showed strong catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and high methanol tolerance, strongly suggesting these novel catalysts as promising candidates for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) cathode applications.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of highly tolerant Pd electrocatalysts as cathodes in direct ethylene glycol fuel cells (DEGFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, F.J.; Fraire Luna, S. [Cinvestav, Unidad Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico)] e-mail: javier.varela@cinvestav.edu.mx; Savadogo, O. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Materiaux Energetiques, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Highly selective Pd electrocatalysts were synthesized by the formic acid method and evaluated as cathodes for DEGFC applications. In rotating disc measurements in acid medium, the Pd/C cathode showed important catalytic activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). In the presence of ethylene glycol (EG, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), Pd/C exhibited an excellent electrochemical behavior and full tolerance to the organic molecule. No current density peaks associated to the EG oxidation reaction emerged and the shift in onset potential for the ORR (Eonset) toward more negative potentials was negligible on this cathode. Moreover, the evaluation of Pd/C in a DEGFC operating at 80 degrees Celsius demonstrated its high performance as cathode. As a comparison, commercial Pt/C was tested under the same conditions showing a limited selectivity for the ORR. The detrimental effect of EG on the Pt electrocatalysts resulted in high intensity current density peaks due to the oxidation of EG and a significant shift in Eonset. Given these results, it is expected that highly efficient Pd-based cathodes can find application in DEGFCs. [Spanish] Se sintetizaron electrocatalizadores altamente selectivos mediante el metodo de acido formico y se evaluaron como catodos en aplicaciones de CCGED. En mediciones de disco rotatorio en medio acido, el catodo Pd/C mostro importante actividad catalitica en la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO). En la presencia de glicol de etileno (GE, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), Pd/C exhibio un excelente comportamiento electromecanico y tolerancia total a la molecula organica. No surgieron picos de densidad de corriente asociados con la reaccion de oxidacion de GE y el corrimiento en el potencial de inicio para la RRO (Einicio) hacia potenciales mas negativos fue despreciable en este catodo. Como comparacion, se probo un Pt/C bajo las mismas condiciones y se observo una selectividad limitada para el RRO. El efecto perjudicial de GE en el electrocatalizador

  6. Preparation and Performance of Co-N-C Electro-Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell%直接甲醇燃料电池用Co-N-C电催化剂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟; 陈胜洲; 董新法; 林维明

    2012-01-01

    以三聚氰胺甲醛树脂和硝酸钴为前驱体,在Ar保护下采用高温碳化方法制备用于直接甲醇燃料电池( DMFC)阴极的含氮碳载钴(Co-N-C)氧还原电催化剂.利用热重与红外光谱联用、X射线衍射分析、元素分析等方法表征了催化剂的制备过程和结构,采用旋转圆盘电极测试考察了不同碳化温度对Co-N-C电催化剂氧还原催化活性的影响及电催化剂的耐醇性能,并采用该催化剂为阴极催化剂进行DMFC单电池测试.结果表明:Co-N-C电催化剂具有较高的电催化活性和较好的耐醇性能;其氧还原起始电位在0.5 V(vs.SCE)左右;700℃碳化温度下制备的Co-N-C电催化剂具有最高的氧还原催化活性.%Co-N-C oxygen reduction electro-catalysts for the cathode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were first prepared via the pyrolysis in Ar atmosphere, with melamine formaldehyde resin and cobalt nitrate as the precursors. Then, the preparation and structure of the electro-catalysts were investigated by means of TG-FTIR, XRD and element analysis, and the electro-catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction as well as the methanol tolerance of the electro-catalysts was detected by using a rotating disk electrode. Finally, a DMFC single-cell test was carried out by using the prepared electro-catalysts as the cathode catalysts. The results indicate that Co-N-C electro-catalysts are of high electro-catalytic activity and strong methanol tolerance, and that the onset potential of the electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction is about 0.5 V (vs. SCE). Moreover, it is found that the catalyst prepared at 7001 possesses the highest electro-catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction.

  7. Boron-Doped Graphene As Active Electrocatalyst For Oxygen Reduction Reaction At A Fuel-Cell Cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Gianluca; Di Valentin, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped graphene was reported to be the best non-metal doped graphene electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) working at an onset potential of 0.035 V [JACS 136 (2014) 4394]. In the present DFT study, intermediates and transition structures along the possible reaction pathways are determined. Both Langmuir-Hinschelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms are discussed. Molecular oxygen binds the positively charged B atom and forms an open shell end-on dioxygen intermediate. The associative path is favoured with respect to the dissociative one. The free energy diagrams along the four-reduction steps are investigated with the methodology by N{\\o}rskov and co. [JPC B 108 (2004) 17886] in both acidic and alkaline conditions. The pH effect on the stability of the intermediates of reduction is analyzed in terms of the Pourbaix diagram. At pH = 14 we compute an onset potential value for the electrochemical ORR of U = 0.05 V, which compares very well with the experimental value in alkaline conditions.

  8. Pd-on-Au Supra-nanostructures Decorated Graphene Oxide: An Advanced Electrocatalyst for Fuel Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yingzhou; Dandapat, Anirban; Chen, Liming; Huang, Youju; Sasson, Yoel; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Guo, Longhua; Chen, Tao

    2016-08-30

    We report a very easy and effective approach for synthesizing unique palladium-on-gold supra-nanostructure (Au@Pd-SprNS)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The SprNSs comprising Au nanorods as core and a unique close-packed assembly of tiny anisotropic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) as shell were homogeneously distributed on the GO surface via electrostatic self-assembly. Compared with the traditional one-pot method for synthesis of metal NPs on GO sheets, the size and shape of core-shell Au@Pd SprNSs can be finely controlled and uniformly distributed on the GO carrier. Interestingly, this Au@Pd-SprNSs/GO nanocomposite displayed high electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and formic acid, which can be attributed to the abundance of intrinsic active sites including high density of atomic steps, ledges and kinks, Au-Pd heterojunctions and cooperative action of the two metals of the SprNSs. Additionally, uniform dispersion of the SprNSs over the GO nanosheets prevent agglomeration between the SprNSs, which is of great significance to enhance the long-term stability of catalyst. This work will introduce a highly efficient Pd-based nanoelectrocatalyst to be used in fuel cell application.

  9. Preparation of Pt–Ru/C as an Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaixiu Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-supported Pt–Ru alloys with a Pt/Ru ratio of 1:1 were prepared by NaBH4 reduction at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements indicate that the as-prepared Pt–Ru nanoparticles had a face-centered cubic (fcc structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses demonstrate that alloying with Ru can decrease the 4f electron density of Pt, which results in a positive binding energy shift of 0.2 eV for the Pt 4f peaks. The catalytic properties of the synthesized Pt–Ru alloy catalysts were compared with those of commercial Pt/C catalysts by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. The results show that the mass activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is enhanced by 2.3 times as much mass activity of Pt relative to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Single-chambered microbial fuel cell tests also confirm that the Pt–Ru alloys as cathode catalysts have better performance than that of commercial Pt/C catalysts.

  10. Design of Iron(II) Phthalocyanine-Derived Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts for High-Power-Density Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Gokhale, Rohan; Mecheri, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Licoccia, Silvia; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    2017-08-24

    Iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) deposited onto two different carbonaceous supports was synthesized through an unconventional pyrolysis-free method. The obtained materials were studied in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral media through incorporation in an air-breathing cathode structure and tested in an operating microbial fuel cell (MFC) configuration. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) analysis revealed high performances of the Fe-based catalysts compared with that of activated carbon (AC). The FePc supported on Black-Pearl carbon black [Fe-BP(N)] exhibits the highest performance in terms of its more positive onset potential, positive shift of the half-wave potential, and higher limiting current as well as the highest power density in the operating MFC of (243±7) μW cm(-2) , which was 33 % higher than that of FePc supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNT(N); 182±5 μW cm(-2) ). The power density generated by Fe-BP(N) was 92 % higher than that of the MFC utilizing AC; therefore, the utilization of platinum group metal-free catalysts can boost the performances of MFCs significantly. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfield, S.

    1996-04-01

    Research on direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is discussed. Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. The use of platinum/ruthenium anode electrocatalysts and platinum cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in significant performance enhancements.

  12. Investigation of methanol oxidation on a highly active and stable Pt–Sn electrocatalyst supported on carbon–polyaniline composite for application in a passive direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Mitra [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemeini, Mohammad [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedanian, Mahboobeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharibi, Hussein, E-mail: h.gharibi@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, 122 S Campus Drive, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • PtSn/C-PANI performed superior in the MOR compared with a commercial PtRu/C. • Catalytic activity of PtRu/C was highly reduced during the accelerated durability test. • Anode of the PtSn/C-PANI in a passive DMFC lowered methanol crossover by 30%. - Abstract: Polyaniline fiber (PANI) was synthesized and utilized to fabricate a vulcan–polyaniline (C-PANI) composite. Pt/C-PANI and PtSn/C-PANI electro-catalysts with different Pt:Sn atomic ratios were prepared by the impregnation method. These electro-catalysts, along with commercial PtRu/C (Electrochem), were characterized with respect to their structural and electrochemical properties in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI showed excellent performance in MOR, the obtained maximum current density being about 40% and 50% higher than that for PtRu/C and Pt/C-PANI, respectively. It was also found that the CO tolerance and stability of PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI was considerably higher than that of PtRu/C. Finally, the performance of these two materials was compared in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The DMFC test results demonstrated that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared using PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI anode catalyst performed more satisfactorily in terms of maximum power density and lower methanol crossover.

  13. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon black for polymer exchange membrane fuel cell applications; Preparacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao de eletrocatalisadores suportados em carbono funcionalizado para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcelo do

    2008-12-18

    The fuel cell technology associated with the growing exigency of low environmental impact energy became prosperous in the world energy scenery. The fuel cell is basically a device that converts directly the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical and thermal energy with a continuous operation by the constant feed of a fuel. Especially, the carbon black Vulcan XC72 is usually employed as an electro catalyst support, and some factors as an accessible and high surface area in order to get maximum particles dispersion, pore size, adequate pore distribution and the presence of functional groups in the carbon black surface are considered fundamental characteristics for an innovative materials development. However, the Vulcan XC72 still reveals insufficient conditions for these purposes. This study consists in the preparation and in the physical chemical characterization of functionalized carbon black by hydrogen peroxide and by polymeric chains with proton conduction properties, and its posterior utilization as electro catalyst support for PEMFC and DMFC application. After the carbon functionalization, an improvement in the carbon black dispersion in water media was observed, a beneficial effect for electro catalyst preparation. It was also observed, that the functional groups and the polymeric chains worked as stabilizers in the particle growing, producing much more homogeneous electrocatalysts, exhibiting smaller average particle size. Especially, in the case of polymeric chains functionalization, a decrease in the ohmic drop was observed for this system, attributed to an improvement in the proton transference. (author)

  14. Preparation of PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation for direct and ethanol fuel cell; Preparacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C e PtSn/C utilizando feixe de eletrons para aplicacao como anodo na oxidacao direta de metanol e etanol em celulas a combustivel de baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da

    2009-07-01

    PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The metal ions were dissolved in water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions and the carbon support was added. The resulting mixtures were irradiated under stirring. The effect of water/ethylene glycol and water/2-propanol (v/v) ratio, Pt:Ru and Pt:Sn atomic ratios, the irradiation time and dose rate were studied. The obtained materials were characterized by Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts were also tested on the Direct Methanol and Ethanol Fuel Cells. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios different from the nominal ones. The results suggested that part of the Ru(III) ions were not reduced. The obtained materials showed the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of Pt and Pt alloys with crystallite sizes of 2-3 nm. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios similar to the nominal ones. The obtained materials also showed the fcc structure of platinum and platinum alloys with crystallite sizes of 3-4 nm. PtSn/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol and water/2-propanol showed Pt:Sn atomic ratios similar to the nominal ones. The obtained materials showed the platinum (fcc) phase with crystallite sizes in the range of 2 - 4 nm and a SnO{sub 2} (cassiterite) phase. The obtained PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar or superior performance for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation compared to commercial PtRu/C (E-TEK) and PtSn/C (BASF) electrocatalysts. (author)

  15. Nitrogen-induced surface area and conductivity modulation of carbon nanohorn and its function as an efficient metal-free oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for anion-exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Sreekuttan M; Bhange, Siddheshwar N; Illathvalappil, Rajith; Mutneja, Nisha; Patil, Kasinath R; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-01-21

    Nitrogen-doped carbon morphologies have been proven to be better alternatives to Pt in polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. However, efficient modulation of the active sites by the simultaneous escalation of the porosity and nitrogen doping, without affecting the intrinsic electrical conductivity, still remains to be solved. Here, a simple strategy is reported to solve this issue by treating single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWCNH) with urea at 800 °C. The resulting nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorn shows a high surface area of 1836 m2 g(-1) along with an increased electron conductivity, which are the pre-requisites of an electrocatalyst. The nitrogen-doped nanohorn annealed at 800 °C (N-800) also shows a high oxygen reduction activity (ORR). Because of the high weight percentage of pyridinic nitrogen coordination in N-800, the present catalyst shows a clear 4-electron reduction pathway at only 50 mV overpotential and 16 mV negative shift in the half-wave potential for ORR compared to Pt/C along with a high fuel selectivity and electrochemical stability. More importantly, a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) based on N-800 provides a maximum power density of 30 mW cm(-2) under anion-exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) testing conditions. Thus, with its remarkable set of physical and electrochemical properties, this material has the potential to perform as an efficient Pt-free electrode for AEMFCs.

  16. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction using Pt-Rare earths (La, Ce, Er) electrocatalysts for application of PEM fuel cells; Estudo da reacao de reducao do oxigenio utilizando eletrocatalisadores a base de Pt-terras raras (La, Ce, Er) para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Thiago Bueno

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and its potential losses make it responsible for the most part of efficiency losses at the Fuel Cells. For this reaction the electrocatalyst witch is most appropriated and shows better performance is platinum, a noble metal that elevates the cost, raising barriers for Fuel Cells technology to enter the market. First this work focuses on reducing the amount of platinum used in the cathode, by being replaced by rare earths. The most common methods of synthesis involves a large amount of steps and this work proposed to prepare the electrocatalyst through a simpler way that would not take so many steps and time to be done. Using an ultrasound mixer the electrocatalyst was prepared mixing platinum supported on carbon black and the rare earths lanthanum, cerium and erbium oxides to be applied in a half-cell study of the ORR. The Koutecky-Levich plots shows that among the electrocatalysts prepared the Pt80Ce20/C had the catalytic activity close to the commercial BASF platinum on carbon black, suggesting that the reaction was taken by the 4-electron path. As found in some works in literature, among the rare earth used to study the ORR, cerium is the one witch shows the better performance because it is able to store and provide oxygen. This feature is of great interest for the ORR because this reaction is first order to the oxygen concentration. Results show that is possible to reduce the amount of platinum maintaining the same electrocatalyst activity. (author)

  17. Pd and Pt-Ru anode electrocatalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their use in passive and active direct alcohol fuel cells with an anion-exchange membrane (alcohol = methanol, ethanol, glycerol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambagioni, Valentina; Bianchini, Claudio; Marchionni, Andrea; Filippi, Jonathan; Vizza, Francesco; Teddy, Jacques; Serp, Philippe; Zhiani, Mohammad

    Palladium and platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are prepared by the impregnation-reduction procedure. The materials obtained, Pd/ MWCNT and Pt-Ru/ MWCNT, are characterized by TEM, ICP-AES and XRPD. Electrodes coated with Pd/ MWCNT are scrutinized for the oxidation of methanol, ethanol or glycerol in 2 M KOH solution in half cells. The catalyst is very active for the oxidation of all alcohols, with glycerol providing the best performance in terms of specific current density and ethanol showing the lowest onset potential. Membrane-electrode assemblies have been fabricated using Pd/ MWCNT anodes, commercial cathodes and anion-exchange membrane and evaluated in both single passive and active direct alcohol fuel cells fed with aqueous solutions of 10 wt.% methanol, 10 wt.% ethanol or 5 wt.% glycerol. Pd/ MWCNT exhibits unrivalled activity as anode electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation. The analysis of the anode exhausts shows that ethanol is selectively oxidized to acetic acid, detected as acetate ion in the alkaline media of the reaction, while methanol yields carbonate and formate. A much wider product distribution, including glycolate, glycerate, tartronate, oxalate, formate and carbonate, is obtained from the oxidation of glycerol. The results obtained with Pt-Ru/ MWCNT anodes in acid media are largely inferior to those provided by Pd/ MWCNT electrodes in alkaline media.

  18. 燃料电池Pt基核壳结构电催化剂的最新研究进展%Recent Development of Pt-Based Core-Shell Structured Electrocatalysts in Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海艳; 曹春晖; 赵健; 林瑞; 马建新

    2012-01-01

    综述了用于燃料电池的Pt基核壳结构电催化剂的制备方法和表征方法的最新研究进展.首先,详细介绍了核壳结构催化剂的制备方法,主要包括胶体法、电化学法和化学还原法等.其中胶体法的应用最为广泛,制备过程简单易控;电化学法和化学还原法在最近几年得到了迅速发展,并有望用于核壳结构电催化剂的批量化生产.其次,简单阐述了核壳结构电催化剂特用的表征方法.其中高角度环形暗场-扫描透射电子显微镜是近年来发展的一种新技术,它利用暗场强度与原子序数的比例关系可以有效地表征核壳电催化剂的特殊结构.最后,总结了存在的问题并展望了可能的发展方向.%Cost, durability, and fuel supply infrastructure remain the key problems barricading the successful commercialization of fuel cells. As for the proton exchange membrane fuel cells, the cost and durability of key materials come from Pt catalysts used in the fuel cells. Due to the various cost and resource issues regarding Pt, it is important for researchers to develop low-Pt fuel cell catalysts. Recently, core-shell structured electrocatalysts have attracted increasing attention because of their unique structure in reducing the amount of Pt. The recent development of the preparation methods and characterization techniques for core-shell structured catalysts are reviewed. First, an introduction . To the preparation methods for the synthesis of core-shell structured electrocatalysts was presented, including the colloid method, electrochemical method, and chemical reduction method. Among these methods, the colloid method is the most facile and controllable and has already been widely employed in the synthesis. Electrochemical and chemical reduction methods are the most promising methods that have been developed in the past several years. Then, the characterization techniques were discussed in details. Among these techniques, the high

  19. Direct methanol fuel cells: Pt-Ni/C binary electrocatalysts; Celulas a combutivel de metanol direto: eletrocatalisadores binarios de Pt-Ni/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Jose Ricardo Cezar; Antolini, Ermete; Santos, Ana Maria dos; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: salgado@iqsc.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells use platinum alloys as more efficient catalysts than platinum. In the case of binary alloys, the second metal affects several properties of platinum, like the interatomic distance, the electronic density and the capacity of forming oxygenated species at lower potentials. In this work, Pt-Ni catalysts supported on high surface area carbon (Pt-Ni/C) were prepared and characterized, and tested as catalysts in the anode and the cathode in direct methanol fuel cells. In both cases the performance of the material was better than that of Pt/C, and comparing the two situations it was better when the material was used in the cathode. The improved performance in the cathode was attributed to the nickel that forms a true alloy with platinum, while the better performance in the anode was attributed to the presence of nickel oxides. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the performance of Ru/C electrocatalysts for the ORR in the absence and presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH : application in direct fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, F.J.R. [Cinvestav Unidad Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico). Grupo de Recursos Naturales y Energeticos; Ramirez, S.E.G.; Klapco, R.D. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas

    2009-01-15

    The high price and low abundance of platinum (Pt) has prompted scientists to find alternative electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. In addition, low temperature DAFCs have intrinsic characteristics such as the use of liquid fuels, which leads to a high crossover rate from the anode to the cathode due to the high permeability of polymer membranes to those fuels. Ru-based electrocatalysts have been synthesized with excellent results as Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction (orr) cathodes. This paper presented an investigation that evaluated the performance of Ru/C cathode electrocatalysts for the orr. Tests were performed in the absence and presence of ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) in acid solution in a rotating disc electrode and in a DAFC. The orr kinetics on the Ru-based cathodes was characterized in the absence and presence of ethanol in a rotating disc electrode with the aid of electrochemical techniques such as cyclic and linear scan voltammetry. This paper presented the electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for the orr of these catalysts, both without and with organic molecules. The catalytic capacity of the Ru electrocatalysts as cathodes was also evaluated in a DAFC fueled with ethanol and operating at 80 degrees Celsius. Analogous results were presented for a standard Pt/C cathode for the sake of comparison. It was concluded that in ethanol-free solutions, the performance of Ru/C cathodes for the orr was lower compared to that of a Pt/C cathode. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Graphene supported Co-g-C3N4 as a novel metal-macrocyclic electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiao; Zhang, Junyan

    2013-03-19

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) polymer was doped with cobalt species and supported on a similar sp(2) structure graphene, to form a novel nitrogen-metal macrocyclic catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline fuel cells. The structural characterizations confirmed the formation of Co-N bonds and the close electron coupling between Co-g-C3N4 and graphene sheets. The electrocatalytic measurements demonstrated Co-g-C3N4-catalyzed reduction of oxygen mainly in a four electron pathway. The improvement of ORR activity is closely related to the abundant accessible Co-Nx active sites and fast charge transfer at the interfaces of Co-g-C3N4/graphene. Also, Co-g-C3N4@graphene exhibited comparable ORR activity, better durability, and methanol tolerance ability in comparison to Pt/C, and bodes well for a promising non-noble cathode catalyst for the application of direct methanol fuel cells. The chemical doping strategy in this work would be helpful to improve other present catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  2. Comparative degradation study of carbon supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts - The influence of the platinum to carbon ratio on the degradation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speder, Jozsef; Zana, Alessandro; Spanos, Ioannis; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.; Mortensen, Kell; Hanzlik, Marianne; Arenz, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    A colloidal synthesis approach is used to prepare supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts with various Pt loadings - from low to extremely high ones. The catalyst samples are used to continue our investigation of the role of the Pt:C ratio in the degradation processes. The influence of the platinum loading on the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss is evaluated in a systematic electrochemical study by using two commercially available carbon blacks, namely Vulcan XC72R and Ketjenblack EC-300J. Accelerated degradation tests simulating load cycle and start-up/shutdown conditions are carried out in accordance with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan (FCCJ) recommendations. Under conditions simulating the load cycle of PEM fuel cells no unambiguous correlation between the ECSA loss and the Pt:C ratio is found. By contrast, under conditions simulating the repetitive start-up/shutdown processes of PEMFCs the ECSA loss first increases with increasing Pt loading. However, it decreases again for very high loadings. Furthermore, the Vulcan samples exhibited higher ECSA losses than the Ketjenblack samples, indicating the important role of the physical and chemical properties of pristine carbon supports in the carbon degradation mechanism.

  3. Recent development of anode electrocatalysts for direct sodium borohydride fuel cell%硼氢化钠燃料电池负极催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳增芳; 余丹梅; 陈昌国

    2011-01-01

    Whether the oxidation of NaBH4 occurs with 8 e- is the key to direct sodium borohydride fuel cell(DBFC),from which the highest capacity can be obtained. However, the electrons number generated by BH4-oxidized is different due to the different anode electrocatalysts, and the composition and structure of the electrccatalysts are very important upon this reaction, Based on the principle of DBFC, the recent progress of anode electrccatalysts both domestically and abroad were reviewed in detail, The development and application of DBFC catalysts in the future was presented.%直接硼氢化钠燃料电池(DBFC)的核心在于NaBH4的氧化是否能发生8e一的氧化反应.从而达到最高的电子利用率.但负极电催化荆不同.BH4-电氧化释放出的电子数也不同,因此负极催化剂的组成和结构对该氧化反应有十分重要的影响.在介绍DBFC工作原理的基础上,着重概述了近几年来国内外在D日FC负极催化剂方面所取得的研究进展,展望了DBFC催化剂的发展趋势.

  4. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  5. Platinum group metal-free electrocatalysts: Effects of synthesis on structure and performance in proton-exchange membrane fuel cell cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Michael J.; Dzara, Michael; Ngo, Chilan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Serov, Alexey; McKinney, Sam; Gordon, Jonathan; Atanassov, Plamen; Artyushkova, Kateryna

    2017-04-01

    Development of platinum group metal free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) requires understanding of the interactions between surface chemistry and performance, both of which are strongly dependent on synthesis conditions. To elucidate these complex relationships, a set of Fe-N-C catalysts derived from the same set of precursor materials is fabricated by varying several key synthetic parameters under controlled conditions. The results of physicochemical characterization are presented and compared with the results of rotating disk electrode (RDE) analysis and fuel cell testing. We find that electrochemical performance is strongly correlated with three key properties related to catalyst composition: concentrations of 1) atomically dispersed Fe species, 2) species in which N is bound to Fe, and 3) surface oxides. Not only are these factors related to performance, these types of chemical species are shown to correlate with each other. This study provides evidence supporting the role of iron coordinated with nitrogen as an active species for the ORR, and offers synthetic pathways to increase the density of atomically dispersed iron species and surface oxides for optimum performance.

  6. Advanced catalyst supports for PEM fuel cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lei; Shao, Yuyan; Sun, Junming; Yin, Geping; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Electrocatalyst support materials are key components for polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, which play a critical role in determining electrocatalyst durability and activity, mass transfer and water management. The commonly-used supports, e.g. porous carbon black, cannot meet all the requirements under the harsh operation condition of PEM fuel cells. Great efforts have been made in the last few years in developing alternative support materials. In this paper, we selectively review recent progress on three types of important support materials: carbon, non-carbon and hybrid carbon-oxides nanocomposites. A perspective on future R&D of electrocatalyst support materials is also provided.

  7. 金属氧化物在低温燃料电池催化剂中的应用%Application of Metal Oxides in Electrocatalysts for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 张生; 朱彤; 尹鸽平

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature fuel cells can be as an ideal portable power,due to the high specific power and specific energy,low-temperature operation and environmentally friendly.It is considered to be a promising fuel cell.But owing to the high cost and low electrochemical stability of the traditional Pt/C catalyst,the commercialization of PEMFCs is hindered.Metal oxides,however,with high stability in the fuel cells work conditions,is beneficial to improve catalytic performance of catalysts due to strong interaction between metals and metal oxides,which might alert absorption properties of oxygen or fuel on the catalyst surface.In this paper,metal oxides as co-catalysts are employed to enhance the electrocatalytic activity and stability for fuel cell electrocatalysts.The latest research progress of niobium oxides,manganese oxides,titanium oxides,tungsten oxides and tin oxides in fuel cells is highlighted.Finally,the urgent existing main problems in this area are discussed and the future research trends are prospected.%低温燃料电池具有比能量高、工作温度低、环境友好等优点,是一种颇具发展前景的便携式电源。但由于传统的Pt/C催化剂制造成本高,且电化学稳定性较低,影响了燃料电池的商业化进程。而金属氧化物在燃料电池工作环境下具有较高的电化学稳定性,同时与催化剂金属之间存在强烈的相互作用,能够改变氧气或燃料在催化剂金属表面上的吸附性质,从而改善催化剂的活性。本文针对低温燃料电池成本高和寿命短的两大问题,论述了金属氧化物助催化剂在提高催化剂活性和稳定性方面的应用,重点介绍了铌、锰、钛、钨和锡等几种金属元素的氧化物在低温燃料电池催化剂研究中进展,并对目前金属氧化物在低温燃料电池催化剂研究中存在的主要问题和发展前景进行了探讨和展望。

  8. Electrochemical Oxidation of the Carbon Support to Synthesize Pt(Cu and Pt-Ru(Cu Core-Shell Electrocatalysts for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Caballero-Manrique

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of core-shell Pt(Cu and Pt-Ru(Cu electrocatalysts allows for a reduction in the amount of precious metal and, as was previously shown, a better CO oxidation performance can be achieved when compared to the nanoparticulated Pt and Pt-Ru ones. In this paper, the carbon black used as the support was previously submitted to electrochemical oxidation and characterized by XPS. The new catalysts thus prepared were characterized by HRTEM, FFT, EDX, and electrochemical techniques. Cu nanoparticles were generated by electrodeposition and were further transformed into Pt(Cu and Pt-Ru(Cu core-shell nanoparticles by successive galvanic exchange with Pt and spontaneous deposition of Ru species, the smallest ones being 3.3 nm in mean size. The onset potential for CO oxidation was as good as that obtained for the untreated carbon, with CO stripping peak potentials about 0.1 and 0.2 V more negative than those corresponding to Pt/C and Ru-decorated Pt/C, respectively. Carbon oxidation yielded an additional improvement in the catalyst performance, because the ECSA values for hydrogen adsorption/desorption were much higher than those obtained for the non-oxidized carbon. This suggested a higher accessibility of the Pt sites in spite of having the same nanoparticle structure and mean size.

  9. Fuel cell: new electrocatalysts for SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) anodes and regulation between cell performance and catalytic activity; Celula a combustivel: novos eletrocatalisadores para anodos de SOFC (Celulas a Combustivel de Oxido Solido) e correlacao entre desempenho da celula e atividade catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, Jaime S.; Aguiar, Aurinete B.; Brandao, Soraia T. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Frank, Maria Helena Troise; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Electro-catalysts were prepared using new routes. Chemical Ultrasound Deposition (CUD) method: aqueous solution of nickel nitrate and citric acid was ultrasound vaporized and deposited on heated Ytria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ). Resin impregnation (IPR) method: nickel oxide and YSZ were mixed, added to phenolic resins, precipitated in acidic water and milled. Wet impregnation method (IMP) was used for comparison: YSZ and an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate and citric acid were mixed, followed by evaporation, drying and calcination. The catalysts were evaluated for methane steam reforming in a quartz reactor. The reactions were conducted for one hour with no significant catalytic activity loss. In reactions with 100 mg of catalyst and a mixture consisting of methane and steam (3:1), IPR catalyst showed activity higher and better stability than those by IMP. On other tests, the reform was conducted with 100 mg of catalyst and methane to steam of 10. The IPR catalyst activity was so high that the reaction approached equilibrium conditions. Anode/electrolyte/cathode units (A/E/C) were prepared with the above catalysts as follows: the anode was a catalyst porous layer; the electrolyte an YSZ dense layer; and the cathode an LSM porous layer; graphite powder formed the material porosity. The two first layers, in powder form, were put in a stainless steel cast, pressed to 4000 bars and sinterized. The cathode layer was subsequently added using tape-casting techniques followed by sintering. A/E/C units showed 40% linear contraction and porosity higher than 20%. For fuel cell tests, A/E/C was mounted in alumina plates with platinum current collectors. Unitary SOF cells were loaded with hydrogen diluted in nitrogen showing opened circuit voltage from circa 700 mV, for the CUD anode, to 350 mV, for the IPR anode. The unitary SOFC was loaded with methane for 15 minutes or longer, with no noticeable voltage loss. At 1300 K the SOFC made with IPR or IMP catalysts showed opened

  10. Use of Dendrimers during the Synthesis of Pt-Ru Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: Effects on the Physical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Calderón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Pt-Ru catalysts were synthesized by a novel methodology which includes the use as encapsulating molecules of dendrimers of different generation: zero (DN-0, one (DN-1, two (DN-2, and three (DN-3. Synthesized catalysts were heat-treated at 350°C, and the effects of this treatment was established from the physical (X-ray dispersive energy (XDE and X-ray diffraction (XRD and electrochemical characterization (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Results showed that the heat-treatment benefits the catalytic properties of synthesized materials in terms of CO and methanol electrochemical oxidation. The curves for CO stripping were more defined for heat-treated catalysts, and methanol oxidation current densities were higher for these materials. These changes are principally explained from the removal of organic residues remaining on the surface of the Pt-Ru nanoparticles after the synthesis procedure. After the activation of the catalysts by heating at 350°C, the real importance of the use of these encapsulating molecules and the effect of the generation of the dendrimer become visible. From these results, it can be concluded that synthesized catalysts are good catalytic anodes for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs.

  11. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-10-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K2PtCl4 and InCl3.xH2O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt2In3 intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt2In3 catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be ~3.2 and ~2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt2In3 nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell.

  12. 3D Hierarchical Pt-Nitrogen-Doped-Graphene-Carbonized Commercially Available Sponge as a Superior Electrocatalyst for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Sui, Xu-Lei; Li, Jia-Long; Zhang, Jing-Jia; Zhang, Li-Mei; Wang, Zhen-Bo

    2016-06-29

    Three-dimensional hierarchical nitrogen-doped graphene (3D-NG) frameworks were successfully fabricated through a feasible solution dip-coating method with commercially available sponges as the initial backbone. A spongy template can help hinder the graphene plates restacking in the period of the annealing process. The Pt/3D-NG catalyst was synthesized employing a polyol reduction process. The resultant Pt/3D-NG exhibits 2.3 times higher activity for methanol electro-oxidation along with the improvement in stability as compared with Pt/G owing to their favorable features including large specific surface area, high pore volume, high N doping level, and the homogeneous dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. Besides, Pt/3D-NG also presents high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance in acid media when compared with Pt/3D-G and Pt/G. This work raises a valid solution for the fabrication of 3D functional freestanding graphene-based composites for a variety of applications in fuel cell catalysis, energy storage, and conversion.

  13. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  14. 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Electrolyte Fuel Cell Catalyst Y. Nanba, D. S. Rivera Rocabado, T. Ishimoto, M. Koyama 717 Mo- doped Shaped Nanoparticles based on PtNi-alloys – A...Degradation of Nafion Ionomer to Functionalize Graphene as a Support for Core-Shell Palladium-Ruthenium Alloy @ Platinum Electrocatalysts C. C. Kuo...Layers B. Fu, Y. Minamida, Z. Noda, K. Sasaki, A. Hayashi 827 Porous Graphene Layers on Pt Catalyst for Long-Term Stability of Fuel Cell

  15. Designing a New Class of Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells: Probing Size, Composition, and Structure Dependent Electrocatalytic Performance in High-Quality, One-Dimensional Noble Metal Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsmann, Christopher

    A key challenge in the practical commercialization of PEMFCs is the extremely high cost and relatively poor durability of carbon supported Pt nanoparticle (Pt NP/C) electrocatalysts utilized in both the anode and cathode half-cells. Herein, we synthesize and characterize a new class of high-quality one-dimensional noble metal nanostructures as a potentially new and promising structural paradigm for the next generation of electrocatalyst materials. Specifically, we investigate the nature of the complex interplay amongst size, chemical composition, and electrocatalytic performance in high-quality elemental and bimetallic 1D noble metal nanowire systems with an emphasis on achieving efficient and sustainable methods for catalyst preparation. In terms of nanowire dimensions and composition, an interesting and measureable size-dependent enhancement in performance emerges in the case of elemental Pt, Pd, and Pd1-xAux nanowires possessing diameters ranging from the submicron (d = ˜200 nm) to the ultrathin regime (d = ˜1 nm). In a similar context, we have considered the role of chemical composition in 1D electrocatalysts and noted significant composition-dependent enhancements in activity and durability in high-quality, bimetallic Pd1-xAux and Pd1-xPtx NWs. A key finding that is apparent from these experimental results is that widely seen behavioral trends in the composition- and size-dependent performance for 0D nanoparticle-based catalysts do not hold in the case of 1D architectures, because of the patently unique structural and electronic effects, associated with their anisotropic structures. As a culmination of our efforts to take advantage of these intrinsic structure-activity correlations, our group has developed a morphology-, size-, and composition-optimized Pd9Au NW possessing a Pt monolayer shell (PtML˜Pd9Au NWs) electrocatalyst with an ultrathin 2 nm diameter, which yielded outstanding Pt mass and platinum group metal activities of 2.56 A/mgPt and 0.64 A

  16. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Fuel Cells and Supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Sugimoto; T.Saida; Y.Takasu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Owing to its electrochemical stability, catalytic activity and high electrical conductivity, ruthenium-based oxides have been realized in electrochemistry as excellent electrode materials with applications ranging from electrocatalysts for industrial electrolysis to high power energy storage. Recent studies have suggested that RuOx may have an active role in electrocatalysts for fuel cells.We have been engaged in the fundamental and practical study of nanostructured RuO2-based electrodes[1-5]....

  17. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  18. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  19. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  20. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  1. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  2. Fabrication Method for Laboratory-Scale High-Performance Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassin, Megan B; Garsany, Yannick; Gould, Benjamin D; Swider-Lyons, Karen E

    2017-01-03

    Custom catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs) and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are necessary for the evaluation of advanced electrocatalysts, gas diffusion media (GDM), ionomers, polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), and electrode structures designed for use in next-generation fuel cells, electrolyzers, or flow batteries. This Feature provides a reliable and reproducible fabrication protocol for laboratory scale (10 cm(2)) fuel cells based on ultrasonic spray deposition of a standard Pt/carbon electrocatalyst directly onto a perfluorosulfonic acid PEM.

  3. Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts prepared using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy Segura; Brandalise, Michele; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: espinace@ipen.br

    2007-10-15

    Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol mixtures containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX), X ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts showed superior performance for methanol electro-oxidation at room temperature compared to commercial Pt Ru/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  4. Fuel cell commercialization issues for light-duty vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E.

    The major challenges facing fuel cells in light-duty vehicle applications relate to the high cost of the fuel cell stack components (membrane, electro-catalyst and bipolar plate) which dictate that new manufacturing processes and materials must be developed. Initially, the best fuel for a mass market light-duty vehicle will probably not be the best fuel for the fuel cell (hydrogen); refueling infrastructure and energy density concerns may demand the use of an on-board fuel processor for petroleum-based fuels since this will increase customer acceptance. The use of fuel processors does, however, reduce the fuel cell system's efficiency. Moreover, if such fuels are used then the emissions benefit associated with fuel cells may come with a significant penalty in terms of added complexity, weight, size and cost. However, ultimately, fuel cells powered by hydrogen do promise to be the most efficient and cleanest of automotive powertrains.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of advanced catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hockmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1984-01-01

    The platinum electrocatalysts were characterized for their crystallite sizes and the degree of dispersion on the carbon supports. One application of these electrocatalysts was for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in hot phosphoric acid fuel cells, coupled with the influence of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the fuel gas stream. In a similar way, these platinum on carbon electrocatalysts were evaluated for oxygen reduction in hot phosphoric acid. Binary noble metal alloys were prepared for anodic oxidation of hydrogen and noble metal-refractory metal mixtures were prepared for oxygen reduction. An exemplar alloy of platinum and palladium (50/50 atom %) was discovered for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of carbon monoxide, and patent disclosures were submitted. For the cathode, platinum-vanadium alloys were prepared showing improved performance over pure platinum. Preliminary experiments on electrocatalyst utilization in electrode structures showed low utilization of the noble metal when the electrocatalyst loading exceeded one weight percent on the carbon.

  6. Electrochemical Reconstitution of Biomolecules for Applications as Electrocatalysts for the Bionanofuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Choi, Sang H.; Lillehei, Peter T.; King, Glen C.; Watt, Gerald D.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; Thibeault, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    Platinum-cored ferritins were synthesized as electrocatalysts by electrochemical biomineralization of immobilized apoferritin with platinum. The platinum cored ferritin was fabricated by exposing the immobilized apoferritin to platinum ions at a reduction potential. On the platinum-cored ferritin, oxygen is reduced to water with four protons and four electrons generated from the anode. The ferritin acts as a nano-scale template, a biocompatible cage, and a separator between the nanoparticles. This results in a smaller catalyst loading of the electrodes for fuel cells or other electrochemical devices. In addition, the catalytic activity of the ferritin-stabilized platinum nanoparticles is enhanced by the large surface area and particle size phenomena. The work presented herein details the immobilization of ferritin with various surface modifications, the electrochemical biomineralization of ferritin with different inorganic cores, and the fabrication of self-assembled 2-D arrays with thiolated ferritin.

  7. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  8. High-surface-area, dual-function oxygen electrocatalysts for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, David O.; Moniz, Gary; Taylor, E. Jennings

    1987-01-01

    The processes of hydration/dehydration and carbonation/decarbonation are investigated as an approach to provide higher surface area mixed metal oxides that are more active electrochemically. These materials are candidates for use as electrocatalysts and electrocatalyst supports for alkaline electrolyzers and fuel cells. For the case of the perovskite, LaCoO3 , higher surface areas were achieved with no change in structure and a more active oxygen electrocatalyst.

  9. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  10. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  11. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  12. Nafion-stabilised bimetallic Pt–Cr nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ra16025e Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G.; Sharma, S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the unique combination of alloying (Pt with Cr) and Nafion stabilisation to reap the benefits of catalyst systems with enhanced catalytic activity and improved durability in PEMFCs. Pt–Cr alloy nanoparticles stabilised with Nafion were chosen in the current study owing to their higher stability in acidic and oxidising media at high temperatures compared to other Pt-transition metal alloys (e.g. Pt–Ni, Pt–Co). Two different precursor : reducing agent (1 : 10 and 1 : 20) ratios were used in order to prepare two different alloys, denoted as Pt–Cr 10 and Pt–Cr 20. The Pt–Cr 20 alloy system (with composition Pt80Cr20) demonstrated higher electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction compared to commercial Pt/C (TKK) catalysts. Accelerated stress tests and single cell tests revealed that Nafion stabilised alloy catalyst systems displayed significantly enhanced durability (only ∼20% loss of ECSA) compared with Pt/C (50% loss of ECSA) due to improved catalyst–ionomer interaction. Furthermore, the Pt–Cr 20 alloy system demonstrated a current density comparable to that of Pt/C making them promising potential electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  13. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  14. Effects of the Electrodeposition Time in the Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pt(Cu and Pt-Ru(Cu Core-Shell Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolye Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Caballero-Manrique

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pt(Cu/C and Pt-Ru(Cu/C electrocatalysts with core-shell structure supported on Vulcan Carbon XC72R have been synthesized by potentiostatic deposition of Cu nanoparticles on the support, galvanic exchange with Pt and spontaneous deposition of Ru species. The duration of the electrodeposition time of the different species has been modified and the obtained electrocatalysts have been characterized using electrochemical and structural techniques. The High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalyses allowed the determining of the effects of the electrodeposition time on the nanoparticle size and composition. The best conditions identified from Cyclic Voltammetry (CV corresponded to onset potentials for CO and methanol oxidation on Pt-Ru(Cu/C of 0.41 and 0.32 V vs. the Reversible Hydrogen Electrode (RHE, respectively, which were smaller by about 0.05 V than those determined for Ru-decorated commercial Pt/C. The CO oxidation peak potentials were about 0.1 V smaller when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C. The positive effect of Cu was related to its electronic effect on the Pt shells and also to the generation of new active sites for CO oxidation. The synthesis conditions to obtain the best performance for CO and methanol oxidation on the core-shell Pt-Ru(Cu/C electrocatalysts were identified. When compared to previous results in literature for methanol, ethanol and formic acid oxidation on Pt(Cu/C catalysts, the present results suggest an additional positive effect of the deposited Ru species due to the introduction of the bifunctional mechanism for CO oxidation.

  15. Recent progress in alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells are one of the most promising power sources for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a sustainable fuel and the key materials that constitute the fuel cell are relatively inexpensive. This review article summarizes and discusses the past investigations on the development of alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, including the physical and chemical processes through the fuel cell structure, the electrocatalytic oxidation and electrocatalysts of ethylene glycol, the singe-cell performance, and innovative system designs.

  16. Electrocatalysts having gold monolayers on platinum nanoparticle cores, and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to gold-coated particles useful as fuel cell electrocatalysts. The particles are composed of an electrocatalytically active core at least partially encapsulated by an outer shell of gold or gold alloy. The invention more particularly relates to such particles having a noble metal-containing core, and more particularly, a platinum or platinum alloy core. In other embodiments, the invention relates to fuel cells containing these electrocatalysts and methods for generating electrical energy therefrom.

  17. Highly methanol-tolerant platinum electrocatalyst derived from poly(vinylpoyrrolidone) coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zehui; Ling, Ying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Yang, Ming

    2017-02-01

    The design and fabrication of a methanol-tolerant electrocatalyst is still one of the most important issues in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Here, we focus on the design of a cathodic electrocatalyst in DMFCs and describe a new methanol-tolerant electrocatalyst fabricated from poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) coating on platinum nanoparticles assisted by hydrogen bonding between PVP and polybenzimidazole (PBI). The PVP layer has a negligible effect on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, while the methanol oxidation reaction is retarded by the PVP layer. The PVP-coated electrocatalyst shows higher ORR activity under various methanol concentrations in the electrolyte, suggesting that the PVP-coated electrocatalyst has a higher methanol tolerance. Also, the PVP-coated electrocatalyst loses only 14% of the electrochemical surface area after 5000 potential cycles from 0.6-1.0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, indicating better Pt stability than non-coated (27%) and commercial (38%) electrocatalysts due to the unique sandwich structure formed by the PVP and PBI. The power density of the PVP-coated electrocatalyst is four to five times higher compared to non-coated and commercial electrocatalysts with 12 M methanol feeding to the anode side, respectively. PVP coating is important for the enhancement of Pt stability and methanol tolerance. This study offers a new method for preparing a low-cost and high-methanol-tolerant Pt electrocatalyst, and useful information for real DMFC application to eliminate the methanol crossover problem in the cathode side.

  18. Impregnated LaCo0.3Fe0.67Pd0.03O3-δ as a promising electrocatalyst for "symmetrical" intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Chen, Yubo; Yang, Guangming; Zhou, Wei; Tadé, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2016-02-01

    The higher cost of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) compared with the cost of conventional energy conversion devices has greatly hindered their wide application. The symmetrical SOFCs that use identical material as both cathode and anode can greatly reduce the fabrication cost. The key point for the development of symmetrical SOFCs is to find a promising electrode catalyst. Herein, we report a LaCo0.3Fe0.67Pd0.03O3-δ (LCFPd) material with superior catalytic activity under both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres due to the slight Pd-doping. An LCFPd-infiltrated Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) electrode possesses competitive oxygen reduction activity compared with a Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) cathode and exhibits even better fuel oxidation activity than the state-of-the-art Ni-SDC composite anode. In addition, the superiority of LCFPd is demonstrated through the high and stable power outputs that can be obtained from a symmetrical SOFC with an LCFPd-based electrode as both cathode and anode.

  19. Experimental methods for quantifying the activity of platinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garsany, Yannick; Baturina, Olga A; Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Kocha, Shyam S

    2010-08-01

    A tutorial is provided for methods to accurately and reproducibly determine the activity of Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells and other applications. The impact of various experimental parameters on electrocatalyst activity is demonstrated, and explicit experimental procedures and measurement protocols are given for comparison of electrocatalyst activity to fuel cell standards. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  20. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  1. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  2. High performance Pd-alone based cathodes for direct ethylene glycol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varelal, F.J.R. [Cinvestav Unidad Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico). Nanosciences and Nanotechnology Program; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire d' electrochimie et de materiaux energetiques

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the performance of a palladium (Pd) electrocatalyst prepared with the formic acid method for the oxygen reduction reaction with, and without ethylene glycols (EG) in direct ethanol glycol fuel cell (DEGFC) applications. Pd-alone electrocatalysts were synthesized and evaluated. The study showed that in the presence of EG, the Pd electrocatalyst showed full tolerance to the EG organic molecule. No current density peaks emerged during the EG oxidation reaction. The shift in onset potential for the ORR towards more negative potentials was not significant. When operating in a DEGFC at 80 degrees C, the Pd catalyst showed an improved selectivity for the ORR when compared with a commercially-prepared electrocatalyst. Results suggested that Pd-based cathodes can be used successfully in DEGFC applications. 3 refs.

  3. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...

  4. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  5. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  8. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  9. Photocatalysis for renewable energy production using PhotoFuelCells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Sfaelou, Stavroula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-27

    The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the "photoelectrocatalytic leaf", which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  10. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared using {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-10

    PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol solutions containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to {gamma}-irradiation. The water/ethylene glycol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were evaluated as synthesis parameters. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C electrocatalyst at ambient temperature and the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the preparation. (author)

  11. Electrocatalysts having platium monolayers on palladium, palladium alloy, and gold alloy core-shell nanoparticles, and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adzic, Radoslav (Setauket, NY); Mo, Yibo (Naperville, IL); Vukmirovic, Miomir (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Zhang, Junliang (Rochester, NY)

    2010-12-21

    The invention relates to platinum-coated particles useful as fuel cell electrocatalysts. The particles are composed of a noble metal or metal alloy core at least partially encapsulated by an atomically thin surface layer of platinum atoms. The invention particularly relates to such particles having a palladium, palladium alloy, gold alloy, or rhenium alloy core encapsulated by an atomic monolayer of platinum. In other embodiments, the invention relates to fuel cells containing these electrocatalysts and methods for generating electrical energy therefrom.

  12. Nanowire-based three-dimensional hierarchical core/shell heterostructured electrodes for high performance proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Madhu Sudan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Cai, Mei [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In order to effectively utilize expensive Pt in fuel cell electrocatalyst and improve the durability of PEM fuel cells, new catalyst supports with three-dimensional (3D) open structure are highly desirable. Here, we report the fabrication of a 3D core/shell heterostructure consisting tin nanowire core and carbon nanotube shell (SnC) grown directly onto fuel cell backing (here carbon paper) as Pt catalyst support for PEM fuel cells. Compared with the conventional Pt/C membrane electrode assembly (MEA), SnC nanowire-based MEA shows significantly higher oxygen reaction performance and better CO tolerance as well as excellent stability in PEM fuel cells. The results demonstrate that the core/shell nanowire-based composites are very promising supports in making cost effective and electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. (author)

  13. Copper nitride nanocubes: size-controlled synthesis and application as cathode catalyst in alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; Chen, Wei

    2011-10-05

    Copper nitride nanocubes are synthesized in a facile one-phase process. The crystal size could be tuned easily by using different primary amines as capping agents. Such Pt-free nanocrystals exhibit electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and appear to be promising cathodic electrocatalysts in alkaline fuel cells.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  15. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  16. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  17. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  18. Compact mixed-reactant fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, Michael A.; Kotzeva, Vega P.; Fish, Deborah J.; Nilsson, Eva M.

    The compact mixed-reactant (CMR) fuel cell is an important new "platform" approach to the design and operation of all types of fuel cell stacks. Amongst several other advantages, CMR has the potential to reduce polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack component costs by around a third and to raise volumetric power densities by an order of magnitude. Mixed-reactant fuel cells, in which the fuel and oxidant within a cell are allowed to mix, rely upon the selectivity of anode and cathode electrocatalysts to separate the electrochemical oxidation of fuel and reduction of oxidant. A comprehensive review of the 50-year history of mixed-reactant literature has demonstrated that such systems can perform as well as and, in some circumstances, much better than conventional fuel cells. The significant innovation that Generics has introduced to this field is to combine the concept of mixed-reactant fuel cells with that of a fully porous membrane electrode assembly (MEA) structure. Passing a fuel-oxidant mixture through a stack of porous cells allows the conventional bipolar flow-field plates required in many fuel cell designs to be eliminated. In a conventional PEM stack, for example, the bipolar carbon flow-field plates may block up to half of the active cell area and account for up to 90% of the volume of the stack and of the order of one-third of the materials costs. In addition to all the advantages of mixed-reactant systems, the "flow-through" mode, embodied in Generics' CMR approach, significantly enhances mass-transport of reactants to the electrodes and can reduce reactant pressure drops across the stack. Redesigning fuel cells to operate in a CMR mode with selective electrodes offers the attractive prospect of much reduced stack costs and significantly higher stack power densities for all types of fuel cell. Initial modeling and proof of principle experiments using an alkaline system have confirmed the validity of the CMR approach and the potential for substantial

  19. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  20. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for PEM applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev S; Lyutikova E; Fateev V [Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology Institute of Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' 1, Kurchatov sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Martemianov S [Laboratoire d Etudes Thermiques, UMR CNRS no 6608, ESIP, Universite de Poitiers 40, avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Lebouin C; Millet P [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, UMR CNRS no 8182, Universite Paris-sud XI 15, rue Georges Clemenceau, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Lebouin C [Laboratoire d Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, CNRS-INPG-UJF 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d Heres, (France)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of present study is development and investigation of nano-structured Pd-based electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation and proton reduction in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and electrolyzers. Electro-active metallic structures were obtained by chemical reduction of precursor salts (including on Vulcan XC-72 carbon carrier) using ethylene glycol with addition of formaldehyde or using borohydride. Alternatively, Pd nano-clusters have been obtained from chemical reduction of precursor salts in per-fluorinated polymer Nafion membrane. Using the synthesized Pd-based catalyst membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) have been prepared and successfully tested in single fuel and electrolysis cells. Comparison of MEAs performances based on Pt, PtPd- and Pd-based electrocatalysts were provided. The present study demonstrates the principal possibility of partial or total replacement of the Pt by the Pd on the hydrogen electrode of PEM systems. (authors)

  1. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  2. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  3. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  4. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  5. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  6. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  7. Sterion membranes in Direct Methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, J. J.; Lobato, J.; Canizares, P.; Rodrigo, M. A.; Fernandez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) has been postulated as an alternative to traditional hydrogen fed Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (H2-PEMFCs). Among their advantages, it can be pointed out the low cost of the fuel, simplicity of design, large availability, easy handling and distribution. However, there are still some challenges in this field, such as the development of electrocatalysts which can enhance the electrokinetics of methanol oxidation, the discovery of an electrolyte membrane with high conductivity and low methanol crossover at the same time and the production of methanol-tolerant electrocatalysts with high activity for oxygen reduction. So far, Nafion 117 has been the polymer membrane most widely used in DMFCs. Yet, it is well known that Nafion (Du Pont Inc.) membranes are not good barrier for methanol, so that the coulombic efficiency of Nafion-based DMFCs is significantly reduced by the chemical oxidation of methanol in the cathode. Recently, a new perfluorinated polymer with sulphonic acid groups (PFSA) has been developed, under the commercial name of Sterion (David Fuel Cell Components). As a difference as opposed to Nafion, this membrane is cast by the solution casting method, which provides a different sulphonic cluster configuration as compared to the extrusion cast Nafion membranes, which may give rise to different methanol crossover behaviour. In this work, it has been studied and analysed the suitability of Sterion in the DMFCs field. For that, it has been measured the methanol permeability of this membrane at different solute concentration and temperature, and its performance in an actual fuel cell at different operational conditions, such as methanol concentration, temperature and back pressure. Tests have been made using both oxygen and air in the cathode and half-cell potentials have been evaluated in some measurements in order to discriminate the contribution of both semi-reactions to the overall cell overvoltage. A lifetime

  8. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Huang, Tao

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  9. Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio

    This dissertation focuses on the development of nanostructured cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and their performance at low operating temperatures. Cathodes were mainly fabricated by the infiltration method, whereby electrocatalysts are introduced onto porous, ionic conducting backbones......degreeC. The most promising cathode was integrated onto an anode supported cell and it was found that the cell exhibits electrochemical stability with no measureable degradation during 1500 h operation at 700degreeC. LaCoO3 and Co3O4 infiltrated - CGO cathodes were also investigated and revealed...

  10. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  11. Fuel Cell Research at the University of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang G; Advani, Suresh G

    2006-01-27

    The grant initiated nine basic and applied research projects to improve fundamental understanding and performance of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, to explore innovative methods for hydrogen production and storage, and to address the critical issues and barriers to commercialization. The focus was on catalysis, hydrogen production and storage, membrane durability and flow modeling and characterization of Gas Diffusion Media. Three different types of equipment were purchase with this grant to provide testing and characterization infrastructure for fuel cell research and to provide undergraduate and graduate students with the opportunity to study fuel cell membrane design and operation. They are (i) Arbin Hydrogen cell testing station, (ii) MTS Alliance RT/5 material testing system with an ESPEC custom-designed environmental chamber for membrane Durability Testing and (iii) Chemisorption for surface area measurements of electrocatalysts. The research team included ten faculty members who addressed various issues that pertain to Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Production and Storage, Fuel Cell transport mechanisms. Nine research tasks were conducted to address the critical issues and various barriers to commercialization of Fuel Cells. These research tasks are subdivided in the general areas of (i) Alternative electrocatalysis (ii) Fuel Processing and Hydrogen Storage and (iii) Modeling and Characterization of Membranes as applied to Fuel Cells research.. The summary of accomplishments and approaches for each of the tasks is presented below

  12. Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toay, Leo

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

  13. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  14. Physical Chemistry Research Toward Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Campbell, Stephen A

    2013-02-07

    Hydrogen fuel cells, the most common type of which are proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), are on a rapid path to commercialization. We credit physical chemistry research in oxygen reduction electrocatalysis and theory with significant breakthroughs, enabling more cost-effective fuel cells. However, most of the physical chemistry has been restricted to studies of platinum and related alloys. More work is needed to better understand electrocatalysts generally in terms of properties and characterization. While the advent of such highly active catalysts will enable smaller, less expensive, and more powerful stacks, they will require better understanding and a complete restructuring of the diffusion media in PEMFCs to facilitate faster transport of the reactants (O2) and products (H2O). Even Ohmic losses between materials become more important at high power. Such lessons from PEMFC research are relevant to other electrochemical conversion systems, including Li-air batteries and flow batteries.

  15. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  16. Spray deposition of Nafion membranes: Electrode-supported fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Thomas; Pham, Hung Cuong; Sasaki, Kazunari; Lyth, Stephen Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells are a key technology for the successful transition towards a hydrogen society. In order to accelerate fuel cell commercialization, improvements in performance are required. Generally, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEFCs) are membrane-supported; the electrocatalyst layer is sprayed onto both sides of the membrane, and sandwiched between carbon-based gas diffusion layers (GDLs). In this work we redesign the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and fabricate an electrode-supported PEFC. First the electrocatalyst layer is sprayed onto the GDL, and then Nafion dispersion is sprayed over the top of this to form a thin membrane. This method has the advantage of simplifying the fabrication process, allowing the fabrication of extremely thin electrolyte layers (down to ∼10 μm in this case), and reducing the amount of ionomer required in the cell. Electrode-supported PEFCs operate at significantly increased power density compared to conventional membrane-supported PEFCs, with a maximum of 581 mW/cm2 at 80 °C (atmospheric pressure, air at the cathode). Impedance spectroscopy confirmed that the origin of the improved performance was an 80% reduction in the membrane resistance due the thinner Nafion layer. This novel fabrication method is a step towards cheaper, thinner, fully printable PEFCs with high power density and efficiency.

  17. Fuel Cells for Portable Power: 1. Introduction to DMFCs; 2. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    Thanks to generally less stringent cost constraints, portable power fuel cells, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) in particular, promise earlier market penetration than higher power polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for the automotive and stationary applications. However, a large-scale commercialization of DMFC-based power systems beyond niche applications already targeted by developers will depend on improvements to fuel cell performance and performance durability as well as on the reduction in cost, especially of the portable systems on the higher end of the power spectrum (100-250 W). In this part of the webinar, we will focus on the development of advanced materials (catalysts, membranes, electrode structures, and membrane electrode assemblies) and fuel cell operating concepts capable of fulfilling two key targets for portable power systems: the system cost of $5/W and overall fuel conversion efficiency of 2.0-2.5 kWh/L. Presented research will concentrate on the development of new methanol oxidation catalysts, hydrocarbon membranes with reduced methanol crossover, and improvements to component durability. Time permitted, we will also present a few highlights from the development of electrocatalysts for the oxidation of two alternative fuels for the direct-feed fuel cells: ethanol and dimethyl ether.

  18. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  19. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  20. Evaluation of assemblies based on carbon materials modified with dendrimers containing platinum nanoparticles for PEM-fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Barbosa, R.; Chapman, T.W.; Arriaga, L.G.; Godinez, Luis A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C. Parque Tecnologico Queretaro-Sanfandila, 76703 Pedro Escobedo, Qro. (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (G4OHPt) are synthesized by chemical reduction and characterized by transmission electronic microscopy. An H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} fuel cell has been constructed with porous carbon electrodes modified with the dendrimer nanocomposites. Electrochemical and physical impregnation methods of electrocatalyst immobilization are compared. The modified surfaces are used as electrodes and gas-diffusion layers in the construction of three different membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs). The MEAs have been tested in a single polymer-electrolyte membrane-fuel cell at 30 C and 20 psig. The fuel cell is, then characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, and its performance evaluated in terms of polarization curves and power profiles. The highest fuel cell performance is reached in the MEA constructed by physical impregnation method. The results are compared with a 32 cm{sup 2} prototype cell using commercial electrocatalyst operated at 80 C, obtaining encouraging results. (author)

  1. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  3. Amorphous metallic alloys for oxygen reduction reaction in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Huerta, R.; Guerra-Martinez, I.; Lopez, J.S. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Mexico City (Mexico). Lab. de Electroquimica; Pierna, A.R. [Basque Country Univ., San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environment; Solorza-Feria, O. [Inst. Politenico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) represent an important, environmentally clean energy source. This has motivated extensive research on the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of novel and stable oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for the direct four-electron transfer process to water formation. Studies have shown that amorphous alloyed compounds can be used as electrode materials in electrochemical energy conversion devices. Their use in PEMFCs can optimize the electrocatalyst loading in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this study, amorphous metallic PtSn, PtRu and PtRuSn alloys were synthesized by mechanical milling and used as cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sulphuric acid and in a single PEM fuel cell. Two different powder morphologies were observed before and after the chemical activation in a hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution at 25 degrees C. The kinetics of the ORR on the amorphous catalysts were investigated. The study showed that the amorphous metallic PtSn electrocatalyst was the most active of the 3 electrodes for the cathodic reaction. Fuel cell experiments were conducted at various temperatures at 30 psi for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and at 34 psi for oxygen (O{sub 2}). MEAs made of Nafion 115 and amorphous metallic PtSn dispersed on carbon powder in a PEMFC had a power density of 156 mW per cm{sup 2} at 0.43V and 80 degrees C. 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  4. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  5. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  6. Carbon supported nanoparticles Pt Ru (Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts) prepared using electron beam irradiation; Preparacao de nanoparticulas de PtRu suportadas em carbono (eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C) utilizando feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Celulas a Combustivel], e-mail: espinace@ipen.br, e-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    Carbon-supported Pt Ru (electrocatalysts PtRu/C nanoparticles) were prepared submitting a water/ethylene glycol mixture containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The PtRu/C electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C ETEK electrocatalyst at ambient temperature. (author)

  7. Carbon supported nanoparticles Pt Ru (Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts) prepared using electron beam irradiation; Preparacao de nanoparticulas de PtRu suportadas em carbono (eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C) utilizando feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Celulas a Combustivel], e-mail: espinace@ipen.br, e-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    Carbon-supported Pt Ru (electrocatalysts PtRu/C nanoparticles) were prepared submitting a water/ethylene glycol mixture containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The PtRu/C electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C ETEK electrocatalyst at ambient temperature. (author)

  8. Preparation of Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for application as anode in direct methanol fuel cell; Preparacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C utilizando radiacao {gamma} para aplicacao como anodo na oxidacao direta de metanol em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinace, Estevam V.; Silva, Dionisio F. da; Cruz, Victor A. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Machado, Luci D.B.; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: espinace@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    PtRu nanoparticles supported on carbon (PtRu/C electrocatalysts) were prepared submitting a water/2-propanol mixture containing the metal ions and the carbon support to gamma radiation. The water/2-propanol (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The methanol electro-oxidation was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating. In the studied conditions, the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalysts depend on the water/2-propanol ratio used in the reaction medium. (author)

  9. Fuel cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sundmacher

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Review

  10. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  11. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-12-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  12. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  13. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  16. Mass transfer in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Developments in the following areas are reported: surface area and pore size distribution in electrolyte matrices, electron microscopy of electrolyte matrices, surface tension of KOH solutions, water transport in fuel cells, and effectiveness factors for fuel cell components.

  17. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  18. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  19. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  20. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  1. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  2. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  3. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  4. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  5. Tuning Nanowires and Nanotubes for Efficient Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lv, Fan; Lei, Bo; Wan, Sheng; Luo, Mingchuan; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-12-01

    Developing new synthetic methods for the controlled synthesis of Pt-based or non-Pt nanocatalysts with low or no Pt loading to facilitate sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and organics oxidation reactions is the key in the development of fuel-cell technology. Various nanoparticles (NPs), with a range of size, shape, composition, and structure, have shown good potential to catalyze the sluggish cathodic and anodic reactions. In contrast to NPs, one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials such as nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs), exhibit additional advantages associated with their anisotropy, unique structure, and surface properties. The prominent characteristics of NWs and NTs include fewer lattice boundaries, a lower number of surface defect sites, and easier electron and mass transport for better electrocatalytic activity and lower vulnerability to dissolution, Ostwald ripening, and aggregation than Pt NPs for enhanced stability. An overview of recent advances in tuning 1D nanostructured Pt-based, Pd-based, or 1D metal-free nanomaterials as advanced electrocatalysts is provided here, for boosting fuel-cell reactions with high activity and stability, including the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), and ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). After highlighting the different strategies developed so far for the synthesis of Pt-based 1D nanomaterials with controlled size, shape, and composition, special emphasis is placed on the rational design of diverse NWs and NTs catalysts such as Pt-based NWs or NTs, non-Pt NTs, and carbon NTs with molecular engineering, etc. for enhancing the ORR, MOR, and EOR. Finally, some perspectives are highlighted on the development of more efficient fuel-cell electrocatalysts featuring high stability, low cost, and enhanced performance, which are the key factors in accelerating the commercialization of fuel-cell technology.

  6. Iron-based cathode catalyst with enhanced power density in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Eric; Jaouen, Frédéric; Lefèvre, Michel; Larouche, Nicholas; Tian, Juan; Herranz, Juan; Dodelet, Jean-Pol

    2011-08-02

    H(2)-air polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells are electrochemical power generators with potential vehicle propulsion applications. To help reduce their cost and encourage widespread use, research has focused on replacing the expensive Pt-based electrocatalysts in polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells with a lower-cost alternative. Fe-based cathode catalysts are promising contenders, but their power density has been low compared with Pt-based cathodes, largely due to poor mass-transport properties. Here we report an iron-acetate/phenanthroline/zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-derived electrocatalyst with increased volumetric activity and enhanced mass-transport properties. The zeolitic-imidazolate-framework serves as a microporous host for phenanthroline and ferrous acetate to form a catalyst precursor that is subsequently heat treated. A cathode made with the best electrocatalyst from this work, tested in H(2)-O(2,) has a power density of 0.75 W cm(-2) at 0.6 V, a meaningful voltage for polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cells operation, comparable with that of a commercial Pt-based cathode tested under identical conditions.

  7. Single-Atom Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Fu, Shaofang; Shi, Qiurong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-05-23

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing production of the sustainable and renewable energy. The limitations of electrochemical performances are closely associated with the search for highly efficient electrocatalysts with more rational control of size, shape, composition and structure. Specifically, the rapidly emerging studies on single-atom catalysts (SACs) have sparked new interests in electrocatalysis because of the unique properties such as high catalytic activity, selectivity and 100% atom utilization. In this review, we introduce the innovative synthesis and advanced characterizations of SACs and primarily focus on their electrochemical applications in oxygen reduction/evolution reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, hydrocarbon conversion reactions for fuel cells (methanol, ethanol and formic acid electrooxidation) and other related fields. Significantly, this unique single atom-depended electrocatalytic performance together with the underlying mechanism will also be discussed. Furthermore, future research directions and challenges are proposed to further realize the ultimate goal of tailoring single-atoms for electrochemical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fuel Cell Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    AD-A009 587 FUEL CELL STACKS Bernard S. Baker Energy Research Corporation Prepared for: Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center April... Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center Unclassified For- Belvoir, Virginia 22060 [15. DE.CLASSIFICATION/L.TWNOGRADING SCREOUJLE 16...the majority of effort has been directed at translating technoilogy for small comn- ponent manufacture on a laboratory scale into large size components

  9. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  10. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured palladium-based alloy electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arindam

    Low temperature fuel cells like proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are expected to play a crucial role in the future hydrogen economy, especially for transportation applications. These electrochemical devices offer significantly higher efficiency compared to conventional heat engines. However, use of exotic and expensive platinum as the electrocatalyst poses serious problems for commercial viability. In this regard, there is an urgent need to develop low-platinum or non-platinum electrocatalysts with electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) superior or comparable to that of platinum. This dissertation first investigates non-platinum, palladium-based alloy electrocatalysts for ORR. Particularly, Pd-M (M = Mo and W) alloys are synthesized by a novel thermal decomposition of organo-metallic precursors. The carbon-supported Pd-M (M = Mo, W) electrocatalyts are then heat treated up to 900°C in H2 atmosphere and investigated for their phase behavior. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements reveal that the alloying of Pd with Mo or W significantly enhances the catalytic activity for ORR as well as the stability (durability) of the electrocatalysts. Additionally, both the alloy systems exhibit high tolerance to methanol, which is particularly advantageous for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The dissertation then focuses on one-pot synthesis of carbon-supported multi-metallic Pt-Pd-Co nanoalloys by a rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal (MW-ST) method. The multi-metallic alloy compositions synthesized by the MW-ST method show much higher catalytic activity for ORR compared to their counterparts synthesized by the conventional borohydride reduction method. Additionally, a series of Pt encapsulated Pd-Co nanoparticle electrocatalysts are synthesized by the MW-ST method and characterized to understand their phase behavior, surface composition, and electrocatalytic activity for ORR. Finally, the dissertation

  12. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  13. Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles Modified with Nafion and the Application in PEM Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hao-lin; PAN Mu; MU Shi-chun; YUAN Run-zhang

    2004-01-01

    Nafion modified Pt nano-particles with size about 4 nm were synthesized.The modified particles were absorbed on the surface of carbon nanotubes and used as electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Due to the plentiful proton channels provided by the modifying Nafion ionomers, the single fuel cell with the modified Pt catalyst has a promised performance. The output was 0.282 W/cm2 with Pt loading of 0.1 mg/cm2, better than that of unmodified one, which was 0.273 W/cm2 with Pt loading of 0.11mg/cm2.

  14. Toward highly stable electrocatalysts via nanoparticle pore confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carolina; Meier, Josef C; Peinecke, Volker; Bongard, Hans; Katsounaros, Ioannis; Topalov, Angel A; Lu, Anhui; Mayrhofer, Karl J J; Schüth, Ferdi

    2012-12-19

    The durability of electrode materials is a limiting parameter for many electrochemical energy conversion systems. In particular, electrocatalysts for the essential oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) present some of the most challenging instability issues shortening their practical lifetime. Here, we report a mesostructured graphitic carbon support, Hollow Graphitic Spheres (HGS) with a specific surface area exceeding 1000 m(2) g(-1) and precisely controlled pore structure, that was specifically developed to overcome the long-term catalyst degradation, while still sustaining high activity. The synthetic pathway leads to platinum nanoparticles of approximately 3 to 4 nm size encapsulated in the HGS pore structure that are stable at 850 °C and, more importantly, during simulated accelerated electrochemical aging. Moreover, the high stability of the cathode electrocatalyst is also retained in a fully assembled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Identical location scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy (IL-SEM and IL-STEM) conclusively proved that during electrochemical cycling the encapsulation significantly suppresses detachment and agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles, two of the major degradation mechanisms in fuel cell catalysts of this particle size. Thus, beyond providing an improved electrocatalyst, this study describes the blueprint for targeted improvement of fuel cell catalysts by design of the carbon support.

  15. LDRD Final Report - In Operando Liquid Cell TEM Characterization of Nickel-Based Electrocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-07

    A commercial electrochemistry stage for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was tested to determine whether to purchase one for the microscopes at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Deposition of a nickel-based electrocatalyst was pursued as a material system for the purpose of testing the stage. The stage was found to be problematic with recurring issues in the electrical connections and vacuum sealing, which has thus far precluded a systematic investigation of the original material system. However, the electrochemical cells purchased through this FS will allow the Lawrence Fellow (Nielsen) to continue testing the stage. Furthermore, discussions with a second vendor, which released a similar electrochemical TEM stage during the course of this FS, have resulted in an upcoming longterm loan of their stage at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) for testing. In addition, low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements on nickel-bearing electrolyte solutions led to a broader EELS investigation of solvents and salt solutions. These measurements form the basis of a manuscript in preparation on EELS measurements of the liquid phase.

  16. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  17. SOME ASPECTS OF FUEL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This work provides literature data to improve solid oxide fuel cells by a direct methane fuel cell and electrode settings of uninterrupted space. The possibility of electrochemical generators SOFC as synthesis gas from natural gas. We describe progress in the creation of new nanomaterials for components SOFC and modern technologies for their manufacture. Briefly described features of the operation and use molten carbonate fuel cells and their accessories and SOFC in cogeneration system (three...

  18. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  19. Effective improvement of interface modified strontium titanate based solid oxide fuel cell anodes by infiltration with nano-sized palladium and gadolinium-doped cerium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The development of low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes by infiltration of Pd/Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO) electrocatalysts in Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STN) backbones has been investigated. Modification of the electrode/electrolyte interface by thin layer of spin-coated CGO (400-500 nm) con...

  20. Fuel cells problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive, accessible introduction to fuel cells, their applications, and the challenges they pose Fuel cells-electrochemical energy devices that produce electricity and heat-present a significant opportunity for cleaner, easier, and more practical energy. However, the excitement over fuel cells within the research community has led to such rapid innovation and development that it can be difficult for those not intimately familiar with the science involved to figure out exactly how this new technology can be used. Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions, Second Edition addresses this i

  1. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  2. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  3. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  4. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  5. Simple model to study heterogeneous electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Junior, Edison; Lopes, Ana Carolina G.; Suffredini, Hugo B.; Homem-de-Mello, Paula

    2015-01-01

    New electrocatalyst materials have been proposed to increase the performance of fuel cells. Experimental studies show that Pt and Pb metallic and oxide materials are quite efficient in the oxidation of alcohols and small organic molecules such as formic acid in advanced fuel cells. This work proposes a model for studying morphologically heterogeneous catalysts through quantum chemistry methods such as density functional calculations. For testing the model, we have experimentally studied the adsorption of small organic molecules, namely formic acid and methanol, on Pt and Pb electrodes. All methodologies we have tested can be employed for this kind of study, but M06 functional results correlate best with previous simulations of homogeneous catalysts and with experimental data obtained for homogeneous and heterogeneous electrodes. Our model indicates that the presence of a Pt-Pb interface is responsible for higher adsorption energies of these molecules, most likely due to the orientation of the organic molecules that should facilitate the oxidation process.

  6. ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF FUEL CELL ELECTRODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    optimization of fuel cell electrodes. Hydrogen oxidation and reduction, the reduction of oxygen, and the oxidation of formic acid, a soluble organic...substance, were selected for these studiees because of their relevance to fuel cell systems and because of their relative simplicity. The electrodes

  7. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  8. Glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevan Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelhos dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-supported metal nanoparticles were prepared for fuel cell applications by radiation-induced reduction of metal ions precursors. Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts (Pd:Sn atomic ratio 90:10), prepared by using electron beam irradiation, were tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC). EDX analysis showed that the Pd:Sn atomic ratio is very similar to the nominal one. X-ray diffractograms of PdSn/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd (fcc) phase. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) indicated that Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts have good activity for glycerol electro-oxidation, at room temperature. Experiments with single ADGFC were carried out from 60 to 90 deg C, using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts and glycerol 2.0 mol.L{sup -1}, as fuel. The best performance was obtained at 85 deg C, for both electrocatalysts. The Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar performance (34 mW cm{sup -2}), at 85 deg C. (author)

  9. Direct-fuelled fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidhas, M.; Drenckhahn, W.; Preidel, W.; Landes, H.

    Fuel supply is one important problem to be solved for commercial application of fuel cell technology. Conventional fuel-cell types require hydrogen as the fuel, which has to be free from impurities when operated at temperatures below 100 °C. The storage and distribution of this explosive and extremely fugitive gas is one of the open questions in the context of a customer-oriented broad commercial market. The direct-fuelled fuel cells (DMFCs) overcome the hydrogen specific restrictions. They are capable of directly using natural gas or fuels which are liquid under ambient conditions. In this paper the different options from direct-fuelled systems are described and their general aspects discussed. The state-of-the-art at Siemens in this field, and also the remaining technical questions are outlined as a basis for assessing future applications.

  10. Thermally regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, F. A.; Kindler, A.; McHardy, J.

    1991-10-01

    The three phase project was undertaken to investigate solventless ionic liquids as possible working fluids for a new type of thermally regenerative fuel cell (TRFC). The heart of the new device, invented at Hughes Aircraft Company in 1983, is an electrochemical concentration cell where acid and base streams react to produce electrical energy. Thermal energy is then used to decompose the resulting salts and regenerate the cell reactants. In principle, a TRFC can be matched to any source of thermal energy simply by selecting working fluids with the appropriate regeneration temperature. However, aqueous working fluids (the focus of previous studies) impose limitations on both the operating temperatures and the achievable energy densities. It was the need to overcome these limitations that prompted the present investigation. Specific aims were to identify possible working fluids for TRFC systems with both low and high regeneration temperatures. A major advantage of our aqueous-fluid TRFC systems has been the ability to use hydrogen electrodes. The low activation and mass transfer losses of these electrodes contribute substantially to overall system efficiency.

  11. Microfluidic platforms and fundamental electrocatalysis studies for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jamie Lee

    The fabrication and testing of a planar membraneless microchannel fuel cell, based on a silicon microchannel, is described in detail. Laminar flow of fuel and oxidant streams, one on top of the other, prevents fuel crossover while allowing ionic transport at the interface between the two solutions. By employing laminar flow, the useful functions of a membrane are retained, while bypassing its inherent limitations. The planar design maximizes the anode and cathode areas, and elimination of the membrane affords broad flexibility in the choice of fuel and oxidant. Fuels including formic acid, methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and hydrogen were tested along with oxidants such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate. Steps taken to improve voltage, current density, and overall power output have been addressed, including the testing of a dual electrolyte system and the use of micro-patterned electrode surfaces to enhance fuel utilization. As the complexity of the fuels studied in the microchannel fuel cell increased, it was imperative to characterize these fuels using electrochemical techniques prior to utilization in the fuel cell. The oxidation pathway of the liquid fuel methanol was studied rigorously because of its importance for micro-fuel cell applications. Activation energies for methanol oxidation at a Ptpoly surface were determined using electrochemical techniques, providing a benchmark for the comparison of activation energies of other Pt-based electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation at a given potential. A protocol to obtain Ea values was established in three different electrolytes and experimental parameters that influence the magnitude of these values are discussed in detail. The oxidation pathways of sodium borohydride were also examined at Au, Pt, and Pd surfaces using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. In addition to studies on bulk Ptpoly surfaces, new bulk intermetallic catalysts were

  12. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  13. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  14. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  15. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  16. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  17. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  18. Fuel-Cell Water Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan; Fisher, Caleb; Newman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The main product of a typical fuel cell is water, and many fuel-cell configurations use the flow of excess gases (i.e., gases not consumed by the reaction) to drive the resultant water out of the cell. This two-phase mixture then exits through an exhaust port where the two fluids must again be separated to prevent the fuel cell from flooding and to facilitate the reutilization of both fluids. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has designed, built, and tested an innovative fuel-cell water separator that not only removes liquid water from a fuel cell s exhaust ports, but does so with no moving parts or other power-consuming components. Instead it employs the potential and kinetic energies already present in the moving exhaust flow. In addition, the geometry of the separator is explicitly intended to be integrated into a fuel-cell stack, providing a direct mate with the fuel cell s existing flow ports. The separator is also fully scalable, allowing it to accommodate a wide range of water removal requirements. Multiple separators can simply be "stacked" in series or parallel to adapt to the water production/removal rate. GRC s separator accomplishes the task of water removal by coupling a high aspect- ratio flow chamber with a highly hydrophilic, polyethersulfone membrane. The hydrophilic membrane readily absorbs and transports the liquid water away from the mixture while simultaneously resisting gas penetration. The expansive flow path maximizes the interaction of the water particles with the membrane while minimizing the overall gas flow restriction. In essence, each fluid takes its corresponding path of least resistance, and the two fluids are effectively separated. The GRC fuel-cell water separator has a broad range of applications, including commercial hydrogen-air fuel cells currently being considered for power generation in automobiles.

  19. Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

    1987-12-31

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  20. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  1. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  2. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  3. Counter electrode electrocatalysts from one-dimensional coaxial alloy nanowires for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Tang, Qunwei; Zhang, Huihui; Meng, Yuanyuan; Yu, Liangmin; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-01-01

    Pursuit of cost-effective counter electrode (CE) electrocatalysts with no sacrifice of photovoltaic performances has been a persistent objective for advanced dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) platforms. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of CE electrocatalysts from Cu@M@Pt (M = Fe, Co, Ni) coaxial alloy nanowires for efficient DSSCs. The reasonable electrocatalytic activity is attributed to work function matching of alloy CEs to potential of I- /I3- and redistribute the electronic structure on the Pt surface. In comparison with 8.48% for the Pt nanotube CE based DSSC, the solar cells yield power conversion efficiencies up to 8.21%, 7.85%, and 7.30% using Cu@Fe@Pt, Cu@Co@Pt, and Cu@Ni@Pt NWs, respectively. This work represents an important step forward, as it demonstrates how to make the CE catalyst active and to accelerate the electron transport from CE to electrolyte for high-efficiency but cost-effective DSSC platforms.

  4. Design and Development of Membrane Electrode Assembly for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Harshal Anil

    This work aimed to characterize and optimize the variables that influence the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) preparation using design of experiment (DOE) approach. In the process of GDL preparation, the quantity of carbon support and Teflon were found to have significant influence on the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Characterization methods like surface roughness, wetting characteristics, microstructure surface morphology, pore size distribution, thermal conductivity of GDLs were examined using laser interferometer, Goniometer, SEM, porosimetry and thermal conductivity analyzer respectively. The GDLs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC under various operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH) using air as oxidant. Electrodes were prepared with different PUREBLACKRTM and poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content in the diffusion layer and maintaining catalytic layer with a Pt-loading (0.4 mg cm-2). In the study, a 73.16 wt.% level of PB and 34 wt.% level of PTFE was the optimal compositions for GDL at 70°C for 70% RH under air atmosphere. For most electrochemical processes the oxygen reduction is very vita reaction. Pt loading in the electrocatalyst contributes towards the total cost of electrochemical devices. Reducing the Pt loading in electrocatalysts with high efficiency is important for the development of fuel cell technologies. To this end, this thesis work reports the approach to lower down the Pt loading in electrocatalyst based on N-doped carbon nanotubes derived from Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIF-67) for oxygen reduction. This electrocatalyst perform with higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxygen reduction in fuel cell testing. The electrochemical properties are mainly due to the synergistic effect from N-doped carbon nanotubes derived from ZIF and Pt loading. The strategy with low Pt loading forecasts in emerging highly active and less expensive electrocatalysts in electrochemical energy devices. This

  5. The Fuel Cells Are Coming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    By the middle of next year, three hydrogen-powered buses will be roving the streets of Washington,D. C.,Los Angeles,and Chicago as part of a government-sponsored test of the effectiveness of fuel cells and alternative fuels in reducing vehicle emissions.

  6. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  7. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  8. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  9. Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    energy numbers are 2.3X and 5.7X the theoretical values for lithium thionyl chloride respectively (1100 Whr/liter and 590 Whr/kg), which has the...REPORT Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Advances in lithium primary battery technology, which serves as the...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 16-Aug-2010 Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell Report Title ABSTRACT Advances in lithium primary battery technology

  10. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  11. BIOCHEMICAL FUEL CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    used to evaluate kinetics of alcoholic fermentation . Evaluation of results indicated that 1% ethanol can be generated in 1 hour. One per cent ethanol is the minimum fuel concentration required for this system. (Author)

  12. Platinum and palladium nano-structured catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Thi, Cao Minh; Yong, Yang; Nogami, Masayuki; Ohtaki, Michitaka

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we present the synthesis and characterization of Pt, Pd, Pt based bimetallic and multi-metallic nanoparticles with mixture, alloy and core-shell structure for nano-catalysis, energy conversion, and fuel cells. Here, Pt and Pd nanoparticles with modified nanostructures can be controllably synthesized via chemistry and physics for their uses as electro-catalysts. The cheap base metal catalysts can be studied in the relationship of crystal structure, size, morphology, shape, and composition for new catalysts with low cost. Thus, Pt based alloy and core-shell catalysts can be prepared with the thin Pt and Pt-Pd shell, which are proposed in low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). We also present the survey of the preparation of Pt and Pd based catalysts for the better catalytic activity, high durability, and stability. The structural transformations, quantum-size effects, and characterization of Pt and Pd based catalysts in the size ranges of 30 nm (1-30 nm) are presented in electro-catalysis. In the size range of 10 nm (1-10 nm), the pure Pt catalyst shows very large surface area for electro-catalysis. To achieve homogeneous size distribution, the shaped synthesis of the polyhedral Pt nanoparticles is presented. The new concept of shaping specific shapes and morphologies in the entire nano-scale from nano to micro, such as polyhedral, cube, octahedra, tetrahedra, bar, rod, and others of the nanoparticles is proposed, especially for noble and cheap metals. The uniform Pt based nanosystems of surface structure, internal structure, shape, and morphology in the nanosized ranges are very crucial to next fuel cells. Finally, the modifications of Pt and Pd based catalysts of alloy, core-shell, and mixture structures lead to find high catalytic activity, durability, and stability for nano-catalysis, energy conversion, fuel cells, especially the next large-scale commercialization of next

  13. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondin de; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelho dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/CCNH/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental problems and the world growing demand for energy has mobilized the scientific community in finding of clean and renewable energy sources. In this context, fuel cells appear as appropriate technology for generating electricity through alcohols electro-oxidation. Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)-supported Pd and trimetallic PdAuSn (Pd:Au:Sn 50:10:40 atomic ratio) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by VC, Chronoamperometry, EDX, TEM and XRD. The catalytic activities of electrocatalysts toward ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) in a range temperature 60 to 90 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C: 33 mW.cm{sup -2} and 31 mW.cm{sup -2} for Pd/ MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts, respectively. X-ray diffractograms of electrocatalysts showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) and Au-rich (fcc) phases. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments showed that PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalyst demonstrated similar activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to electrocatalyst Pd/MWCNT. (author)

  14. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  15. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable of...

  16. Fuel cell vehicles: Status 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Helmolt, Rittmar; Eberle, Ulrich

    Within the framework of this paper, a short motivation for hydrogen as a fuel is provided and recent developments in the field of fuel cell vehicles are described. In particular, the propulsion system and its efficiency, as well as the integration of the hydrogen storage system are discussed. A fuel cell drivetrain poses certain requirements (concerning thermodynamic and engineering issues) on the operating conditions of the tank system. These limitations and their consequences are described. For this purpose, conventional and novel storage concepts will be shortly introduced and evaluated for their automotive viability and their potential impact. Eventually, GM's third generation vehicles (i.e. the HydroGen3) are presented, as well as the recent 4th generation Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell SUV. An outlook is given that addresses cost targets and infrastructure needs.

  17. Highly active Pt3Pb and core-shell Pt3Pb-Pt electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijin; Qi, Liang; Li, Meng; Diaz, Rosa E; Su, Dong; Adzic, Radoslav R; Stach, Eric; Li, Ju; Murray, Christopher B

    2012-03-27

    Formic acid is a promising chemical fuel for fuel cell applications. However, due to the dominance of the indirect reaction pathway and strong poisoning effects, the development of direct formic acid fuel cells has been impeded by the low activity of existing electrocatalysts at desirable operating voltage. We report the first synthesis of Pt(3)Pb nanocrystals through solution phase synthesis and show they are highly efficient formic acid oxidation electrocatalysts. The activity can be further improved by manipulating the Pt(3)Pb-Pt core-shell structure. Combined experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the high activity from Pt(3)Pb and the Pt-Pb core-shell nanocrystals results from the elimination of CO poisoning and decreased barriers for the dehydrogenation steps. Therefore, the Pt(3)Pb and Pt-Pb core-shell nanocrystals can improve the performance of direct formic acid fuel cells at desired operating voltage to enable their practical application. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Novel platinum-cobalt alloy nanoparticles dispersed on nitrogen-doped graphene as a cathode electrocatalyst for PEMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayan, Bhaghavathi P.; Nagar, Rupali; Ramaprabhu, Sundara [Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Department of Physics, IITM, Chennai (India); Rajalakshmi, Natarajan [Centre for Fuel Cell Technology, International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, ARCI, IIT Madras Research Park, Taramani, Chennai (India)

    2012-08-21

    A novel synthesis procedure is devised to obtain nitrogen-doping in hydrogen-exfoliated graphene (HEG) sheets. An anionic polyelectrolyte-conducting polymer duo is used to form a uniform coating of the polymer over graphene sheets. Pyrolysis of graphene coated with polypyrrole, a nitrogen-containing polymer, in an inert environment leads to the incorporation of nitrogen atoms in the graphene network with simultaneous removal of the polymer. These nitrogen-doped graphene (N-HEG) sheets are used as catalyst support for dispersing platinum and platinum-cobalt alloy nanoparticles synthesized by the modified-polyol reduction method, yielding a uniform dispersion of the catalyst nanoparticles. Compared to commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst, Pt-Co/N-HEG cathode electrocatalyst exhibits four times higher power density in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which is attributed to the excellent dispersion of Pt-Co alloy nanoparticles on the N-HEG support, the alloying effect of Pt-Co, and the high electrocatalytic activity of the N-HEG support. A stability study shows that Pt/N-HEG and Pt-Co/N-HEG cathode electrocatalysts are highly stable in acidic media. The study shows two promising electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which on the basis of performance and stability present the possibility of replacing contemporary electrocatalysts. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-07-01

    Identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Herein we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM based systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations.

  20. A cobalt-nitrogen complex on N-doped three-dimensional graphene framework as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yizhong; Wang, Xiaodan; Bao, Yu; Chen, Wei; Niu, Li

    2014-11-01

    The high cost and limited natural abundance of platinum hinder its widespread applications as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst for fuel cells. Carbon-supported materials containing metals such as Fe or Co as well as nitrogen have been proposed to reduce the cost without obvious lowering the performance compared to Pt-based electrocatalysts. In this work, based on the pyrolyzed corrin structure of vitamin B12 on the simultaneously reduced graphene support (g-VB12), we construct an efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalyst with very positive half-wave potential (only ~30 mV deviation from Pt/C), high selectivity (electron transfer number close to 4) and excellent durability (only 11 mV shift of the half-wave potential after 10 000 potential cycles). The admirable performance of this electrocatalyst can be attributed to the homogeneous distribution of abundant Co-Nx active sites, and a well-defined three-dimensional mesoporous structure of the N-doped graphene support. The high activity and long-term stability of the low cost g-VB12 make it a promising ORR electrocatalyst in alkaline fuel cells.The high cost and limited natural abundance of platinum hinder its widespread applications as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst for fuel cells. Carbon-supported materials containing metals such as Fe or Co as well as nitrogen have been proposed to reduce the cost without obvious lowering the performance compared to Pt-based electrocatalysts. In this work, based on the pyrolyzed corrin structure of vitamin B12 on the simultaneously reduced graphene support (g-VB12), we construct an efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalyst with very positive half-wave potential (only ~30 mV deviation from Pt/C), high selectivity (electron transfer number close to 4) and excellent durability (only 11 mV shift of the half-wave potential after 10 000 potential cycles). The admirable performance of this electrocatalyst can be attributed to the homogeneous

  1. The use of ultrasound for the fabrication of fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollet, Bruno G. [PEM Fuel Cell Research Group, Centre for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Road, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reviews the use and advantages of ultrasound for the preparation of fuel cell materials which is currently an emerging research area. The review also focuses on recent studies of ultrasonic, sonochemical and sonoelectrochemical production of noble metals and fuel cell electrocatalysts, carbon supported electrocatalysts, fuel cell electrodes and membranes. It is shown that ultrasound can be used as an effective method for producing nanosize mono- and bi-metallics (<10 nm) in the absence and presence of surfactants and alcohols. In most cases, the formation of nano-metallics is attributed to radical species (H. and OH.) generated by water sonolysis induced by cavitation whereby the nano-metallic size strongly depends upon the ultrasonic frequency and time, the type of surfactant, alcohol and atmospheric gas. It is also shown that the sonochemical production of carbon-supported mono- and bi-metallic catalysts gives excellent electrochemical activity due to surface functionalisation of the support and better dispersion induced by ultrasound. These observations are mainly due to enhanced mass-transfer caused by asymmetrical collapse of cavitation bubbles at the surface support leading to the formation of high velocity jets of liquid being directed toward its surface. This jetting, together with acoustic streaming, is thought to lead to random punctuation and disruption of the mass-transfer at the surface. (author)

  2. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  3. Electrooxidation of ethylene glycol and glycerol on Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C anodes in direct alcohol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, Andrea; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Bianchini, Claudio; Chen, Yan-Xin; Filippi, Jonathan; Fornasiero, Paolo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish; Wang, Lianqin; Vizza, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    The electrooxidation of ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol (G) has been studied: in alkaline media, in passive as well as active direct ethylene glycol fuel cells (DEGFCs), and in direct glycerol fuel cells (DGFCs) containing Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C as an anode electrocatalyst, that is, Pd nanoparticles supported on a Ni-Zn phase. For comparison, an anode electrocatalyst containing Pd nanoparticles (Pd/C) has been also investigated. The oxidation of EG and G has primarily been investigated in half cells. The results obtained have highlighted the excellent electrocatalytic activity of Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C in terms of peak current density, which is as high as 3300 A g(Pd)(-1) for EG and 2150 A g(Pd)(-1) for G. Membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA) have been fabricated using Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C anodes, proprietary Fe-Co/C cathodes, and Tokuyama A-201 anion-exchange membranes. The MEA performance has been evaluated in either passive or active cells fed with aqueous solutions of 5 wt % EG and 5 wt % G. In view of the peak-power densities obtained in the temperature range from 20 to 80 °C, at Pd loadings as low as 1 mg cm(-2) at the anode, these results show that Pd-(Ni-Zn)/C can be classified amongst the best performing electrocatalysts ever reported for EG and G oxidation.

  4. Facile and Gram-scale Synthesis of Metal-free Catalysts: Toward Realistic Applications for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Park, Ji Eun; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-03-01

    Although numerous reports on nonprecious metal catalysts for replacing expensive Pt-based catalysts have been published, few of these studies have demonstrated their practical application in fuel cells. In this work, we report graphitic carbon nitride and carbon nanofiber hybrid materials synthesized by a facile and gram-scale method via liquid-based reactions, without the use of toxic materials or a high pressure-high temperature reactor, for use as fuel cell cathodes. The resulting materials exhibited remarkable methanol tolerance, selectivity, and stability even without a metal dopant. Furthermore, these completely metal-free catalysts exhibited outstanding performance as cathode materials in an actual fuel cell device: a membrane electrode assembly with both acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The fabrication method and remarkable performance of the single cell produced in this study represent progressive steps toward the realistic application of metal-free cathode electrocatalysts in fuel cells.

  5. Facile and gram-scale synthesis of metal-free catalysts: toward realistic applications for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Park, Ji Eun; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-03-02

    Although numerous reports on nonprecious metal catalysts for replacing expensive Pt-based catalysts have been published, few of these studies have demonstrated their practical application in fuel cells. In this work, we report graphitic carbon nitride and carbon nanofiber hybrid materials synthesized by a facile and gram-scale method via liquid-based reactions, without the use of toxic materials or a high pressure-high temperature reactor, for use as fuel cell cathodes. The resulting materials exhibited remarkable methanol tolerance, selectivity, and stability even without a metal dopant. Furthermore, these completely metal-free catalysts exhibited outstanding performance as cathode materials in an actual fuel cell device: a membrane electrode assembly with both acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The fabrication method and remarkable performance of the single cell produced in this study represent progressive steps toward the realistic application of metal-free cathode electrocatalysts in fuel cells.

  6. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  7. Platinum supported on titanium-ruthenium oxide is a remarkably stable electrocatayst for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrondo, Javier; Han, Taehee; Niangar, Ellazar; Wang, Chunmei; Dale, Nilesh; Adjemian, Kev; Ramani, Vijay

    2014-01-07

    We report a unique and highly stable electrocatalyst-platinum (Pt) supported on titanium-ruthenium oxide (TRO)-for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The Pt/TRO electrocatalyst was exposed to stringent accelerated test protocols designed to induce degradation and failure mechanisms identical to those seen during extended normal operation of a fuel cell automobile-namely, support corrosion during vehicle startup and shutdown, and platinum dissolution during vehicle acceleration and deceleration. These experiments were performed both ex situ (on supports and catalysts deposited onto a glassy carbon rotating disk electrode) and in situ (in a membrane electrode assembly). The Pt/TRO was compared against a state-of-the-art benchmark catalyst-Pt supported on high surface-area carbon (Pt/HSAC). In ex situ tests, Pt/TRO lost only 18% of its initial oxygen reduction reaction mass activity and 3% of its oxygen reduction reaction-specific activity, whereas the corresponding losses for Pt/HSAC were 52% and 22%. In in situ-accelerated degradation tests performed on membrane electrode assemblies, the loss in cell voltage at 1 A · cm(-2) at 100% RH was a negligible 15 mV for Pt/TRO, whereas the loss was too high to permit operation at 1 A · cm(-2) for Pt/HSAC. We clearly show that electrocatalyst support corrosion induced during fuel cell startup and shutdown is a far more potent failure mode than platinum dissolution during fuel cell operation. Hence, we posit that the need for a highly stable support (such as TRO) is paramount. Finally, we demonstrate that the corrosion of carbon present in the gas diffusion layer of the fuel cell is only of minor concern.

  8. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, M.

    1987-01-01

    A technology development and commercial feasibility evaluation is presented for phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) applicable to electric utility operations. The correction of identified design deficiencies in the control card and water treatment subsystems is projected to be able to substantially increase average powerplant availability from the 63 percent achieved in recent field tests of a PAFC system. Current development work is proceeding under NASA research contracts at the output levels of a multimegawatt facility for electric utility use, a multikilowatt on-site integrated energy generation facility, and advanced electrocatalysts applicable to PAFCs.

  9. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  11. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  12. Modeling the performance of an ideal NaBH4-H2O2 direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Richard O.; Jackson, Gregory S.

    2014-02-01

    A 2D direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) model has been developed to explore the prospective performance of this technology, for a cell with fast selective electrocatalysts and a selective membrane. In the modeled DBFC, a Nafion membrane in the Na+ form separates flow channels with aqueous fuel (0.1-0.5 M NaBH4/4 M NaOH) and oxidizer (4 M H2O2/4 M H2SO4). Electrochemical reactions occur on catalyst-coated channel walls. The electrocatalysts are selective for complete BH4- oxidation and H2O2 reduction, the reactions have fast forward rate constants, and only Na+ and H2O cross the membrane. The model captures interfacial charge transfer reactions and complex transport in the flow channels and membrane. Results show that current density and voltage efficiency vary by >50% from inlet to outlet due to concentration boundary layer development. The BH4- concentration boundary layer limits peak power density, despite migration and fuel utilizations below 10%. Power density increases with BH4- inlet concentration and fuel flow rate, but at the expense of lower fuel utilization. Water crosses the membrane up to 14 times its production rate at the anode. Low fuel utilization and water imbalance suggest the importance of system designs with reactant recirculation and water recovery.

  13. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  14. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various thermopl......A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  15. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  16. Nitrogen-doped carbon-embedded TiO2 nanofibers as promising oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen, D.; M. A. Shenashen; El-Safty, S A; Selim, M. M.; Isago, H; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; El-Safty, A; Yamaguchi, H.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)

    2016-01-01

    The development of inexpensive and effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a substitute for commercial Pt/C catalyst is an important issue in fuel cells. In this paper, we report on novel fabrication of self-supported nitrogen-doped carbon-supported titanium nanofibers (N–TiO2@C) and carbon-supported titanium (TiO2@C) electrocatalysts via a facile electrospinning route. The nitrogen atom integrates physically and homogenously into the entire carbon–titanium structure...

  17. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Josef C; Galeano, Carolina; Katsounaros, Ioannis; Witte, Jonathon; Bongard, Hans J; Topalov, Angel A; Baldizzone, Claudio; Mezzavilla, Stefano; Schüth, Ferdi; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2014-01-01

    Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3-4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1-2 nm and 3-4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS). All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  18. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  19. Degradation modes of alkaline fuel cells and their components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomantschger, Klaus; Findlay, Robert; Hanson, Michael; Kordesch, Karl; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    The performance and life-limiting parameters of multilayer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bonded carbon air cathodes and hydrogen anodes, developed at the Institute for Hydrogen Systems (IHS) for use in low temperature alkaline electrolyte fuel cells (AFC) and batteries, were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy spectroscopy (XES), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), microcalorimetry and intrusion porosimetry techniques in conjunction with electrochemical testing methods were used to characterize electrode components, electrodes and alkaline fuel cells. The lifetime of air cathodes is mainly limited by carbon corrosion and structural degradation, while that of hydrogen anodes is frequently limited by electrocatalyst problems and structural degradation. The PTFE binder was also found to degrade in both the cathodes and the anodes. The internal resistance, which was found to generally increase in AFCs in particular between the cathode and the current collector, can be minimized by the proper choice of materials. Temperature cycling of AFCs may result in mechanical problems; however, these problems can be overcome by using AFC components with compatible thermal expansion coefficients.

  20. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  1. Advanced bifunctional electrocatalyst generated through cobalt phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate intercalated Ni2Fe-layered double hydroxides for a laminar flow unitized regenerative micro-cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haihong; Tian, Ran; Gong, Xiaoman; Li, Dianqing; Tang, Pinggui; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas; Feng, Yongjun

    2017-09-01

    We fabricated a NiFeOx/CoNy-C nanocomposite derived from CoPcTs-intercalated Ni2Fe-layered double hydroxides (Ni2Fe-CoPcTs-LDH), which served as high-efficiency, low-cost, and long-durability bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst in half-cell, and a H2-O2 laminar flow unitized regenerative micro-cell (LFURMC) in alkaline media. Based on the synergistic effect between Co-Ny and NiFeOx centers, the non-noble hybrid catalyst NiFeOx/CoNy-C achieves a ΔE (η@jOER,10 - η@jORR,-3) = 0.84 V in alkaline solution, outperforming the commercial Pt/C, and very close to that of IrOx/C. In the fuel cell mode, the performance of NiFeOx/CoNy-C with the maximum power density of 56 mW cm-2 is similar to that of Pt/C (63 mW cm-2) and IrOx/C (58 mW cm-2); in the electrolysis mode, the calculated maximum electrical power consumed on NiFeOx/CoNy-C (237 mW cm-2) is more than 3 times that on Pt/C (73 mW cm-2), similar with that of IrOx/C. More importantly, the NiFeOx/CoNy-C shows a remarkable stability in alternating modes in a LFURMC system.

  2. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  3. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  4. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  5. Polymer Materials for Fuel Cell Membranes :Sulfonated Poly(ether sulfone) for Universal Fuel Cell Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyoung-Juhn Kim

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have been spotlighted because they are clean and highly efficient power generation system. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which use reformate gases or pure H2 for a fuel, have been employed for automotives and residential usages. Also, liquid-feed fuel cells such as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) were studied for portable power generation.

  6. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  7. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don

    2001-12-01

    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  8. Highly exposed Fe-N4 active sites in porous poly-iron-phthalocyanine based oxygen reduction electrocatalyst with ultrahigh performance for air cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhababu, Ganesan; Abbas, Syed Comail; Lv, Jiangquan; Ding, Kui; Liu, Qin; Babu, Dickson D; Huang, Yiyin; Xie, Jiafang; Wu, Maoxiang; Wang, Yaobing

    2017-02-14

    Progress in the development of efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions is imperative for various energy systems such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells. In this paper, an innovative porous two-dimensional (2D) poly-iron-phthalocyanine (PFe-Pc) based oxygen reduction electrocatalyst created with a simple solid-state chemical reaction without pyrolysis is reported. In this strategy, silicon dioxide nanoparticles play a pivotal role in preserving the Fe-N4 structure during the polymerization process and thereby assist in the development of a porous structure. The new polymerized phthalocyanine electrocatalyst with tuned porous structure, improved specific surface area and more exposed catalytic active sites via the 2D structure shows an excellent performance towards an oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media. The onset potential (E = 1.033 V) and limiting current density (I = 5.58 mA cm(-2)) are much better than those obtained with the commercial 20% platinum/carbon electrocatalyst (1.046 V and 4.89 mA cm(-2)) and also show better stability and tolerance to methanol crossover. For practical applications, a zinc-air (Zn-air) battery and methanol fuel cell equipped with the PFe-Pc electrocatalyst as an air cathode reveal a high open circuit voltage and maximum power output (1.0 V and 23.6 mW cm(-2) for a methanol fuel cell, and 1.6 V and 192 mW cm(-2) for the liquid Zn-air battery). In addition, using the PFe-Pc electrocatalyst as an air cathode in a flexible cable-type Zn-air battery exhibits excellent performance with an open-circuit voltage of 1.409 V. This novel porous 2D PFe-Pc has been designed logically using a new, simple strategy with ultrahigh electrochemical performances in Zn-air batteries and methanol fuel cell applications.

  9. Fuel-Cell Drivers Wanted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Todd; Jones, Rick

    2004-01-01

    While the political climate seems favorable for the development of fuel-cell vehicles for personal transportation, the market's demand may not be so favorable. Nonetheless, middle level students will be the next generation of drivers and voters, and they need to be able to make informed decisions regarding the nation's energy and transportation…

  10. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  11. HDS for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsolami, B.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate the feasibility of developing a catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process operating under low pressure and high temperature conditions to produce a near-zero sulfur content diesel suitable for fuel cell applications. As expected, it was found that d

  12. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  13. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  14. Cell, cell, cell: fuel cell applications moving ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2001-11-01

    Developments in fuel cell technology within the last decade, such as the targeting by major automakers of non-polluting fuel cells as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, are reviewed. For example, Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver is the exclusive supplier to both DaimlerCrysler and the Ford Motor Company of the fuel cell stacks that produce the power in fuel cell systems. Ballard plans the commercial launch of transit bus engines in 2002 and automotive products between 2003 and 2005. The company also sees huge opportunities for fuel cells in stationary and portable power applications. At the same time, the Calgary-based fuel cell division of Energy Ventures Inc. is developing a direct methanol fuel cell that eliminates the intermediate step of 'reforming' methanol into hydrogen that is required in the Ballard process. Energy Ventures targets small niche markets such as small utility vehicles for its direct methanol fuel cell. A completely self-contained fuel cell of this type is expected to be ready in 2002. Solid oxide fuel cells for off-grid remote power units as well as for home heat and power is yet another field of development that will be particularly attractive to operations in remote areas where reliable grid electricity is expensive and hard to obtain. A prototype 2.3 kW residential power system using natural gas was made available by Global Thermoelectric Inc in June 2001; field testing is planned for 2002, with commercial production in late 2003 or 2004. The Calgary-based Snow Leopard Resources Inc plans to use pure hydrogen sulphide obtained from sour natural gas as a hydrogen source. The prime focus of Snow Leopard is on gas plants looking for ways to increase their efficiency, obtain carbon dioxide credits and generate electricity on site. This type of fuel cell also could be of interest to companies with shut-in sour gas since these companies could use the stationary fuel cell system to generate electricity.

  15. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  16. Evaluation of the different supported bifunctional electrocatalysts for unified regenerative cells; Evaluacion de diferentes soportes de electrocatalizadores bifuncionales para celdas regenerativas unificadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurrola, M. P.; Torres-Amaya, D. S.; Duron-Torres, S. M.; Escalante-Garcia, I. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: duronsm@prodigy.net.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Unified regenerative fuel cells (URFC) represent an alternative to normal regenerative cells, providing decreased costs and space in one single device. The challenges of these systems are even greater than those for conventional fuel cells, with the most pressing technical problem being the optimization of the oxygen electrode. The high operating potentials of these devices in the electrolyzer mode, E >1.6 V vs. ENH, limit the use of supported Pt/Vulcan electrodes. The electroactivity of Pt is not sufficient to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and at these potentials carbon-based supports undergo corrosion. In addition to studies of materials that function as bifunctional catalysts, a significant amount of research is being aimed at the search of new matrixes for use in supporting electrocatalysts for OER and ORR{sup 1,2}. This work presents the preliminary results of the kinetic study of oxygen reactions on different Pt combinations, with IrO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 2} supported by different forms of carbon and substoichiometric titanium oxide. The studies were conducted using cyclical (CV) and linear (LV) voltamperometry for OER and rotary disc electrode (RDE) for the ORR in watery H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5M solutions. The chronoamperometry (CA) technique provided information about the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. The results indicate that the performance of the electrodes supported by different forms of carbon decreases gradually as a result of corrosion when consecutive cycles of oxygen reduction and formation reactions occur. Titanium oxide provides the greatest stability to electrodes constructed on that material and thus can potentially support oxygen electrodes based on combinations of Pt, IrO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 2} as binfunctional electrocatalysts for the URFC. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible regenerativas unificadas (URFC) representan una alternativa a las celdas regenerativas normales que implica disminucion de costos y espacio en

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  18. Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells has...

  19. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  20. Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam composite as binder-free anode for a direct glucose fuel cell unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi Him A.; Leung, D. Y. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fabrication of electrocatalyst for direct glucose fuel cell (DGFC) operation involves destructive preparation methods with the use of stabilizer like binder, which may cause activity depreciation. Binder-free electrocatalytic electrode becomes a possible solution to the above problem. Binder-free bimetallic Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam plates with different Pd/Pt ratios (1:2.32, 1:1.62, and 1:0.98) are successfully fabricated through a green one-step mild reduction process producing a Pd-Pt/GO/nickel form plate (NFP) composite. Anode with the binder-free electrocatalysts exhibit a strong activity in a batch type DGFC unit under room temperature. The effects of glucose and KOH concentrations, and the Pd/Pt ratios of the electrocatalyst on the DGFC performance are also studied. Maximum power density output of 1.25 mW cm-2 is recorded with 0.5 M glucose/3 M KOH as the anodic fuel, and Pd1Pt0.98/GA/NFP as catalyst, which is the highest obtained so far among other types of electrocatalyst.

  1. Fabrication of Highly Stable and Efficient PtCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Highly Porous Carbon for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Zhao, Dan; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2016-08-17

    Boosting the durability of Pt nanoparticles by controlling the composition and morphology is extremely important for fuel cells commercialization. We deposit the Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles over high surface area carbon in different metallic molar ratios and optimize the conditions to achieve desired material. The novel bimetallic electro-catalyst {Pt-Cu/PC-950 (15:15%)} offers exceptional electrocatalytic activity when tested for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reactions. A high mass activity of 0.043 mA/μgPt (based on Pt mass) is recorded for ORR. An outstanding longevity of this electro-catalyst is noticed when compared to 20 wt % Pt loaded either on PC-950 or commercial carbon. The high surface area carbon support offers enhanced activity and prevents the nanoparticles from agglomeration, migration, and dissolution as evident by TEM analysis.

  2. A High Power Density, High Efficiency Hydrogen-Chlorine Regenerative Fuel Cell with a Low Precious Metal Content Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Huskinson, Brian; Rugolo, Jason; Mondal, Sujit K.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the performance of a hydrogen-chlorine electrochemical cell with a chlorine electrode employing a low precious metal content alloy oxide electrocatalyst for the chlorine electrode: (Ru_0.09Co_0.91)_3O_4. The cell employs a commercial hydrogen fuel cell electrode and transports protons through a Nafion membrane in both galvanic and electrolytic mode. The peak galvanic power density exceeds 1 W cm^-2, which is twice previous literature values. The precious metal loading of the chlorin...

  3. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...... temperature allows for utilization of the excess heat for fuel processing. Moreover, it provides an excellent CO tolerance of several percent, and the system needs no purification of hydrogen from a reformer. Continuous service for over 6 months at 150°C has been demonstrated....

  4. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  5. Rapid evaluation of the electrooxidation of fuel compounds with a multiple-electrode setup for direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Naoko; Siroma, Zyun; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Kazuaki

    Electrochemical oxidation of fuel compounds in acidic media was examined on eight electrodes (Pt, Ru, PtRu, Rh, Ir, Pd, Au, and glassy carbon) simultaneously by multiple cyclic voltammetry (CV) with an electrochemical cell equipped with an eight-electrode configuration. Direct-type polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), in which aqueous solutions of the fuel compounds are directly supplied to the anode, were also evaluated. The performances of direct PEFCs with various anode catalysts could be roughly estimated from the results obtained with multiple CV. This multiple evaluation may be useful for identifying novel fuels or electrocatalysts. Methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, 2-propanol, and D-glucose were oxidized selectively on Pt or PtRu, as reported previously. However, several compounds that are often used as reducing agents show electrochemical oxidation with unique characteristics. Large current was obtained for the oxidation of formic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and phosphorous acid on a Pd electrode. L-Ascorbic acid and sulfurous acid were oxidized on all of the electrodes used in the present study.

  6. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fuel cell ( SOFC ) technology has been of great interest over many years due to its...All Rights Reserved iii ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell ( SOFC ) technology has been of great interest over many years due to its... Fuel Cell (PAFC) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) This classification in fuel cells broadly depends on the type

  7. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Operation With Dual Fuel Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    oxygen PAFC Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell PEMFC Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell PDS Propane Desulfurization System ppm parts per million psig...range of power outputs. In addition , instantaneous and on-load fuel switching from natural gas to propane and back was demonstrated without loss of...issues that required additional investigation included identifying the number and volume of propane tanks needed and a vaporization sys- tem to

  8. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-05-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H2 O2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-05-16

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines1, 2, 3, 4. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number5. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes6. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  10. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  11. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-09

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  12. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  13. Fuel cells for electrochemical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hayre, Ryan P.

    2017-07-01

    This short article provides an overview of fuel cell science and technology. This article is intended to act as a "primer" on fuel cells that one can use to begin a deeper investigation into this fascinating and promising technology. You will learn what fuel cell are, how they work, and what significant advantages and disadvantages they present.

  14. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  15. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters c...

  16. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  17. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  18. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  19. Factors affecting the performance of microbial fuel cells for sulfur pollutants removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Rahunen, Nelli; Varcoe, John R; Roberts, Alexander J; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio; Thumser, Alfred E; Slade, Robert C T

    2009-03-15

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed for removal of sulfur-based pollutants and can be used for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation. This fuel cell uses an activated carbon cloth+carbon fibre veil composite anode, air-breathing dual cathodes and the sulfate-reducing species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. 1.16gdm(-3) sulfite and 0.97gdm(-3) thiosulfate were removed from the wastewater at 22 degrees C, representing sulfite and thiosulfate removal conversions of 91% and 86%, respectively. The anode potential was controlled by the concentration of sulfide in the compartment. The performance of the cathode assembly was affected by the concentration of protons in the cation-exchanging ionomer with which the electrocatalyst is co-bound at the three-phase (air, catalyst and support) boundary.

  20. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  1. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  2. Metal-Organic-Framework-Derived Dual Metal- and Nitrogen-Doped Carbon as Efficient and Robust Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts for Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haolin; Cai, Shichang; Xie, Shilei; Wang, Zhengbang; Tong, Yexiang; Pan, Mu; Lu, Xihong

    2016-02-01

    A new class of dual metal and N doped carbon catalysts with well-defined porous structure derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed as a high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) device based on the as-prepared Ni/Co and N codoped carbon as air cathode catalyst achieves a maximum power density of 4335.6 mW m(-2) and excellent durability.

  3. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/c and PdRh/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) and bimetallic PdRh (Pd:Rh 90:10 atomic ratio) (PdRh/C) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The morphology and composition of the obtained materials were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Chronoamperometry (CA), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activities of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in a range temperature of 50 to 85 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C (25 mW.cm{sup -2}) and 75 deg C (38 mW.cm{sup -2}) for Pd/C and PdRh/C electrocatalysts, respectively. The XRD of the PdRh/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) phase. CV and CA experiments showed that PdRh/C electrocatalyst demonstrated superior activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to Pd/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  4. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  5. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  6. Noble metal-free hydrazine fuel cell catalysts: EPOC effect in competing chemical and electrochemical reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Chinchilla, Jean; Asazawa, Koichiro; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Strasser, Peter

    2011-04-13

    We report the discovery of a highly active Ni-Co alloy electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrazine (N(2)H(4)) and provide evidence for competing electrochemical (faradaic) and chemical (nonfaradaic) reaction pathways. The electrochemical conversion of hydrazine on catalytic surfaces in fuel cells is of great scientific and technological interest, because it offers multiple redox states, complex reaction pathways, and significantly more favorable energy and power densities compared to hydrogen fuel. Structure-reactivity relations of a Ni(60)Co(40) alloy electrocatalyst are presented with a 6-fold increase in catalytic N(2)H(4) oxidation activity over today's benchmark catalysts. We further study the mechanistic pathways of the catalytic N(2)H(4) conversion as function of the applied electrode potential using differentially pumped electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). At positive overpotentials, N(2)H(4) is electrooxidized into nitrogen consuming hydroxide ions, which is the fuel cell-relevant faradaic reaction pathway. In parallel, N(2)H(4) decomposes chemically into molecular nitrogen and hydrogen over a broad range of electrode potentials. The electroless chemical decomposition rate was controlled by the electrode potential, suggesting a rare example of a liquid-phase electrochemical promotion effect of a chemical catalytic reaction ("EPOC"). The coexisting electrocatalytic (faradaic) and heterogeneous catalytic (electroless, nonfaradaic) reaction pathways have important implications for the efficiency of hydrazine fuel cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  8. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  9. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  10. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  11. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  13. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  14. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  15. STAGING OF FUEL CELLS - PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Per Onnerud; Suresh Sriramulu

    2002-08-29

    TIAX has executed a laboratory-based development program aiming at the improvement of stationary fuel cell systems. The two-year long development program resulted in an improved understanding of staged fuel cells and inorganic proton conductors through evaluation of results from a number of laboratory tasks: (1) Development of a fuel cell modeling tool--Multi-scale model was developed, capable of analyzing the effects of materials and operating conditions; and this model allowed studying various ''what-if'' conditions for hypothetically staged fuel cells; (2) Study of new high temperature proton conductor--TIAX discovery of a new class of sulfonated inorganics capable of conducting protons when exposed to water; and study involved synthesis and conductivity measurements of novel compounds up to 140 C; (3) Electrochemical fuel cell measurements--the feasibility of staged fuel cells was tested in TIAX's fuel cell laboratories experimental design was based on results from modeling.

  16. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  17. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  18. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  19. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  20. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-17

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells.

  1. Doped Graphene as Non-Metallic Catalyst for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana MARINOIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming a commercial development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, a low cost, sustainable and high performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR with capability to replace/reduce rare metals, are high desirable. In this paper, we present a class of doped graphene, namely iodinated graphene with highly ORR electrochemical performances, synthesized by using the electrophilic substitution method. The prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS, Raman spectroscopy, surface area measurement by BET method, that revealed the structure and morphology. The most highly iodinated graphene was tested in a single cell by measuring the cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical performances were evaluated and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, when a single cathodic peak at 0.2 V with a current density of – 3.67 mA cm-2 for the Pt/C electrode was obtained. The best electrochemical performances in terms of electrochemical active area, was obtained for a new concept of cathode composed from Pt/C – iodine doped graphene, when a well-defined peak centred at 0.23 V with a current density of approx. – 9.1 mA cm-2 was obtained, indicating a high catalytic activity for ORR.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16216

  2. High-activity PtRuPd/C catalyst for direct dimethyl ether fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wen, Xiaodong; Wu, Gang; Chung, Hoon T; Gao, Rui; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-06-22

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for direct-feed fuel cells but lack of an efficient DME oxidation electrocatalyst has remained the challenge for the commercialization of the direct DME fuel cell. The commonly studied binary PtRu catalyst shows much lower activity in DME than methanol oxidation. In this work, guided by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, a ternary carbon-supported PtRuPd catalyst was designed and synthesized for DME electrooxidation. DFT calculations indicated that Pd in the ternary PtRuPd catalyst is capable of significantly decreasing the activation energy of the CO and CH bond scission during the oxidation process. As evidenced by both electrochemical measurements in an aqueous electrolyte and polymer-electrolyte fuel cell testing, the ternary catalyst shows much higher activity (two-fold enhancement at 0.5 V in fuel cells) than the state-of-the-art binary Pt50 Ru50 /C catalyst (HiSPEC 12100).

  3. Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells for cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. F.; Chen, R.; An, L.; Li, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) have received ever-increasing attentions due to the enhanced electrochemical kinetics and the absence of precious metal electrocatalysts, and thus great progress has been made in recent years. The alkaline anion exchange membrane based direct alcohol fuel cells, one type of alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells utilizing liquid alcohols as fuel that can be obtained from renewable biomass feedstocks, is another attractive point due to its ability to provide electricity with cogeneration of valuable chemicals. Significant development has been made to improve the selectivity towards high added-value chemicals and power output in the past few years. This review article provides a general description of this emerging technology, including fuel-cell setup and potential reaction routes, summarizes the products, performance, and system designs, as well as introduces the application of this concept in the removal of heavy-metal ions from the industrial wastewater. In addition, the remaining challenges and perspectives are also highlighted.

  4. Oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation behaviour of SiC based Pt nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Research with proton exchange membrane fuel cells has demonstrated their important potential as providers of clean energy. The commercialization of this type of fuel cell needs a breakthrough in electrocatalyst technology to reduce the relatively large amount of noble metal platinum used...... with the present carbon based substrates. We have recently examined suitably sized silicon carbide (SiC) particles as catalyst supports for fuel cells based on the stable chemical and mechanical properties of this material. In the present study, we have continued our work with studies of the oxygen reduction...... and methanol oxidation reactions of SiC supported catalysts and measured them against commercially available carbon based catalysts. The deconvolution of the hydrogen desorption signals in CV cycles shows a higher contribution of Pt (110) & Pt (111) peaks compared to Pt (100) for SiC based supports than...

  5. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  6. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  7. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies...... to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...

  8. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  9. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  10. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  11. Anionic Regulated NiFe (Oxy)Sulfide Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo-Quan; Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Tang, Cheng; Cui, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    The construction of active sites with intrinsic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance to overcome the limited efficiency of abundant sustainable energy devices such as fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and in water splitting. Anionic regulation of electrocatalysts by modulating the electronic structure of active sites significantly promotes OER performance. To prove the concept, NiFeS electrocatalysts are fabricated with gradual variation of atomic ratio of S:O. With the rise of S content, the overpotential for water oxidation exhibits a volcano plot under anionic regulation. The optimized NiFeS-2 electrocatalyst under anionic regulation possesses the lowest OER overpotential of 286 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and the fastest kinetics being 56.3 mV dec(-1) to date. The anionic regulation methodology not only serves as an effective strategy to construct superb OER electrocatalysts, but also enlightens a new point of view for the in-depth understanding of electrocatalysis at the electronic and atomic level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  13. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  14. Durability study of PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.F.; Yuan, X.Z.; Martin, J.J.; Wang, H.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation; Bi, X.T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Pei, P.C.; Huang, H.Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Technical challenges limit the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM) for use in stationary applications and transport. These include: on-board storage and infrastructure for hydrogen fuel as well as the fuel cell system itself; high costs; and, durability under a wide range of operational conditions. Durability is defined as the maximum service life of a fuel cell system with no more than 10 per cent loss in efficiency at the end of life. This paper presented a literature review and analysis in order to provide a unified definition of PEM fuel cell service life when operated at either steady state or dynamic load conditions. The paper presented an analysis of different operating conditions and the dependence of PEM fuel cell durability on the operating condition. The paper also reviewed durability studies of the different components of a PEM fuel cell, and also examined various degradation mechanisms. These included: load or thermal cycles; fuel or oxidant starvation; high or low humidification levels; and, reformate or simulated reformed gases as fuels. A relationship between the accelerated service life of a PEM fuel cell and the real service life was then developed. To obtain real service life under normal testing conditions, statistical models based on accelerated service life data were illustrated. It was concluded that the service life of a fuel cell and its components is a function of more than one or two variables. 46 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. National fuel cell seminar. Program and abstracts. [Abstracts of 40 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (WHK)

  16. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  17. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  18. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  19. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  1. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-15

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  2. Relevance of the nature of bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in the presence of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus Cantoblanco (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Rojas, S.; Terreros, P.; Pena, M.A.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ocon, P.; de Frutos, A.; Figueroa, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus Cantoblanco (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    A series of carbon supported PtAu electrocatalysts has been prepared. The performance of the samples in the methanol oxidation reaction and in the oxygen reduction reaction has been investigated by means of electrochemical techniques. The combined process, oxygen reduction reaction in the presence of methanol, has also been studied by electrochemical methods and in a single-cell. Irrespective of the performance of the samples in the oxygen reduction reaction, the ones displaying poor activity in the methanol oxidation reaction are the optimum cathode electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell applications. The role of Au was found to be dependent on the actual nature of the catalyst. When alloyed, the role of Au on the methanol oxidation reaction is negligible. This is the first time that Au is being proposed as a component of methanol resistant cathode electrocatalysts. (author)

  3. Development of solid oxide fuel cells; Desenvolvimento de celulas a combustivel do tipo oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, Jaime S.; Alencar, Marcelo Goncalves F. de; Amaral, Alexandre Alves do; Benedicto, Joao Paulo Santos; Silva, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2006-07-01

    Fuel cells allow the energy production without the thermodynamic restriction of the conversion of heat into work. Among their various types, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), operating at high temperatures, allow the methane conversion into electricity directly on the anode. The main element of the SOFC is the structure A/E/C: anode/electrolyte/cathode, all sintered at high temperature as resistant ceramic materials. Dense electrolyte (YSZ: zirconia stabilized for Yttria) separates the anode (Ni+Co/YSZ: cobalt promoted nickel, supported on YSZ) and cathode (LSM: strontium-doped lanthanum manganite), both with porosity obtained by graphite addition. To obtain suitable A/E/C pellets, the layer sintering with appropriate mechanical and textural characteristics is essential, requiring excellent electric junctions between them. The cell performance has been evaluated between 850 and 950 degree C, using hydrogen or methane fuel; the tension and current for different resistance values in the electrical circuit have been measured. The cobalt addition to the cell anode significantly increased its activity for the reform reaction. The beneficial effect was probably due to the easier nickel reduction in cobalt presence. This work had the objectives of developing and evaluating electro-catalysts, as well as the solid oxide fuel cells using these catalysts as anode. Five SOFC models (SOFC 1 to SOFC 5) are described; all of them were developed aiming at improving the preparation of the anode/electrolyte/cathode structure (A/E/C). (author)

  4. Electronic modification of Pt via Ti and Se as tolerant cathodes in air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiwei; Habrioux, Aurélien; Morais, Cláudia; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    We reported herein on the use of tolerant cathode catalysts such as carbon supported Pt(x)Ti(y) and/or Pt(x)Se(y) nanomaterials in an air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cell. In order to show the improvement of mixed-reactant fuel cell (MRFC) performances obtained with the developed tolerant catalysts, a classical Pt/C nanomaterial was used for comparison. Using 5 M methanol concentration in a situation where the fuel crossover is 100% (MRFC-mixed reactant fuel cell application), the maximum power density of the fuel cell with a Pt/C cathodic catalyst decreased by 80% in comparison with what is observed in the laminar flow fuel cell (LFFC) configuration. With Pt(x)Ti(y)/C and Pt(x)Se(y)/C cathode nanomaterials, the performance loss was only 55% and 20%, respectively. The evaluation of the tolerant cathode catalysts in an air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell suggests the development of a novel nanometric system that will not be size restricted. These interesting results are the consequence of the high methanol tolerance of these advanced electrocatalysts via surface electronic modification of Pt. Herein we used X-ray photoelectron and in situ FTIR spectroscopies to investigate the origin of the high methanol tolerance on modified Pt catalysts.

  5. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  6. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  7. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  8. Regulation of Power Conversion in Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Mu-zhong; ZHANG J.; K. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Here we report a regulation about power conversion in fuel cells. This regulation is expressed as that total power produced by fuel cells is always proportional to the square of the potential difference between the equilibrium potential and work potential. With this regulation we deduced fuel cell performance equation which can describe the potential vs. the current performance curves, namely, polarization curves of fuel cells with three power source parameters: equilibrium potential E0; internal resistance R; and power conversion coefficient K. The concept of the power conversion coefficient is a new criterion to evaluate and compare the characteristics and capacity of different fuel cells. The calculated values obtained with this equation agree with practical performance of different types of fuel cells.

  9. Fuel cells - Fundamentals and types: Unique features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, J. R.

    An overview of the working principles, thermodynamic efficiencies, types, and engineering aspects of fuel cells is presented. It is noted that fuel cells are distinguished from other direct energy conversion devices by the existence of charge separation at the electrodes involving ions in an electrolyte. The electrical energy produced by a fuel cell is shown to be equal to the change in the free energy of the reactants, and thermodynamic balances of reactions in different fuel cells are provided. The production of electricity in the discharge mode involves a spontaneous reaction of overproduction of electrons at the anode and consumption of the electrons at the cathode, with the total ionic current being equal to the electronic current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the operations and problems of acid, alkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells, in addition to applications of electro-organic fuel cells.

  10. Commercialization of fuel cells: myth or reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junye

    2014-01-01

    Despite huge investment and efforts in the last decades, fuel cells are still known as a fledgling industry after 170 years of the first fuel cell. It becomes clear that these investment and efforts did not address the critical questions. Why upscaling of fuel cells failed often when many researchers stated their successes in small scale? Why the fuel cells with simpler structure still lag far from the internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines? Could the current investment of the hydrogen infrastructure reduce substantially the fuel cell cost and make a breakthrough to the key issues of durability, reliability and robustness? In this paper, we study these fundamental questions and point out a must-way possible to reduce cost of fuel cells and to substantially improve durability and reliability.

  11. Molecular Modeling and Experimental Study of Electrocatalytic and Transport Processes in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-15

    21 FIGURE 20. CYCLIC VOLTAMETRY CURVES FOR CARBON, LA,-xMN 1-YO3-8, PT, ...... 23 FIGURE 21. TOPOGRAPHIC IMAGES OF...a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Cyclic voltametry measurements were conducted using a Solartron 1287 Electrochemical Interface and 1260 Impedance...electrocatalysts. Materials Minimum Energy Barrier I Maximum Energy Barrier / eV eV LaMnO3 1.45 33.8 LaFeO3 0.84 4.08 Pt 0.38 2.38 Cyclic voltametry tests were

  12. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  13. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Su Jang; Dong Sam Park

    2009-01-01

    Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of m...

  14. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  15. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  16. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  17. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  18. Dual-radial cell thermionic fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Charles W.

    A dual-radial cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) has been proposed and partially evaluated. The cell has the capacity to produce considerably more power per gram of fuel than does a single-cell TFE, with a total electrical power in a fast reactor system of several hundred kWs, conservatively operated.

  19. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  20. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  1. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells...... to a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology....

  2. DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots E2S2 Conference May 7, 2009 Rob Hardison LMI rhardison@lmi.org Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and fuel cells offer potential „green‟ solutions •DLA‟s efforts to measure and improve viability of fuel cells DoD is supporting long term solutions

  3. PEM fuel cell testing and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiujun

    2013-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Testing and Diagnosis covers the recent advances in PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems, focusing on instruments and techniques for testing and diagnosis, and the application of diagnostic techniques in practical tests and operation. This book is a unique source of electrochemical techniques for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of fuel cells. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are currently considered the most promising clean energy-converting devices for stationary, transportation, and micro-power applications due to their

  4. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  5. Platinum supported on titanium–ruthenium oxide is a remarkably stable electrocatayst for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrondo, Javier; Han, Taehee; Niangar, Ellazar; Wang, Chunmei; Dale, Nilesh; Adjemian, Kev; Ramani, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique and highly stable electrocatalyst—platinum (Pt) supported on titanium–ruthenium oxide (TRO)—for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The Pt/TRO electrocatalyst was exposed to stringent accelerated test protocols designed to induce degradation and failure mechanisms identical to those seen during extended normal operation of a fuel cell automobile—namely, support corrosion during vehicle startup and shutdown, and platinum dissolution during vehicle acceleration and deceleration. These experiments were performed both ex situ (on supports and catalysts deposited onto a glassy carbon rotating disk electrode) and in situ (in a membrane electrode assembly). The Pt/TRO was compared against a state-of-the-art benchmark catalyst—Pt supported on high surface-area carbon (Pt/HSAC). In ex situ tests, Pt/TRO lost only 18% of its initial oxygen reduction reaction mass activity and 3% of its oxygen reduction reaction-specific activity, whereas the corresponding losses for Pt/HSAC were 52% and 22%. In in situ-accelerated degradation tests performed on membrane electrode assemblies, the loss in cell voltage at 1 A · cm−2 at 100% RH was a negligible 15 mV for Pt/TRO, whereas the loss was too high to permit operation at 1 A · cm−2 for Pt/HSAC. We clearly show that electrocatalyst support corrosion induced during fuel cell startup and shutdown is a far more potent failure mode than platinum dissolution during fuel cell operation. Hence, we posit that the need for a highly stable support (such as TRO) is paramount. Finally, we demonstrate that the corrosion of carbon present in the gas diffusion layer of the fuel cell is only of minor concern. PMID:24367118

  6. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  7. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  8. Mathematical modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ruy; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.

    Fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been receiving more and more attention. Modeling plays an important role in the development of fuel cells. In this paper, the state-of-the-art regarding modeling of fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane is reviewed. Modeling has allowed detailed studies concerning the development of these cells, e.g. in discussing the electrocatalysis of the reactions and the design of water-management schemes to cope with membrane dehydration. Two-dimensional models have been used to represent reality, but three-dimensional models can cope with some important additional aspects. Consideration of two-phase transport in the air cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell seems to be very appropriate. Most fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel. Besides safety concerns, there are problems associated with production, storage and distribution of this fuel. Methanol, as a liquid fuel, can be the solution to these problems and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are attractive for several applications. Mass transport is a factor that may limit the performance of the cell. Adsorption steps may be coupled to Tafel kinetics to describe methanol oxidation and methanol crossover must also be taken into account. Extending the two-phase approach to the DMFC modeling is a recent, important point.

  9. Noble metal aerogels-synthesis, characterization, and application as electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Herrmann, Anne-Kristin; Bigall, Nadja C; Rodriguez, Paramaconi; Wen, Dan; Oezaslan, Mehtap; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Metallic and catalytically active materials with high surface area and large porosity are a long-desired goal in both industry and academia. In this Account, we summarize the strategies for making a variety of self-supported noble metal aerogels consisting of extended metal backbone nanonetworks. We discuss their outstanding physical and chemical properties, including their three-dimensional network structure, the simple control over their composition, their large specific surface area, and their hierarchical porosity. Additionally, we show some initial results on their excellent performance as electrocatalysts combining both high catalytic activity and high durability for fuel cell reactions such as ethanol oxidation and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Finally, we give some hints on the future challenges in the research area of metal aerogels. We believe that metal aerogels are a new, promising class of electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and will also open great opportunities for other electrochemical energy systems, catalysis, and sensors. The commercialization of PEFCs encounters three critical obstacles, viz., high cost, insufficient activity, and inadequate long-term durability. Besides others, the sluggish kinetics of the ORR and alcohol oxidation and insufficient catalyst stability are important reasons for these obstacles. Various approaches have been taken to overcome these obstacles, e.g., by controlling the catalyst particle size in an optimized range, forming multimetallic catalysts, controlling the surface compositions, shaping the catalysts into nanocrystals, and designing supportless catalysts with extended surfaces such as nanostructured thin films, nanotubes, and porous nanostructures. These efforts have produced plenty of excellent electrocatalysts, but the development of multisynergetic functional catalysts exhibiting low cost, high activity, and high durability still faces great challenges. In this

  10. Proceedings of the Queen's-RMC Fuel Cell Research Centre fuel cell technology day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Queen's-RMC Fuel Cell Research Centre was formed to conduct research on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells as well as fuel processing and hydrogen production and storage technologies. The centre focuses on the development of manufacturing methods, mathematical modelling, catalysis and reaction engineering, and computational thermodynamics. The fuel cell technology day provided a forum for research leaders from various institutions to discuss recent studies related to PEM and SOFC fuel cells. Issues related to materials and system degradation in fuel cells were discussed along with recent developments in the micro-engineering of SOFC cathodes. Commercialization plans for megawatt fuel cells were also discussed, and recent spectroscopy and voltammetry studies of PEM fuel cells were presented. A panel discussion was also held to determine research directions for the future. The technology day featured 7 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  11. Micro solid oxide fuel cell at ARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, P.; Rho, H. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A fuel cell generates electricity by electrochemically converting chemical energy to electrical energy. The basic components of a fuel cell are the electrolyte, anode, cathode and current collectors. The Alberta Research Council has developed a design and manufacturing process for a high volumetric density Micro Solid Oxide Tubular fuel cell with a diameter of less than 5 mm. The advantage of this newly developed fuel cell is that the power per unit volume is increased significantly because the power of a fuel cell is directly proportional to the electrolyte surface area. The fuel cell also has quick start up. Calculations show that a decrease in tube diameter from 22 mm to 2 mm will increase the electrolyte surface area in a stack by approximately 8 times. The thin wall of the Micro Solid Oxide Fuel Cell has a very high thermal shock resistance and low thermal mass. These are 2 basic characteristics needed to reduce start up and turn off time for the solid oxide fuel cell system (SOFC). The added advantage of high volumetric power is that smaller devices can be fabricated for portable applications. Samples were manufactured using a sequential electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method used to fabricate complex shapes and microstructures. Single cell SOFCs were made using EPD with an electrolyte thickness of less than 10 {mu}m. The cell power was found to be comparable to standard tubular SOFC but with a lower production cost. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-08-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  13. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  14. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  15. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    such an opportunity. Some knowledge about the electrooxidation of DME is available, together with its limited use in low temperature PEM fuel cells, where the low temperature poses an obstacle in the form of phase separation in the fuel supply, making the cells less effective and reducing the amount of power...... harvested from the cells. This is completely avoided at the elevated temperatures with the additional benefit of increased kinetics. In the presented work an experimental setup for testing direct dimethyl ether high temperature fuel cells is described, proposing a novel design of an evaporator for a burst...... evaporated liquid stream supply to either of the electrodes. A large number of MEAs with different component compositions have been prepared and tested in different conditions using the constructed setups to obtain a basic understanding of the nature of direct DME HT-PEM FC, to map the processes occurring...

  16. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  17. A compact CO selective oxidation reactor for solid polymer fuel cell powered vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudfield, C. D.; Chen, R.; Adcock, P. L.

    Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) are attractive as electrical power plants for vehicle applications since they offer the advantages of high efficiency, zero emissions, and mechanical robustness. Hydrogen is the ideal fuel, but is currently disadvantaged for automotive applications by the lack of refuelling infrastructure, bulky on-board storage, and safety concerns. On-board methanol reforming offers an attractive alternative due to its increased energy storage density. Since CO is always present as a by-product during the reforming reaction, it must be reduced to a level less than 20 ppm in order to avoid rapid deactivation of the platinum electro-catalyst in the fuel cells. In this paper, a compact CO selective oxidation unit based upon two coated aluminium heat exchangers, developed at Loughborough University, is reported. The geometric size of the whole unit is 4 litre and experimental results show that the selective oxidation unit can reduce the CO from up to 2% to less than 15 ppm and is suitable for a vehicle fuel cell power plant of 20 kW e.

  18. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  19. Integrated regenerative fuel cell experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of an integrated regenerative fuel cell (IRFC) concept. The IRFC consists of a separate fuel cell unit and electrolysis cell unit in the same structure, with internal storage of fuel cell product water and external storage of electrolysis cell produced hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell unit incorporates an enhanced Orbiter-type cell capable of improved performance at reduced weight. The electrolysis cell features a NiCo2O4 catalyst oxygen evolution eletrode with a porous Teflon cover to retard electrolyte loss. Six complete IRFC assemblies were assembled and performance tested at an operating temperature of 200 F (93.3 C) and reactant pressures up to 170 psia (117.2 n/cu cm) on IRFC No. 4. Anomalous pressure charge/discharge characteristics were encountered during performance evaluation. A reversible fuel cell incorporating a proprietary bi-functional oxygen electrode operated satisfactory at 200 F (93.3 C) at reactant pressures up to 50 psia (41.4 n/cu cm) as a regenerative fuel cell for one cycle, before developing an electrical short in the fuel cell mode. Electrolysis cell 300-hour endurance tests demonstrated the electrolyte retention capability of the electrode Teflon cover and the performance stability of the bi-functional oxygen electrode at high potential.

  20. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.; Prokopius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented both for multimegawatt systems for electric utility applications and for multikilowatt systems for on-site integrated energy system applications. Improving fuel cell performance, reducing cost, and increasing durability are the technology drivers at this time. Electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, and fuel selection are discussed.

  1. An ex-situ and in-situ evaluation of carbides as potential electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Erich

    One of the most prominent challenges facing the commercialization of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of its electrocatalyst components, particularly the anode. The anode typically requires a high loading of precious metal electrocatalyst (Pt-Ru) to obtain a useful amount of electrical energy from the electrooxidation of methanol (CH3OH). The complete electrooxidation of methanol on these catalysts produces strongly adsorbed CO on the surface, which reduces the activity of Pt. The presence of Ru in these electrocatalysts assists with the decomposition of H2O to more efficiently remove the poisoning CO species as CO2(g). The primary disadvantage of these electrocatalyst components is the scarcity and consequently high price of both Pt and Ru. A series of surface science studies ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) have identified molybdenum and tungsten carbide materials as potential alternative DMFC anode electrocatalysts. Both of these materials demonstrated activity towards the decomposition of methanol and water molecules. The purpose of this research was to extend these investigations by the synthesis and characterization of more realistic carbide materials. This was accomplished by a combination of surface science and electrochemical experiments. The electrochemical studies were performed both in-situ and ex-situ in order to better address the "materials gap" and "pressure gap" that often separate findings in UHV studies from results in more realistic environments. Thin film surfaces of molybdenum carbide could be produced on various carbon substrates in a vacuum system by physical vapor deposition (PVD). When modified with low coverages of Pt, MoC phase molybdenum carbides were found to be more active towards the electrooxidation of hydrogen in an acidic electrolyte than Ptmodified carbon substrates in cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies. These surfaces demonstrated a limited range of electrochemical stability in this acid solution. Mo2C surfaces have

  2. Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, E.B. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

  3. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  4. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  5. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  6. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  7. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  8. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  9. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  10. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  11. What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Martin; Brodd, Ralph J

    2004-10-01

    Electrochemical energy conversion devices are pervasive in our daily lives. Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices. They are all based on the fundamentals of electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics. All three are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems. Neither batteries, fuel cells nor electrochemical capacitors, by themselves, can serve all applications.

  12. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a station

  13. Organic fuel cell methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A liquid organic, fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  14. Corrosion free phosphoric acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Maynard K.

    1990-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell with an electrolyte fuel system which supplies electrolyte via a wick disposed adjacent a cathode to an absorbent matrix which transports the electrolyte to portions of the cathode and an anode which overlaps the cathode on all sides to prevent corrosion within the cell.

  15. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  16. Fuel cell and membrane therefore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aindow, Tai-Tsui

    2016-08-09

    A fuel cell includes first and second flow field plates, and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode between the flow field plates. A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is arranged between the electrodes. At least one of the flow field plates influences, at least in part, an in-plane anisotropic physical condition of the PEM that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM has an in-plane physical property that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM is oriented with its high value direction substantially aligned with the high value direction of the flow field plate.

  17. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  18. Probe beam deflection studies of nanostructured catalyst materials for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, G; Bruno, M M; Planes, G A; Rodriguez, J L; Barbero, C A; Pastor, E

    2008-11-28

    Probe beam deflection (PBD) techniques, both as cyclic voltadeflectometry (CVD) and chronodeflectometry (CD), were applied for the first time to the study of the electrochemistry of nanostructured Pt materials which are commonly used as electrocatalysts in fuel cells. The electrochemical surface reactions, including faradaic processes, double layer charging and specific anion adsorption were easily detected. Quantitative analysis of the chronodeflectometric data made possible to elucidate the dynamics of double layer charging in such materials and to determine the potential of zero charge (pzc) of the metal present either as a monolithic mesoporous material or as metal nanoparticles supported on carbon. The electro-oxidation of CO, adsorbed on nanostructured Pt, was also studied by CVD and CD being able to detect the formation of CO2 and H3O+ related with the nucleation and growth process which controls the rate of CO stripping. The interplay of Pt oxide formation and COad electrooxidation, both in potential and time, was detected indicating possible application of the technique to other electrocatalysts.

  19. Foaming-electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanis, L.; Saunders, A. P.

    1970-01-01

    Foam structure feeds fuel gas solution into electrolyte. Fuel gas reacts at static, three-phase interface between fuel gas, electrolyte, and electrode material. The foam forms an electrical contact between main body of electrolyte and the electrode, and aids in removal of by-products of the chemical reaction.

  20. Electrocatalysts Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Aqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuhong; Khan, Inayat Ali; Zhao, Dan

    2017-07-28

    Electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries have been extensively studied in recent decades for their excellent conversion efficiency, high energy capacity, and low environmental impact. However, sluggish kinetics of the oxygen-related reactions at air cathodes, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are still worth improving. Noble metals such as platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir), ruthenium (Ru) and their oxides are considered as the benchmark ORR and OER electrocatalysts, but they are expensive and prone to be poisoned due to the fuel crossover effect, and may suffer from agglomeration and leaching after long-term usage. To mitigate these limits, it is highly desirable to design alternative ORR/OER electrocatalysts with prominent performance. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous crystalline materials consisting metal ions/clusters coordinated by organic ligands. Their crystalline structure, tunable pore size and high surface area afford them wide opportunities as catalytic materials. This Review covers MOF-derived ORR/OER catalysts in electrochemical energy conversion, with a focus on the different strategies of material design and preparation, such as composition control and nanostructure fabrication, to improve the activity and durability of MOF-derived electrocatalysts. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M. [Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  2. Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

  3. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  4. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  5. Elaboration and study of fuel cell according to solid polymer electrolyte technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novel-Cattin, F.

    1990-10-23

    A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell was built in an attempt to develop a pilot scale fuel cell of a few kW. These fuel cells were based on a polymeric ion exchange membrane commercialized by Dupont de Nemours under the trademark NAFION 117. This work consists in part of the development of different test cells, for electrodes of surface area from 1 to 25 cm{sup 2}. Different types of porous electrodes were also used containing platinum as the electro-catalyst, in the synthesis of composite electrode-membrane electrode ensembles. Different methods of electrode manufacture are detailed in this thesis. These electrodes were characterized by their current potential behaviour under stationary conditions. Different analysis technics, such as the microprobe and electronic microscopy were used. The electrode structure was studied using impedance spectroscopy. A full factorial optimization program was developed in order to optimize the performance of some of these electrodes. The use of the thermoplastic form of the membrane was used as a mean of incorporating the electrodes into the membrane. The transport of water coupled to proton migration across the membrane was also measured. (author). 82 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs., 11 curves., 14 schemes., 2 appends.

  6. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    The carbonate fuel cell promises highly efficient, cost-effective and environmentally superior power generation from pipeline natural gas, coal gas, biogas, and other gaseous and liquid fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has been engaged in the development of this unique technology, focusing on the development of the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC{reg_sign}). The DFC{reg_sign} design incorporates the unique internal reforming feature which allows utilization of a hydrocarbon fuel directly in the fuel cell without requiring any external reforming reactor and associated heat exchange equipment. This approach upgrades waste heat to chemical energy and thereby contributes to a higher overall conversion efficiency of fuel energy to electricity with low levels of environmental emissions. Among the internal reforming options, FuelCell Energy has selected the Indirect Internal Reforming (IIR)--Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) combination as its baseline design. The IIR-DIR combination allows reforming control (and thus cooling) over the entire cell area. This results in uniform cell temperature. In the IIR-DIR stack, a reforming unit (RU) is placed in between a group of fuel cells. The hydrocarbon fuel is first fed into the RU where it is reformed partially to hydrogen and carbon monoxide fuel using heat produced by the fuel cell electrochemical reactions. The reformed gases are then fed to the DIR chamber, where the residual fuel is reformed simultaneously with the electrochemical fuel cell reactions. FuelCell Energy plans to offer commercial DFC power plants in various sizes, focusing on the subMW as well as the MW-scale units. The plan is to offer standardized, packaged DFC power plants operating on natural gas or other hydrocarbon-containing fuels for commercial sale. The power plant design will include a diesel fuel processing option to allow dual fuel applications. These power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed power

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... and discussed in the following. Parallel acquisition using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to detect possible minor differences in the supply of gas to the individual cells, which is important when going to high fuel utilizations. The fuel flow distribution was determined and provides...... carried out on an experimental 14-cell SOFC stack at varying frequencies and fuel utilizations. The results illustrated that THD can be used to detect increasing non-linearities in the current-voltage characteristics of the stack when the stack suffers from fuel starvation by monitoring the stack sum...

  8. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector....... Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention....... The most common type of fuel cell used for automotive applications is PEM fuel cell. They are known for their high efficiency, low emissions and high reliability. However, lack of a hydrogen infrastructure, cost and durability of the stack is considered the biggest obstacles to the introduction of fuel...

  9. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  10. Development and optimization of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, D.; Vigues, N.; Sanchez, O.; Garrido, L.; Tomas, N.; Mas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Genetica y Microbiologia; Esquivel, J.P.; Sabate, N.; Del Campo, F.J.; Munoz, F.J. [Inst. de Microelectronica de Barcelona-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    While global energy demand increases daily, fossil fuel sources are being depleted at an unsustainable pace. Fuel cells represent a solution as they are more efficient than other energy sources. A microbial fuel cell is an electrochemical device capable of continuously converting chemical energy into electrical energy for as long as adequate fuel and oxidant are available. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) adds the benefit of converting chemical energy from organic compounds, such as simple carbohydrates or organic waste matter, into electricity by using bacteria as biocatalysts. This article described the effect of several parameters that affect the operation of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The study is based on a methodology utilized in previous studies which employed escherichia coli as biocatalyst and neutral red as the electron mediator in a mediated electron transfer (MET) microbial fuel cell. The study analysed the influence of the bacterial concentration, the effective area of electrode and the volume of the cell. It was concluded that there is a proportional energy production to the bacterial concentration present in the anode compartment. It was demonstrated that an increase in the volume of the cell negatively affects the power produced by the cells. 8 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  11. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  12. Characterisation of porous carbon electrode materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via gas adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt-Smith, M. J.; Rigby, S. P.; Ralph, T. R.; Walsh, F. C.

    Porous carbon materials are typically used in both the substrate (typically carbon paper) and the electrocatalyst supports (often platinised carbon) within proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Gravimetric nitrogen adsorption has been studied at a carbon paper substrate, two different Pt-loaded carbon paper electrodes and three particulate carbon blacks. N 2 BET surface areas and surface fractal dimensions were determined using the fractal BET and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill models for all but one of the materials studied. The fractal dimensions of the carbon blacks obtained from gas adsorption were compared with those obtained independently by small angle X-ray scattering and showed good agreement. Density functional theory was used to characterise one of the carbon blacks, as the standard BET model was not applicable.

  13. Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

    1999-06-01

    Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are

  14. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  15. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  16. Preparation method of Ni@Pt/C nanocatalyst affects the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell: Improved power density and increased catalytic oxidation of borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem; Mahmoodi, Raana

    2017-08-15

    The Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were synthesized using two different methods: with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and without SDS. The metal loading in synthesized nanocatalysts was 20wt% and the molar ratio of Ni: Pt was 1:1. The structural characterizations of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts toward BH4(-) oxidation in alkaline medium was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni@Pt/C electrocatalyst synthesized without SDS has superior catalytic activity toward borohydride oxidation (22016.92AgPt(-1)) in comparison with a catalyst prepared in the presence of SDS (17766.15AgPt(-1)) in NaBH4 0.1M at 25°C. The Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) used in fuel cell set-up was fabricated with catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The effect of Ni@Pt/C catalysts prepared with two methods as anode catalyst on the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell was studied. The maximum power density was obtained using Ni@Pt/C catalyst synthesized without SDS at 60°C, 1M NaBH4 and 2M H2O2 (133.38mWcm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  18. Improved durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells by introducing Sn (IV) oxide into electrodes using an ion exchange method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, M. G.; Larsen, M. J.; Andersen, S. M.

    2017-03-01

    Electrodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs), consisting of catalyst-coated gas diffusion layers, were subjected to an optimized ion exchange procedure, in which tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were introduced into them. Both methanol and sulfuric acid were tested as ion exchange solvents. SnO2 has previously been shown to exhibit radical scavenging abilities towards radicals inside the electrocatalyst layers. Its presence inside the electrodes was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. After exposure to an accelerated stress test in a three-electrode setup, the electrodes containing SnO2 were found to have retained approximately 73.0% of their original Pt, while only 53.2% was retained in electrodes treated identically, but without Sn. Similarly, the SnO2-treated electrodes also experienced a smaller loss in electrochemical surface area in comparison to before the accelerated stress test. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) constructed with a SnO2-containing anode was evaluated over 500 h. The results showed remarkably reduced OCV decay rate and end of test hydrogen crossover compared to the control MEA, indicating that SnO2 aids in impeding membrane thinning and pinhole formation. The results point toward a positive effect of SnO2 on fuel cell durability, by reducing the degradation of the membrane as well as of the ionomer in the electrocatalyst layer.

  19. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  20. Highly cost-effective and sulfur/coking resistant VOx-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles as an efficient anode catalyst for direct conversion of dry sour methane in solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.; Yan, N.; Vincent, A.; Singh, A.; Hill, J.M.; Chuang, K. T.; Luo, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we show that grafted metal oxide can be a highly cost-effective and active anode for solid oxide fuel cells for sour methane conversion. The developed electro-catalyst was composed of vanadium oxide grafted TiO2 nanoparticles (VOx/TiO2) infiltrated into a porous La0.4Sr0.5Ba0.1TiO3+δ e

  1. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  2. Micro PEM Fuel Cells and Stacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-shing; Hsieh

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The effects of different operating parameters on micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance were experimentally studied for three different flow field configurations (interdigitated,mesh,and serpentine).Experiments with different cell operating temperatures and different backpressures on the H2 flow channels,as well as various combinations of these parameters,have been conducted for three different flow geometries.The micro PEM fuel cells were designed and fabricated in-house t...

  3. The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby Macdonald

    2005-04-15

    The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

  4. Shortcut model for water-balanced operation in fuel processor fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Kramer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a fuel processor, a hydrocarbon or oxygenate fuel is catalytically converted into a mixture rich in hydrogen which can be fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. In these fuel processor fuel cell systems (FPFCs), water is recovered from the exhaust gases and recycled back into the system. We

  5. Method for Making a Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Setlock, John A. (Inventor); Farmer, Serene C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack comprising individual bi-electrode supported fuel cells in which an electrolyte layer is supported between porous electrodes. The porous electrodes may be made from graded pore ceramic tape that has been created by the freeze cast method followed by freeze-drying. Each piece of graded pore tape later becomes a graded pore electrode scaffold that, subsequent to sintering, is made into either an anode or a cathode. The electrode scaffold comprising the anode includes a layer of liquid metal. The pores of the electrode scaffolds gradually increase in diameter as the layer extends away from the electrolyte layer. As a result of this diameter increase, any forces that would tend to pull the liquid metal away from the electrolyte are reduced while maintaining a diffusion path for the fuel. Advantageously, the fuel cell of the invention may utilize a hydrocarbon fuel without pre-processing to remove sulfur.

  6. Non-Precious Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media: Latest Achievements on Novel Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Brouzgou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature fuel cells (LTFCs are considered as clean energy conversion systems and expected to help address our society energy and environmental problems. Up-to-date, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is one of the main hindering factors for the commercialization of LTFCs, because of its slow kinetics and high overpotential, causing major voltage loss and short-term stability. To provide enhanced activity and minimize loss, precious metal catalysts (containing expensive and scarcely available platinum are used in abundance as cathode materials. Moreover, research is devoted to reduce the cost associated with Pt based cathode catalysts, by identifying and developing Pt-free alternatives. However, so far none of them has provided acceptable performance and durability with respect to Pt electrocatalysts. By adopting new preparation strategies and by enhancing and exploiting synergetic and multifunctional effects, some elements such as transition metals supported on highly porous carbons have exhibited reasonable electrocatalytic activity. This review mainly focuses on the very recent progress of novel carbon based materials for ORR, including: (i development of three-dimensional structures; (ii synthesis of novel hybrid (metal oxide-nitrogen-carbon electrocatalysts; (iii use of alternative raw precursors characterized from three-dimensional structure; and (iv the co-doping methods adoption for novel metal-nitrogen-doped-carbon electrocatalysts. Among the examined materials, reduced graphene oxide-based hybrid electrocatalysts exhibit both excellent activity and long term stability.

  7. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  8. Micro-fuel cell power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. [Center for Meso, Micro, and Nano Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-222, Livermore, CA 94550, (United States)

    2007-01-19

    This paper presents a review and discussion of micro-fuel cell technologies, providing insight into the innovations that have been made to date. Discussion of concepts and results leading towards increased levels of integration and performance for micro-fuel cell systems will elucidate the potential of thin film and microfabrication methods in meeting the challenges and requirements necessary for consumer applications. While the amount of literature in this area is substantial, a representative sampling of key developments will be presented in this paper, in order to gain a sense of the design methodologies being implemented for micro-fuel cell power sources. (Author)

  9. Business Case for Fuel Cells 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016. This list is by no means exhaustive. Over the past few decades, hundreds of thousands of fuel cells have been installed around the world, for primary or backup power, as well as in various other applications including portable and emergency backup power. Fuel cells have also been deployed in other applications such as heat and electricity for homes and apartments, material handling, passenger vehicles, buses, and remote, off-grid sites.

  10. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  11. Preparation and characterisation of tin dioxide electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tountian, C.D.; Poillerat, G.; Nkeng, P. [Laboratoire d' electrochimie et de chimie physique de corps solide, Strasbourg (France); Menard, H. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Electrochimie et Electrocatalyse

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted in which tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) was used as a support for electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH). This support then became a conductor by doping. The electrocatalysts used in this study were palladium (Pb) nanoparticles. Tin dioxide is an n-type semiconductor used in many applications such as solar cells, crystals displays, electrochromic devices, gas sensor and electrode material for electrooxidation of organic or inorganic pollutants in wastewaters. It is chemically stable and has good mechanical strength. The electrocatalyst SnO{sub 2}-based powders were synthesised using a sol-gel technique in order to obtain electrocatalysts in which Pd was in a metallic form. This paper described the preparation of the electrocatalysts of SnO{sub 2} by the polymeric precursor decomposition method. The electrocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micrography (SEM) along with electrical studies in order to determine their physical proprieties before their use for ECH of phenol and cyclohexanol. The hydrogenation of phenol and cyclohexanol used as a model system was carried out in a dynamic cell in which the electrocatalyst composite powder was in continuous contact with a porous disc of reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. This study revealed that the use of these electrocatalysts is a promising new path because SnO{sub 2} obtained is thermodynamically stable.10 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  13. Opportunities for portable Ballard Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, H.H.; Huff, J.R. [Ballard Power Systems Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    With the increasing proliferation and sophistication of portable electronic devices in both commercial and military markets, the need has arisen for small, lightweight power supplies that can provide increased operating life over those presently available. A solution to this power problem is the development of portable Ballard Fuel Cell power systems that operate with a hydrogen fuel source and air. Ballard has developed PEM fuel cell stacks and power systems in the 25 to 100 watt range for both of these markets. For military use, Ballard has teamed with Ball Corporation and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. and has provided the Ballard Fuel Cell stack for an ambient PEM fuel cell power system for the DoD. The system provides power from idle to I 00 watts and has the capability of delivering overloads of 125 watts for short periods of time. The system is designed to operate over a wide range of temperature, relative humidity and altitude. Hydrogen is supplied as a compressed gas, metal hydride or chemical hydride packaged in a unit that is mated to the power/control unit. The hydrogen sources provide 1.5, 5 and 15 kWh of operation, respectively. The design of the fuel cell power system enables the unit to operate at 12 volts or 24 volts depending upon the equipment being used. For commercial applications, as with the military, fuel cell power sources in the 25 to 500 watt range will be competing with advanced batteries. Ambient PEM fuel cell designs and demonstrators are being developed at 25 watts and other low power levels. Goals are minimum stack volume and weight and greatly enhanced operating life with reasonable system weight and volume. This paper will discuss ambient PEM fuel cell designs and performance and operating parameters for a number of power levels in the multiwatt range.

  14. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Scott; M. Mamlouk

    2006-01-01

    One of the major issues limiting the introduction of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is the low temperature of operation which makes platinum-based anode catalysts susceptible to poisoning by the trace amount of CO, inevitably present in reformed fuel. In order to alleviate the problem of CO poisoning and improve the power density of the cell, operating at temperature above 100 ℃ is preferred. Nafion(R) -type perfluorosulfonated polymers have been typically used for PEMFC. However, the conductivity of Nafion(R) -type polymers is not high enough to be used for fuel cell operations at higher temperature ( > 90 ℃) and atmospheric pressure because they dehydrate under these condition.An additional problem which faces the introduction of PEMFC technology is that of supplying or storing hydrogen for cell operation,especially for vehicular applications. Consequently the use of alternative fuels such as methanol and ethanol is of interest, especially if this can be used directly in the fuel cell, without reformation to hydrogen. A limitation of the direct use of alcohol is the lower activity of oxidation in comparison to hydrogen, which means that power densities are considerably lower. Hence to improve activity and power output higher temperatures of operation are preferable. To achieve this goal, requires a new polymer electrolyte membrane which exhibits stability and high conductivity in the absence of liquid water.Experimental data on a polybenzimidazole based PEMFC were presented. A simple steady-state isothermal model of the fuel cell is also used to aid in fuel cell performance optimisation. The governing equations involve the coupling of kinetic, ohmic and mass transport. This paper also considers the advances made in the performance of direct methanol and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells and considers their limitations in relation to the source and type of fuels to be used.

  15. PRELIMINARY IN-SITU X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE EXAMINATION OF PT/C AND PTCO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS IN AN OPERATIONAL POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, B.T.; Myers, D.J.; Smith, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art polymer electrolyte fuel cells require a conditioning period to reach optimized cell performance. There is insuffi cient understanding about the behavior of catalysts during this period, especially with regard to the changing environment of the cathode electrocatalyst, which is typically Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/C). The purpose of this research was to record preliminary observations of the changing environment during the conditioning phase using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XAFS was recorded for a Pt/C cathode at the Pt L3-edge and a PtCo/C cathode at both the Pt L3-edge and Co K-edge. Using precision machined graphite cell-blocks, both transmission and fl uorescence data were recorded at Sector 12-BM-B of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source. The fl uorescence and transmission edge steps allow for a working description of the changing electrocatalyst environment, especially water concentration, at the anode and cathode as functions of operating parameters. These features are discussed in the context of how future analysis may correlate with potential, current and changing apparent thickness of the membrane electrode assembly through loss of catalyst materials (anode, cathode, carbon support). Such direct knowledge of the effect of the conditioning protocol on the electrocatalyst may lead to better catalyst design. In turn, this may lead to minimizing, or even eliminating, the conditioning period.

  16. Activity and stability studies of platinized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as fuel cell electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish;

    2015-01-01

    A non-covalent functionalization for multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been used as an alternative to the damaging acid treatment. Platinum nanoparticles with similar particle size distribution have been deposited on the surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The interaction between...... platinum nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid is studied and its electrochemical stability investigated. This study reveals the existence of a platinum-support interaction and leads to three main conclusions. First, the addition of 1-pyrenecarboxylic......-term stability by as much as 20%. Third, post-mortem microscopy analysis showed a surprising effect. During the electrochemical stability investigations concerned with carbon corrosion it was found that the multi-walled carbon nanotubes were undergoing severe structural change, transforming finally into carbon...

  17. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, S.; Lin, K.; Malladi, S.R.K.; Lu, Y.; Sun, S.; Xu, Q.; Steinberger-Wilckens, R.; Dong, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support

  18. Pt supported on nanosized oxides for electrocatalyst used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banu, N.; Serban, E. C.; Marinescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    showed a 20-56 nm particle diameter interval. The electrochemical activity of the obtained structures was measured by cyclic voltammetry where high double layer capacity and low electrocatalytic activity has been identified. Large double layer capacity recommends Pt coated SiO(2) and TiO(2) toward...

  19. Fundamentals and Bioengineering of Enzymatic Fuel Cells. Part 1. Bioengineering of Enzymes as Electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Knowles, P. F.; Mcpherson, M. J. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1994.269,25095-25105. (36) Betancor, L.; Fuentes , M.; Dellamora- Ortiz, G.; Lopez...the energy computation. A total of 48,150 rotamers were finally obtained. Combinatorial Optimization of Protein Sequence A standard Monte Carlo

  20. Electrocatalysts and their Supporting Materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Activity and Durability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permyakova, Anastasia Aleksandrovna

    instruments: TEM (FEI Tecnai T20 G2), EDS, AFM, XRD (PANalytical Multipurpose Diffractometer) and FTIR-IR. Chapter 3 describes the results of synthesis and testing of the Pt nanoparticulate catalyst supported by PBI wrapped Graphene for oxygen reduction reaction in PEMFCs. The physiochemical material...

  1. Develop high activity, low cost non-PGM fuel cell electrocatalyst and stable supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Gaillard, J. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-09-28

    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFC. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into Metallic Organic Framework (MOF) catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of FePhen@MOF catalysts have been synthesized with varying [Fe] to investigate the effect on electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties. The magnitude of the FeII/III redox couple and the electrochemical surface area are analyzed to determine if there is a correlation between [Fe] and the ORR onset potential and/or the relative number of active sites.

  2. Fuel cells. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    Fuel cell applications, components, fabrication, design, catalysts, and chemistry are covered. The citations discuss different types of fuel cells such as hydrogen oxygen cells, hydrocarbon air cells, and biochemical cells.

  3. Carbon oxides free fuel processing for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tushar V.

    Fuel processing represents a very important aspect of fuel cell technology. The widespread utilization of fuel cells will only be possible if CO x-free hydrogen producing technologies are developed. Towards this objective, step-wise reforming of hydrocarbons and catalytic decomposition of ammonia were investigated for hydrogen production. Also, novel Au-based catalysts were synthesized for preferentially eliminating CO in the presence of excess hydrogen. The step-wise reforming of hydrocarbons was investigated for production of CO-free hydrogen for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Proof of concept pulse reactor experiments employing Ni-based catalysts clearly showed the feasibility of the cyclic step-wise reforming process for clean hydrogen production. Under optimum conditions the CO content in the hydrogen was found to be less than 20 ppm by this process (a large amount of CO is obtained as a by-product from conventional methods of hydrogen production). The step-wise reforming process thus greatly simplifies fuel reforming, as expensive and circuitous post-reforming hydrogen purification processes are eliminated. The process was profoundly influenced by the operating temperature, space velocity and nature of the catalyst support. Catalytic ammonia decomposition was investigated for COx-free hydrogen production for alkaline fuel cells. These studies revealed that Ru, Ir and Ni-based catalysts were active for the process with Ru being the most active and Ni the least. The catalyst supports played a decisive role in determining the ammonia decomposition activity. Partial pressure dependence studies of the reaction rate on model Ir (100) catalysts yielded a positive order (0.9 +/- 0.l) with respect to ammonia and negative order (-0.7 +/- 0.l) with respect to hydrogen. The negative order with respect to hydrogen was attributed to the enhancement in the reverse of the ammonia decomposition reaction in the presence of surface hydrogen atoms. Novel nano-Au catalysts

  4. Fuel cells: A handbook (Revision 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Stauffer, D.B.; Engleman, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of reaction directly into electrical energy. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode (negative electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric current. A fuel cell, although having similar components and several characteristics, differs from a typical battery in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device, that is, the maximum energy that is available is determined by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself. Thus, the battery will cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device which theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

  5. What happens inside a fuel cell? Developing an experimental functional map of fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Kucernak, Anthony R; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C; Brandon, Nigel P; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-09-10

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an 'experimental functional map' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models.

  6. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  7. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  8. Environmental Impact of Fuel Cell Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, N.T.; Day, M.J. [Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [T.H.Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Shemilt, J.E. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells potentially offer environmental benefits when compared to conventional technology but it is important to consider the full environmental impact including the manufacturing and disposal steps. This paper describes a case study that compares the energy requirements for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fabrication routes. The results show that that, when compared to the benefits during use, the associated environmental impact is relatively small. Therefore the choice of manufacturing routes will have little effect on the overall advantage of implementing Fuel Cell systems. The total environmental impact of fuel cell fabrication will also include the production of materials. This could contribute a large share of the total environmental burden, however it could be minimised by adopting a design that allows the materials to be recycled in an efficient manner. (author)

  9. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  10. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  11. Direct formate fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-07-01

    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  12. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  13. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  14. Synthesis of platinum nanoparticle electrocatalysts by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubers, Alia Marie

    successful hydrogen pumping catalysts, comparable to a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Synthesized Pt/C materials were also used as PEMFC catalysts. We found the ALD catalysts with lower platinum loading to be competitive with a commercial fuel cell catalyst, especially when exhibiting similar platinum particle characteristics. The functionalized carbon helped produce smaller and more dispersed platinum particles; however, it encouraged carbon corrosion within an electrode, severing electrical connections and lowering energy production. The most suitable chemistry for competitive Pt/C catalysts was produced by platinum ALD on unmodified carbon using hydrogen as a reactant. ALD is a promising method for fabricating electrocatalysts, which could help fuel cells become an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels.

  15. Investigation of thermal and electrochemical degradation of fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei; Ruthkosky, Martin S.; Merzougui, Belabbes; Swathirajan, Swathy; Balogh, Michael P.; Oh, Se H.

    A significant problem hindering large-scale implementation of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the loss of performance during extended operation and automotive cycling. Recent investigations of the deterioration of cell performance have revealed that a considerable part of the performance loss is due to the degradation of the electrocatalyst. In this study, an attempt is made to experimentally simulate the degradation processes such as carbon corrosion and platinum (Pt) surface area loss using an accelerated thermal sintering protocol. Two types of Tanaka fuel cell catalyst samples were heat-treated at 250 °C in humidified helium (He) gas streams and several oxygen (O 2) concentrations. The catalysts were then cycled electrochemically in pellet electrodes to determine the hydrogen adsorption (HAD) area and its evolution in subsequent electrochemical cycling. Samples that had undergone different degrees of carbon corrosion and Pt sintering were characterized for changes in carbon mass, active Pt surface area, BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) surface area, and Pt crystallite size. Studies of the effect of oxygen and water concentration on two Tanaka catalysts, dispersed on carbon supports with varying BET areas, revealed that carbon oxidation in the presence of Pt follows two pathways: an oxygen pathway that leads to mass loss due to formation of gaseous products, and a water pathway that results in mass gains, especially for high BET area supports. These processes may be assisted by the formation of highly reactive OH and OOH type radicals. Platinum surface area loss, measured at varying oxygen concentrations and as a function of sintering time using X-ray diffraction (XRD), CO chemisorption, and electrochemical hydrogen adsorption, reveal an important role for carbon corrosion rather than an increase in Pt particle size for the surface area loss. Platinum surface area loss during 10 h of thermal degradation was equivalent to electrochemical

  16. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  17. Cost-effective counter electrode electrocatalysts from iron@palladium and iron@platinum alloy nanospheres for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Huihui; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-11-01

    Pursuit of cost-effective counter electrode (CE) electrocatalysts with no sacrifice of photovoltaic performances has been a persistent objective for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here we demonstrate the galvanic replacement realization of cost-effective CEs from Fe@M (M = Pd, Pt) nanospheres for DSSCs. Due to the enhanced catalytic activity originated from compressive strain and extended surface in tuning the electronic structure of Pd (or Pt) shell along with competitive dissolution reaction of Fe with electrolyte, the cells with high durability display efficiencies of 8.74% and 7.22%. The impressive results along with simple synthesis highlight the potential application of Fe@M nanospheres in robust DSSCs.

  18. A High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Model for Reformate Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mamlouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using polybenzimidazole (PBI membranes is described. The model considers mass transport through a thin film electrolyte covering the catalyst particles as well as through the porous media. The incorporation of a thin film model describing reactant gas mass transport through electrolyte covering the electrocatalyst is shown to be an essential requirement for accurate simulation. The catalyst interface is represented using a macrohomogeneous model. The influence of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, which would be present in a reformate gas, is considered in terms of the effect on the anode polarisation/kinetics behaviour. The model simulates the influence of operating conditions, cell parameters, and fuel gas compositions on the cell voltage current density characteristics. The model gives good predictions of the effect of oxygen and air pressures on cell behaviour and correctly simulates the mass transport behaviour of the cell. The model with reformate gas shows that additional voltage losses associated with CO poisoning can lead to loss in voltage of tens of mV and thus reduction in power.

  19. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  20. Microcontroller-driven hydrogen fuel cell car

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Hugo; Lafuente, António; Sepúlveda, João; Esteves, João Sena

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fuel cell car with 8 minutes autonomy, capable of following a white line on a black track, using infrared sensors that detect white and black colors. A servomotor controls its direction. Guidelines to the servomotor are given by a system based on an 8051 microcontroller, according to the information it receives from the infrared sensors. The hydrogen needed by the fuel cell is produced by electrolysis, which requires an external power supply. The gas is retained on an is...