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Sample records for fuel cell electrocatalyst

  1. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, M. A.; Fernandez V, S. M.; Vargas G, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H 2 SO 4 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  2. Electrocatalyst advances for hydrogen oxidation in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.

    1984-01-01

    The important considerations that presently exist for achieving commercial acceptance of fuel cells are centered on cost (which translates to efficiency) and lifetime. This paper addresses the questions of electrocatalyst utilization within porous electrode structures and the preparation of low-cost noble metal electrocatalyst combinations with extreme dispersions of the metal. Now that electrocatalyst particles can be prepared with dimensions of 10 A, either singly or in alloy combinations, a very large percentage of the noble metal atoms in a crystallite are available for reaction. The cost savings for such electrocatalysts in the present commercially driven environment are considerable.

  3. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells; Electrocatalizadores para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M. A.; Fernandez V, S. M. [ININ, Depto. de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Mexico 11801, D. F. (Mexico); Vargas G, J. R. [IPN, Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Mexico 07300, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  4. Non-platinum electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Zhang, L.; Shi, Z.; Hui, R.; Zhang, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. For Fuel Cell Innovation

    2008-07-01

    High cost, low reliability and durability are the main barriers preventing widespread commercialization of fuel cells. In particular, the platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts used in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are major contributors to the high cost of PEM fuel cells. The Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation at the National Research Council of Canada has developed several new non-Pt electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cell applications. This paper presented the research results on these catalysts, including transition metal macrocycles, chalcogenides, and Ir- or Pd-based alloys. It also described catalyst structure modes via theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Research activities on these electrocatalysts was summarized in terms of catalytic activity and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Typical catalysts such as cobalt(Co)-polypyrrole (PPy) and the chalcogenides show promising results in terms of catalytic activity and a 4-electron reaction mechanism. Efforts are underway to modify both catalyst structure and synthesis methods in order to further improve catalyst performance. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Review of low pressure plasma processing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Brault , Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Review article; International audience; The present review is describing recent advances in plasma deposition and treatment of low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells electrocatalysts. Interest of plasma processing for growth of platinum based, non-precious and metal free electrocatalysts is highlighted. Electrocatalysts properties are tentatively correlated to plasma parameters.

  6. Nano-electrochemical deposition of fuel cells electrocatalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mathe_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 34594 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mathe_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Nano-electrochemical deposition... of fuel cells electrocatalysts MK MATHE a,*, TS MKWIZU a,b, I CUKROWSKI b * ,aCSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Energy and Processes, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Email: kmathe...

  7. Development of nanosized electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamedi, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Varennes, PQ (Canada). Centre de l' Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells have been touted as a promising power supply for automotive, portable or stationary use. Although methanol is a strong contender as an alternative fuel, the extensive use of this toxic compound is not practical due to environmental hazards. Ethanol is a good substitute because it has a very positive environmental, health, and safety footprint with no major uncertainties or hazards. Ethanol is a hydrogen-rich liquid which has more energy density than methanol. The C-C bond has a determining effect on fuel cell efficiency and the theoretical energy yield. Therefore, a good electrocatalyst towards the complete oxidation of ethanol must activate the C-C bond breaking while avoiding the poisoning of the catalytic surface by carbon monoxide species that occurs with methanol oxidation. The objective of this study was to develop new catalyst nanoparticles of well-controlled shape, size, and composition with excellent stability and better electrocatalytic activity. This paper described the recent achievements regarding the development of a series of PtxSn100-x catalysts prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). It reported on the effect of several deposition parameters on the structure and properties of the deposited catalysts. It also described how these deposition conditions affect the electrocatalytic response of the resulting materials toward ethanol oxidation. Some interesting periodic oscillations were observed at some catalysts during ethanol electrooxidation. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Rare earth metal oxides as BH4-tolerance cathode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xuemin; WANG Yadong; GUO Feng; YAO Pei; PAN Mu

    2012-01-01

    Rare earth metal oxides (REMO) as cathode electrocatalysts in direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) were investigated.The REMO electrocatalysts tested showed favorable activity to the oxygen electro-reduction reaction and strong tolerance to the attack of BH4- in alkaline electrolytes.The simple membraneless DBFCs using REMO as cathode electrocatalyst and using hydrogen storage alloy as anodic electrocatalyst exhibited an open circuit of about 1 V and peak power of above 60 mW/cm2.The DBFC using Sm2O3 as cathode electrocatalyst showed a relatively better performance.The maximal power density of 76.2 mW/cm2 was obtained at the cell voltage of 0.52 V.

  9. Robust Platinum-Based Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eric James

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) are energy conversion devices that exploit the energetics of the reaction between hydrogen fuel and O 2 to generate electricity with water as the only byproduct. PEMFCs have attracted substantial attention due to their high conversion efficiency, high energy density, and low carbon footprint. However, PEMFC performance is hindered by the high activation barrier and slow reaction rates at the cathode where O2 undergoes an overall 4-electron reduction to water. The most efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst materials to date are Pt group metals due to their high catalytic activity and stability in a wide range of operating conditions. Before fuel cells can become economically viable, efforts must be taken to decrease Pt content while maintaining a high level of ORR activity. This work describes the design and synthesis of a Pt-Cu electrocatalyst with ORR activity exceeding that of polycrystalline Pt. Production of this novel catalyst is quite simple and begins with synthesis of a porous Cu substrate, formed by etching Al from a Cu-Al alloy. The porous Cu substrate is then coated with a Pt layer via a spontaneous electrochemical process known as galvanic replacement. The Pt layer enhances the ORR activity (as measured by a rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE)) and acts as a barrier towards corrosion of the Cu understructure. Growth of the Pt layer can be manipulated by time, temperature, concentration of Pt precursor, and convection rate during galvanic replacement. Data from analytical and electrochemical techniques confirm multiple Pt loadings have been achieved via the galvanic replacement process. The boost in ORR activity for the PtCu catalyst was determined to be a result of its lower affinity towards (site-blocking) OH adsorption. A unique catalyst degradation study explains the mechanism of initial catalyst ORR deactivation for both monometallic and bimetallic Pt-based catalysts. Finally, a rigorous and

  10. Electrochemical evaluation of electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications : a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, M.H. [General Motors R and D Technical Center, Warren, MI (United States); Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Various electrochemical techniques were used to investigate supported nano-size electrocatalysts during the oxidation of a specific fuel for fuel cell applications. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) on static and dynamic rotating disc electrodes (RDE) and fuel cell station tests demonstrated that the most active catalyst showed the most negative oxidation peak potential. A Tafel equation indicated that a low anodic/cathodic overpotential was a clear indication of higher catalytic activity. The lower overpotential was achieved for a specific current load by ensuring a low Tafel slope and as high an exchange current density as possible. The RDE and fuel cell station tests showed that the best performance was recorded for electrocatalysts with the Tafel slope values and exchange current densities that gave rise to the lowest overpotential. The study demonstrated that RDE and CV can be used to reliably assess electrocatalysts prior to full fuel cell testing. 52 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Highly ordered Pd nanowire arrays as effective electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in direct alcohol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, H. [Departement of Applied Chemistry, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523106 (China); Shen, P.K. [School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yet-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Jiang, S.P.

    2007-12-03

    Pd nanowire arrays (NWAs) with high electrochemically active surface area are successfully fabricated using anodized aluminum oxide electrodeposition. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Pd NWAs for ethanol electrooxidation are not only significantly higher that of conventional Pd film electrodes, but also higher than that of well-established commercial PtRu/C electrocatalysts. The Pd NWAs show great potential as electrocatalysts for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media in direct ethanol fuel cells. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Benchmarking Pt-based electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cell reactions with the rotating disk electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov; Escribano, Maria Escudero; Velazquez-Palenzuela, Amado Andres

    2015-01-01

    We present up-to-date benchmarking methods for testing electrocatalysts for polymer exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. We focus on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in the presence of CO. We have chosen...

  13. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    Even though solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have a high potential with respect to efficiency and fuel flexibility they are not yet competitive in terms of cost and durability with conventional chemical energy conversion technologies. The potential cost reduction can be achieved through...... in tolerating the vibrations, transient loads, thermal and redox cycling [1-2]. The DTU MS-SOFC design based on ferritic stainless steel requires incorporation of electrocatalyst into the anode functional layer by infiltration methods [3]. Previously, the preferred electrocatalyst has been gadolinium doped...... and microstructure of the infiltrated electrocatalyst layer was characterized using high-resolution electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterization involved polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the temperature range of 650-750ºC. The polarization curve for Ru...

  14. Recent progress in electrocatalysts with mesoporous structures for application in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Zucheng; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-01-01

    Recently mesoporous materials have drawn great attention in fuel cell related applications, such as preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes and catalysts, hydrogen storage and purification. In this mini-review, we focus on recent developments in mesoporous electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, including metallic and metal-free catalysts for use as either anode or cathode catalysts. Mesoporous Pt-based metals have been synthesized as anode catalysts with improved a...

  15. A highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Mohamed R; Hafez, Inas H; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-11-23

    Driven by the demand for the commercialization of fuel cell (FC) technology, we describe the design and fabrication of a highly durable FC electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The fabricated electrocatalyst is composed of Pt-deposited polybenzimidazole-coated carbon nanotubes, which are further coated with Nafion. By using this electrocatalyst, a high FC performance with a power density of 375 mW/cm(2) (at 70 ˚C, 50% relative humidity using air (cathode)/H2(anode)) was obtained, and a remarkable durability of 500,000 accelerated potential cycles was recorded with only a 5% loss of the initial FC potential and 20% loss of the maximum power density, which were far superior properties compared to those of the membrane electrode assembly prepared using carbon black in place of the carbon nanotubes. The present study indicates that the prepared highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst is a promising material for the next generation of PEMFCs.

  16. Rational design of competitive electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in hydrogen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbov, Sergey; Alcántara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2012-02-01

    The large-scale application of one of the most promising clean and renewable sources of energy, hydrogen fuel cells, still awaits efficient and cost-effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurring on the cathode. We demonstrate that truly rational design renders electrocatalysts possessing both qualities. By unifying the knowledge on surface morphology, composition, electronic structure and reactivity, we solve that sandwich-like structures are an excellent choice for optimization. Their constituting species couple synergistically yielding reaction-environment stability, cost-effectiveness and tunable reactivity. This cooperative-action concept enabled us to predict two advantageous ORR electrocatalysts. Density functional theory calculations of the reaction free-energy diagrams confirm that these materials are more active toward ORR than the so far best Pt-based catalysts. Our designing concept advances also a general approach for engineering materials in heterogeneous catalysis.

  17. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga, E-mail: leticiamoraes@usp.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil); Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  18. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  19. Non-precious electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.; Chung, H.T.; Zelenay, P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Physics and Applications

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of reducing the high cost of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks by using non-precious catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Most research interest has focused on ORR catalysts based on heat-treated precursors of transition metals, nitrogen and carbon. While initial ORR activity of such catalysts has improved in recent years, it is not sufficient for automotive use. The long-term stability of these catalysts is also insufficient. The activity and durability of the catalysts must be improved significantly in order to overcome these limitations. In addition, innovative electrode structures must be developed to allow for operation with thick catalyst layers. The ORR reaction mechanism must also be well understood in terms of the active reaction site. This presentation summarized non-precious ORR catalysis research at Los Alamos, with particular focus on catalysts obtained by heat treatment of polymers (such as polyaniline) on high-surface-area carbon in the presence of transition metals, cobalt and iron. These heat-treated catalysts achieve respectable ORR activity and improved stability in both aqueous and polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical and non-electrochemical techniques such as XPS, XANES and XAFS were used to examine the source of ORR activity of these heat-treated catalysts.

  20. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present

  1. Combinatorial investigation of Pt-Ru-Sn alloys as an anode electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Young Hwan [Department of New Energy.Resource Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Sangji University, 124, Sangjidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-Do 220-702 (Korea); Shul, Yong Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    Low-temperature direct alcohol fuel cells fed with different kinds of alcohol (methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol) have been investigated by employing ternary electrocatalysts (Pt-Ru-Sn) as anode catalysts. Combinatorial chemistry has been applied to screen the 66-PtRuSn-anode arrays at the same time to reduce cost, time, and effort when we select the optimum composition of electrocatalysts for DAFCs (Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells). PtRuSn (80:20:0) showed the lowest onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation, PtRuSn (50:0:50) for ethanol, and PtRuSn (20:70:10) for 2-propanol in CV results respectively, and single cell performance test indicated that Ru is more suitable for direct methanol fuel cell system, Sn for direct ethanol fuel cell system, and 2-propanol could be applied as fuel with low platinum composition anode electrocatalyst. The single cell performance results and electrochemical results (CV) were well matched with the combinatorial electrochemical results. As a result, we could verify the availability of combinatorial chemistry by comparing the results of each extreme electrocatalysts compositions as follows: PtRuSn (80:20:0) for methanol, PtRuSn (50:0:50) for ethanol and PtRuSn (20:70:10) for 2-propanol. (author)

  2. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  3. New electrocatalysts for hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattabriga, R. A.; Giner, J.; Parry, J.; Swette, L. L.

    1970-01-01

    Platinum-silver, palladium-gold, and platinum-gold alloys serve as oxygen reduction catalysts in high-current-density cells. Catalysts were tested on polytetrafluoroethylene-bonded cathodes and a hydrogen anode at an operating cell temperature of 80 degrees C.

  4. Evaluation of colloidal Pd and Pd-alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, M.H. [General Motors R and D Technical Center, Warren, MI (United States); Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    An evaluation was conducted to assess the use of colloidal palladium (Pd) and Pd alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cell applications. A modified Bonneman method was used to investigate borohydride oxidation on supported Pd and Pd-alloy nano-electrocatalysts. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry, and single fuel cell test stations were used to determine Tafel slopes, exchange current densities, oxidation peak potentials, and fuel cell performance. The study also investigated the influence of temperature and oxidant flow and fuel flow rates on fuel cell performance. The study showed that the current density of the fuel cell increased with increases in temperature for all the investigated Pd electrocatalysts. However, the increase in current density was not as high as expected when fuel flow rates were increased. A current density of 50 mA cm{sup -2} was observed at 298 K with a Pd-Ir anode catalyst operating at a cell voltage of 0.5 V. 28 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  5. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell With Enhanced Durability Using Fluorinated Carbon As Electrocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the fluorination of a carbon aerogel and its effects on the durability of the resulting electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC. Fluorine has been introduced before or after platinum deposition. The different electrocatalysts are physico-chemically and electrochemically characterized, and the results discussed by comparison with commercial Pt/XC72 from E-Tek. The results demonstrate that the level of fluorination of the carbon aerogel can be controlled. The fluorination modifies the texture of the carbons by increasing the pore size and decreasing the specific surface area, but the textures remain appropriate for PEMFC applications. Two fluorination sites are observed, leading to both high covalent C-F bond and weakened ones, the quantity of which depends on whether the treatment is done before or after platinum deposition. The order of the different treatments is very important. The presence of platinum contributes to the fluorination mechanism, but leads to amorphous platinum rather inactive towards the Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Finally, a better durability was demonstrated for the fluorinated then platinized catalyst compared both to the same but not fluorinated catalyst and to the reference commercial material (based on the loss of the electrochemical real surface area after accelerated stress tests.

  6. Carbon-Supported PtRuMo Electrocatalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L.G. Fierro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The review article discusses the current status and recent findings of our investigations on the synthesis and characterization of carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In particular, the effect of the carbon support and the composition on the structure, stability and the activity of the PtRuMo nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of CO, methanol and ethanol have been studied. Different physicochemical techniques have been employed for the analysis of the catalysts structures: X-ray analytical methods (XRD, XPS, TXRF, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, as well as a number of electrochemical techniques like CO adsorption studies, current-time curves and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Furthermore, spectroscopic methods adapted to the electrochemical systems for in situ studies, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS, have been used to evaluate the oxidation process of CO, methanol and ethanol over the carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts.

  7. Tin-oxide-coated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles supporting platinum electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ryan S; Higgins, Drew; Chen Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Novel tin-oxide (SnO 2 )-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles supporting platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation were developed for direct ethanol fuel cells. SnO 2 -coated SWNT (SnO 2 -SWNT) bundles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route. SnO 2 -SWNT bundles supporting Pt (Pt/SnO 2 -SWNTs) electrocatalysts and SWNT-supported Pt (Pt/SWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared by an ethylene glycol reduction method. The catalysts were physically characterized using TGA, XRD and TEM and electrochemically evaluated through cyclic voltammetry experiments. The Pt/SnO 2 -SWNTs showed greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in acid medium, compared to the Pt/SWNT. The optimal SnO 2 loading of Pt/SnO 2 -SWNT catalysts with respect to specific catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation was also investigated.

  8. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  9. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  10. Tin-oxide-coated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles supporting platinum electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ryan S; Higgins, Drew; Chen, Zhongwei

    2010-04-23

    Novel tin-oxide (SnO(2))-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles supporting platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation were developed for direct ethanol fuel cells. SnO(2)-coated SWNT (SnO(2)-SWNT) bundles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route. SnO(2)-SWNT bundles supporting Pt (Pt/SnO(2)-SWNTs) electrocatalysts and SWNT-supported Pt (Pt/SWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared by an ethylene glycol reduction method. The catalysts were physically characterized using TGA, XRD and TEM and electrochemically evaluated through cyclic voltammetry experiments. The Pt/SnO(2)-SWNTs showed greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in acid medium, compared to the Pt/SWNT. The optimal SnO(2) loading of Pt/SnO(2)-SWNT catalysts with respect to specific catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation was also investigated.

  11. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel

  12. Evaluation of Pt−Au/MWCNT (Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes) electrocatalyst performance as cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Gastélum, M.; Salazar-Gastélum, M.I.; Félix-Navarro, R.M.; Pérez-Sicairos, S.; Reynoso-Soto, E.A.; Lin, S.W.; Flores-Hernández, J.R.; Romero-Castañón, T.; Albarrán-Sánchez, I.L.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study between Pt−Au/MWCNT and Pt/C (commercial) as cathodic electrocatalyst of H_2/O_2 fuel cell is performed. Pt−Au/MWCNT is synthesized using the reverse microemulsion method and this procedure is scaled-up in order to prepare membrane-electrode assemblies for fuel cells with an active area of 9 cm"2. Those electrocatalysts are characterized by both physicochemical techniques and electrochemical measurements to evaluate their catalytic activity for ORR (Oxygen Reduction Reaction). In the half-cell study, Pt−Au/MWCNT show higher kinetic current density as cathodic electrocatalyst compared with Pt/C. Likewise, in a fuel cell hardware the maximum power density is significantly higher for Pt−Au/MWCNT cathode (625 mW cm"−"2 at 0.426 V) when compared with Pt/C anode (355 mW cm"−"2 at 0.499 V). - Highlights: • Pt−Au/MWCNT was synthesized by reverse microemulsión method. • Pt−Au/MWCNT and Pt/C were characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. • Both materials were studied as catalysts for ORR by electrochemical techniques. • Catalysts were used to prepare MEA's, the performance in fuel cell was evaluated. • Maximum power densities were 625 mW cm"−"2 for Pt−Au/MWCNT and 355 mW cm"−"2 for Pt/C.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni nanoalloy electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Juan; Sarkar, Arindam; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-supported Pd-Ni nanoalloy electrocatalysts with different Pd/Ni atomic ratios have been synthesized by a modified polyol method, followed by heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere at 500-900 deg. C. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements, and single-cell proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) tests for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). XRD and TEM data reveal an increase in the degree of alloying and particle size with increasing heat-treatment temperature. XPS data indicate surface segregation with Pd enrichment on the surface of Pd 80 Ni 20 after heat treatment at ≥500 deg. C, suggesting possible lattice strains in the outermost layers. Electrochemical data based on CV, RDE, and single-cell PEMFC measurement show that Pd 80 Ni 20 heated at 500 deg. C has the highest mass catalytic activity for ORR among the Pd-Ni samples investigated, with stability and catalytic activity significantly higher than that found with Pd. With a lower cost, the Pd-Ni catalysts exhibit higher tolerance to methanol than Pt, offering an added advantage in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC).

  14. Halloysite-derived nitrogen doped carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaxiang; Wang, Lianqin; Preuß, Kathrin; Qiao, Mo; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Varcoe, John; Cai, Qiong

    2017-12-01

    Developing the low-cost, highly active carbonaceous materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts has been a high-priority research direction for durable fuel cells. In this paper, two novel N-doped carbonaceous materials with flaky and rod-like morphology using the natural halloysite as template are obtained from urea nitrogen source as well as glucose (denoted as GU) and furfural (denoted as FU) carbon precursors, respectively, which can be directly applied as metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. Importantly, compared with a benchmark Pt/C (20wt%) catalyst, the as-prepared carbon catalysts demonstrate higher retention in diffusion limiting current density (after 3000 cycles) and enhanced methanol tolerances with only 50-60mV negative shift in half-wave potentials. In addition, electrocatalytic activity, durability and methanol tolerant capability of the two N-doped carbon catalysts are systematically evaluated, and the underneath reasons of the outperformance of rod-like catalysts over the flaky are revealed. At last, the produced carbonaceous catalysts are also used as cathodes in the single cell H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC), in which the rod-like FU delivers a peak power density as high as 703 mW cm-2 (vs. 1106 mW cm-2 with a Pt/C benchmark cathode catalyst).

  15. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K.; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5-3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm2) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications.

  16. Ru-decorated Pt surfaces as model fuel cell electrocatalysts for CO electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, F; Lu, G-Q; Wieckowski, A; Stimming, U

    2005-09-01

    This feature article concerns Pt surfaces modified (decorated) by ruthenium as model fuel cell electrocatalysts for electrooxidation processes. This work reveals the role of ruthenium promoters in enhancing electrocatalytic activity toward organic fuels for fuel cells, and it particularly concerns the methanol decomposition product, surface CO. A special focus is on surface mobility of the CO as it is catalytically oxidized to CO(2). Different methods used to prepare Ru-decorated Pt single crystal surfaces as well as Ru-decorated Pt nanoparticles are reviewed, and the methods of characterization and testing of their activity are discussed. The focus is on the origin of peak splitting involved in the voltammetric electrooxidation of CO on Ru-decorated Pt surfaces, and on the interpretative consequences of the splitting for single crystal and nanoparticle Pt/Ru bimetallic surfaces. Apparently, screening through the literature allows formulating several models of the CO stripping reaction, and the validity of these models is discussed. Major efforts are made in this article to compare the results reported by the Urbana-Champaign group and the Munich group, but also by other groups. As electrocatalysis is progressively more and more driven by theory, our review of the experimental findings may serve to summarize the state of the art and clarify the roads ahead. Future studies will deal with highly dispersed and reactive nanoscale surfaces and other more advanced catalytic materials for fuel cell catalysis and related energy applications. It is expected that the metal/metal and metal/substrate interactions will be increasingly investigated on atomic and electronic levels, with likewise increasing participation of theory, and the structure and reactivity of various monolayer catalytic systems involving more than two metals (that is ternary and quaternary systems) will be interrogated.

  17. CoPd x oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustain, William E.; Kepler, Keith; Prakash, Jai

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical activity of carbon-supported cobalt-palladium alloy electrocatalysts of various compositions have been investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction in a 5 cm 2 single cell polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The polarization experiments have been conducted at various temperatures between 30 and 60 deg. C and the reduction performance compared with data from a commercial Pt catalyst under identical conditions. Investigation of the catalytic activity of the CoPd x PEMFC system with varying composition reveals that a nominal cobalt-palladium atomic ratio of 1:3, CoPd 3 , exhibits the best performance of all studied catalysts, exhibiting a catalytic activity comparable to the commercial Pt catalyst. The ORR on CoPd 3 has a low activation energy, 52 kJ/mol, and a Tafel slope of approximately 60 mV/decade, indicating that the rate-determining step is a chemical step following the first electron transfer step and may involve the breaking of the oxygen bond. The CoPd 3 catalyst also exhibits excellent chemical stability, with the open circuit cell voltage decreasing by only 3% and the observed current decreasing by only 10% at 0.8 V over 25 h. The CoPd 3 catalyst also exhibits superior tolerance to methanol crossover poisoning than Pt

  18. Investigation of nano Pt and Pt-based alloys electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Suo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalysts used in micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC, such as Pt/C and Pt alloy/C, prepared by liquid-phase NaBH4 reduction method have been investigated. XC-72 (Cobalt corp. Company, U.S.A is chosen as the activated carrier for the electrocatalysts to keep the catalysts powder in the range of several nanometers. The XRD, SEM, EDX analyses indicated that the catalysts had small particle size in several nanometers, in excellent dispersed phase and the molar ratio of the precious metals was found to be optimal. The performances of the DMFCs using cathodic catalyst with Pt percentage of 30wt% and different anodic catalysts (Pt-Ru, Pt-Ru-Mo were tested. The polarization curves and power density curves of the cells were measured to determine the optimal alloy composition and condition for the electrocatalysts. The results showed that the micro direct methanol fuel cell with 30wt% Pt/C as the cathodic catalyst and n(Pt:n(Ru:n(Mo = 3:2:2 PtRuMo/C as the anodic catalyst at room temperature using 2.0mol/L methanol solution has the best performances.

  19. 3D Analysis of Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Degradation on Alternate Carbon Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Brian T; Cullen, David A; Reeves, Kimberly S; Dyck, Ondrej E; Langlois, David A; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; More, Karren L

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the mechanisms associated with Pt/C electrocatalyst degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes is critical for the future development of higher-performing materials; however, there is a lack of information regarding Pt coarsening under PEMFC operating conditions within the cathode catalyst layer. We report a direct and quantitative 3D study of Pt dispersions on carbon supports (high surface area carbon (HSAC), Vulcan XC-72, and graphitized carbon) with varied surface areas, graphitic character, and Pt loadings ranging from 5 to 40 wt %. This is accomplished both before and after catalyst-cycling accelerated stress tests (ASTs) through observations of the cathode catalyst layer of membrane electrode assemblies. Electron tomography results show Pt nanoparticle agglomeration occurs predominantly at junctions and edges of aggregated graphitized carbon particles, leading to poor Pt dispersion in the as-prepared catalysts and increased coalescence during ASTs. Tomographic reconstructions of Pt/HSAC show much better initial Pt dispersions, less agglomeration, and less coarsening during ASTs in the cathode. However, a large loss of the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) is still observed and is attributed to accelerated Pt dissolution and nanoparticle coalescence. Furthermore, a strong correlation between Pt particle/agglomerate size and measured ECSA is established and is proposed as a more useful metric than average crystallite size in predicting degradation behavior across different catalyst systems.

  20. Nanostructured Carbon Materials as Supports in the Preparation of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Lázaro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Different advanced nanostructured carbon materials, such as carbon nanocoils, carbon nanofibers, graphitized ordered mesoporous carbons and carbon xerogels, presenting interesting features such as high electrical conductivity and extensively developed porous structure were synthesized and used as supports in the preparation of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The main advantage of these supports is that their physical properties and surface chemistry can be tailored to adapt the carbonaceous material to the catalytic requirements. Moreover, all of them present a highly mesoporous structure, diminishing diffusion problems, and both graphitic character and surface area can be conveniently modified. In the present work, the influence of the particular features of each material on the catalytic activity and stability was analyzed. Results have been compared with those obtained for commercial catalysts supported on Vulcan XC-72R, Pt/C and PtRu/C (ETEK. Both a highly ordered graphitic and mesopore-enriched structure of these advanced nanostructured materials resulted in an improved electrochemical performance in comparison to the commercial catalysts assayed, both towards CO and alcohol oxidation.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of PtRuMo/C nanoparticle electrocatalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Yin, Ge-Ping [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lin, Yong-Ge [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States)

    2007-07-10

    This research aims at enhancement of the performance of anodic catalysts for the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). Two distinct DEFC nanoparticle electrocatalysts, PtRuMo/C and PtRu/C, were prepared and characterized, and one glassy carbon working electrode for each was employed to evaluate the catalytic performance. The cyclic-voltammetric, chronoamperometric, and amperometric current-time measurements were done in the solution 0.5 mol L{sup -1} CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH and 0.5 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The composition, particle sizes, lattice parameters, morphology, and the oxidation states of the metals on nanoparticle catalyst surfaces were determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrographs (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), respectively. The results of XRD analysis showed that both PtRuMo/C and PtRu/C had a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure with smaller lattice parameters than that of pure platinum. The typical particle sizes were only about 2.5 nm. Both electrodes showed essentially the same onset potential as shown in the CV for ethanol electrooxidation. Despite their comparable active specific areas, PtRuMo/C was superior to PtRu/C in respect of the catalytic activity, durability and CO-tolerance. The effect of Mo in the PtRuMo/C nanoparticle catalyst was illustrated with a bifunctional mechanism, hydrogen-spillover effect and the modification on the Pt electronic states. (author)

  2. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells electrocatalyst single wall carbon nanohorns-supported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Lúcia; Boaventura, Marta; Passeira, Carolina; Gattia, Daniele Mirabile; Marazzi, Renzo; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Mendes, Adélio

    2011-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) performance when using single wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH) to support Pt nanoparticles. Additionally, as-prepared and oxidized SWNH Pt-supports were compared with conventional carbon black. Two different oxidizing treatments were considered: oxygen flow at 500 degrees C and reflux in an acid solution at 85 degrees C. Both oxidizing treatments increased SWNH surface area; oxygen treatment increased surface area 4 times while acid treatment increased 2.6 times. The increase in surface area should be related to the opening access to the inner tube of SWNH. Acid treatment of SWNH increased chemical fragility and decreased electrocatalyst load in comparison with as-prepared SWNH. On the other hand, the oxygen treated SWNH sample allowed to obtain the highest electrocatalyst load. The use of as-prepared and oxygen treated SWNH showed in both cases catalytic activities 60% higher than using conventional carbon black as electrocatalyst support in PEMFC. Moreover, EIS analysis indicated that the major improvement in performance is related to the cathode kinetics in the as-prepared SWNH sample, while concerning the oxidized SWNH sample, the improvements are related to the electrokinetics in both anode and cathode electrodes. These improvements should be related with differences in the hydrophobic character between SWNH and carbon black.

  3. Evaluation of the Optimum Composition of Low-Temperature Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts for Methanol Oxidation by Combinatorial Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Ermete

    2017-02-13

    Combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening represent an innovative and rapid tool to prepare and evaluate a large number of new materials, saving time and expense for research and development. Considering that the activity and selectivity of catalysts depend on complex kinetic phenomena, making their development largely empirical in practice, they are prime candidates for combinatorial discovery and optimization. This review presents an overview of recent results of combinatorial screening of low-temperature fuel cell electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. Optimum catalyst compositions obtained by combinatorial screening were compared with those of bulk catalysts, and the effect of the library geometry on the screening of catalyst composition is highlighted.

  4. A simple preparation of very high methanol tolerant cathode electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cell based on polymer-coated carbon nanotube/platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zehui; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-07-20

    The development of a durable and methanol tolerant electrocatalyst with a high oxygen reduction reaction activity is highly important for the cathode side of direct methanol fuel cells. Here, we describe a simple and novel methodology to fabricate a practically applicable electrocatalyst with a high methanol tolerance based on poly[2,2'-(2,6-pyridine)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole]-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes, on which Pt nanoparticles have been deposited, then coated with poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA). The polymer coated electrocatalyst showed an ~3.3 times higher oxygen reduction reaction activity compared to that of the commercial CB/Pt and methanol tolerance in the presence of methanol to the electrolyte due to a 50% decreased methanol adsorption on the Pt after coating with the PVPA. Meanwhile, the peroxide generation of the PVPA coated electrocatalyst was as low as 0.8% with 2 M methanol added to the electrolyte, which was much lower than those of the non-PVPA-coated electrocatalyst (7.5%) and conventional CB/Pt (20.5%). Such a high methanol tolerance is very important for the design of a direct methanol fuel cell cathode electrocatalyst with a high performance.

  5. Iron-containing N-doped carbon electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daems, Nick; Sheng, Xia; Alvarez-Gallego, Yolanda; Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.; Pescarmona, Paolo P.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing N-doped carbon materials were investigated as electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell. This electrochemical route for the production of hydroxylamine is a greener alternative to the present industrial synthesis, because it

  6. Plasma Deposited Thin Iron Oxide Films as Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz JOZWIAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using plasma deposited thin films of iron oxides as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC was examined. Results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis indicated that the plasma deposit consisted mainly of FeOX structures with the X parameter close to 1.5. For as deposited material iron atoms are almost exclusively in the Fe3+ oxidation state without annealing in oxygen containing atmosphere. However, the annealing procedure can be used to remove the remains of carbon deposit from surface. The single cell test (SCT was performed to determine the suitability of the produced material for ORR. Preliminary results showed that power density of 0.23 mW/cm2 could be reached in the tested cell.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14406

  7. Radiolytic Preparation of Electrocatalysts with Pt-Co and Pt-Sn Nanoparticles for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyum Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Pt-Sn/VC and Pt-Co/VC electrocatalysts were prepared by a one-step radiation-induced reduction (30 kGy process using distilled water as the solvent and Vulcan XC72 as the supporting material. While the Pt-Co/VC electrodes were compared with Pt/VC (40 wt%, HiSpec 4000, in terms of their electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of H2, the Pt-Co/VC electrodes were evaluated in terms of their activity towards the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR and compared with Pt/VC (40 wt%, HiSpec 4000, Pt-Co/VC, and Pt-Sn/VC in a single cell. Additionally, the prepared electrocatalyst samples (Pt-Co/VC and Pt-Sn/VC were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electrochemical surface area (ECSA, and fuel cell polarization performance.

  8. Evaluation of Pd Nanoparticle-Decorated CeO2-MWCNT Nanocomposite as an Electrocatalyst for Formic Acid Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Safdar Hossain, SK.; Al-Ahmed, Amir; Rahman, Ateequr; McKay, Gordon; Hossain, Mohammed M.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, CeO2-modified Pd/CeO2-carbon nanotube (CNT) electrocatalyst for the electro-oxidation of formic acid has been investigated. The support CNT was first modified with different amounts (5-30 wt.%) of CeO2 using a precipitation-deposition method. The electrocatalysts were developed by dispersing Pd on the CeO2-CNT supports using the borohydride reduction method. The synthesized electrocatalysts were analyzed for composition, morphology and electronic structure using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The formation of Pd nanoparticles on the CeO2-CNT support was confirmed using TEM. The activity of Pd/CeO2-CNT and of Pd-CNT samples upon oxidation of formic acid was evaluated by using carbon monoxide stripping voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. The addition of moderate amounts of cerium oxide (up to 10 wt.%) significantly improved the activity of Pd/CeO2-CNT compared to the unmodified Pd-CNT. Pd/10 wt.% CeO2-CNT showed a current density of 2 A mg-1, which is ten times higher than that of the unmodified Pd-CNT (0.2 A mg-1). Similarly, the power density obtained for Pd/10 wt.% CeO2-CNT in an air-breathing formic acid fuel cell was 6.8 mW/cm2 which is two times higher than Pd-CNT (3.2 mW/cm2), thus exhibiting the promotional effects of CeO2 to Pd/CeO2-CNT. A plausible justification for the improved catalytic performance and stability is provided in the light of the physical characterization results.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide as sustainable fuel: electrocatalysts for production with a solar cell and decomposition with a fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Fukunishi, Yurie; Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2010-10-21

    Hydrogen peroxide was electrochemically produced by reducing oxygen in an aqueous solution with [Co(TCPP)] as a catalyst and photovoltaic solar cell operating at 0.5 V. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced is utilized as a fuel for a one-compartment fuel cell with Ag-Pb alloy nanoparticles as the cathode.

  10. Highly Stable and Active Pt/Nb-TiO2 Carbon-Free Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are not sufficiently durable for commercial deployment. One of the major challenges lies in the development of an inexpensive, efficient, and highly durable and active electrocatalyst. Here a new type of carbon-free Pt/Nb-TiO2 electrocatalyst has been reported. Mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by the sol-gel method using polystyrene (PS sphere templates. Pt nanoparticles (NPs were then deposited onto mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres via a simple wet-chemical route in aqueous solution, without the need for surfactants or potentiostats. The growth densities of Pt NPs on Nb-TiO2 supports could be easily modulated by simply adjusting the experimental parameters. Electrochemical studies of Pt/Nb-TiO2 show much enhanced activity and stability than commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. PtNP/Nb-TiO2 is a promising new cathode catalyst for PEMFC applications.

  11. Surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide used as high efficient electrocatalyst in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Zhong; Li, Kexun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Di; Wang, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report a simplistic method to fabricate the surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanocrystals (NCs), which is used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for the first time. The corallite-like CoP NCs are successfully prepared by a hydrothermal reaction following a phosphating treatment in N2 atmosphere. When used as an ORR catalyst, cobalt phosphide shows comparable onset potential, inferior resistance, as well as a small Tafel slope with long-term stability in neutral media. The maximum power density of MFC embellished with 10% CoP reached 1914.4 ± 59.7 mW m-2, which is 108.5% higher than the control. The four-electron pathway, observed by the RDE, plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. In addition, material characterizations indicate that the surface oxide layer (CoOx) around the metallic CoP core is important and beneficial for ORR. Accordingly, it can be expected that the as-synthesized CoP will be a promising candidate of the non-precious metal ORR electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  12. SiO2 decoration dramatically enhanced the stability of PtRu electrocatalysts with undetectable deterioration in fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinxin; Xu, Zejun; Yang, Zehui; Xu, Sen; Zhang, Quan; Ling, Ying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Prevention of Ru dissolution is essential for steady CO tolerance of anodic electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate a facile way to stabilize Ru atoms by decorating commercial CB/PtRu with SiO2, which shows a six-fold higher stability and similar activity toward a methanol oxidation reaction leading to no discernible degradation in fuel cell performance compared to commercial CB/PtRu electrocatalysts. The higher stability and stable CO tolerance of SiO2-decorated electrocatalysts originate from the SiO2 coating, since Ru atoms are partially ionized during SiO2 decorating, resulting in difficulties in dissolution; while, in the case of commercial CB/PtRu, the dissolved Ru offers active sites for Pt coalescences and CO species resulting in the rapid decay of the electrochemical surface area and fuel cell performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about the stabilization of Ru atoms by SiO2. The highest stability is obtained for a PtRu electrocatalyst with negligible effect on the electrochemical properties.

  13. Graphene-cobaltite-Pd hybrid materials for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Awasthi, Rahul; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Hybrid materials comprising of Pd, MCo2O4 (where M = Mn, Co or Ni) and graphene have been prepared for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Structural and electrochemical characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chronoamperometry and cyclic, CO stripping, and linear sweep voltammetries. The study revealed that all the three hybrid materials are active for both methanol oxidation (MOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 1 M KOH. However, the Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid electrode exhibited the greatest MOR and ORR activities. This active hybrid electrode has also outstanding stability under both MOR and ORR conditions, while Pt- and other Pd-based catalysts undergo degradation under similar experimental conditions. The Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid catalyst exhibited superior ORR activity and stability compared to even Pt in alkaline solutions.

  14. Pr0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ electrocatalyst for solid oxide fuel cell cathode introduced via infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shiwoo; Miller, Nicholas; Staruch, Margo; Gerdes, Kirk; Jain, Menka; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → High electrocatalytic activity of Sr-doped PrCoO 3 for oxygen reduction reaction has been demonstrated. → 35-38% of power density enhancement has been achieved for a commercial cell by introducing Sr-doped PrCoO 3 via infiltration. → Fuel cells modified with nano-sized electrocatalyst have shown relatively stable performance for 200 h. → Reliable performance comparison has been realized by utilizing a parallel cell testing system. - Abstract: Effects of infiltrated Pr 0.6 Sr 0.4 CoO 3-δ (PSCo) electrocatalyst on SOFC cathode performance have been studied. Nano-sized particulate catalysts, deposited on surfaces of a composite cathode of Sm 2 O 3 doped CeO 2 (SDC) and La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF), are assumed to effectively widen active sites, or triple phase boundaries, for the oxygen reduction reaction. Area specific resistance of commercially available cells has been decreased by 36-40% with the addition of 23 wt% PSCo electrocatalyst on cathode. Analysis of the impedance spectra demonstrates that PSCo electrocatalyst plays a significant role in dissociation of oxygen molecules and adsorption of oxygen atoms into the cathode. A total of 200 h operation of the cells demonstrated that catalytic activity of PSCo has not been significantly degraded. Simultaneous operations of multiple cells using a parallel-cell testing system have made it possible to compare the performance of several cells with high reliability.

  15. Preparation of PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation for direct and ethanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da

    2009-01-01

    PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The metal ions were dissolved in water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions and the carbon support was added. The resulting mixtures were irradiated under stirring. The effect of water/ethylene glycol and water/2-propanol (v/v) ratio, Pt:Ru and Pt:Sn atomic ratios, the irradiation time and dose rate were studied. The obtained materials were characterized by Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts were also tested on the Direct Methanol and Ethanol Fuel Cells. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios different from the nominal ones. The results suggested that part of the Ru(III) ions were not reduced. The obtained materials showed the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of Pt and Pt alloys with crystallite sizes of 2-3 nm. PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios similar to the nominal ones. The obtained materials also showed the fcc structure of platinum and platinum alloys with crystallite sizes of 3-4 nm. PtSn/C electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol and water/2-propanol showed Pt:Sn atomic ratios similar to the nominal ones. The obtained materials showed the platinum (fcc) phase with crystallite sizes in the range of 2 - 4 nm and a SnO 2 (cassiterite) phase. The obtained PtRu/C and PtSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar or superior performance for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation compared to commercial PtRu/C (E-TEK) and PtSn/C (BASF) electrocatalysts. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of PT-rare earth/C electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Thais Aranha de Barros

    2009-01-01

    Pt-rare earth/C electrocatalysts (rare earth = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu) were prepared (20 wt.% and Pt-to-RE atomic ratio of 50:50) by an alcohol reduction process using H 2 PtCl 6 .6H 2 O (Aldrich) and rare earth (III) chlorides (Aldrich) as metal sources, ethylene glycol as solvent and reducing agent, and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that the Pt-Rare Earth atomic ratios obtained for all electrocatalysts were similar to those used in the preparations. In all diffractograms, it was observed a broad peak at about 25 degree which was associated to the Vulcan XC72 support material and four peaks at approximately 28=40 degree, 47 degree, 67 degree and 82 degree, which were associated to the (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222) planes, respectively, of the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. For the Pt-Rare Earth/C electrocatalysts, it was also observed peaks related to the rare earth oxides on the X ray diffractograms. PtLa/C electrocatalysts were prepared at different atomic ratio. Transmission electronic microscopy micrographs of electrocatalysts showed a reasonable distribution of the Pt particles on the carbon support with some agglomerations, which is in agreement with x-ray diffractometry result. The performance for CO, methanol and ethanol oxidation was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Rare Earth/C electro catalyst, specially PtLa/C, were higher than that of the Pt/C electrocatalyst. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies for ethanol oxidation on Pt-Rare Earth/C electrocatalyst showed that acetaldehyde and acetic acid were the main products. The PtLa/C (30

  17. Effects of microstructure and composition of anode Pt based electrocatalysts on performance of direct alcohol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, L.; Li, H.; Yan, S.; Sun, G. [Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics, Dalian (China). Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell Lab; Xin, Q. [Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics, Dalian (China). Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell Lab; Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics, Dalian (China). State Key Laboratory of Catalysis

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts were synthesized and characterized by XRD, TEM and EDS. The focus of the study was on the relationship between the microstructure and components of PtRu and PtSn catalysts and the performance of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). All of the Pt-based electrocatalysts were prepared by a modified polyol method. XRD patterns of the 2 catalysts showed that both catalysts have an fcc pattern of Pt. This was also confirmed by the shift of diffraction peaks of Pt in both catalysts. Electrochemical measurements were carried out using an EG and G model 273A potentiostat/galvanostat and a three-electrode test cell at room temperature. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated with a pair of stainless steel plates with parallel flow-fields. The MEAs were activated by 1 M methanol/ethanol at 75 degrees C for 3 hours before all the data were collected. The study showed that PtRu is active to methanol electrooxidation while PtSn is active to ethanol electrooxidation. Based on the above experimental analysis, it was determined that the dilatation of Pt lattice parameter is favourable for ethanol adsorption, while the suitable contract of Pt lattice parameter is favorable for methanol electrooxidation. Since Pt is more electronegative than Sn, the partial electrons of Sn atom could be transferred to Pt atom leading to filling of Pt d band. Although Ru is as electronegative as Pt, the electric effect of Pt and Ru may not be as pronounced. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Highly efficient transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbide-derived carbon electrocatalysts for anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratso, Sander; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Käärik, Maike; Kook, Mati; Puust, Laurits; Saar, Rando; Leis, Jaan; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2018-01-01

    The search for an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace platinum in fuel cell cathode materials is one of the hottest topics in electrocatalysis. Among the many non-noble metal catalysts, metal/nitrogen/carbon composites made by pyrolysis of cheap materials are the most promising with control over the porosity and final structure of the catalyst a crucial point. In this work we show a method of producing a highly active ORR catalyst in alkaline media with a controllable porous structure using titanium carbide derived carbon as a base structure and dicyandiamide along with FeCl3 or CoCl2 as the dopants. The resulting transition metal-nitrogen co-doped carbide derived carbon (M/N/CDC) catalyst is highly efficient for ORR electrocatalysis with the activity in 0.1 M KOH approaching that of commercial 46.1 wt.% Pt/C. The catalyst materials are also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterise the changes in morphology and composition causing the raise in electrochemical activity. MEA performance of M/N/CDC cathode materials in H2/O2 alkaline membrane fuel cell is tested with the highest power density reached being 80 mW cm-2 compared to 90 mW cm-2 for Pt/C.

  19. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction using Pt-Rare earths (La, Ce, Er) electrocatalysts for application of PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Thiago Bueno

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and its potential losses make it responsible for the most part of efficiency losses at the Fuel Cells. For this reaction the electrocatalyst witch is most appropriated and shows better performance is platinum, a noble metal that elevates the cost, raising barriers for Fuel Cells technology to enter the market. First this work focuses on reducing the amount of platinum used in the cathode, by being replaced by rare earths. The most common methods of synthesis involves a large amount of steps and this work proposed to prepare the electrocatalyst through a simpler way that would not take so many steps and time to be done. Using an ultrasound mixer the electrocatalyst was prepared mixing platinum supported on carbon black and the rare earths lanthanum, cerium and erbium oxides to be applied in a half-cell study of the ORR. The Koutecky-Levich plots shows that among the electrocatalysts prepared the Pt80Ce20/C had the catalytic activity close to the commercial BASF platinum on carbon black, suggesting that the reaction was taken by the 4-electron path. As found in some works in literature, among the rare earth used to study the ORR, cerium is the one witch shows the better performance because it is able to store and provide oxygen. This feature is of great interest for the ORR because this reaction is first order to the oxygen concentration. Results show that is possible to reduce the amount of platinum maintaining the same electrocatalyst activity. (author)

  20. Metallofullerenes as fuel cell electrocatalysts: a theoretical investigation of adsorbates on C59Pt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Margaret A; Genovese, Luigi; Krosnicki, Guillaume; Lemaire, Olivier; Deutsch, Thierry; Franco, Alejandro A

    2010-08-28

    Nano-structured electrode degradation in state-of-the-art polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is one of the main shortcomings that limit the large-scale development and commercialization of this technology. During normal operating conditions of the fuel cell, the PEMFC lifetime tends to be limited by coarsening of the cathode's Pt-based catalyst and by corrosion of the cathode's carbon black support. Because of their chemical properties, metallofullerenes such as C(59)Pt may be more electrochemically stable than the Pt/C mixture. In this paper we investigate, by theoretical methods, the stability of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) adsorbates on the metallofullerene C(59)Pt and evaluate its potential as a PEMFC fuel cell catalyst.

  1. Discovery of fuel cell anode electrocatalysts and dehydrogenation catalysts using combinatorial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benny Chun Wai

    A gas diffusion optical screening method was developed for the discovery of catalysts for the electro-oxidation of reformate gas (H2 with 100 ppm CO). The screening cell was designed to accommodate a gas diffusion layer, 715 member catalyst array, and an electrolyte container. Since protons are generated during H2 oxidation, a pH sensitive fluorphore was used to identify active compositions. The cell showed no detectable iR drop across the array and ranked activity of two commercial PtRu and one Pt catalysts. Over 95% of a given catalyst fluoresced at the initial onset potential and a 5 mV difference in onset potential of two different catalysts was statistically different. A gas diffusion half cell was designed similar to the optical screening cell to obtain current-potential curves of bulk catalysts. The screening results correlated with half cell and fuel cell data, internally validating the method. The combinatorial method was then applied to search for catalysts in the PtRuMoIrRh composition space. The catalysts on the array were prepared by hydrogen reduction of the metals salts on carbon. The most active catalysts were from the Pt enriched regions of the PtRuMoRh quaternary. Bulk catalysts were prepared from the active regions and tested in the gas diffusion half cell. The most active catalysts in the optical screening were also the most active catalysts in the half cell. When any homemade catalysts were compared to commercial PtRu, however, the performance was worse. A high surface area, high catalyst activity synthetic method is the most important factor to reliably screen catalysts for "real world" fuel cell application. High surface area catalysts were tested for direct methanol oxidation activity. The optical screening method was compared with disk electrode, high throughput fuel cell testing, and fuel cell testing. Six catalysts examined included two commercial PtRu catalysts, a Pt catalyst, and three homemade PtRu catalysts of varying activity

  2. Co-tolerant anode electrocatalysts for impure hydrogen oxidation in solid polymer fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S J; Thompsett, D [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Sonning Common (United Kingdom); Tseung, A C.C.; Chen, K Y [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Recent work by the Chemical Energy Research Centre (CERC) at the University of Essex under the direction of Professor A.C.C. Tseung has investigated the combination of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) with carbon supported platinum (Pt) and platinum ruthenium (PtRu) catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO) tolerance for application in low temperature fuel cells. In particular, a catalyst combining Pt, Ru and WO{sub 3} gave a significantly improved tolerance to the effect of CO on H{sub 2} oxidation, at 80{sup o}C using fuel of 100 ppm CO in H{sub 2} and 0.5 M sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electrolyte. The aim of this project was to make a direct comparison between the catalyst technology developed at the University of Essex with the current Johnson Matthey PtRu catalyst technology as used in Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (PEMFC). (Author)

  3. Survey on aging on electrodes and electrocatalysts in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Hochmuth, J.

    1981-01-01

    The processes which contribute to the decay in performance of electrodes used in phosphoric acid fuel cell systems are discussed. Loss of catalytic surface area, corrosion of the carbon support, electrode structure degradation, electrolyte degradation, and impurities in the reactant streams are identified as the major areas for concern.

  4. Reformate tolerant electrocatalysts in solid polymer fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S J; Gunner, A G; Thompsett, D; Hards, G A

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the project was to evaluate a series of platinum group metal catalysts which had previously been identified from a wide range of areas related to carbon monoxide (CO) activation, and to demonstrate superior intrinsic reformate tolerance to current platinum/ruthenium technology as anode catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). (author)

  5. Investigation of Novel Electrocatalysts for Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Ru:GDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmy; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performance and stability of the planar metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-SOFC) with two different electrocatalytically active materials, namely, Ni:GDC and Ru:GDC were investigated. Ru:GDC with an ASR of 0.322 Ωcm2 performed better than Ni:GDC with an ASR of 0.453 Ωc...

  6. Pt supported on nanosized oxides for electrocatalyst used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banu, N.; Serban, E. C.; Marinescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Even though Pt is a standard catalyst for fuel cells, new advanced materials with low activation energy and high specific surface area are required. Researches proved that conducting oxides are the emerging candidates as support for Pt catalysts targeting replacement of nanocarbons. This paper pr...

  7. The Effect of Platinum Electrocatalyst on Membrane Degradation in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Merit; Cermenek, Bernd; Rami, Mija; Hacker, Viktor

    2015-12-08

    Membrane degradation is a severe factor limiting the lifetime of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Therefore, obtaining a deeper knowledge is fundamental in order to establish fuel cells as competitive product. A segmented single cell was operated under open circuit voltage with alternating relative humidity. The influence of the catalyst layer on membrane degradation was evaluated by measuring a membrane without electrodes and a membrane-electrode-assembly under identical conditions. After 100 h of accelerated stress testing the proton conductivity of membrane samples near the anode and cathode was investigated by means of ex situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The membrane sample near the cathode inlet exhibited twofold lower membrane resistance and a resulting twofold higher proton conductivity than the membrane sample near the anode inlet. The results from the fluoride ion analysis have shown that the presence of platinum reduces the fluoride emission rate; which supports conclusions drawn from the literature.

  8. Development of Tailored High-Performance and Durable Electrocatalysts for Advanced PEM Fuel Cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larsen, M.J.; Morales, I.J.; Cavaliere, S.; Zajac, J.; Jones, J.D.; Rozière, J.; Kaluža, Luděk; Gulková, Daniela; Odgaard, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2017), s. 7166-7176 ISSN 0360-3199. [International Conference on Innovative Electrochemical Energy Materials and Technologies (EEMT). Nanjing, 08.11.2015-11.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fuel -cell catalyst * platinum deposition * oxygen reduction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  9. Development of Tailored High-Performance and Durable Electrocatalysts for Advanced PEM Fuel Cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larsen, M.J.; Morales, I.J.; Cavaliere, S.; Zajac, J.; Jones, J.D.; Rozière, J.; Kaluža, Luděk; Gulková, Daniela; Odgaard, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2017), s. 7166-7176 ISSN 0360-3199. [International Conference on Innovative Electrochemical Energy Materials and Technologies (EEMT). Nanjing, 08.11.2015-11.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fuel-cell catalyst * platinum deposition * oxygen reduction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  10. Development of plurimetallic electrocatalysts prepared by decomposition of polymeric precursors for EtOH/O{sub 2} fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Livia M.; Almeida, Thiago S.; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    This work aimed to develop plurimetallic electrocatalysts composed of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Sn supported on C by decomposition of polymeric precursors (DPP), at a constant metal:carbon ratio of 40:60 wt.%, for application in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). The obtained nanoparticles were physico-chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD results revealed a face-centered cubic crystalline Pt with evidence that Ni, Ru, and Sn atoms were incorporated into the Pt structure. Electrochemical characterization of the nanoparticles was accomplished by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) in slightly acidic medium (0.05 mol L{sup -1}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), in the absence and presence of ethanol. Addition of Sn to PtRuNi/C catalysts significantly shifted the ethanol and CO onset potentials toward lower values, thus increasing the catalytic activity, especially for the quaternary composition Pt{sub 64}Sn{sub 15}Ru{sub 13}Ni{sub 8}/C. Electrolysis of ethanol solutions at 0.4 V vs. RHE allowed determination of acetaldehyde and acetic acid as the main reaction products. The presence of Ru in alloys promoted formation of acetic acid as the main product of ethanol oxidation. The Pt{sub 64}Sn{sub 15}Ru{sub 13}Ni{sub 8}/C catalyst displayed the best performance for DEFC. (author)

  11. Development of plurimetallic electrocatalysts prepared by decomposition of polymeric precursors for EtOH/O2 fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Livia M.; Almeida, Thiago S.; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to develop plurimetallic electrocatalysts composed of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Sn supported on C by decomposition of polymeric precursors (DPP), at a constant metal:carbon ratio of 40:60 wt.%, for application in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). The obtained nanoparticles were physico-chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD results revealed a face-centered cubic crystalline Pt with evidence that Ni, Ru, and Sn atoms were incorporated into the Pt structure. Electrochemical characterization of the nanoparticles was accomplished by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) in slightly acidic medium (0.05 mol L -1 H 2 SO 4 ), in the absence and presence of ethanol. Addition of Sn to PtRuNi/C catalysts significantly shifted the ethanol and CO onset potentials toward lower values, thus increasing the catalytic activity, especially for the quaternary composition Pt 64 Sn 15 Ru 13 Ni 8 /C. Electrolysis of ethanol solutions at 0.4 V vs. RHE allowed determination of acetaldehyde and acetic acid as the main reaction products. The presence of Ru in alloys promoted formation of acetic acid as the main product of ethanol oxidation. The Pt 64 Sn 15 Ru 13 Ni 8 /C catalyst displayed the best performance for DEFC. (author)

  12. Combinatorial discovery of new methanol-tolerant non-noble metal cathode electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong-Sung; Kim, Min-Sik; Kim, Jung Ho

    2010-12-14

    Combinatorial synthesis and screening were used to identify methanol-tolerant non-platinum cathode electrocatalysts for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Oxygen reduction consumes protons at the surface of DMFC cathode catalysts. In combinatorial screening, this pH change allows one to differentiate active catalysts using fluorescent acid-base indicators. Combinatorial libraries of carbon-supported catalyst compositions containing Ru, Mo, W, Sn, and Se were screened. Ternary and quaternary compositions containing Ru, Sn, Mo, Se were more active than the "standard" Alonso-Vante catalyst, Ru(3)Mo(0.08)Se(2), when tested in liquid-feed DMFCs. Physical characterization of the most active catalysts by powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the predominant crystalline phase was hexagonal close-packed (hcp) ruthenium, and showed a surface mostly covered with oxide. The best new catalyst, Ru(7.0)Sn(1.0)Se(1.0), was significantly more active than Ru(3)Se(2)Mo(0.08), even though the latter contained smaller particles.

  13. Controlled synthesis of Pt/CS/PW12-GNs composite as an anodic electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongshui; Lei, Fengling; Ye, Lingting; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Shen

    2015-01-01

    Controlled assembly in aqueous solution was used to synthesize the well-organized Pt/CS/PW 12 -GNs composite. By the aid of linear cationic polysaccharide chitosan, 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles with their length and width of 15–20 and 3–4 nm, respectively, were formed on the surface of CS/PW 12 -GNs using HCOOH as a reducing agent at room temperature. The introduction of CS leads to well dispersion of worm-like Pt nanoparticles, the electroactivity of H 3 PW 12 O 40 (PW 12 ) alleviates CO poisoning toward Pt particles, and graphene nanosheets (GNs) ensure excellent electrical conductivity of the composites. The combined action among different components results in significantly enhanced catalytic activity of Pt/CS/PW 12 -GNs toward methanol oxidation and better tolerance of CO. The as-synthesized Pt/CS/PW 12 -GNs exhibit the forward peak current density of 445 mA mg −1 , which is much higher than that (220 mA mg −1 ) for Pt/C-JM (the commercially available Johnson Matthey Hispec4000 catalyst, simplified as Pt/C-JM) and some recently reported Pt/graphene-based nanomaterials. The construction of 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles and facile wet chemical synthesis strategy provide a promising way to develop superior performance electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells applications

  14. Controlled synthesis of Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs composite as an anodic electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhongshui; Lei, Fengling; Ye, Lingting; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Shen, E-mail: shenlin@fjnu.edu.cn [Fujian Normal University, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-04-15

    Controlled assembly in aqueous solution was used to synthesize the well-organized Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs composite. By the aid of linear cationic polysaccharide chitosan, 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles with their length and width of 15–20 and 3–4 nm, respectively, were formed on the surface of CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs using HCOOH as a reducing agent at room temperature. The introduction of CS leads to well dispersion of worm-like Pt nanoparticles, the electroactivity of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PW{sub 12}) alleviates CO poisoning toward Pt particles, and graphene nanosheets (GNs) ensure excellent electrical conductivity of the composites. The combined action among different components results in significantly enhanced catalytic activity of Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs toward methanol oxidation and better tolerance of CO. The as-synthesized Pt/CS/PW{sub 12}-GNs exhibit the forward peak current density of 445 mA mg{sup −1}, which is much higher than that (220 mA mg{sup −1}) for Pt/C-JM (the commercially available Johnson Matthey Hispec4000 catalyst, simplified as Pt/C-JM) and some recently reported Pt/graphene-based nanomaterials. The construction of 2-D distribution worm-like Pt nanoparticles and facile wet chemical synthesis strategy provide a promising way to develop superior performance electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells applications.

  15. Application of green chemistry techniques to prepare electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Wang, Joanna S; Wai, Chien M

    2010-03-25

    A series of green techniques for synthesizing carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles and their high electrocatalytic activity toward methanol fuel cell applications are reported. The techniques utilize either the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide or water as a medium for depositing platinum nanoparticles on surfaces of multiwalled or single-walled carbon nanotubes. The catalytic properties of the carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts prepared by four different techniques are compared for anodic oxidation of methanol and cathodic reduction of oxygen using cyclic voltammetry. One technique using galvanic exchange of Pt(2+) in water with zerovalent iron present on the surfaces of as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes produces a Pt catalyst that shows an unusually high catalytic activity for reduction of oxygen but a negligible activity for oxidation of methanol. This fuel-selective catalyst may have a unique application as a cathode catalyst in methanol fuel cells to alleviate the problems caused by crossover of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane.

  16. Selective electrocatalysts toward a prototype of the membraneless direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-22

    Mastery over the structure of nanomaterials enables control of their properties to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design and fabrication of Pt-based nanomaterials with enhanced catalytic activity and superior selectivity toward the reactions in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) upon the deep understanding of the mechanisms of these electrochemical reactions. In particular, the ternary Au@Ag2S-Pt nanocomposites display superior methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) selectivity due to the electronic coupling effect among different domains of the nanocomposites, while the cage-bell structured Pt-Ru nanoparticles exhibit excellent methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode because of the differential diffusion of methanol and oxygen in the porous Ru shell of the cage-bell nanoparticles. The good catalytic selectivity of these Pt-based nanomaterials via structural construction enables a DMFC to be built without a proton exchange membrane between the fuel electrode and the oxygen electrode.

  17. Highly dispersed TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk

    2013-06-06

    Based on the chemical stability of group IV and V elements in acidic solutions, TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition in an ethanol-based Ta plating bath at room temperature were investigated as novel nonplatinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Electrodeposition conditions of Ta complexes and subsequent various heat treatments for the deposited TaOx were examined for the best performance of the ORR. TaOx particles on carbon black (CB), electrodeposited at a constant potential of -0.5 V Ag/AgCl for 10 s and then heat-treated by pure H2 flow at 523 K for 1 h, showed excellent catalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.93 VRHE (for 2 μA cm-2) for the ORR. Surface characterizations of the catalysts were performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The loading amounts of the electrodeposited material on the CB were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All the physical results suggested that high dispersion of TaOx particles on the CB surface with 2-3 nm size was critical and key for high activity. The chemical identity and modified surface structure for the deposited TaOx catalysts before and after H 2 heat treatment were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of more exposed active sites on the electrode surface and enhanced electroconductivity of the tantalum oxide promoted from the H 2 treatment greatly improved the ORR performance of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles on CB. Finally, the highly retained ORR activity after an accelerated durability test in an acidic solution confirmed and proved the chemical stability of the oxide nanoparticles. The high utilization of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on CB for the ORR was comparable to that of commercial Pt/CB catalysts

  18. Polypyrrole/Co-tetraphenylporphyrin modified carbon fibre paper as a fuel cell electrocatalyst of oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Wagner, Pawel; Wallace, Gordon G. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia); Swiegers, Gerhard F. [CSIRO Molecular and Health Technologies, Bag 10, Clayton VIC 3169 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    A thin-layer of polypyrrole (PPy) film, immobilized with neutral 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato cobalt (II) (Co-TPP), was successfully and uniformly deposited onto mesoporous carbon fibre paper (CFP) via vapor-phase polymerization. The resulting PPy/Co-TPP-modified carbon fibre paper (PPy/Co-TPP-CFP) electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, SEM and EDX-ray mapping. Its electrochemical stability and long-term electrocatalytic performance were investigated in a half-fuel cell testing system. The electrode displayed significant electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction at 0.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), with notable long-term stability. (author)

  19. Modified Graphene as Electrocatalyst towards Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazzazie, D; Yurchenko, O; Beckert, M; Mülhaupt, R; Urban, G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports modified graphene-based materials as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with outstanding electrocatalytic activity in alkaline conditions. Nitrogen-doped graphene samples are synthesized by a novel procedure. The defect density in the structure of the prepared materials is investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Further structural characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the successful nitrogen doping of graphene. The electrochemical characterization of graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene in 0.1 M KOH solution demonstrates the material's electrocatalytic activity towards ORR. For graphene an onset potential of – 0.175 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode is determined, while for nitrogen-doped graphene the determined onset potential is – 0.160 V. Thus, the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped graphene towards ORR is enhanced which can be ascribed to the effect of nitrogen doping

  20. Modified Graphene as Electrocatalyst towards Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazzazie, D.; Beckert, M.; Mülhaupt, R.; Yurchenko, O.; Urban, G.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports modified graphene-based materials as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with outstanding electrocatalytic activity in alkaline conditions. Nitrogen-doped graphene samples are synthesized by a novel procedure. The defect density in the structure of the prepared materials is investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Further structural characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the successful nitrogen doping of graphene. The electrochemical characterization of graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene in 0.1 M KOH solution demonstrates the material's electrocatalytic activity towards ORR. For graphene an onset potential of - 0.175 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode is determined, while for nitrogen-doped graphene the determined onset potential is - 0.160 V. Thus, the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped graphene towards ORR is enhanced which can be ascribed to the effect of nitrogen doping.

  1. An XAS experimental approach to study low Pt content electrocatalysts operating in PEM fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Emiliano; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Dsoke, Sonia; Marassi, Roberto; Di Cicco, Andrea

    2009-11-21

    We present an X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of a low Pt content catalyst layer (Pt loading 0.1 mg cm(-2)) operating at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). This catalyst is based on the use of a mesoporous inorganic matrix as a support for the catalyst Pt nanoparticles. Due to the high Pt dilution, in situ measurements of its structural properties by XAS are challenging and suitable experimental strategies must be devised for this purpose. In particular, we show that accurate XAS in situ fluorescence measurements can be obtained using an optimized fuel cell, suitable protocols for alignment of a focused X-ray beam and an appropriate filter for the background signal of the other atomic species contained in the electrodes. Details, advantages and limitations of the XAS technique for in situ measurements are discussed. Analysis of the near-edge XAS and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) data, corroborated by a HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) study, shows that the Pt particles have a local structure compatible with that of bulk Pt (fcc) and coordination numbers match those expected for particles with typical sizes in the 1.5-2.0 nm range. Substantial changes in the oxidation state and in local atomic arrangement of the Pt particles are found for different applied potentials. The catalyst support, containing W atoms, exhibits a partial reduction upon PEMFC activation, thus mimicking the catalyst behavior. This indicates a possible role of the mesoporous matrix in favouring the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and stimulates further research on active catalyst supports.

  2. Au-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT and Au-ZnO/MWNT as oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran Jafri, Razack; Sujatha, N.; Ramaprabhu, S. [Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Rajalakshmi, N. [Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ARCI), Madavakkam, Chennai (India)

    2009-08-15

    Bi-functional catalysts based on Au supported on oxide based nanomaterials for use in fuel cells were evaluated by electrochemical methods for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Metal oxide coated multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) (MnO{sub 2}/MWNT and ZnO/MWNT) were prepared by reduction of potassium permanganate and oxidation of Zn powder on MWNT surface respectively. Au-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT and Au-ZnO/MWNT were prepared by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid on MnO{sub 2}/MWNT and ZnO/MWNT. The samples were characterized and linear sweep voltammetric studies were performed in N{sub 2} saturated, O{sub 2} saturated and methanol containing 1 M KOH solution and the results have been discussed. A single fuel cell was also constructed using Au-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT and Au-ZnO/MWNT as ORR electrocatalysts. A maximum power density of 45 mW/cm{sup 2} and 56 mW/cm{sup 2} was obtained with Au-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT and Au-ZnO/MWNT respectively. Additionally, the methanol tolerance of these electrocatalysts has been investigated and results have been discussed. (author)

  3. Rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of nano-flakes like AgCd alloy electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, Nimai; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Ingole, Pravin P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, for the first time, we report rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of an electro-catalyst based on AgCd alloy nanoparticles with flakes like geometry which shows highly efficient activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A simple potentiostatic deposition method has been employed for co-depositing AgCd alloy nanostructures with flakes like shapes along with dendrites on the surface of carbon fibre paper. The chemico-physical properties of the catalyst are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Electro-catalytic activity of AgCd alloy based electro-catalyst towards ORR is studied in alkaline medium by cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) technique. Electrochemical in-situ FTIR measurements are also performed to identify the species generated during ORR process. Based on the results from electro-catalysis experiment, it is concluded that nano-alloyed AgCd electrodeposited on carbon paper shows excellent activity for ORR, following four electron pathways with H_2O_2 yield less than 15%. The combination of low cost of Ag and Cd, fast and facile method of its fabrication and higher activity towards ORR makes the AgCd electro-catalyst an attractive catalyst of choice for alkaline fuel cell.

  4. Facile solvothermal synthesis of highly active and robust Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn electrocatalyst towards direct ethanol fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Dhiman, Shikha; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-08-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn ternary electrocatalyst has been synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of precursor salts Pd(acac)2, CuCl2.2H2O and SnCl2 using one-pot solvothermal synthesis method at 220 °C with a reaction time of 24 h. To the best of our knowledge, here for the first time we report surfactant free synthesis of a novel ordered intermetallic ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn nanoparticles. The ordered structure of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Composition and morphology of the nanoparticles have been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and TEM. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the ternary electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The catalyst is proved to be highly efficient and stable upto 500th cycle and even better than commercially available Pd/C (20 wt%) electrocatalysts. The specific and mass activity of the as synthesized ternary catalyst are found to be ∼4.76 and ∼2.9 times better than that of commercial Pd/C. The enhanced activity and stability of the ordered ternary Pd1.87Cu0.11Sn catalyst can make it as a promising candidate for the alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell application.

  5. Self-assembled platinum nanoparticles on sulfonic acid-grafted graphene as effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinlin; Li, Yanhong; Li, Shengli; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-02-15

    In this article, sulfonic acid-grafted reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) were synthesized using a one-pot method under mild conditions, and used as Pt catalyst supports to prepare Pt/S-rGO electrocatalysts through a self-assembly route. The structure, morphologies and physicochemical properties of S-rGO were examined in detail by techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The S-rGO nanosheets show excellent solubility and stability in water and the average particle size of Pt nanoparticles supported on S-rGO is ~3.8 nm with symmetrical and uniform distribution. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt/S-rGO were investigated for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In comparison to Pt supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/VC) and Pt/rGO, the Pt/S-rGO electrocatalyst exhibits a much higher electrocatalytic activity, faster reaction kinetics and a better stability. The results indicate that Pt/S-rGO is a promising and effective electrocatalyst for MOR of DMFCs.

  6. Self-assembled platinum nanoparticles on sulfonic acid-grafted graphene as effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinlin; Li, Yanhong; Li, Shengli; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-02-01

    In this article, sulfonic acid-grafted reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) were synthesized using a one-pot method under mild conditions, and used as Pt catalyst supports to prepare Pt/S-rGO electrocatalysts through a self-assembly route. The structure, morphologies and physicochemical properties of S-rGO were examined in detail by techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The S-rGO nanosheets show excellent solubility and stability in water and the average particle size of Pt nanoparticles supported on S-rGO is ~3.8 nm with symmetrical and uniform distribution. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt/S-rGO were investigated for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In comparison to Pt supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/VC) and Pt/rGO, the Pt/S-rGO electrocatalyst exhibits a much higher electrocatalytic activity, faster reaction kinetics and a better stability. The results indicate that Pt/S-rGO is a promising and effective electrocatalyst for MOR of DMFCs.

  7. Preparation of supported PtRu/C electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Luhua; Sun Gongquan; Zhao Xinsheng; Zhou Zhenhua; Yan Shiyou; Tang Shuihua; Wang Guoxiong; Zhou Bing; Xin Qin

    2005-01-01

    In this work, high-surface supported PtRu/C were prepared with Ru(NO)(NO 3 ) 3 and [Pt(H 2 NCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 ) 2 ]Cl 2 as the precursors and hydrogen as a reducing agent. XRD and TEM analyses showed that the PtRu/C catalysts with different loadings possessed small and homogeneous metal particles. Even at high metal loading (40 wt.% Pt, 20 wt.% Ru) the mean metal particle size is less than 4 nm. Meanwhile, the calculated Pt crystalline lattice parameter and Pt (2 2 0) peak position indicated that the geometric structure of Pt was modified by Ru atoms. Among the prepared catalysts, the lattice parameter of 40-20 wt.% PtRu/C contract most. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), CO stripping and single direct methanol fuel cell tests jointly suggested that the 40-20 wt.% PtRu/C catalyst has the highest electrochemical activity for methanol oxidation

  8. Development of Novel Non-Pt Group Metal Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, Sanjeev [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barton, Scott [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dale, Nilesh [Nissan Technical Center North America (NTCNA), Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Halevi, Bar [Pajarito Powder LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The objective of this multi-institutional effort was to comprehensively pursue the goal of eliminating noble metal (Pt group metals, PGM) from the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrode thereby providing a quantum leap in lowering the overall PGM loading in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC). The overall project scope encompassed (a) comprehensive materials discovery effort, (b) a concomitant effort to scale up these materials with very high ( ±5%) reproducibility, both intra and inter, (c) understanding mass transport in porous medium both in gas diffusion and micro-porous layers for enhanced areal activity, (d) understanding mechanistic aspects of active site structure and ORR electrocatalytic pathway. Overall project milestones and metrics were (a) first phase effort based on performance in oxygen where the project’s Go/No-Go decision point milestone of 100 mA/cm2 at 0.8 V (internal resistance-free, iR-free) at 80°C, pure H2/O2, with 1.5 bar total pressure was met. Subsequently, the principle objectives were to (a) transition the project from H2/O2 to H2/Air with slated target of exceeding 30 mA/cm2 @ 0.8 V, 2.5 bar total pressure and an end of the project target of 1 A/cm2 @ 0.4 V (same total pressure), both under 100% relative humidity. The target for catalyst material scale up was to achieve 100 g batch size at the end of the program. This scale up target had a quality control milestone of less than 5% variation of activity measured with H2/Air (2.5 bar total pressure) at 0.8 V. In addition, the project also aimed at arriving at a unified understanding of the nature of active sites in these catalysts as well as some preliminary understanding of the mechanistic pathway. Also addressed is the development of an integrated method for determination of mass transport parameters using a combination of Helox experiments and modeling of the gas

  9. PEM-fuel cells for mobile application. Sub task: development of electrocatalysts. Final report; PEM-Brennstoffzelle fuer mobile Anwendung. Teilprojekt: Katalysatorenentwicklung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starz, K A

    1999-01-01

    PEM fuel cells are gaining increasing importance for use in automotive application. The goal of the research program reported here was to develop the basic technology and components for PEMFC stacks for use in transport applications. The sub-task of Degussa was to develop improved electrocatalysts for PEMFC single cells and stacks. The technical objectives of the research project were met. Electrocatalysts, characterized by a high Pt-dispersion, high surface area and excellent activity, were developed. With this material, considerable progress was made to reduce the total platinum loading of PEMFC cells and stacks to about 0,5 mgPt/cm{sup 2}. With this value, the goal of the program (<0,8 mg/cm{sup 2}) was significantly surpassed. Additionally, higher power densities of >0.4 W/cm{sup 2} were achieved at Degussa for hydrogen/air and reformate/air operation of the PEMFC. A CO-tolerant anode electrocatalyst, exhibiting a CO-tolerance of up to 100 ppm CO, enables the operation of PEMFC stacks with on-board generated methanol reformate. The performance of the new electrocatalyst materials was verified by DaimlerChrysler in a PEMFC demonstration stack at the end of the program. (orig.) [Deutsch] PEM-Brennstoffzellen gewinnen fuer die mobile Anwendung immer mehr an Bedeutung. Im Rahmen des hier beschriebenen Leitprojektes sollten die Basistechnologien fuer den Einsatz der PEM-Brennstoffzelle im mobilen Bereich (Elektrotraktion) entwickelt werden. Das Teilprojekt der Degussa befasst sich mit der Entwicklung von verbesserten Elektrokatalysatoren fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellenstacks. Die technischen Arbeitsziele des Vorhabens wurden erreicht. So konnten Elektrokatalysatoren bereitgestellt werden, die sich durch eine hohe Pt-Dispersion, eine grosse Pt-Oberflaeche sowie eine sehr gute Aktivitaet auszeichnen. Mit diesen Elektrokatalysatoren gelang es, die Platinbeladung der PEM-Elektroden (Anode und Kathode) erheblich abzusenken. Mit einer Gesamtplatinbeladung von 0,5 mg/cm{sup 2

  10. Preparation of Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for application as anode in direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinace, Estevam V.; Silva, Dionisio F. da; Cruz, Victor A. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Machado, Luci D.B.; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    PtRu nanoparticles supported on carbon (PtRu/C electrocatalysts) were prepared submitting a water/2-propanol mixture containing the metal ions and the carbon support to gamma radiation. The water/2-propanol (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The methanol electro-oxidation was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating. In the studied conditions, the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalysts depend on the water/2-propanol ratio used in the reaction medium. (author)

  11. The Solid-Phase Synthesis of an Fe-N-C Electrocatalyst for High-Power Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingtao; Liu, Xiaofang; Zheng, Lirong; Shui, Jianglan

    2018-01-26

    The environmentally friendly synthesis of highly active Fe-N-C electrocatalysts for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is desirable but remains challenging. A simple and scalable method is presented to fabricate Fe II -doped ZIF-8, which can be further pyrolyzed into Fe-N-C with 3 wt % of Fe exclusively in Fe-N 4 active moieties. Significantly, this Fe-N-C derived acidic PEMFC exhibits an unprecedented current density of 1.65 A cm -2 at 0.6 V and the highest power density of 1.14 W cm -2 compared with previously reported NPMCs. The excellent PEMFC performance can be attributed to the densely and atomically dispersed Fe-N 4 active moieties on the small and uniform catalyst nanoparticles. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. One-Pot and Facile Fabrication of Hierarchical Branched Pt-Cu Nanoparticles as Excellent Electrocatalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanqin; Yang, Yong; Shan, Yufeng; Huang, Zhengren

    2016-03-09

    Hierarchical branched nanoparticles are one promising nanostructure with three-dimensional open porous structure composed of integrated branches for superior catalysis. We have successfully synthesized Pt-Cu hierarchical branched nanoparticles (HBNDs) with small size of about 30 nm and composed of integrated ultrathin branches by using a modified polyol process with introduction of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and HCl. This strategy is expected to be a general strategy to prepare various metallic nanostructures for catalysis. Because of the special open porous structure, the as-prepared Pt-Cu HBNDs exhibit greatly enhanced specific activity toward the methanol oxidation reaction as much as 2.5 and 1.7 times compared with that of the commercial Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru/C catalysts, respectively. Therefore, they are potentially applicable as electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

  13. Achieving high-powered Zn/air fuel cell through N and S co-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tunable active-sites as oxygen electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiaowei; Wang, Luming; Wu, Mingjie; Xu, Nengneng; Jiang, Lei; Qiao, Jinli

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical reduction of oxygen is the heart of the next-generation energy technologies to fuel cells and metal-air batteries, of which the reference catalysts suffer from two critical bottlenecks lying in their insufficient electroactivities and unclear active site structures. Herein, we introduce the effectively hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs) as the active-sites enriched platform for oxygen electroreduction. Three quaternized copolymers (PUB, PAADDA and PICP) with different chemical structures are used to pursue Fe/N/S-tailored ORR electrocatalysts. The most efficient one prepared by PAADDA gives the onset potential of 0.94 V and a half-wave potential of 0.85 V in basic solution, as well as superb electroactivities of low H2O2% and high electron transfer number in both alkaline and acidic medium. Surprisingly, they all display high discharge power density as applied to Zn-air fuel cells, and the HPCs-PAADDA catalyst thrillingly reaches 516.3 mW cm-2 when catalyst loading is optimized to 5.0 mg cm-2. The results elucidate that the polymer with long aliphatic chain is propitious to trap metals to create active sites and enwrap silica template to construct uniform pore structure. Only two kinds of nitrogen configuration (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) are found with distinct structure in these HPCs, which happens to be active sites.

  14. Low Pt content of carbon supported Pt-Ni-TiO2 nanotube electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.Z; Wu, X.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai, (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Interest in titanium oxide (TiO2) nanomaterial is growing due to their special characteristics for optics, catalysis, and photoelectricity conversion. In this study, the anatase/rutile crystalline of TiO2 nanoparticles was synthesized by co-deposition. TiO2 nanotubes were then obtained by microwave irradiations. This paper described the mechanism to fabricate TiO2 nanotubes. The conditions for preparing TiO2 nanotubes by microwave irradiation were optimized. Electrocatalysts were then prepared on the basis of the synthesized TiO2 nanotube. Their performances were investigated by the electro-oxidation of methanol. When Pt electrocatalysts were doped with a certain content of TiO2 nanotubes, they had more electrocatalytic activity for methanol electro-oxidation, particularly if the second transition metal, such as Ni, was added into the electrocatalyst. The electrocatalysts contained 5 and 10 wt per cent of Pt and Ni respectively. The 10 wt per cent TiO2 nanotubes showed better activities than any other catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation. According to XRD and TEM results, the size of nanoparticles of Pt became smaller after adding TiO2 nanotubes into the catalysts. It was concluded that here might be some interactions between Pt, Ni, and TiO2 nanotubes.

  15. Hexadecacarbonylhexarhodium as a novel electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation in the presence of fuel cell contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Cinvestav), Unidad Queretaro. Apartado Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Hernandez-Castellanos, R. [Universidad Tecnologica de San Juan del Rio, Av. La Palma No. 125, Col. Vista Hermosa, San Juan del Rio, Qro. 76800 (Mexico)

    2010-11-01

    The electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation of a discrete metal carbonyl cluster with a well defined molecular and crystal structure, Rh{sub 6}(CO){sub 16}, is reported. The exchange current density of this compound for oxygen reduction is one order of magnitude higher than that of platinum, and its resistance degree to PEM fuel cell contaminants such as methanol and CO is as high as 2 mol L{sup -1} and 0.5%, respectively. These properties make the metal complex a potential alternative for use as electrode in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. (author)

  16. Performance of Nafion-TiO2 hybrid membranes and PtSn/C electrocatalysts in PEM type fuel cells fed with ethanol and H2/CO at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro, Roberta Alvarenga

    2010-01-01

    In this work, Nafion-TiO 2 hybrid electrolytes and PtSn/C electrocatalysts were synthesized for the application in direct ethanol fuel cell operating at high temperature (130 degree C). For this purpose, TiO 2 particles were incorporated in commercial Nafion membranes by an 'in situ' sol gel route. The resulting materials were characterized by gravimetric analysis, water uptake, DSC, XRD and EDX. Electrocatalysts based on carbon dispersed platinum-tin (PtSn/C), with different composition, were produced by alcohol-reduction method and were employed as anodic electrode. The electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, EDX, XPS and transmission electronic spectroscopy. The electrochemical characterization was conducted by cyclic voltametry, carbon monoxide linear anodic voltammetry (CO stripping), and chronoamperometry. Membrane-electrodes assembly (MEAs) were formed with PtSn/C anodes, Pt/C cathodes and Nafion-TiO 2 hybrids. The performance of these MEA was evaluated in single-cell fed with H2/CO mixture or ethanol solution at the anode and oxygen at the cathode in the temperature range of 80-130 degree C. The analysis showed that the hybrid membranes improved the DEFC performance due to crossover suppression and that PtSn/C 70:30 electrocatalysts, prepared by an alcohol reduction process, showed better performance in ethanol oxidation. (author)

  17. Electrocatalysts using porous polymers and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Goenaga, Gabriel A.

    2016-08-02

    A method of producing an electrocatalyst article using porous polymers. The method creates a porous polymer designed to receive transition metal groups disposed at ligation sites and activating the transition metals to form an electrocatalyst which can be used in a fuel cell. Electrocatalysts prepared by this method are also provided. A fuel cell which includes the electrocatalyst is also provided.

  18. Electrocatalysts using porous polymers and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Goenaga, Gabriel A.

    2015-04-21

    A method of producing an electrocatalyst article using porous polymers. The method creates a porous polymer designed to receive transition metal groups disposed at ligation sites and activating the transition metals to form an electrocatalyst which can be used in a fuel cell. Electrocatalysts prepared by this method are also provided. A fuel cell which includes the electrocatalyst is also provided.

  19. Highly dispersed TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk; Zhao, Lan; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Katayama, Masao; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Electrodeposition conditions of Ta complexes and subsequent various heat treatments for the deposited TaOx were examined for the best performance of the ORR. TaOx particles

  20. A Pt-Co3O4-CD electrocatalyst with enhanced electrocatalytic performance and resistance to CO poisoning achieved by carbon dots and Co3O4 for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Zhou, Yunjie; Zhu, Cheng; Hu, Lulu; Han, Mumei; Wang, Aoqi; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2017-05-04

    Highly efficient electrocatalysts remain huge challenges in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Here, a Pt-Co 3 O 4 -CDs/C composite was fabricated as an anode electrocatalyst with low Pt content (12 wt%) by using carbon dots (CDs) and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles as building blocks. The Pt-Co 3 O 4 -CDs/C composite catalyst shows a significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity (1393.3 mA mg -1 Pt), durability (over 4000 s) and CO-poisoning tolerance. The superior catalytic activity should be attributed to the synergistic effect of CDs, Pt and Co 3 O 4 . Furthermore, the Pt-Co 3 O 4 -CDs/C catalyst was integrated into a single cell, which exhibits a maximum power density of 45.6 mW cm -2 , 1.7 times the cell based on the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst.

  1. Graphitized nanodiamond supporting PtNi alloy as stable anodic and cathodic electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjiao; Zang, Jianbing; Dong, Liang; Pan, Hong; Yuan, Yungang; Wang, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The graphitized nanodiamond (GND) showed a higher oxidation-resistance than XC-72. • The PtNi/GND electrocatalytic exhibited greater stability than PtNi/XC-72. • The PtNi/GND had a better catalytic activity for MOR and ORR than Pt/GND. -- Abstract: Surface graphitized nanodiamond (GND) with a diamond core covered by a graphitic carbon shell was prepared by annealing ND at the temperature of 1300 °C in a vacuum of 10 −3 Pa. PtNi electrocatalysts were prepared by a microwave heating polyol method using the prepared GND as a support. The composition and morphology of the PtNi electrocatalysts supported on GND (PtNi/GND) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectra. The results showed that nano-scaled PtNi alloy particles with an atomic ratio of approximately 1:1 were uniformly deposited on the GND through co-reduction process. The electrocatalytic activities of the PtNi/GND electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and linear sweep voltammetry. The PtNi/GND exhibited better electrocatalytic activities than the Pt/GND either for MOR and ORR. In comparison with traditional carbon support Vulcan XC-72, GND showed higher oxidation-resistance, and consequently led to greater stability for the PtNi/GND than PtNi/XC-72

  2. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped porous carbon – is an efficient electrocatalyst as platinum or a hoax for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic environment PEM fuel cell?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-precious, heteroatom doped carbon is reported to replace commercial Pt/C in both alkaline and acidic half-cell rotating disc electrode study; however the real world full cell measurements with the metal-free electrocatalysts overcoming the practical troubles in acidic environment proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are almost negligible to confirm the claim. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped porous carbon (DPC) was synthesized in a one step, high yield process from single source ionic liquid precursor using eutectic salt as porogens to achieve porosity. Structural characterization confirms 7.03% nitrogen and 1.68% sulfur doping into the high surface area, porous carbon structure. As the cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst, metal-free DPC and Pt nanoparticles decorated DPC (Pt/DPC) shows stable and high exchange current density by four electron transfer pathway in acidic half–cell liquid environment due to the synergistic effect of nitrogen and sulfur doping and porous nature of DPC. In an actual solid state full cell measurement, Pt/DPC shows higher performance comparable to commercial Pt/C; however DPC failed to reciprocate the half-cell performance due to blockage of active sites in the membrane electrode assembly fabrication process. - Highlights: • Synthesis of N and S co-doped porous carbon (DPC) in simple one-pot technique. • High surface area DPC shows comparable activity for ORR in half-cell acidic PEMFC study. • Real-world performance of DPC gives 20 mW/cm 2 peak power density at 60 °C. • Homogeneous Pt nanoparticles decorated DPC (Pt/DPC) outperforms commercial Pt/C. • Pt/DPC shows maximum power density of 718 mW/cm 2 with lower 0.3 mg/cm 2 total Pt loading.

  3. An electrochemical method to prepare of Pd/Cu2O/MWCNT nanostructure as an anode electrocatalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, Hussein; Rostami, Abbas Ali; Omrani, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    This study reports an electrochemical method to fabrication of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) promoted with cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube (Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT). First, Cu 2 O is electrodeposited on treated MWCNTs in the optimum deposition conditions. Then, the Pd nanostructure is electrochemically fabricated on Cu 2 O/MWCNT electrode by cycling the potential between +0.5 to −1.0 V in negative direction. The prepared electrodes are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrocatalytic performance of Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is investigated by cyclic voltammetric (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The formation of the Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT is confirmed by EDX and XRD techniques. The onset potential of Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT shifts to negative values by 120 mV compared to the onset potential of Pd/MWCNT. Much higher I f /I b value is obtained for Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT compared to other Pd-based catalysts indicating Cu 2 O could significantly enhance the stability and CO poisoning tolerance of the Pd towards ethanol electrooxidation. The results revealed that the prepared Pd/Cu 2 O/MWCNT catalyst can be a promising anode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells.

  4. Highly effective and CO-tolerant PtRu electrocatalysts supported on poly(ethyleneimine) functionalized carbon nanotubes for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi; Jiang, San Ping

    2013-01-01

    A highly efficient and CO tolerant PtRu electrocatalysts supported on amino-rich, cationic poly(ethyleneimine) polyelectrolyte functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs) has been developed. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammograms, CO stripping, chronoamperometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PtRu particles with average size ∼2.5 nm are well dispersed on PEI-MWCNTs. The peak current for the methanol oxidation reaction on 40% PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs is 636mAmg Pt −1 , 5.7 times higher than 112mA mg Pt −1 measured on the 40% PtRu supported on acid treated MWCNTs (PtRu/AO-MWCNTs) under identical conditions. PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs catalysts exhibit a superior electrocatalytic activity and stability for the methanol oxidation reaction due to its high tolerance toward CO poisoning as compared with PtRu/AO-MWCNTs for direct methanol fuel cells

  5. Emerging methanol-tolerant AlN nanowire oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M; Wang, J; Li, J R; Wang, Y G; Tang, H L; Wang, W J

    2014-08-11

    Replacing precious and nondurable Pt catalysts with cheap materials is a key issue for commercialization of fuel cells. In the case of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), the methanol tolerance is also an important concern. Here, we develop AlN nanowires with diameters of about 100-150 nm and the length up to 1 mm through crystal growth method. We find it is electrochemically stable in methanol-contained alkaline electrolyte. This novel material exhibits pronounced electrocatalytic activity with exchange current density of about 6.52 × 10(-8) A/cm(2). The single cell assembled with AlN nanowire cathodic electrode achieves a power density of 18.9 mW cm(-2). After being maintained at 100 mA cm(-2) for 48 h, the AlN nanowire-based single cell keeps 92.1% of the initial performance, which is in comparison with 54.5% for that assembled with Pt/C cathode. This discovery reveals a new type of metal nitride ORR catalyst that can be cheaply produced from crystal growth method.

  6. Pt-Ru/CeO2/carbon nanotube nanocomposites: an efficient electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenyu; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Hongye; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2010-07-20

    Pt-Ru/CeO(2)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared using a rapid sonication-facilitated deposition method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and voltammetry. Morphological characterization by TEM revealed that CeO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) were in intimate contact with Pt-Ru NPs, and both were highly dispersed on the exteriors of nanotubes with a small size and a very narrow size distribution. Compared with the Pt-Ru/MWNT and Pt/MWNT electrocatalysts, the as-prepared Pt-Ru/CeO(2)/MWNT exhibited a significantly improved electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and a remarkably enhanced activity toward methanol oxidation. The effects of the Pt-Ru loading and the Pt-to-Ru molar ratio on the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Ru/CeO(2)/MWNT for methanol oxidation were investigated. We found that a maximum activity toward methanol oxidation reached at the 10 wt % of Pt-Ru loading and 1:1 of Pt-to-Ru ratio. Moreover, the role of CeO(2) in the catalysts for the enhancement of methanol oxidation was discussed in terms of both bifunctional mechanism and electronic effects.

  7. Carbon-supported iron complexes as electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine and electricity in a NO-H2 fuel cell: A combined electrochemical and density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xia; Alvarez-Gallego, Yolanda; Dominguez-Benetton, Xochitl; Baert, Kitty; Hubin, Annick; Zhao, Hailiang; Mihaylov, Tzvetan T.; Pierloot, Kristine; Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.; Pescarmona, Paolo P.

    2018-06-01

    Carbon-supported iron complexes were investigated as electrocatalysts for the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a H2-NO fuel cell conceived for the production of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) with concomitant generation of electricity. Two types of iron complexes with tetradentate ligands, namely bis(salicylidene)ethylenediimine (Salen) and phthalocyanine (Pc), supported on activated carbon or graphite were prepared and evaluated as electrocatalysts, either without further treatment or after pyrolysis at 700 °C. The performance in the reduction of NO of gas diffusion cathodes based on these electrocatalysts was investigated in an electrochemical half cell (3-electrode configuration) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The most promising electrocatalysts were studied further by chronoamperometric experiments in a H2-NO fuel cell, which allowed comparison in terms of power output and hydroxylamine production. Depending on the concentration of the NO feed (6 or 18%), the best electrocatalytic performance was delivered either by FePc or FeSalen. The gas diffusion electrode based on FeSalen supported on activated carbon with 0.3 wt% Fe-loading provided the highest current density (86 A/m2) and the best current efficiency (43%) towards the desired NH2OH when operating at the higher NO concentration (18%). Moreover, FeSalen offers the advantage of being cheaper than FePc. The experimental work was complemented by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which allowed to shed more light on the reaction mechanism for the reduction of nitric oxide at the atomistic level.

  8. CO-Tolerant Pt–BeO as a Novel Anode Electrocatalyst in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjung Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs requires less expensive catalysts and higher operating voltage. Substantial anodic overvoltage with the usage of reformed hydrogen fuel can be minimized by using CO-tolerant anode catalysts. Carbon-supported Pt–BeO is manufactured so that Pt particles with an average diameter of 4 nm are distributed on a carbon support. XPS analysis shows that a peak value of the binding energy of Be matches that of BeO, and oxygen is bound with Be or carbon. The hydrogen oxidation current of the Pt–BeO catalyst is slightly higher than that of a Pt catalyst. CO stripping voltammetry shows that CO oxidation current peaks at ~0.85 V at Pt, whereas CO is oxidized around 0.75 V at Pt–BeO, which confirms that the desorption of CO is easier in the presence of BeO. Although the state-of-the-art PtRu anode catalyst is dominant as a CO-tolerant hydrogen oxidation catalyst, this study of Be-based CO-tolerant material can widen the choice of PEMFC anode catalyst.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of highly tolerant Pd electrocatalysts as cathodes in direct ethylene glycol fuel cells (DEGFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, F.J.; Fraire Luna, S. [Cinvestav, Unidad Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico)] e-mail: javier.varela@cinvestav.edu.mx; Savadogo, O. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Materiaux Energetiques, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Highly selective Pd electrocatalysts were synthesized by the formic acid method and evaluated as cathodes for DEGFC applications. In rotating disc measurements in acid medium, the Pd/C cathode showed important catalytic activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). In the presence of ethylene glycol (EG, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), Pd/C exhibited an excellent electrochemical behavior and full tolerance to the organic molecule. No current density peaks associated to the EG oxidation reaction emerged and the shift in onset potential for the ORR (Eonset) toward more negative potentials was negligible on this cathode. Moreover, the evaluation of Pd/C in a DEGFC operating at 80 degrees Celsius demonstrated its high performance as cathode. As a comparison, commercial Pt/C was tested under the same conditions showing a limited selectivity for the ORR. The detrimental effect of EG on the Pt electrocatalysts resulted in high intensity current density peaks due to the oxidation of EG and a significant shift in Eonset. Given these results, it is expected that highly efficient Pd-based cathodes can find application in DEGFCs. [Spanish] Se sintetizaron electrocatalizadores altamente selectivos mediante el metodo de acido formico y se evaluaron como catodos en aplicaciones de CCGED. En mediciones de disco rotatorio en medio acido, el catodo Pd/C mostro importante actividad catalitica en la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO). En la presencia de glicol de etileno (GE, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), Pd/C exhibio un excelente comportamiento electromecanico y tolerancia total a la molecula organica. No surgieron picos de densidad de corriente asociados con la reaccion de oxidacion de GE y el corrimiento en el potencial de inicio para la RRO (Einicio) hacia potenciales mas negativos fue despreciable en este catodo. Como comparacion, se probo un Pt/C bajo las mismas condiciones y se observo una selectividad limitada para el RRO. El efecto perjudicial de GE en el electrocatalizador

  10. Preparation and characterization of Pt/C and Pt sbnd Ru/C electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaolin; Ling, Xing Yi; Su, Xiaodi; Lee, Jim Yang; Gan, Leong Ming

    Nano-sized Pt and Pt sbnd Ru colloids are prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol process, and transferred to a toluene solution of decanthiol. Vulcan XC-72 is then added to the toluene solution to adsorb the thiolated Pt and Pt sbnd Ru colloids. Transmission electron microscopy examinations show nearly spherical particles and narrow size distributions for both supported and unsupported metals. The carbon-supported Pt and Pt sbnd Ru nanoparticles are activated by thermal treatment to remove the thiol stabilizing shell. All Pt and Pt sbnd Ru catalysts (except Pt 23sbnd Ru 77) give the X-ray diffraction pattern of a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, whereas the Pt 23sbnd Ru 77 alloy is more typical of the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure. The electro-oxidation of liquid ethanol on these catalysts is investigated at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry. The results demonstrate that the alloy catalyst is catalytically more active than pure platinum. Preliminary tests on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) indicate that a Pt 52sbnd Ru 48/C anode catalyst gives the best electrocatalytic performance among all the carbon-supported Pt and Pt sbnd Ru catalysts.

  11. Preparation and characterization of Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaolin; Ling, Xing Yi; Su, Xiaodi; Lee, Jim Yang; Gan, Leong Ming [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2005-09-26

    Nano-sized Pt and Pt-Ru colloids are prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol process, and transferred to a toluene solution of decanthiol. Vulcan XC-72 is then added to the toluene solution to adsorb the thiolated Pt and Pt-Ru colloids. Transmission electron microscopy examinations show nearly spherical particles and narrow size distributions for both supported and unsupported metals. The carbon-supported Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles are activated by thermal treatment to remove the thiol stabilizing shell. All Pt and Pt-Ru catalysts (except Pt{sub 23}-Ru{sub 77}) give the X-ray diffraction pattern of a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, whereas the Pt{sub 23}-Ru{sub 77} alloy is more typical of the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure. The electro-oxidation of liquid ethanol on these catalysts is investigated at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry. The results demonstrate that the alloy catalyst is catalytically more active than pure platinum. Preliminary tests on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) indicate that a Pt{sub 52}-Ru{sub 48}/C anode catalyst gives the best electrocatalytic performance among all the carbon-supported Pt and Pt-Ru catalysts. (author)

  12. How bimetallic electrocatalysts does work for reactions involved in fuel cells? Example of ethanol oxidation and comparison to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, J.-M.; Rousseau, S.; Coutanceau, C.; Hahn, F.; Lamy, C. [UMR 6503, Electrocatalysis Group, CNRS - University of Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2005-09-05

    Carbon-supported Pt-based nanosized electrocatalysts can be synthesized for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of Pt can be greatly enhanced by using Pt-Ru/C for methanol oxidation or Pt-Sn/C for ethanol oxidation. In situ IR reflectance spectroscopy is a convenient tool to better understand the importance of the different adsorption steps involved in the mechanisms of electrooxidation. With Pt/C, it appears clearly that linearly adsorbed CO is the poisoning species formed during methanol and ethanol oxidation. In the case of methanol, even with Pt-Ru/C (the most active catalyst), adsorbed CO is also a reactive intermediate. The enhancement of activity observed in such a case is due to the possibility to activate water at lower potentials in the presence of Ru. With Pt-Sn/C, the mechanism of the electrooxidation of ethanol is strongly modified. If at low potentials, poisoning with adsorbed CO still exists (as with Pt/C), the oxidation of ethanol at potentials greater than 0.4 V versus RHE occurs through an adsorbed acetyl species which can lead to the formation of acetaldehyde and acetic acid as final products in addition to carbon dioxide. (author)

  13. Investigation of methanol oxidation on a highly active and stable Pt–Sn electrocatalyst supported on carbon–polyaniline composite for application in a passive direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Mitra [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemeini, Mohammad [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedanian, Mahboobeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharibi, Hussein, E-mail: h.gharibi@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, 122 S Campus Drive, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • PtSn/C-PANI performed superior in the MOR compared with a commercial PtRu/C. • Catalytic activity of PtRu/C was highly reduced during the accelerated durability test. • Anode of the PtSn/C-PANI in a passive DMFC lowered methanol crossover by 30%. - Abstract: Polyaniline fiber (PANI) was synthesized and utilized to fabricate a vulcan–polyaniline (C-PANI) composite. Pt/C-PANI and PtSn/C-PANI electro-catalysts with different Pt:Sn atomic ratios were prepared by the impregnation method. These electro-catalysts, along with commercial PtRu/C (Electrochem), were characterized with respect to their structural and electrochemical properties in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI showed excellent performance in MOR, the obtained maximum current density being about 40% and 50% higher than that for PtRu/C and Pt/C-PANI, respectively. It was also found that the CO tolerance and stability of PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI was considerably higher than that of PtRu/C. Finally, the performance of these two materials was compared in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The DMFC test results demonstrated that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared using PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI anode catalyst performed more satisfactorily in terms of maximum power density and lower methanol crossover.

  14. Chemometric study of the effects of PtRu:BH4-molar ratio and solvent used in the preparation of PtRu/C electrocatalysts for for direct methanol fuel cell anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, N.S.O.; Neto, A.O.; Spinace, E.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tusi, M.M. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Santiago, RS (Brazil); Brandalise, M. [Instituto Federal Fluminense (IFF), Campos dos Goyracazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    PtRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by borohydride reduction method and a chemometric study was performed to evaluate the influence of the solvent (water and isopropyl alcohol) and amount of reducing agent (PtRu:BH4- molar ratios of 5 and 15) in maximum power density. In borohydride reduction method, a solution containing sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is added to a mixture containing water, isopropyl alcohol, metallic precursors and the carbon support Vulcan XC72. The obtained materials were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA's) were produced and tests in single direct methanol fuel cells were performed. The amount of sodium borohydride used in the reduction showed more influence on the maximum power density than the change of solvent of the reaction. (author)

  15. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon black for polymer exchange membrane fuel cell applications; Preparacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao de eletrocatalisadores suportados em carbono funcionalizado para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcelo do

    2008-12-18

    The fuel cell technology associated with the growing exigency of low environmental impact energy became prosperous in the world energy scenery. The fuel cell is basically a device that converts directly the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical and thermal energy with a continuous operation by the constant feed of a fuel. Especially, the carbon black Vulcan XC72 is usually employed as an electro catalyst support, and some factors as an accessible and high surface area in order to get maximum particles dispersion, pore size, adequate pore distribution and the presence of functional groups in the carbon black surface are considered fundamental characteristics for an innovative materials development. However, the Vulcan XC72 still reveals insufficient conditions for these purposes. This study consists in the preparation and in the physical chemical characterization of functionalized carbon black by hydrogen peroxide and by polymeric chains with proton conduction properties, and its posterior utilization as electro catalyst support for PEMFC and DMFC application. After the carbon functionalization, an improvement in the carbon black dispersion in water media was observed, a beneficial effect for electro catalyst preparation. It was also observed, that the functional groups and the polymeric chains worked as stabilizers in the particle growing, producing much more homogeneous electrocatalysts, exhibiting smaller average particle size. Especially, in the case of polymeric chains functionalization, a decrease in the ohmic drop was observed for this system, attributed to an improvement in the proton transference. (author)

  16. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfield, S.

    1996-04-01

    Research on direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is discussed. Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. The use of platinum/ruthenium anode electrocatalysts and platinum cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in significant performance enhancements.

  17. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction using Pt-Rare earths (La, Ce, Er) electrocatalysts for application of PEM fuel cells; Estudo da reacao de reducao do oxigenio utilizando eletrocatalisadores a base de Pt-terras raras (La, Ce, Er) para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Thiago Bueno

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and its potential losses make it responsible for the most part of efficiency losses at the Fuel Cells. For this reaction the electrocatalyst witch is most appropriated and shows better performance is platinum, a noble metal that elevates the cost, raising barriers for Fuel Cells technology to enter the market. First this work focuses on reducing the amount of platinum used in the cathode, by being replaced by rare earths. The most common methods of synthesis involves a large amount of steps and this work proposed to prepare the electrocatalyst through a simpler way that would not take so many steps and time to be done. Using an ultrasound mixer the electrocatalyst was prepared mixing platinum supported on carbon black and the rare earths lanthanum, cerium and erbium oxides to be applied in a half-cell study of the ORR. The Koutecky-Levich plots shows that among the electrocatalysts prepared the Pt80Ce20/C had the catalytic activity close to the commercial BASF platinum on carbon black, suggesting that the reaction was taken by the 4-electron path. As found in some works in literature, among the rare earth used to study the ORR, cerium is the one witch shows the better performance because it is able to store and provide oxygen. This feature is of great interest for the ORR because this reaction is first order to the oxygen concentration. Results show that is possible to reduce the amount of platinum maintaining the same electrocatalyst activity. (author)

  18. Engineering the Activity and Stability of Pt-Alloy Cathode Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts by Tuning the Pt-Pt Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Malacrida, Paolo; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    2014-01-01

    for enhancing the cathode activity is to alloy Pt with transition metals [1-2]. However, alloys of Pt and late transition metals are typically unstable under fuel-cell conditions. Herein, we present experimental and theoretical studies showing the trends in activity and stability of novel cathode catalysts...

  19. Direct methanol fuel cells: Pt-Ni/C binary electrocatalysts; Celulas a combutivel de metanol direto: eletrocatalisadores binarios de Pt-Ni/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Jose Ricardo Cezar; Antolini, Ermete; Santos, Ana Maria dos; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: salgado@iqsc.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells use platinum alloys as more efficient catalysts than platinum. In the case of binary alloys, the second metal affects several properties of platinum, like the interatomic distance, the electronic density and the capacity of forming oxygenated species at lower potentials. In this work, Pt-Ni catalysts supported on high surface area carbon (Pt-Ni/C) were prepared and characterized, and tested as catalysts in the anode and the cathode in direct methanol fuel cells. In both cases the performance of the material was better than that of Pt/C, and comparing the two situations it was better when the material was used in the cathode. The improved performance in the cathode was attributed to the nickel that forms a true alloy with platinum, while the better performance in the anode was attributed to the presence of nickel oxides. (author)

  20. Preparation and characterization of PtRu/C, PtBi/C, PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts for direct electro-oxidation of ethanol in PEM fuels cells using the method of reduction by sodium borohydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Pt/C, PtBi/C, PtRu/C and PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts were prepared by a borohydride reduction methodology and tested for ethanol oxidation. This methodology consists in mix a solution with sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride to a mixture containing water/isopropyl alcohol, metallic precursors and the Vulcan XC 72 carbon support. It was studied the addition method of borohydride (drop by drop addition or rapid addition). The obtained electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The ethanol electro-oxidation was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts were tested in real conditions of operation by unit cell tests. The stability of PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry using the ultra-thin porous coating technique and ring-disk electrode. The PtRuBi/C electro catalyst apparently presented a good performance for ethanol electro-oxidation but experimental evidences showed accentuated bismuth dissolution. (author)

  1. Investigation of a Pt3Sn/C Electro-Catalyst in a Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell Operating at Low Temperatures for Portable Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zignani, S. C.; Gonzalez, E. R.; Baglio, V.; Siracusano, S.; Arico, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A 20% Pt3Sn/C catalyst was prepared by reduction with formic acid and used in a direct ethanol fuel cell at low temperatures. The electro-catalytic activity of this bimetallic catalyst was compared to that of a commercial 20% Pt/C catalyst. The PtSn catalyst showed better results in the investigated temperature range (30 degrees-70 degrees C). Generally, Sn promotes ethanol oxidation by adsorption of OH species at considerably lower potentials compared to Pt, allowing the occurrence of a bifu...

  2. Optimum concentration gradient of the electrocatalyst, Nafion® and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) in a membrane-electrode-assembly for enhanced performance of direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Hua; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Ki Rak; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2010-12-14

    A combinatorial library of membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) which consisted of 27 different compositions was fabricated to optimize the multilayer structure of direct methanol fuel cells. Each spot consisted of three layers of ink and a gradient was generated by employing different concentrations of the three components (Pt catalyst, Nafion® and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) of each layer. For quick evaluation of the library, a high-throughput optical screening technique was employed for methanol electro-oxidation reaction (MOR) activity. The screening results revealed that gradient layers could lead to higher MOR activity than uniform layers. It was found that the MOR activity was higher when the concentrations of Pt catalyst and Nafion ionomer decreased downward from the top layer to the bottom layer. On the other hand, higher MOR activity was observed when PTFE concentration increased downward from the top to the bottom layer.

  3. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  4. Nano-composite of PtRu alloy electrocatalyst and electronically conducting polymer for use as the anode in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongho Choi; Kyungwon Park; Hyekyung Lee; Youngmin Kim; Jaesuk Lee; Yungeun Sung [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju (Korea)

    2003-08-15

    Nano-composites comprised of PtRu alloy nanoparticles and an electronically conducting polymer for the anode electrode in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were prepared. Two conducting polymers of poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and poly(9-(4-vinyl-phenyl)carbazole) were used for the nano-composite electrodes. Structural analyses were carried out using Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, AC impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrocatalytic activities were investigated by voltammetry and chronoamperometry in a 2 M CH{sub 3}OH/{sub 0.5} M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the data compared with a carbon-supported PtRu electrode. XRD patterns indicated good alloy formation and nano-composite formation was confirmed by TEM. Electrochemical measurements and DMFC unit-cell tests indicate that the nano-composites could be useful in a DMFC, but its performance would be slightly lower than that of a carbon-supported electrode. The interfacial property between the PtRu-polymer nano-composite anode and the polymer electrolyte was good, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. For better performance in a DMFC, a higher electric conductivity of the polymer and a lower catalyst loss are needed in nano-composite electrodes. (Author)

  5. Activity, Performance, and Durability for the Reduction of Oxygen in PEM Fuel Cells, of Fe/N/C Electrocatalysts Obtained from the Pyrolysis of Metal-Organic-Framework and Iron Porphyrin Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lijun; Larouche, Nicholas; Chenitz, Régis; Zhang, Gaixia; Lefèvre, Michel; Dodelet, Jean-Pol

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TOC After a first decay common to all electrocatalysts, only NC Por-0.8 -1150 Ar + NH3 shows an improvement in durability attributable to a decrease in water flooding its catalytic sites, particularly those located in micropores. - Abstract: Fe/N/C type catalysts have been produced by ballmilling ZIF-8 (a metal-organic-framework) and a chloroiron-tetramethoxyporphyrin (ClFeTMPP). The resulting material was first pyrolyzed in Ar at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1150 °C, then in NH 3 at 950 °C in order to produce two series of catalysts: the Ar and the Ar + NH 3 ones. They were labeled NC Por-x-T Ar or NC Por-x-T Ar + NH 3 , where x is the nominal Fe loading in wt% and T is the temperature of the first pyrolysis in Ar. At 80 °C in H 2 /O 2 fuel cell, the most active and performing catalyst is NC Por-0.8-1050 Ar + NH 3 . All NC Por-0.8-T Ar + NH 3 catalysts with T comprised between 850 and 1050 °C display the same instability behavior. The only catalyst showing an improvement in durability is NC Por-0.8-1150 Ar + NH 3 . It is proposed that the drastic change in durability upon increasing the first pyrolysis temperature, from 1050 to 1150 °C in Ar, is attributable to an important decrease in the heteroatom content (a drop of 32% for both N and O atoms) of the catalyst upon graphitization, reducing the hydrophilic character of its carbonaceous support and decreasing the possibility of water flooding its catalytic sites, particularly the sites located in micropores

  6. Fuel cell: new electrocatalysts for SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) anodes and regulation between cell performance and catalytic activity; Celula a combustivel: novos eletrocatalisadores para anodos de SOFC (Celulas a Combustivel de Oxido Solido) e correlacao entre desempenho da celula e atividade catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, Jaime S.; Aguiar, Aurinete B.; Brandao, Soraia T. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Frank, Maria Helena Troise; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Electro-catalysts were prepared using new routes. Chemical Ultrasound Deposition (CUD) method: aqueous solution of nickel nitrate and citric acid was ultrasound vaporized and deposited on heated Ytria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ). Resin impregnation (IPR) method: nickel oxide and YSZ were mixed, added to phenolic resins, precipitated in acidic water and milled. Wet impregnation method (IMP) was used for comparison: YSZ and an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate and citric acid were mixed, followed by evaporation, drying and calcination. The catalysts were evaluated for methane steam reforming in a quartz reactor. The reactions were conducted for one hour with no significant catalytic activity loss. In reactions with 100 mg of catalyst and a mixture consisting of methane and steam (3:1), IPR catalyst showed activity higher and better stability than those by IMP. On other tests, the reform was conducted with 100 mg of catalyst and methane to steam of 10. The IPR catalyst activity was so high that the reaction approached equilibrium conditions. Anode/electrolyte/cathode units (A/E/C) were prepared with the above catalysts as follows: the anode was a catalyst porous layer; the electrolyte an YSZ dense layer; and the cathode an LSM porous layer; graphite powder formed the material porosity. The two first layers, in powder form, were put in a stainless steel cast, pressed to 4000 bars and sinterized. The cathode layer was subsequently added using tape-casting techniques followed by sintering. A/E/C units showed 40% linear contraction and porosity higher than 20%. For fuel cell tests, A/E/C was mounted in alumina plates with platinum current collectors. Unitary SOF cells were loaded with hydrogen diluted in nitrogen showing opened circuit voltage from circa 700 mV, for the CUD anode, to 350 mV, for the IPR anode. The unitary SOFC was loaded with methane for 15 minutes or longer, with no noticeable voltage loss. At 1300 K the SOFC made with IPR or IMP catalysts showed opened

  7. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-10-01

    Ordered intermetallic Pt2In3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K2PtCl4 and InCl3.xH2O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt2In3 intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt2In3 catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be 3.2 and 2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt2In3 nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell.

  8. Use of Dendrimers during the Synthesis of Pt-Ru Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: Effects on the Physical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Calderón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Pt-Ru catalysts were synthesized by a novel methodology which includes the use as encapsulating molecules of dendrimers of different generation: zero (DN-0, one (DN-1, two (DN-2, and three (DN-3. Synthesized catalysts were heat-treated at 350°C, and the effects of this treatment was established from the physical (X-ray dispersive energy (XDE and X-ray diffraction (XRD and electrochemical characterization (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Results showed that the heat-treatment benefits the catalytic properties of synthesized materials in terms of CO and methanol electrochemical oxidation. The curves for CO stripping were more defined for heat-treated catalysts, and methanol oxidation current densities were higher for these materials. These changes are principally explained from the removal of organic residues remaining on the surface of the Pt-Ru nanoparticles after the synthesis procedure. After the activation of the catalysts by heating at 350°C, the real importance of the use of these encapsulating molecules and the effect of the generation of the dendrimer become visible. From these results, it can be concluded that synthesized catalysts are good catalytic anodes for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs.

  9. Core-shell structural nanodiamond@TiN supported Pt nanoparticles as a highly efficient and stable electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuling; Wang, Yanhui; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Junjie; Zang, Jianbing; Lu, Jing; Xu, Xipeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Core-shell structural nanodiamond@TiN was used as a novel support for Pt catalysts. • The ND@TiN support possessed a high electrochemical stability than carbon black. • The Pt/ND@TiN showed a higher catalytic activity for MOR and ORR than the Pt/C. • The Pt/ND@TiN demonstrated a much better durability compared with the Pt/C. - Abstract: A novel core-shell support material was designed with nanodiamond (ND) as core possessed excellent stability and TiN as shell improved the conductivity of support. The nano-TiN shell was decorated on the surface of ND by annealing TiO 2 in nitrogen atmosphere, and the obtained ND@TiN was employed to support Pt nanoparticles (NPs). The ND@TiN support and Pt/ND@TiN electrocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. ND particles were coated uniformly by the TiN layer and Pt NPs with a mean size of 4.2 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of ND@TiN. The electrochemical results confirmed that the ND@TiN support possessed a much more stability than the carbon black and exhibited a bigger background current density than the ND. The Pt/ND@TiN catalyst showed higher catalytic activity and better stability in methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions compared with the Pt/C and Pt/ND

  10. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} as stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards direct alcohol fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Rajkumar; Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in

    2016-10-15

    Ordered intermetallic Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles have been synthesized by superhydride reduction of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} and InCl{sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O precursors using facile, one-pot solvothermal method. We report surfactant free solvothermal synthesis of a novel ordered Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} intermetallic nanoparticles for the first time. The structure and morphology of the catalyst has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic properties of the catalysts have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The as prepared Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst exhibit far superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards alcohol oxidation over commercial Pt/C. The specific activity of as synthesized catalyst was found to be ~3.2 and ~2.3 times higher than commercial Pt/C for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. This improved activity and durability of the Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles can make the catalyst an ideal catalyst candidate for direct alcohol fuel cell. - Graphical abstract: The ordered structure of Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized by solvothermal method has confirmed through XRD and TEM. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry showed improved catalytic activity and stability compared to commercial Pt/C. - Highlights: • Ordered Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method. • Electrooxidation of alcohols on Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst was investigated in acidic medium. • Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst has superior catalytic activity compared to commercial Pt/C. • Pt{sub 2}In{sub 3} catalyst exhibited much higher stability than commercial Pt/C.

  11. Microwave irradiated Ni–MnO{sub x}/C as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in KOH solution for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, R.M. Abdel, E-mail: randa311eg@yahoo.com

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ni–MnO{sub x}/C had nickel nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm. • Oxidation current density increased by 1.43 times at Ni–MnO{sub x}/C. • Ni–MnO{sub x}/C showed k{sub s} value of 3.26 × 103 cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}. • Adding MnO{sub x} to Ni/C lowered its phase angle and impedance values. - Abstract: Ni–MnO{sub x}/C electrocatalyst was synthesized by the reduction of nickel precursor salt on MnO{sub x}/C powder using NaBH{sub 4} and the deposition process was motivated with the aid of microwave irradiation. Finer nickel nanoparticles were detected in Ni–MnO{sub x}/C using transmission electron microscopy with a lower particle size of 4.5 nm compared to 6 nm in Ni/C. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied to study the electrocatalytic activity of Ni–MnO{sub x}/C for methanol oxidation in 0.5 M KOH solution. The presence of 7.5 wt.% MnO{sub x} in Ni–MnO{sub x}/C enhanced the oxidation current density by 1.43 times. The catalytic rate constant of methanol oxidation at Ni–MnO{sub x}/C was calculated as 3.26 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}. An appreciable shift in the maximum frequency at the transition from the resistive to capacitive regions to a higher value in Bode plots of Ni–MnO{sub x}/C was shown when compared to Ni/C. It was accompanied by lowered phase angle values. The lowered Warburg impedance value (W) of Ni–MnO{sub x}/C at 400 mV confirmed the faster methanol diffusion rate at its surface.

  12. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  13. Synthesis of Pt-immobilized on silica and polystyrene-encapsulated silica and their applications as electrocatalysts in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Sung-Chul; Kim, Chang Young; Jung, Chi Young; Jeong, Sung Hoon; Kim, Wha Jung

    2011-01-01

    Nano sized Pt particles were successfully immobilized onto SiO 2 and polystyrene-encapsulated silica core shell (SiO 2 @PS). To make the immobilization of Pt onto both silica and polystyrene-encapsulated silica core shell, SiO 2 was first functionalized with -NH 2 using 3-amino propyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) while for core shell, the negatively charged surface of polystyrene (PS) was changed with positive charge by cationic surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl) to make the formation of SiO 2 shell on preformed PS sphere. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) images shows that Pt nanoparticles immobilized onto SiO 2 and SiO 2 @PS were to be 3-4 nm without agglomeraiton. The energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) shows that Pt contents on both SiO 2 and SiO 2 @PS were to be 21.45% and 20.28%, respectively. In case of Pt-SiO 2 @PS, it is believed that Pt should have been immobilized onto PS surface and pore within SiO 2 shell as well as SiO 2 surface. The MEA fabricated with Pt-SiO 2 @PS shows better cell performance than of Pt-SiO 2 .

  14. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  15. Electrochemical Reconstitution of Biomolecules for Applications as Electrocatalysts for the Bionanofuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Choi, Sang H.; Lillehei, Peter T.; King, Glen C.; Watt, Gerald D.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; Thibeault, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    Platinum-cored ferritins were synthesized as electrocatalysts by electrochemical biomineralization of immobilized apoferritin with platinum. The platinum cored ferritin was fabricated by exposing the immobilized apoferritin to platinum ions at a reduction potential. On the platinum-cored ferritin, oxygen is reduced to water with four protons and four electrons generated from the anode. The ferritin acts as a nano-scale template, a biocompatible cage, and a separator between the nanoparticles. This results in a smaller catalyst loading of the electrodes for fuel cells or other electrochemical devices. In addition, the catalytic activity of the ferritin-stabilized platinum nanoparticles is enhanced by the large surface area and particle size phenomena. The work presented herein details the immobilization of ferritin with various surface modifications, the electrochemical biomineralization of ferritin with different inorganic cores, and the fabrication of self-assembled 2-D arrays with thiolated ferritin.

  16. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  17. Anode-Engineered Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell with Excellent Performance and Fuel Compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Yan, N.; Li, M.; Sun, Y.-F.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Li, J.; Etsell, T.; Sarkar, P.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Directly utilizing hydrocarbon fuels, particularly methane, is advantageous yet challenging in high-performance protonic ceramic fuel cells. In this work, this technological hurdle is well addressed by selective deposition of secondary electrocatalysts within the porous Ni-cermet anode. This novel

  18. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  19. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  20. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  1. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  2. MnO2/MCMB electrocatalyst for all solid-state alkaline zinc-air cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Zhang, X.G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured MnO 2 /mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) composite has been prepared successfully for use in zinc-air cell as electrocatalyst for oxygen reaction. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the MnO 2 nanorods were formed and covered on the surface of MCMB in bird's nest morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that the MnO 2 has the hollandite structure with a composition approximating KMn 8 O 16 . By the cathodic polarization curve tests, the nanostructured material demonstrated excellent electrocatalytic activity as a kind of oxygen electrode electrocatalyst compared with electrolytic MnO 2 . An all solid-state zinc-air cell has been fabricated with this material as electrocatalyst for oxygen electrode and potassium salt of cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) as an alkaline polymer gel electrolyte. The cell has good discharge characteristics at room temperature

  3. Durability Issues and Status of PBI-Based Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mark Tonny Dalsgaard; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews durability and stability issues with key materials and components for HT-PEMFCs, including the polymer membrane, the doping acid, the electrocatalyst, the catalyst support and bipolar plates. Degradation mechanisms and their dependence on fuel cell operating condition...

  4. Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

    Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

  5. Application of ac impedance in fuel cell research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, J R; Lin, Y P [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1993-10-01

    In applying ac impedance to fuel cells and their porous (gas diffusion) electrodes the emphasis lies on different fuel cell components, and their properties, according to the fuel cell type. The focus has been directed at the electrode/electrolyte interface in MCFC and PAFC, whereas in SOFC and PEMFC the ionic/electronic conductivity of the electrolyte or the characteristics of its composite with the electrocatalyst is of primary interest. The limitations of ac impedance in fuel cell application are in part due to difficulties of interpretation and in part due to experimental difficulties because of the generally fast electrode reaction kinetics. Further research directions are indicated. (author)

  6. Effects of the Electrodeposition Time in the Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pt(Cu and Pt-Ru(Cu Core-Shell Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolye Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Caballero-Manrique

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pt(Cu/C and Pt-Ru(Cu/C electrocatalysts with core-shell structure supported on Vulcan Carbon XC72R have been synthesized by potentiostatic deposition of Cu nanoparticles on the support, galvanic exchange with Pt and spontaneous deposition of Ru species. The duration of the electrodeposition time of the different species has been modified and the obtained electrocatalysts have been characterized using electrochemical and structural techniques. The High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalyses allowed the determining of the effects of the electrodeposition time on the nanoparticle size and composition. The best conditions identified from Cyclic Voltammetry (CV corresponded to onset potentials for CO and methanol oxidation on Pt-Ru(Cu/C of 0.41 and 0.32 V vs. the Reversible Hydrogen Electrode (RHE, respectively, which were smaller by about 0.05 V than those determined for Ru-decorated commercial Pt/C. The CO oxidation peak potentials were about 0.1 V smaller when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C. The positive effect of Cu was related to its electronic effect on the Pt shells and also to the generation of new active sites for CO oxidation. The synthesis conditions to obtain the best performance for CO and methanol oxidation on the core-shell Pt-Ru(Cu/C electrocatalysts were identified. When compared to previous results in literature for methanol, ethanol and formic acid oxidation on Pt(Cu/C catalysts, the present results suggest an additional positive effect of the deposited Ru species due to the introduction of the bifunctional mechanism for CO oxidation.

  7. Methods and systems for fuel production in electrochemical cells and reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2018-01-30

    Methods and systems for fuel, chemical, and/or electricity production from electrochemical cells are disclosed. A voltage is applied between an anode and a cathode of an electrochemical cell. The anode includes a metal or metal oxide electrocatalyst. Oxygen is supplied to the cathode, producing oxygen ions. The anode electrocatalyst is at least partially oxidized by the oxygen ions transported through an electrolyte from the cathode to the anode. A feed gas stream is supplied to the anode electrocatalyst, which is converted to a liquid fuel. The anode electrocatalyst is re-oxidized to higher valency oxides, or a mixture of oxide phases, by supplying the oxygen ions to the anode. The re-oxidation by the ions is controlled or regulated by the amount of voltage applied.

  8. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  9. Integrated high-efficiency Pt/carbon nanotube arrays for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weimin; Minett, Andrew I.; Zhao, Jie; Razal, Joselito M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Romeo, Tony; Chen, Jun [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Gao, Mei [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, CSIRO, Bayview Ave, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    A facile strategy to deposit Pt nanoparticles with various metal-loading densities on vertically aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) arrays as electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is described. The deposition is achieved by electrostatic adsorption of the Pt precursor on the positively charged polyelectrolyte functionalized ACNT arrays and subsequent reduction by L-ascorbic acid. The application of the aligned electrocatalysts in fuel cells is realized by transferring from a quartz substrate to nafion membrane using a hot-press procedure to fabricate the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). It is shown that the MEA with vertically aligned structured electrocatalysts provides better Pt utilization than that with Pt on conventional carbon nanotubes or carbon black, resulting in higher fuel cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Recent advances in platinum monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction: Scale-up synthesis, structure and activity of Pt shells on Pd cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K., E-mail: ksasaki@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wang, J.X. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Naohara, H. [Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Marinkovic, N. [University of Delaware, Department of Chemical Engineering, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); More, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Inada, H. [Hitachi High Technologies America, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Adzic, R.R., E-mail: adzic@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    We have established a scale-up synthesis method to produce gram-quantities of Pt monolayer electrocatalysts. The core-shell structure of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst has been verified using the HAADF-STEM Z-contrast images, STEM/EELS, and STEM/EDS line profile analysis. The atomic structure of this electrocatalyst and formation of a Pt monolayer on Pd nanoparticle surfaces were examined using in situ EXAFS. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst for ORR is considerably higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts. The results with Pt monolayer electrocatalysts may significantly impact science of electrocatalysis and fuel-cell technology, as they have demonstrated an exceptionally effective way of using Pt that can resolve problems of other approaches, including electrocatalysts' inadequate activity and high Pt content.

  11. Recent advances in platinum monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction: Scale-up synthesis, structure and activity of Pt shells on Pd cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Wang, J.X.; Naohara, H.; Marinkovic, N.; More, K.; Inada, H.; Adzic, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    We have established a scale-up synthesis method to produce gram-quantities of Pt monolayer electrocatalysts. The core-shell structure of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst has been verified using the HAADF-STEM Z-contrast images, STEM/EELS, and STEM/EDS line profile analysis. The atomic structure of this electrocatalyst and formation of a Pt monolayer on Pd nanoparticle surfaces were examined using in situ EXAFS. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd/C electrocatalyst for ORR is considerably higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts. The results with Pt monolayer electrocatalysts may significantly impact science of electrocatalysis and fuel-cell technology, as they have demonstrated an exceptionally effective way of using Pt that can resolve problems of other approaches, including electrocatalysts' inadequate activity and high Pt content.

  12. A novel IrNi@PdIr/C core-shell electrocatalyst with enhanced activity and durability for the hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bowen; Yu, Hongmei; Jia, Jia; Jun, Chi; Gao, Xueqiang; Yao, Dewei; Sun, Xinye; Song, Wei; Yi, Baolian; Shao, Zhigang

    2018-03-08

    Herein, a novel non-platinum core-shell catalyst, namely, IrNi@PdIr/C was prepared via a galvanic replacement reaction; it exhibits enhanced hydrogen oxidation activity and excellent stability under alkaline conditions. Electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the mass and specific activities at 50 mV of IrNi@PdIr/C are 2.1 and 2.2 times that of commercial Pt/C in 0.1 M KOH at 298 K, respectively. Moreover, accelerated degradation tests have shown that the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) of IrNi@PdIr/C reduces by only 5.1%, which is almost 4 times less than that of commercial Pt/C and the mass activity at 50 mV of IrNi@PdIr/C after 2000 potential cycles is still 1.8 times higher than that of aged Pt/C. XRD and XPS analysis suggest that the enhanced HOR activity is attributed to the weakening of the hydrogen binding to the PdIr overlayers induced by the IrNi core. The better stability to potential cycling can be associated with the PdIr shell, which inhibits oxide formation. These results suggest that IrNi@PdIr/C is a promising non-platinum anode catalyst for alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells.

  13. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  14. A study for the research trends of membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A single PEM fuel cell is comprised of a membrane electrode assembly, two bipolar plates and two fields. Membrane electrode assembly is the basic component of PEM fuel cell due to its cost and function, and it consists a membrane sandwiched between two electrocatalyst layers/electrodes and two gas diffusion layers. Increasing the PEM fuel cell operation temperature from 80 o C to 150-200 o C will prevent electrocatalysts CO poisoning and increase the fuel cell performance. Therefore, membranes must have chemical and mechanical resistance and must keep enough water at high temperatures. The aim of membrane studies through fuel cell commercialization is to produce a less expensive thin membrane with high operation temperature, chemical and mechanical resistance and water adsorption capacity. Within this frame, alternative membrane materials, membrane electrode assembly manufacture and evaluation methods are being studied. In this paper, recent studies are reviewed to give a conclusion for research trends. (author)

  15. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  16. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  17. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  18. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  19. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  20. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  1. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Through its Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, NREL researches, develops, analyzes, and validates fuel cell and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies for transportation

  2. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav [East Setauket, NY; Huang, Tao [Manorville, NY

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  3. Long-Term Stability of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with a Co-Sintered Cathode Backbone and Infiltrated La0.95Co0.4Ni0.6O3 (LCN) Electro-Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küngas, Rainer; Veltzé, Sune; Ovtar, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is a fabrication method that is offering potentially significant improvements in cell performance at reduced materials and fabrication costs, especially when combined with co-sintering. However, important questions regarding the long-term performance and microstructural stability of ...

  4. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Biomass-Based Fuel-Fed Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Quynh Hoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and sustainable economical concerns are generating a growing interest in biofuels predominantly produced from biomass. It would be ideal if an energy conversion device could directly extract energy from a sustainable energy resource such as biomass. Unfortunately, up to now, such a direct conversion device produces insufficient power to meet the demand of practical applications. To realize the future of biofuel-fed fuel cells as a green energy conversion device, efforts have been devoted to the development of carbon-based nanomaterials with tunable electronic and surface characteristics to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts and/or as supporting matrix for metal-based electrocatalysts. We present here a mini review on the recent advances in carbon-based catalysts for each type of biofuel-fed/biofuel cells that directly/indirectly extract energy from biomass resources, and discuss the challenges and perspectives in this developing field.

  5. Fuel cell opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K. [Hydrogenics Corporation, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The opportunities for fuel cell development are discussed. Fuel cells are highly efficient, reliable and require little maintenance. They also produce virtually zero emissions. The author stated that there are some complicated issues to resolve before fuel cells can be widely used. These include hydrogen availability and infrastructure. While the cost of fuel cells is currently very high, these costs are constantly coming down. The industry is still in the early stages of development. The driving forces for the development of fuel cells are: deregulation of energy markets, growing expectations for distributed power generation, discontinuity between energy supply and demand, and environmental concerns. 12 figs.

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Fuel cells 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.

    2003-06-01

    A capsule history of fuel cells is given, beginning with the first discovery in 1839 by William Grove, a Welsh judge who, when experimenting with electrolysis discovered that by re-combining the two components of electrolysis (water and oxygen) an electric charge was produced. A century later, in 1958, Francis Thomas Bacon, a British scientist demonstrated the first working fuel cell stack, a technology which was licensed and used in the Apollo spacecraft. In Canada, early research on the development of fuel cells was carried out at the University of Toronto, the Defence Research Establishment and the National Research Council. Most of the early work concentrated on alkaline and phosphoric acid fuel cells. In 1983, Ballard Research began the development of the electrolyte membrane fuel cell, which marked the beginning of Canada becoming a world leader in fuel cell technology development. The paper provides a brief account of how fuel cells work, describes the distinguishing characteristics of the various types of fuel cells (alkaline, phosphoric acid, molten-carbonate, solid oxide, and proton exchange membrane types) and their principal benefits. The emphasis is on proton exchange membrane fuel cells because they are the only fuel cell technology that is appropriate for providing primary propulsion power onboard a vehicle. Since vehicles are by far the greatest consumers of fossil fuels, it follows that proton exchange membrane fuel cells will have the greatest potential impact on both environmental matters and on our reliance on oil as our primary fuel. Various on-going and planned fuel cell demonstration projects are also described. 1 fig.

  9. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  10. Design of oxide electrocatalysts for efficient conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya

    catalyst development have obtained limited success due to adsorbate scaling relations on metallic surfaces. Preliminary experimental results indicate rutile oxide catalysts are active at very low overpotential, although the scientific understanding is missing. This thesis aims at delivering knowledge....... It is concluded that under experimental condition, CO* coverage is necessary for methanol evolution from RuO2 electrocatalyst, but very high coverage lead to evolution of formic acid and hydrogen together. Building on the understanding of descriptors for CO2RR activity and CO* spectator effects, a new method...... metal atom composition as well as different CO* coverages is done. It is identified that monolayer or lesser amount of iridium oxide on RuO2 catalyst can have a methanol onset potential of -0.2 V below RHE. This is attributed to a combination of ligand effect and adsorbate interaction. Through...

  11. The next generation fuel cells: anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauqir, A.; Zahoor, S.

    2013-01-01

    Many environmentally friendly alternatives (solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal power) can only be used in particular environments. In contrast, fuel cells can have near-zero emissions, are quiet and efficient, and can work in any environment where the temperature is lower than the cell's operating temperature. Among various types of fuel cells, the AEMFC is the most recent one and has advantages such as excellent performance compared to other candidate fuel cells due to its active O/sub 2/ electrode kinetics and flexibility to use a wide range of electro-catalysts such as silver and nickels contrary to expensive one (Platinum) required for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Anion exchange membrane (AEM) is a crucial part in AEMFC, determining durability and electrochemical performances of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The role of an AEM is to conduct hydroxyl ions from cathode to anode. If this conduction is not sufficiently high and selective, the corresponding fuel cell will not find any practical application. One of the major problems associated with AEMFC is much lower conductivities of anion compare to proton conductivity in PEMFCs, even upon similar working condition. Thus AEMs is only practical, if it is chemically and mechanically stable against severe basic operation conditions and highly hydroxyl ions conductive. The conventional AEMs based on animated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon or even fluorinated polymers tend to be attacked by hydroxyl ions, causing the degradation during operation is strongly basic conditions. (author)

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  13. Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio

    . High performance cathodes were obtained from strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltite (LSC) infiltrated - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) ionic conducting backbone. Systematic tuning of the CGO and LSC firing temperatures and LSC loading resulted in a cathode with low polarization resistance, Rp = 0.044 cm2 at 600......This dissertation focuses on the development of nanostructured cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and their performance at low operating temperatures. Cathodes were mainly fabricated by the infiltration method, whereby electrocatalysts are introduced onto porous, ionic conducting backbones...... with increasing LSC firing temperature, highlighting the importance of materials compability over higher ionic conductivity. The potential of Ca3Co4O9+delta as an electrocatalyst for SOFCs has also been explored and encouraging results were found i.e., Rp = 0.64 cm2 for a Ca3Co4O9+delta/CGO 50 vol % composite...

  14. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  15. Development of new electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Egberto Gomes

    2005-01-01

    In this work the colloidal method was chosen to perform the catalysts. This method produces nano catalysts well dispersed in the carbon support. The catalyst systems were performed with platinum, ruthenium, molybdenum, nickel, dysprosium, terbium, samarium and uranium. The method chosen to synthesize catalysts produced binary' and ternary systems with a good distribution of the nano crystals. The quaternary systems performed in this work shows a crystallite size 2 to 3 times greater than the binary and ternary ones. This could indicate that some modifications in the method should be done to improve the electrocatalytic activity of the quaternary systems. The characterization of the catalysts were performed by the following techniques; X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and polarization curves. The PtRuMo system was identified as the most electro active system by cyclic voltammetry in order to oxidize methanol and ethanol. The PtRuDy system shows a good electrochemical activity to ethanol oxidation, but after the use of ethanol the catalyst lost 42 % of the activity when operating with hydrogen and oxygen. The binary system Pt U presents some promising results, this system start the oxidation of CO in 5 mV vs RHE. Besides this fact, when operating with ethanol the Pt U system shows no degradation of the catalytic activity. (author)

  16. Fuel cells - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegler, T.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, fuel cell publicity conveys expectations and hopes that are often based on uncritical interpretations of the underlying science. The aim here is to use that science to analyse how the technology has developed and what can realistically be delivered by fuel cells. There have been great achievements in fuel cell technology over the past decade, with most types reaching an advanced stage of engineering development. But there has been some muddled thinking about one critical aspect, fuel cell energy efficiency. The 'Carnot cycle' argument, that fuel cells must be much more efficient than heat engines, is a red herring, of no help in predicting real efficiencies. In practice, fuel cells are not always particularly efficient and there are good scientific reasons for this. Cost reduction is a big issue for fuel cells. They are not in principle especially simple devices. Better engineering and mass production will presumably bring costs down, but because of their inherent complexity there is no reason to expect them to be cheap. It is fair to conclude that predictions of fuel cells as commonplace components of energy systems (including a hydrogen economy) need to be treated with caution, at least until major improvements eventuate. However, one type, the direct methanol fuel cell, is aimed at a clear existing market in consumer electronics

  17. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  18. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  19. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  1. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in DEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, L.P.R. de; Elsheikh, A.; Silva, E. L. da; Radtke, C.; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells require the use of electrocatalysts to promote bond cleavage of the ethanol molecule in an efficient way. Currently, most electrocatalysts contain platinum, which enables improved catalytic activity and stability in acidic media. However platinum presents high cost and low availability. Based on that, novel catalysts have been developed, such as those based on palladium and its alloys, which have attained excellent results in the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. In this work, Pd, PdSn and PdNiSn catalysts supported on Vulcan XC72R carbon were synthesized via impregnation/reduction. The electrocatalysts were characterized by RBS, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of an alloy and not the deposition of isolated elements. The synthesized catalysts displayed good catalytic activity, as observed by cyclic voltammetry, being the best electrochemical performance achieved by the ternary alloy. (author)

  2. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  3. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  4. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  5. Influence of Support Material of PtSnNiGa/C Electrocatalysts for Ethanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise M Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative source for fuel cells due to its low toxicity and high power density. However, the cleavage of the C-C bond, CO poisoning, and low electrocatalyst stability are still considered crucial issues. To overcome this limitation, binary, ternary and quaternary electrocatalysts have been investigated along with new carbon supports. This paper presents a physicochemical and electrochemical investigation of quaternary PtSnNiGa/C electrocatalysts supported on Vulcan XC72 and Printex-L6 carbons and also a carbon produced by natural gas pyrolysis in an Argon plasma torch (Black Plasma. The electrochemical characterization was performed through cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of ethanol 1.0 mol L-1. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were also carried out for physicochemical characterization. The electrochemical results show that the quaternary electrocatalysts supported on Vulcan XC72 and Printex-L6 carbons display a high current normalized by Pt mass and are more stable than the electrocatalyst supported on Black Plasma. In addition, the quaternary electrocatalysts with reduced Pt loading display better electrocatalytic activity towards the EOR compared to high Pt loading electrocatalysts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.949 

  6. Stable and efficient nitrogen-containing-carbon based electrocatalysts for reactions in energy conversion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicong; Teng, Zhenyuan; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2018-05-17

    High activity and stability are crucial for practical electrocatalysts used for reactions in fuel cells, metal-air batteries and water electrolysis including ORR, HER, OER and oxidation reactions of formic acid and alcohols. N-C based electrocatalysts have shown promising prospects for catalyzing these reactions, however, there is no systematic review for strategies toward engineering active and stable N-C based electrocatalysts reported by far. Herein, a comprehensive comparison of recently reported N-C based electrocatalysts regarding both electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability is presented. In the first part of this review, relationships between electrocatalytic reactions and element selections for modifying N-C based materials are discussed. Afterwards, synthesis methods for N-C based electrocatalysts are summarized, and synthetic strategies for highly stable N-C based electrocatalysts are presented. Multiple tables containing data on crucial parameters for both electrocatalytic activity and stability are displayed in this review. Finally, constructing M-Nx moieties is proposed as the most promising engineering strategy for stable N-C based electrocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  8. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  9. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation The NREL technology validation team works on validating hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles; hydrogen fueling infrastructure; hydrogen system components; and fuel cell use in early market applications such as

  10. Carbon supported nanoparticles Pt Ru (Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts) prepared using electron beam irradiation; Preparacao de nanoparticulas de PtRu suportadas em carbono (eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C) utilizando feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Celulas a Combustivel], e-mail: espinace@ipen.br, e-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    Carbon-supported Pt Ru (electrocatalysts PtRu/C nanoparticles) were prepared submitting a water/ethylene glycol mixture containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The PtRu/C electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C ETEK electrocatalyst at ambient temperature. (author)

  11. Power assisted fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, L P; Atwater, T B; Plichta, E J; Cygan, P J [US Army CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States). Research Development and Engineering Center

    1998-02-01

    A hybrid fuel cell demonstrated pulse power capability at pulse power load simulations synonymous with electronics and communications equipment. The hybrid consisted of a 25.0 W Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack in parallel with a two-cell lead-acid battery. Performance of the hybrid PEMFC was superior to either the battery or fuel cell stack alone at the 18.0 W load. The hybrid delivered a flat discharge voltage profile of about 4.0 V over a 5 h radio continuous transmit mode of 18.0 W. (orig.)

  12. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  13. High performance platinum single atom electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jiao, Menggai; Lu, Lanlu; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Li, Yuping; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Luhua; Wu, Zhijian; Liu, Di-Jia; Zhuang, Lin; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Bingsen; Su, Dangsheng; Song, Ping; Xing, Wei; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Zheng; Sun, Gongquan

    2017-07-01

    For the large-scale sustainable implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in vehicles, high-performance electrocatalysts with low platinum consumption are desirable for use as cathode material during the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Here we report a carbon black-supported cost-effective, efficient and durable platinum single-atom electrocatalyst with carbon monoxide/methanol tolerance for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. The acidic single-cell with such a catalyst as cathode delivers high performance, with power density up to 680 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with a low platinum loading of 0.09 mgPt cm-2, corresponding to a platinum utilization of 0.13 gPt kW-1 in the fuel cell. Good fuel cell durability is also observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that the main effective sites on such platinum single-atom electrocatalysts are single-pyridinic-nitrogen-atom-anchored single-platinum-atom centres, which are tolerant to carbon monoxide/methanol, but highly active for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  14. Recent progresses in materials for the direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C; Leger, J M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1998-12-31

    Research programs are being conducted worldwide to develop a clean, zero emissions electric vehicle. However, even with the most advanced batteries, such as nickel/metal hydride, or lithium ion batteries, the driving range is limited and the recharging time is long. Only fuel cells which can convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy can compete with internal combustion engines. This paper reviewed the recent progress made in the development of a direct methanol fuel cell using the concept developed for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It was noted that the electrode materials, at the methanol anode and oxygen cathode need to be improved by using multifunctional electrocatalysts. The development of new temperature resistant proton exchange membranes with good ionic conductivity and low methanol cross-over, which resulted from the need to increase operating temperatures above 100 degrees C was also reviewed. 35 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  16. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  17. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Status Analysis Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Get Involved Fuel cell developers interested in collaborating with NREL on fuel cell technology status analysis should send an email to NREL's Technology Validation Team at techval@nrel.gov. NREL's analysis of fuel cell technology provides objective

  18. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development NREL's fuel cell manufacturing R&D focuses on improving quality-inspection practices for high costs. A researcher monitoring web-line equipment in the Manufacturing Laboratory Many fuel cell

  19. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  20. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  1. Amorphous metallic alloys for oxygen reduction reaction in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Huerta, R.; Guerra-Martinez, I.; Lopez, J.S. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Mexico City (Mexico). Lab. de Electroquimica; Pierna, A.R. [Basque Country Univ., San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environment; Solorza-Feria, O. [Inst. Politenico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) represent an important, environmentally clean energy source. This has motivated extensive research on the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of novel and stable oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for the direct four-electron transfer process to water formation. Studies have shown that amorphous alloyed compounds can be used as electrode materials in electrochemical energy conversion devices. Their use in PEMFCs can optimize the electrocatalyst loading in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this study, amorphous metallic PtSn, PtRu and PtRuSn alloys were synthesized by mechanical milling and used as cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sulphuric acid and in a single PEM fuel cell. Two different powder morphologies were observed before and after the chemical activation in a hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution at 25 degrees C. The kinetics of the ORR on the amorphous catalysts were investigated. The study showed that the amorphous metallic PtSn electrocatalyst was the most active of the 3 electrodes for the cathodic reaction. Fuel cell experiments were conducted at various temperatures at 30 psi for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and at 34 psi for oxygen (O{sub 2}). MEAs made of Nafion 115 and amorphous metallic PtSn dispersed on carbon powder in a PEMFC had a power density of 156 mW per cm{sup 2} at 0.43V and 80 degrees C. 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  3. Tailoring the properties of Platinum supported catalysts by irreversible adsorbed adatoms toward ethanol oxidation for direct ethanol fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Figueiredo, Marta; Santasalo-Aarnio, A.; Vidal-Iglesias, F.J.; Solla-Gullón, J.; Feliu, J.M.; Kontturi, K.; Kallio, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work ethanol oxidation on carbon supported Pt catalysts modified with irreversibly adsorbed adatoms is reported. This study concerns understanding of the effect of a second metal on real catalysts in conditions as close as possible to those applied in fuel cells systems. The results were acquired using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and in situ infra-red techniques always taking into account the future application of the electrocatalyst materials in fuel cells. Foreign adatoms,...

  4. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  5. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  6. Fuel cells for commercial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppmann, Gerhard; Weisse, Eckart; Bischoff, Manfred

    1990-04-01

    The development of various types of fuel cells is described. Advantges and drawbacks are considered for alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells. It is shown that their modular construction is particularly adapted to power heat systems. A comparison which is largely in favor of fuel cells, is made between coal, oil, natural gas power stations, and fuel cells. Safety risks in operation are also compared with those of conventional power stations. Fuel cells are particularly suited for dwellings, shopping centers, swimming pools, other sporting installations, and research facilities, whose high current and heat requirements can be covered by power heat coupling.

  7. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  8. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  9. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  10. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  11. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  12. Toward highly stable electrocatalysts via nanoparticle pore confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carolina; Meier, Josef C; Peinecke, Volker; Bongard, Hans; Katsounaros, Ioannis; Topalov, Angel A; Lu, Anhui; Mayrhofer, Karl J J; Schüth, Ferdi

    2012-12-19

    The durability of electrode materials is a limiting parameter for many electrochemical energy conversion systems. In particular, electrocatalysts for the essential oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) present some of the most challenging instability issues shortening their practical lifetime. Here, we report a mesostructured graphitic carbon support, Hollow Graphitic Spheres (HGS) with a specific surface area exceeding 1000 m(2) g(-1) and precisely controlled pore structure, that was specifically developed to overcome the long-term catalyst degradation, while still sustaining high activity. The synthetic pathway leads to platinum nanoparticles of approximately 3 to 4 nm size encapsulated in the HGS pore structure that are stable at 850 °C and, more importantly, during simulated accelerated electrochemical aging. Moreover, the high stability of the cathode electrocatalyst is also retained in a fully assembled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Identical location scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy (IL-SEM and IL-STEM) conclusively proved that during electrochemical cycling the encapsulation significantly suppresses detachment and agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles, two of the major degradation mechanisms in fuel cell catalysts of this particle size. Thus, beyond providing an improved electrocatalyst, this study describes the blueprint for targeted improvement of fuel cell catalysts by design of the carbon support.

  13. Fuel cells (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Macchi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The article, following and completing the issues dealt with in part 1 (CH4 Energia Metano, 1/99, p. 7), describe the operating characteristic and construction features of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells (MCFC and SOFC). For the latter type, construction cost are evaluated by various authors and research institutes. The article ends by presenting some tables showing the classification and the main characteristics of various fuel cells, and well as the effect of some gases on the behaviour of some of them [it

  14. From melamine sponge towards 3D sulfur-doping carbon nitride as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Li, Bin; Li, Songmei; Liu, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    Development of new and efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for replacing Pt to improve the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great importance to emerging renewable energy technologies such as metal-air batteries and polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Herein, 3D sulfur-doping carbon nitride (S-CN) as a novel metal-free ORR electrocatalyst was synthesized by exploiting commercial melamine sponge as raw material. The sulfur atoms were doping on CN networks uniformly through numerous S-C bonds which can provide additional active sites. And it was found that the S-CN exhibited high catalytic activity for ORR in term of more positive onset potential, higher electron transfer number and higher cathodic density. This work provides a novel choice of metal-free ORR electrocatalysts and highlights the importance of sulfur-doping CN in metal-free ORR electrocatalysts.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  16. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations NREL's technology validation team analyzes hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) operating in a real-world setting to include commercial FCEVs for the first time. Current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations build on the

  17. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  18. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  19. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  20. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  1. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and optimization of platinum-alloy nanoparticle catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ratndeep

    Renewable hydrogen-fuelled proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cells have consistently demonstrated great promise as a future source of energy due to their high conversion efficiency, lower temperature of operation and lack of greenhouse emissions. One of the major impediments in the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is the insufficient catalytic reactivity and higher cost of Pt electrocatalysts which are utilized for the electroreduction of oxygen from air. This dissertation focuses primarily on a family of Pt alloy fuel cell electrocatalysts referred to as de-alloyed core-shell electrocatalysts. These materials are bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles, mostly supported on conductive supports which were first described in a dissertation by Dr. S. Koh earlier in 2009.1 De-alloyed Pt nanoparticle electrocatalysts are formed from base metal rich binary Pt-M and ternary Pt-M1-M 2 (M, M1, M2 = Cu, Co, Ni, Fe and Cr) alloy nanoparticle precursors. The precursors are transformed and activated by electrochemical selective dissolution of the less noble metal component of the precursors (de-alloying). They have shown exceptional activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in idealized electrochemical half cell measurements, in particular rotating disk electrode experiments. However, these materials were never tested or implemented in realistic Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) and single PEM fuel cells. The objective of this work was to implement de-alloyed Pt particle catalysts in realistic fuel cell electrode layers as well as a detailed characterization of their behavior and stability. The major challenges of MEA implementation consists of the behavior of the new nanostructured electrocatalysts inside the complex three-phase interface of polymer membrane ionomer, liquid water, metal catalyst, support, and reactant gas. Activity measurements were followed by medium and long-term durability analysis by potential cycling of the membrane

  3. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  4. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  5. Glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevan Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo; Santos, Mauro Coelhos dos

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-supported metal nanoparticles were prepared for fuel cell applications by radiation-induced reduction of metal ions precursors. Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts (Pd:Sn atomic ratio 90:10), prepared by using electron beam irradiation, were tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC). EDX analysis showed that the Pd:Sn atomic ratio is very similar to the nominal one. X-ray diffractograms of PdSn/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd (fcc) phase. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) indicated that Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts have good activity for glycerol electro-oxidation, at room temperature. Experiments with single ADGFC were carried out from 60 to 90 deg C, using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts and glycerol 2.0 mol.L -1 , as fuel. The best performance was obtained at 85 deg C, for both electrocatalysts. The Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar performance (34 mW cm -2 ), at 85 deg C. (author)

  6. Hydrogen like energy and materials for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez V, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    The researches on the production, storage and the use of hydrogen like fuel or energy carrying are carried out in several laboratories around the world. In the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), from the year of 1993 they are carried out researches about the synthesis of electro-catalysts materials than can serve in the hydrogen production starting from the electrolysis of the water, or in fuel cells, as well as of semiconductor materials for the photo-electrolysis of the water. Recently, in collaboration with other Departments of the ININ, the hydrogen production has been approached starting from fruit and vegetable wastes, with the purpose of evaluating the possibility that this residuals can be utilized for the energy obtaining and that they are not only garbage that causes problems of environmental pollution, generate toxic gases and pollute the soil with the organic acids that take place during their fermentation. (Author)

  7. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  8. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 electrocatalysts for oxidizing ethanol to CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, A; Li, M; Shao, M; Sasaki, K; Vukmirovic, M B; Zhang, J; Marinkovic, N S; Liu, P; Frenkel, A I; Adzic, R R

    2009-04-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO(2)/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO(2), which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  9. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  10. Effective improvement of interface modified strontium titanate based solid oxide fuel cell anodes by infiltration with nano-sized palladium and gadolinium-doped cerium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The development of low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes by infiltration of Pd/Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO) electrocatalysts in Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STN) backbones has been investigated. Modification of the electrode/electrolyte interface by thin layer of spin-coated CGO (400-500 nm) con...

  11. Electrocatalytic activity of ZnS nanoparticles in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredol, Michael; Kaczmarek, Michał; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-06-01

    Low temperature fuel cells consuming ethanol without reformation would be a major step toward the use of renewable energy sources from biomass. However, the necessary electrodes and electrocatalysts still are far from being perfect and suffer from various poisoning and deactivation processes. This work describes investigations on systems using carbon/ZnS-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in complete membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). MEAs were built on Nafion membranes with active masses prepared from ZnS nanoparticles and Vulcan carbon support. Under operation, acetic acid and acetaldehyde were identified and quantified as soluble oxidation products, whereas the amount of CO2 generated could not be quantified directly. Overall conversion efficiencies of up to 25% were estimated from cells operated over prolonged time. From polarization curves, interrupt experiments and analysis of reaction products, mass transport problems (concentration polarization) and breakthrough losses were found to be the main deficiencies of the ethanol oxidation electrodes fabricated so far.

  12. A high-performance mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Lu, Shiyao; Chen, Xu; Wang, Jianan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiao, Chunhui; Ding, Shujiang

    2017-12-01

    Investigating low-cost and highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is of crucial importance for energy conversion and storage devices. Herein, we design and prepare mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon by pyrolysis of polyaniline coated on CMK-3. This electrocatalyst exhibits excellent performance towards ORR in alkaline media. The optimized nitrogen-doped mesoporous electrocatalyst show an onset potential (E onset) of 0.95 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) and half-wave potential (E 1/2) of 0.83 V (versus RHE) in 0.1 M KOH. Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst presents superior durability and methanol tolerance compared to commercial Pt/C indicating its potential applications in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  13. Phosphine-functionalized graphene oxide, a high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Golbon Haghighi, Mohsen; Jafari-Asl, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Here, a new approach for the synthesis of phosphine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PPh2) was developed. Using a simple method, diphenylphosphine group was linked to the hydroxyl group of OH-functionalized graphene that existing at the graphene surface. The electrochemical activity of GO-PPh2 for electrochemical oxygen reduction was checked. The results demonstrated that the new carbon hybrid material has a powerful potential for electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Moreover, GO-PPh2 as an electrocatalyst for ORR exhibited tolerance for methanol or ethanol as a result of crossover effect. In comparison with commercial Pt/C and Pt/rGO electrocatalysts, results showed that GO-PPh2 has a much higher selectivity, better durability, and much better electrochemical stability towards the ORR. The proposed method based on GO-PPh2 introduce an efficient electrocatalyst for further application in fuel cells.

  14. High-temperature electrochemical characterization of Ru core Pt shell fuel cell catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokach, D.; Fuente, J.L.G. de la; Tsypkin, M.; Ochal, P.; Tunold, R.; Sunde, S.; Seland, F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Sem Saelands veg 12, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Endsjoe, I.C. [Washington Mills AS, NO-7300 Orkanger (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    The electrooxidation of methanol was studied at elevated temperature and pressure by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential experiments at real fuel cell electrocatalysts. Ruthenium core and platinum shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a sequential polyol route, and characterized electrochemically by CO stripping at room temperature to quickly confirm the structure of the synthesized core-shell structure as compared to pure commercial Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C alloy catalysts. A significant promotional effect of Pt decorated Ru cores in the methanol oxidation was found at elevated temperatures and rather high-electrode potentials. A negative potential shift of the methanol oxidation peak is observed for the Ru rate at Pt/C core-shell catalyst at moderate temperatures, while a significant shift to positive potentials of the methanol oxidation peak occurs for Pt/C catalysts. The onset potential for methanol oxidation is lowered some 200 mV from room temperature and up to 120 C for all electrocatalysts, indicating that it is the thermal activity of water adsorption that dictates the onset potential. Direct methanol fuel cell experiments showed only small performance differences between Ru rate at Pt/C and Pt/C anode electrocatalysts, suggesting the necessity of render possible the formation of surface oxygen species at lower electrode potentials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  16. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  17. Direct synthesis of Pt-free catalyst on gas diffusion layer of fuel cell and usage of high boiling point fuels for efficient utilization of waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Ravi; Goswami, Gopal Krishna; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Direct-grown boron-doped carbon nanotubes on gas-diffusion layer as efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for alcohol fuel cells, high boiling point fuels used to obtain hot fuels for the enhancement of cell performance that paves the way for the utilization of waste heat. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •One-step direct synthesis of boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) on gas diffusion layer (GDL). •Home built fuel-cell testing using BCNTs on GDL as Pt-free cathode catalyst. •BCNTs exhibit concentration dependent oxygen reduction reaction and the cell performance. •Effective utilization of waste heat to raise the fuel temperature. •Fuel selectivity to raise the fuel temperature and the overall performance of the fuel cells. -- Abstract: Gas diffusion layers (GDL) and electrocatalysts are integral parts of fuel cells. It is, however, a challenging task to grow Pt-free robust electrocatalyst directly on GDL for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) – a key reaction in fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate that boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) grown directly on gas-diffusion layer (which avoid the need of ionomer solution used for catalyst loading) can be used as efficient Pt-free catalyst in alcohol fuel cells. Increase in boron concentration improves the electrochemical ORR activity in terms of onset and ORR peak positions, half-wave potentials and diffusion-limited current density that ensure the optimization of the device performance. The preferential 4e − pathway, excellent cell performance, superior tolerance to fuel crossover and long-term stability makes directly grown BCNTs as an efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for cost-effective fuel cells. The maximum power density of the fuel cell is found to increase monotonically with boron concentration. In addition to the application of BCNTs in fuel cell, we have introduced the concept of hot fuels so that waste heat can effectively be used and external power sources can be avoided. The fuel

  18. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondin de; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Santos, Mauro Coelho dos

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems and the world growing demand for energy has mobilized the scientific community in finding of clean and renewable energy sources. In this context, fuel cells appear as appropriate technology for generating electricity through alcohols electro-oxidation. Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)-supported Pd and trimetallic PdAuSn (Pd:Au:Sn 50:10:40 atomic ratio) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by VC, Chronoamperometry, EDX, TEM and XRD. The catalytic activities of electrocatalysts toward ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) in a range temperature 60 to 90 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C: 33 mW.cm -2 and 31 mW.cm -2 for Pd/ MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts, respectively. X-ray diffractograms of electrocatalysts showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) and Au-rich (fcc) phases. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments showed that PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalyst demonstrated similar activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to electrocatalyst Pd/MWCNT. (author)

  19. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondin de; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelho dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/CCNH/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental problems and the world growing demand for energy has mobilized the scientific community in finding of clean and renewable energy sources. In this context, fuel cells appear as appropriate technology for generating electricity through alcohols electro-oxidation. Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)-supported Pd and trimetallic PdAuSn (Pd:Au:Sn 50:10:40 atomic ratio) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by VC, Chronoamperometry, EDX, TEM and XRD. The catalytic activities of electrocatalysts toward ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) in a range temperature 60 to 90 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C: 33 mW.cm{sup -2} and 31 mW.cm{sup -2} for Pd/ MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts, respectively. X-ray diffractograms of electrocatalysts showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) and Au-rich (fcc) phases. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments showed that PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalyst demonstrated similar activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to electrocatalyst Pd/MWCNT. (author)

  20. CaCu3Ti4O12: A Bifunctional Perovskite Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Halder, Aditi; Thomas, P.; Vaish, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A cost effective double perovskite CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 have been synthesized using oxalate precursor method. •CCTO electrocatalyst exhibit enhanced bifunctional electrocatalytic activities. •CCTO electrocatalyst have lower overpotential and higher mass activity as compared to noble metal oxide and well-known perovskite catalysts. •Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigations of oxygen reactions on perovskite surfaces. -- Abstract: Perovskite oxides are prominent materials as the bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction/evolution reactions (ORR/OER) for the electrochemical energy conversion and storage using regenerative fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. In this work, a quadruple perovskite CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 has been synthesized oxalate precursor route. X-ray diffraction pattern shows phase purity of the synthesized electrocatalyst. The synthesized CCTO electrocatalyst have crystallite size of 26 nm. Electrochemical investigations reveal that CCTO exhibit efficient catalytic activity. More interestingly, an extremely high OER activity is observed for CCTO electrocatalysts which is found superior than similar class of perovskites. Additionally, CCTO shows efficient ORR activity with an onset potential of 0.83 V which is better than that of Pt/C catalyst (≈0.94 V). These results demonstrate the significant potential of CCTO perovskite as a bifunctional electrode material for alkaline fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  1. New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adzic, Radoslav

    1998-08-01

    A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- sr¡pported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

  2. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  3. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  4. Orbiter fuel cell improvement assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    The history of fuel cells and the theory of fuel cells is given. Expressions for thermodynamic and electrical efficiencies are developed. The voltage losses due to electrode activation, ohmic resistance and ionic diffusion are discussed. Present limitations of the Orbiter Fuel Cell, as well as proposed enhancements, are given. These enhancements are then evaluated and recommendations are given for fuel cell enhancement both for short-range as well as long-range performance improvement. Estimates of reliability and cost savings are given for enhancements where possible

  5. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  6. Fuel cells for naval aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satzberg, S.; Field, S.; Abu-Ali, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology have occurred which make fuel cells increasingly attractive for electric power generation on future naval and commercial aircraft applications. These advances include significant increases in power density, the development of compact fuel reformers, and cost reductions due to commercialization efforts. The Navy's interest in aircraft fuel cells stems from their high energy efficiency (up to 40-60% for simple cycle; 60-70% for combined gas turbine/fuel cell hybrid cycles), and their negligible NOx and hydrocarbon emissions compared to conventional generators. While the U.S. Navy has been involved with fuel cell research and development as early as the 1960s, many of the early programs were for special warfare or undersea applications. In 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) initiated a program to marinize commercial fuel cell technology for future Navy shipboard applications. The power density of fuel cell power systems is approaching the levels necessary for serious consideration for aircraft suitability. ONR and Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) are initiating a program to develop a fuel cell power system suitable for future Navy aircraft applications, utilizing as much commercially-available technology as possible. (author)

  7. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  8. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  9. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  10. Nanostructured carbon-supported Pd electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacutan, E M; Tongol, B J; Climaco, M I; Telan, G J; Malijan, F; Hsu, H Y; Garcia, J; Fulo, H

    2012-01-01

    The need to lower the construction cost of fuel cells calls for the development of non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Among others, Pd has emerged as a promising alternative to Pt for fuel cell catalysis. This research aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Pd-based catalysts dispersed on carbon support as anode materials in direct ethanol fuel cells. For the preparation of the first Pd-based electrocatalyst, palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via oleylamine (OAm)-mediated synthesis and precursor method with a mean particle size of 3.63 ± 0.59 nm as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon black was used as a supporting matrix for the OAm-capped Pd NPs. Thermal annealing and acetic acid washing were used to remove the OAm capping agent. To evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation, cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed using 1.0 M ethanol in basic medium. The CV data revealed the highest peak current density of 11.05 mA cm −2 for the acetic acid-washed Pd/C electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, the fabrication of the second Pd-based electrocatalyst was done by functionalization of the carbon black support using 3:1 (v/v) H 2 SO 4 :HNO 3 . The metal oxide, NiO, was deposited using precipitation method while polyol method was used for the deposition of Pd NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the estimated particle size of the synthesized catalysts was at around 9.0–15.0 nm. CV results demonstrated a 36.7% increase in the catalytic activity of Pd–NiO/C (functionalized) catalyst towards ethanol oxidation compared to the non-functionalized catalyst. (paper)

  11. Nanostructured carbon-supported Pd electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacutan, E. M.; Climaco, M. I.; Telan, G. J.; Malijan, F.; Hsu, H. Y.; Garcia, J.; Fulo, H.; Tongol, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The need to lower the construction cost of fuel cells calls for the development of non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Among others, Pd has emerged as a promising alternative to Pt for fuel cell catalysis. This research aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Pd-based catalysts dispersed on carbon support as anode materials in direct ethanol fuel cells. For the preparation of the first Pd-based electrocatalyst, palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via oleylamine (OAm)-mediated synthesis and precursor method with a mean particle size of 3.63 ± 0.59 nm as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon black was used as a supporting matrix for the OAm-capped Pd NPs. Thermal annealing and acetic acid washing were used to remove the OAm capping agent. To evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation, cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed using 1.0 M ethanol in basic medium. The CV data revealed the highest peak current density of 11.05 mA cm-2 for the acetic acid-washed Pd/C electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, the fabrication of the second Pd-based electrocatalyst was done by functionalization of the carbon black support using 3:1 (v/v) H2SO4:HNO3. The metal oxide, NiO, was deposited using precipitation method while polyol method was used for the deposition of Pd NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the estimated particle size of the synthesized catalysts was at around 9.0-15.0 nm. CV results demonstrated a 36.7% increase in the catalytic activity of Pd-NiO/C (functionalized) catalyst towards ethanol oxidation compared to the non-functionalized catalyst.

  12. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  13. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  14. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  15. Fuel cells fuelled by Saccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechner, P.; Mor, L.; Sabag, N.; Rubin, Z.; Bubis, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Saccharides, like glucose, fructose and lactose, are ideal renewable fuels. They have high energy content, are safe, transportable, easy to store, non-flammable, non poisonous, non-volatile, odorless, easy to produce anywhere and abundant. Fuel Cells are electro-chemical devices capable to convert chemical energy into electrical energy from fuels, with theoretical efficiencies higher than 0.8 at room temperatures and with low pollutant emissions. Fuel Cells that can produce electricity form saccharides will be able to replace batteries, power electrical plants from biomass wastes, and serve as engines for transportation. In spite of these advantages, saccharide fuelled fuel cells are no available yet. Two obstacles hinder the feasibility of this potentially revolutionary device. The first is the high stability of the saccharides, which requires a good catalyst to extract the electrons from the saccharide fuel. The second is related to the nature of the Fuel Cells: the physical process takes place at the interface surface between the fuel and the electrode. In order to obtain high densities, materials with high surface to volume ratio are needed. Efforts to overcome these obstacles will be described. The use of saccharides as a fuel was treated from the thermodynamic point of view and compared with other common fuels currently used in fuel cells. We summarize measurements performed in a membrane less Alkaline Fuel Cell, using glucose as a fuel and KOH as electrolyte. The anode has incorporated platinum particles and operated at room temperature. Measurements were done, at different concentrations of glucose, of the Open Circuit Voltage, Polarization Curves and Power Density as function of the Current Density. The maximum Power Density reached was 0.61 mW/cm 2 when the Current density was 2.13 mA/cm 2 and the measured Open Circuit Voltage was 0.771 V

  16. Evaluation of the different supported bifunctional electrocatalysts for unified regenerative cells; Evaluacion de diferentes soportes de electrocatalizadores bifuncionales para celdas regenerativas unificadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurrola, M. P.; Torres-Amaya, D. S.; Duron-Torres, S. M.; Escalante-Garcia, I. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: duronsm@prodigy.net.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Unified regenerative fuel cells (URFC) represent an alternative to normal regenerative cells, providing decreased costs and space in one single device. The challenges of these systems are even greater than those for conventional fuel cells, with the most pressing technical problem being the optimization of the oxygen electrode. The high operating potentials of these devices in the electrolyzer mode, E >1.6 V vs. ENH, limit the use of supported Pt/Vulcan electrodes. The electroactivity of Pt is not sufficient to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and at these potentials carbon-based supports undergo corrosion. In addition to studies of materials that function as bifunctional catalysts, a significant amount of research is being aimed at the search of new matrixes for use in supporting electrocatalysts for OER and ORR{sup 1,2}. This work presents the preliminary results of the kinetic study of oxygen reactions on different Pt combinations, with IrO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 2} supported by different forms of carbon and substoichiometric titanium oxide. The studies were conducted using cyclical (CV) and linear (LV) voltamperometry for OER and rotary disc electrode (RDE) for the ORR in watery H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5M solutions. The chronoamperometry (CA) technique provided information about the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. The results indicate that the performance of the electrodes supported by different forms of carbon decreases gradually as a result of corrosion when consecutive cycles of oxygen reduction and formation reactions occur. Titanium oxide provides the greatest stability to electrodes constructed on that material and thus can potentially support oxygen electrodes based on combinations of Pt, IrO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 2} as binfunctional electrocatalysts for the URFC. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible regenerativas unificadas (URFC) representan una alternativa a las celdas regenerativas normales que implica disminucion de costos y espacio en

  17. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  18. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  19. Multimetallic nanosheets: synthesis and applications in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb Gul Sial, Muhammad Aurang; Ud Din, Muhammad Aizaz; Wang, Xun

    2018-04-03

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials, particularly multimetallic nanosheets with single or few atoms thickness, are attracting extensive research attention because they display remarkable advantages over their bulk counterparts, including high electron mobility, unsaturated surface coordination, a high aspect ratio, and distinctive physical, chemical, and electronic properties. In particular, their ultrathin thickness endows them with ultrahigh specific surface areas and a relatively high surface energy, making them highly favorable for surface active applications; for example, they have great potential for a broad range of fuel cell applications. First, the state-of-the-art research on the synthesis of nanosheets with a controlled size, thickness, shape, and composition is described and special emphasis is placed on the rational design of multimetallic nanosheets. Then, a correlation is performed with the performance of multimetallic nanosheets with modified and improved electrochemical properties and high stability, including for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), formic acid oxidation (FAO), methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR), and methanol tolerance are outlined. Finally, some perspectives and advantages offered by this class of materials are highlighted for the development of highly efficient fuel cell electrocatalysts, featuring low cost, enhanced performance, and high stability, which are the key factors for accelerating the commercialization of future promising fuel cells.

  20. Co-catalytic effect of nickel in Pt-Ru/C and Pt-Sn/C electrocatalysts for ethanol electrooxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Ribadeneira, R. E.; Hoyos, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of adding nickel to Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn catalysts for ethanol electrooxidation. The alcohol-reduction process with ethylene glycol was used to prepare ten electrocatalysts. These were microchemically and physically characterized by EDX and XRD analysis. The electrocatalysts were evaluated at mini-electrodes with cyclic voltammetry at 25 and 50 °C in sulfuric acid and ethanol solutions, and as anodes in fuel cell tests. Nickel addition to Pt-Ru mixtures...

  1. Nanostructured electrocatalysts with tunable activity and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hemma; Varela, Ana Sofia; Kühl, Stefanie; Strasser, Peter; Cuenya, Beatriz Roldan

    2016-04-01

    The field of electrocatalysis has undergone tremendous advancement in the past few decades, in part owing to improvements in catalyst design at the nanoscale. These developments have been crucial for the realization of and improvement in alternative energy technologies based on electrochemical reactions such as fuel cells. Through the development of novel synthesis methods, characterization techniques and theoretical methods, rationally designed nanoscale electrocatalysts with tunable activity and selectivity have been achieved. This Review explores how nanostructures can be used to control electrochemical reactivity, focusing on three model reactions: O2 electroreduction, CO2 electroreduction and ethanol electrooxidation. The mechanisms behind nanoscale control of reactivity are discussed, such as the presence of low-coordinated sites or facets, strain, ligand effects and bifunctional effects in multimetallic materials. In particular, studies of how particle size, shape and composition in nanostructures can be used to tune reactivity are highlighted.

  2. Hydrogen fuel cell engines and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The manual documents the first training course developed on the use of hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The manual contains eleven modules covering hydrogen properties, use and safety; fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine desi...

  3. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  5. PtRu/C and PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts prepared by two different methodologies of borohydride reduction process for ethanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandalise, Michele; Tusi, Marcelo Marques; Piasentin, Ricardo Marcelo; Correa, Olandir Vercino; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir, E-mail: brandalise@usp.br, E-mail: mmtusi@usp.br, E-mail: rmpiasen@ipen.br, E-mail: ovcorrea@ipen.br, E-mail: mlinardi@ipen.br, E-mail: espinace@ipen.br, E-mail: aolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PtRu/C (50:50) and PtRuBi/C (50:40:10) electrocatalysts were prepared by borohydride reduction using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6.6}H{sub 2}O, RuCl{sub 3.x}H{sub 2}O and Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3.5}H{sub 2}O as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The borohydride solution was added in two different ways: drop by drop and rapid addition of all the solution. The obtained electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at room temperature and on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 100 deg C. PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts showed superior performance for ethanol electro-oxidation than PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in a similar way. However, PtRuBi/C electrocatalyst prepared by rapid addition of the borohydride solution showed superior performance for ethanol electro oxidation at room temperature, while PtRuBi/C electrocatalyst prepared by addition drop by drop of borohydride solution showed superior performance on DEFC at 100 deg C. (author)

  6. PtRu/C and PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts prepared by two different methodologies of borohydride reduction process for ethanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, Michele; Tusi, Marcelo Marques; Piasentin, Ricardo Marcelo; Correa, Olandir Vercino; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir

    2009-01-01

    PtRu/C (50:50) and PtRuBi/C (50:40:10) electrocatalysts were prepared by borohydride reduction using H 2 PtCl 6.6 H 2 O, RuCl 3.x H 2 O and Bi(NO 3 ) 3.5 H 2 O as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The borohydride solution was added in two different ways: drop by drop and rapid addition of all the solution. The obtained electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at room temperature and on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 100 deg C. PtRuBi/C electrocatalysts showed superior performance for ethanol electro-oxidation than PtRu/C electrocatalysts prepared in a similar way. However, PtRuBi/C electrocatalyst prepared by rapid addition of the borohydride solution showed superior performance for ethanol electro oxidation at room temperature, while PtRuBi/C electrocatalyst prepared by addition drop by drop of borohydride solution showed superior performance on DEFC at 100 deg C. (author)

  7. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  8. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  9. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  10. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  11. Platinum and palladium nano-structured catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Thi, Cao Minh; Yong, Yang; Nogami, Masayuki; Ohtaki, Michitaka

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we present the synthesis and characterization of Pt, Pd, Pt based bimetallic and multi-metallic nanoparticles with mixture, alloy and core-shell structure for nano-catalysis, energy conversion, and fuel cells. Here, Pt and Pd nanoparticles with modified nanostructures can be controllably synthesized via chemistry and physics for their uses as electro-catalysts. The cheap base metal catalysts can be studied in the relationship of crystal structure, size, morphology, shape, and composition for new catalysts with low cost. Thus, Pt based alloy and core-shell catalysts can be prepared with the thin Pt and Pt-Pd shell, which are proposed in low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). We also present the survey of the preparation of Pt and Pd based catalysts for the better catalytic activity, high durability, and stability. The structural transformations, quantum-size effects, and characterization of Pt and Pd based catalysts in the size ranges of 30 nm (1-30 nm) are presented in electro-catalysis. In the size range of 10 nm (1-10 nm), the pure Pt catalyst shows very large surface area for electro-catalysis. To achieve homogeneous size distribution, the shaped synthesis of the polyhedral Pt nanoparticles is presented. The new concept of shaping specific shapes and morphologies in the entire nano-scale from nano to micro, such as polyhedral, cube, octahedra, tetrahedra, bar, rod, and others of the nanoparticles is proposed, especially for noble and cheap metals. The uniform Pt based nanosystems of surface structure, internal structure, shape, and morphology in the nanosized ranges are very crucial to next fuel cells. Finally, the modifications of Pt and Pd based catalysts of alloy, core-shell, and mixture structures lead to find high catalytic activity, durability, and stability for nano-catalysis, energy conversion, fuel cells, especially the next large-scale commercialization of next

  12. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  13. Tailored Electron Transfer Pathways in Aucore /Ptshell -Graphene Nanocatalysts for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seselj, Nedjeljko; Engelbrekt, Christian; Ding, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aucore/Ptshell–graphene catalysts (G-Cys-Au@Pt) are prepared through chemical and surface chemical reactions. Au–Pt core–shell nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs) covalently immobilized on graphene (G) are efficient electrocatalysts in low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The 9.5 ± 2 nm......–Pt. Functional tests in direct fomic acid, methanol and ethanol fuel cells exhibit 95%, 53%, and 107% increased power densities for G-Cys-Au@Pt over C–Pt, respectively.......Aucore/Ptshell–graphene catalysts (G-Cys-Au@Pt) are prepared through chemical and surface chemical reactions. Au–Pt core–shell nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs) covalently immobilized on graphene (G) are efficient electrocatalysts in low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The 9.5 ± 2 nm...... of formic acid, methanol, and ethanol is observed as higher specific currents and increased stability of G-Cys-Au@Pt compared to G-Au@Pt and C–Pt. Oxygen reduction on G-Cys-Au@Pt occurs at 25 mV lower potential and 43 A gPt−1 higher current (at 0.9 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode) than for C...

  14. The use of ultrasound for the fabrication of fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollet, Bruno G. [PEM Fuel Cell Research Group, Centre for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Road, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reviews the use and advantages of ultrasound for the preparation of fuel cell materials which is currently an emerging research area. The review also focuses on recent studies of ultrasonic, sonochemical and sonoelectrochemical production of noble metals and fuel cell electrocatalysts, carbon supported electrocatalysts, fuel cell electrodes and membranes. It is shown that ultrasound can be used as an effective method for producing nanosize mono- and bi-metallics (<10 nm) in the absence and presence of surfactants and alcohols. In most cases, the formation of nano-metallics is attributed to radical species (H. and OH.) generated by water sonolysis induced by cavitation whereby the nano-metallic size strongly depends upon the ultrasonic frequency and time, the type of surfactant, alcohol and atmospheric gas. It is also shown that the sonochemical production of carbon-supported mono- and bi-metallic catalysts gives excellent electrochemical activity due to surface functionalisation of the support and better dispersion induced by ultrasound. These observations are mainly due to enhanced mass-transfer caused by asymmetrical collapse of cavitation bubbles at the surface support leading to the formation of high velocity jets of liquid being directed toward its surface. This jetting, together with acoustic streaming, is thought to lead to random punctuation and disruption of the mass-transfer at the surface. (author)

  15. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  16. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-05-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H 2 O 2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  18. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  19. Platinum supported on titanium-ruthenium oxide is a remarkably stable electrocatayst for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrondo, Javier; Han, Taehee; Niangar, Ellazar; Wang, Chunmei; Dale, Nilesh; Adjemian, Kev; Ramani, Vijay

    2014-01-07

    We report a unique and highly stable electrocatalyst-platinum (Pt) supported on titanium-ruthenium oxide (TRO)-for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The Pt/TRO electrocatalyst was exposed to stringent accelerated test protocols designed to induce degradation and failure mechanisms identical to those seen during extended normal operation of a fuel cell automobile-namely, support corrosion during vehicle startup and shutdown, and platinum dissolution during vehicle acceleration and deceleration. These experiments were performed both ex situ (on supports and catalysts deposited onto a glassy carbon rotating disk electrode) and in situ (in a membrane electrode assembly). The Pt/TRO was compared against a state-of-the-art benchmark catalyst-Pt supported on high surface-area carbon (Pt/HSAC). In ex situ tests, Pt/TRO lost only 18% of its initial oxygen reduction reaction mass activity and 3% of its oxygen reduction reaction-specific activity, whereas the corresponding losses for Pt/HSAC were 52% and 22%. In in situ-accelerated degradation tests performed on membrane electrode assemblies, the loss in cell voltage at 1 A · cm(-2) at 100% RH was a negligible 15 mV for Pt/TRO, whereas the loss was too high to permit operation at 1 A · cm(-2) for Pt/HSAC. We clearly show that electrocatalyst support corrosion induced during fuel cell startup and shutdown is a far more potent failure mode than platinum dissolution during fuel cell operation. Hence, we posit that the need for a highly stable support (such as TRO) is paramount. Finally, we demonstrate that the corrosion of carbon present in the gas diffusion layer of the fuel cell is only of minor concern.

  20. Development of PdM (M = Ni, Cu, Ag) electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium in the absence and presence of alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro, Roberta Alvarenga

    2015-01-01

    Pd/C, Pd Cu/C, Pd Ni/C and Pd Ag/C electrocatalysts were produced by microwave method to be used as cathode in alkaline fuel cell in the absence and presence of alcohol. This method showed to be effective for the materials production, the particles exhibited good dispersion in carbon support and it produced electrocatalysts with a particle size of about 3.5 nm, according to XRD and TEM analysis. In cyclic voltammetry is observed that Pd Cu/C and Pd Ni/C electrocatalysts has higher active area with higher amount of Cu and Ni, respectively. Rotating ring disk analysis in the electrocatalysts showed that the amount of peroxide produced was at most 4%. This data is similar to Koutecky-Levich analysis, once for both the ORR occurs via 4 electrons. Materials stability analysis showed that they kept or improve performance in ORR, comparing the data before and after 1000 voltammetric cycles. Tolerance tests in methanol and ethanol were performed in a half cell in all electrocatalysts compositions. In presence of methanol and ethanol the compositions 50:50, to all materials studied, showed less influence in the presence of alcohol in ORR linear scan. In alkaline fuel cell Pd Ag/C 70:30 showed better performance for ORR in presence of methanol and Pd Ni/C 70:30 showed better performance for ORR in ethanol presence. (author)

  1. Durability and performance optimization of cathode materials for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Mercado, Hector Rafael

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to develop an accelerated durability test (ADT) for the evaluation of cathode materials for fuel cells. The work has been divided in two main categories, namely high temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) cathode current collector corrosion problems and low temperature fuel cells in particular Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode catalyst corrosion. The high operating temperature of MCFC has given it benefits over other fuel cells. These include higher efficiencies (>50%), faster electrode kinetics, etc. At 650°C, the theoretical open circuit voltage is established, providing low electrode overpotentials without requiring any noble metal catalysts and permitting high electrochemical efficiency. The waste heat is generated at sufficiently high temperatures to make it useful as a co-product. However, in order to commercialize the MCFC, a lifetime of 40,000 hours of operation must be achieved. The major limiting factor in the MCFC is the corrosion of cathode materials, which include cathode electrode and cathode current collector. In the first part of this dissertation the corrosion characteristics of bare, heat-treated and cobalt coated titanium alloys were studied using an ADT and compared with that of state of the art current collector material, SS 316. PEMFCs are the best choice for a wide range of portable, stationary and automotive applications because of their high power density and relatively low-temperature operation. However, a major impediment in the commercialization of the fuel cell technology is the cost involved due to the large amount of platinum electrocatalyst used in the cathode catalyst. In an effort to increase the power and decrease the cathode cost in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC) systems, Pt-alloy catalysts were developed to increase its activity and stability. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of new alloy development and

  2. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  3. Advancing semiconductor-electrocatalyst systems: application of surface transformation films and nanosphere lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkert, Katharina; Richter, Matthias H; Akay, Ömer; Giersig, Michael; Fountaine, Katherine T; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-05-24

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells offer the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The pursued design involves technologically advanced III-V semiconductor absorbers coupled via an interfacial film to an electrocatalyst layer. These systems have been prepared by in situ surface transformations in electrochemical environments. High activity nanostructured electrocatalysts are required for an efficiently operating cell, optimized in their optical and electrical properties. We demonstrate that shadow nanosphere lithography (SNL) is an auspicious tool to systematically create three-dimensional electrocatalyst nanostructures on the semiconductor photoelectrode through controlling their morphology and optical properties. First results are demonstrated by means of the photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen on p-type InP photocathodes where hitherto applied photoelectrodeposition and SNL-deposited Rh electrocatalysts are compared based on their J-V and spectroscopic behavior. We show that smaller polystyrene particle masks achieve higher defect nanostructures of rhodium on the photoelectrode which leads to a higher catalytic activity and larger short circuit currents. Structural analyses including HRSEM and the analysis of the photoelectrode surface composition by using photoelectron spectroscopy support and complement the photoelectrochemical observations. The optical performance is further compared to theoretical models of the nanostructured photoelectrodes on light scattering and propagation.

  4. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/c and PdRh/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) and bimetallic PdRh (Pd:Rh 90:10 atomic ratio) (PdRh/C) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The morphology and composition of the obtained materials were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Chronoamperometry (CA), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activities of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in a range temperature of 50 to 85 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C (25 mW.cm -2 ) and 75 deg C (38 mW.cm -2 ) for Pd/C and PdRh/C electrocatalysts, respectively. The XRD of the PdRh/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) phase. CV and CA experiments showed that PdRh/C electrocatalyst demonstrated superior activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to Pd/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  5. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/c and PdRh/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) and bimetallic PdRh (Pd:Rh 90:10 atomic ratio) (PdRh/C) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The morphology and composition of the obtained materials were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Chronoamperometry (CA), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activities of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in a range temperature of 50 to 85 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C (25 mW.cm{sup -2}) and 75 deg C (38 mW.cm{sup -2}) for Pd/C and PdRh/C electrocatalysts, respectively. The XRD of the PdRh/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) phase. CV and CA experiments showed that PdRh/C electrocatalyst demonstrated superior activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to Pd/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  6. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Study of catalysis for solid oxide fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xirong

    Fuel cells offer the enticing promise of cleaner electricity with lower environmental impact than traditional energy conversion technologies. Driven by the interest in power sources for portable electronics, and distributed generation and automotive propulsion markets, active development efforts in the technologies of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices have achieved significant progress. However, current catalysts for fuel cells are either of low catalytic activity or extremely expensive, presenting a key barrier toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cell devices. In this thesis work, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a novel thin film deposition technique, was employed to apply catalytic Pt to SOFC, and investigate both Pt skin catalysts and Pt-Ru catalysts for methanol oxidation, a very important reaction for DMFC, to increase the activity and utilization levels of the catalysts while simultaneously reducing the catalyst loading. For SOFCs, we explored the use of ALD for the fabrication of electrode components, including an ultra-thin Pt film for use as the electrocatalyst, and a Pt mesh structure for a current collector for SOFCs, aiming for precise control over the catalyst loading and catalyst geometry, and enhancement in the current collect efficiency. We choose Pt since it has high chemical stability and excellent catalytic activity for the O2 reduction reaction and the H2 oxidation reaction even at low operating temperatures. Working SOFC fuel cells were fabricated with ALD-deposited Pt thin films as an electrode/catalyst layer. The measured fuel cell performance reveals that comparable peak power densities were achieved for ALD-deposited Pt anodes with only one-fifth of the Pt loading relative to a DC-sputtered counterpart. In addition to the continuous electrocatalyst layer, a micro-patterned Pt structure was developed via the technique of area selective ALD. By coating yttria-stabilized zirconia, a

  8. Carbon-supported ternary PtSnIr catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; Kokoh, K.B.; Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Dos Anjos, D.M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, P.; De Andrade, A.R. [Departamento de Quimica da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tremiliosi-Filho, G. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-08-01

    Binary PtIr, PtSn and ternary PtSnIr electrocatalysts were prepared by the Pechini-Adams modified method on carbon Vulcan XC-72, and these materials were characterized by TEM and XRD. The XRD results showed that the electrocatalysts consisted of the Pt displaced phase, suggesting the formation of solid solutions between the metals Pt/Ir and Pt/Sn. However, the increase in Sn loading promoted phase separation, with the formation of peaks typical of cubic Pt{sub 3}Sn. The electrochemical investigation of these different electrode materials was carried out as a function of the electrocatalyst composition, in a 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, with either the presence or the absence of ethanol. Cyclic voltammetric measurements and chronoamperometric results obtained at room temperature showed that PtSn/C and PtSnIr/C displayed better electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation compared to PtIr/C and Pt/C, mainly at low potentials. The oxidation process was also investigated by in situ infrared reflectance spectroscopy, to identify the adsorbed species. Linearly adsorbed CO and CO{sub 2} were found, indicating that the cleavage of the C-C bond in the ethanol substrate occurred during the oxidation process. At 90 C, the Pt{sub 89}Sn{sub 11}/C and Pt{sub 68}Sn{sub 9}Ir{sub 23}/C electrocatalysts displayed higher current and power performances as anode materials in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). (author)

  9. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  10. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable of...

  11. Effect of pH in a Pd-based ethanol membraneless air breathing nanofluidic fuel cell with flow-through electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rico, C. A.; Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Ledesma-García, J.; Arriaga, L. G.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Arjona, N.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a nanofluidic fuel cell (NFC) in which streams flow through electrodes was used to investigate the role of pH in the cell performance using ethanol as fuel and two Pd nanoparticles as electrocatalysts: one commercially available (Pd/C from ETEK) and other synthesized using ionic liquids (Pd/C IL). The cell performances for both electrocatalysts in acid/acid (anodic/cathodic) streams were of 18.05 and 9.55 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. In alkaline/alkaline streams, decrease to 15.94 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and increase to 15.37 mW cm-2 for Pd/C IL. In alkaline/acidic streams both electrocatalysts showed similar cell voltages (up to 1 V); meanwhile power densities were of 87.6 and 99.4 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. The raise in cell performance can be related to a decrease in activation losses, the combined used of alkaline and acidic streams and these high values compared with flow-over fuel cells can be related to the enhancement of the cathodic mass transport by using three dimensional porous electrodes and two sources of oxygen: from air and from a saturated solution.

  12. Effect of pH in a Pd-based ethanol membraneless air breathing nanofluidic fuel cell with flow-through electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Rico, C A; Arriaga, L G; Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J; Ledesma-García, J; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Arjona, N

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a nanofluidic fuel cell (NFC) in which streams flow through electrodes was used to investigate the role of pH in the cell performance using ethanol as fuel and two Pd nanoparticles as electrocatalysts: one commercially available (Pd/C from ETEK) and other synthesized using ionic liquids (Pd/C IL). The cell performances for both electrocatalysts in acid/acid (anodic/cathodic) streams were of 18.05 and 9.55 mW cm -2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. In alkaline/alkaline streams, decrease to 15.94 mW cm -2 for Pd/C ETEK and increase to 15.37 mW cm -2 for Pd/C IL. In alkaline/acidic streams both electrocatalysts showed similar cell voltages (up to 1 V); meanwhile power densities were of 87.6 and 99.4 mW cm -2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. The raise in cell performance can be related to a decrease in activation losses, the combined used of alkaline and acidic streams and these high values compared with flow-over fuel cells can be related to the enhancement of the cathodic mass transport by using three dimensional porous electrodes and two sources of oxygen: from air and from a saturated solution. (paper)

  13. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  14. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  15. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  16. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  17. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  18. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  19. Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam composite as binder-free anode for a direct glucose fuel cell unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi Him A.; Leung, D. Y. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fabrication of electrocatalyst for direct glucose fuel cell (DGFC) operation involves destructive preparation methods with the use of stabilizer like binder, which may cause activity depreciation. Binder-free electrocatalytic electrode becomes a possible solution to the above problem. Binder-free bimetallic Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam plates with different Pd/Pt ratios (1:2.32, 1:1.62, and 1:0.98) are successfully fabricated through a green one-step mild reduction process producing a Pd-Pt/GO/nickel form plate (NFP) composite. Anode with the binder-free electrocatalysts exhibit a strong activity in a batch type DGFC unit under room temperature. The effects of glucose and KOH concentrations, and the Pd/Pt ratios of the electrocatalyst on the DGFC performance are also studied. Maximum power density output of 1.25 mW cm-2 is recorded with 0.5 M glucose/3 M KOH as the anodic fuel, and Pd1Pt0.98/GA/NFP as catalyst, which is the highest obtained so far among other types of electrocatalyst.

  20. Fuel cell catholyte regenerating apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A catholyte regenerating apparatus for a fuel cell having a cathode section containing a catholyte solution and wherein fuel cell reaction reduces the catholyte to gas and water. The apparatus includes means to conduct partically reduced water diluted catholyte from the fuel cell and means to conduct the gas from the fuel cell to a mixing means. An absorption tower containing a volume of gas absorbing liquid solvent receives the mixed together gas and diluted catholyte from the mixing means within the absorption column, the gas is absorbed by the solvent and the gas ladened solvent and diluted catholyte are commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled solvent and electrolyte from the absorption column to an air supply means wherein air is added and commingled therewith and a stoichiometric volume of oxygen from the air is absorbed thereby. A second liquid transfer means conducts the gas ladened commingled solvent and diluted catholyte into a catalyst column wherein the oxygen and gas react to reconstitute the catholyte from which the gas was generated wna wherein the reconstituted diluted catholyte is separated from the solvent. Recirculating means conducts the solvent from the catalyst column back into the absorption column and liquid conducting means conducts the reconstituted catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for recirculation through the cathode section of the fuel cell

  1. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Energy...Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel

  2. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; De Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-02-15

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20 ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG.

  3. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; de Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-09-22

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG. (author)

  4. Fabrication of Highly Stable and Efficient PtCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Highly Porous Carbon for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Zhao, Dan; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2016-08-17

    Boosting the durability of Pt nanoparticles by controlling the composition and morphology is extremely important for fuel cells commercialization. We deposit the Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles over high surface area carbon in different metallic molar ratios and optimize the conditions to achieve desired material. The novel bimetallic electro-catalyst {Pt-Cu/PC-950 (15:15%)} offers exceptional electrocatalytic activity when tested for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reactions. A high mass activity of 0.043 mA/μgPt (based on Pt mass) is recorded for ORR. An outstanding longevity of this electro-catalyst is noticed when compared to 20 wt % Pt loaded either on PC-950 or commercial carbon. The high surface area carbon support offers enhanced activity and prevents the nanoparticles from agglomeration, migration, and dissolution as evident by TEM analysis.

  5. Status and promise of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy

    2001-09-01

    The niche or early entry market penetration by ONSI and its phosphoric acid fuel cell technology has proven that fuel cells are reliable and suitable for premium power and other opportunity fuel niche market applications. Now, new fuel cell technologies - solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and polymer electrolyte fuel cells - are being developed for near-term distributed generation shortly after 2003. Some of the evolving fuel cell systems are incorporating gas turbines in hybrid configurations. The combination of the gas turbine with the fuel cell promises to lower system costs and increase efficiency to enhance market penetration. Market estimates indicate that significant early entry markets exist to sustain the initially high cost of some distributed generation technologies. However, distributed generation technologies must have low introductory first cost, low installation cost, and high system reliability to be viable options in competitive commercial and industrial markets. In the long-term, solid state fuel cell technology with stack costs under $100/kilowatt (kW) promises deeper and wider market penetration in a range of applications including a residential, auxillary power, and the mature distributed generation markets. The solid state energy conversion alliance (SECA) with its vision for fuel cells in 2010 was recently formed to commercialize solid state fuel cells and realize the full potential of the fuel cell technology. Ultimately, the SECA concept could lead to megawatt-size fuel-cell systems for commercial and industrial applications and Vision 21 fuel cell turbine hybrid energy plants in 2015. (orig.)

  6. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Chuang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  7. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  8. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    logo, Direct FuelCell and “DFC” are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Applications •On-site self generation of combined heat... of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Fuels Resources for DFC • Natural Gas and LNG • Propane • Biogas (by Anaerobicnaerobic Digestion) - Municipal Waste...FUEL RESOURCES z NATURAL GAS z PROPANE z DFC H2 (50-60%) z ETHANOL zWASTE METHANE z BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency

  9. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  10. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  11. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  12. Enhanced electro-oxidation of ethanol using PtSn/CeO{sub 2}-C electrocatalyst prepared by an alcohol-reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Almir Oliveira; Farias, Luciana A.; Dias, Ricardo R.; Brandalise, Michelle; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    PtSn/CeO{sub 2}-C electrocatalysts were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process using ethylene glycol as solvent and reduction agent and CeO{sub 2} and Vulcan Carbon XC72 as supports. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX and XRD. The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied at room temperature by chronoamperometry. PtSn/CeO{sub 2}-C electrocatalyst with 15 wt% of CeO{sub 2} showed a significant increase of performance for ethanol oxidation compared to PtSn/C catalyst. Preliminary tests at 100C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) also confirm the results obtained by chronoamperometry. (author)

  13. Effective NiMn Nanoparticles-Functionalized Carbon Felt as an Effective Anode for Direct Urea Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser A. M. Barakat

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The internal resistances of fuel cells strongly affect the generated power. Basically, in the fuel cell, the anode can be prepared by deposition of a film from the functional electrocatalyst on a proper gas diffusion layer. Accordingly, an interfacial resistance for the electron transport is created between the two layers. Electrocatalyst-functionalized gas diffusion layer (GDL can distinctly reduce the interfacial resistance between the catalyst layer and the GDL. In this study, NiMn nanoparticles-decorated carbon felt is introduced as functionalized GDL to be exploited as a ready-made anode in a direct urea fuel cell. The proposed treated GDL was prepared by calcination of nickel acetate/manganese acetate-loaded carbon felt under an argon atmosphere at 850 °C. The physiochemical characterizations confirmed complete reduction for the utilized precursors and deposition of pristine NiMn nanoparticles on the carbon felt fiber. In passive direct urea fuel cells, investigation the performance of the functionalized GDLs indicated that the composition of the metal nanoparticles has to be optimized as the GDL obtained from 40 wt % manganese acetate reveals the maximum generated power density; 36 mW/m2 at room temperature and 0.5 M urea solution. Moreover, the electrochemical measurements proved that low urea solution concentration is preferred as utilizing 0.5 M solution resulted into generating higher power compared to 1.0 and 2.0 M solution. Overall, this study opens a new avenue toward functionalization of the GDL as a novel strategy to overcome the interfacial resistance between the electrocatalyst and the GDL.

  14. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  15. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  16. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-09-26

    Reformed gas or coal gasification gas, etc. is used as the fuel gas for fused carbonate fuel cells, however sulfuric compounds are contained in these gases and even after these gases have been treated beforehand through a desulfurizer, a trace quantity of H/sub 2/S is sent to a fuel electrode. Sulfur oxide which is formed at the time of burning and oxidating the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode and becomes sulfate after substituting carbonate, which is the electrolyte of the electrode, causing deterioration of the cell characteristics and durability. With regard to a system that hydrogen rich gas which was reformed from the raw fuel is supplied to a fuel electrode, and its exhaust gas is oxidated through a burner to form carbon dioxide which is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode, this invention proposes the prevention of the aforementioned defects by providing at the down stream of the above burner a remover to trap with fused carbonate such sulfur compounds as SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ in the gas after being oxidated as above. (3 figs)

  18. Evaluation of catalytic properties of tungsten carbide for the anode of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam; Zhao, Feng; Quaas, Marion; Wulff, Harm; Schroeder, Uwe; Scholz, Fritz [Universitaet Greifswald, Institut fuer Biochemie, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 4, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-07-31

    In this communication we discuss the properties of tungsten carbide, WC, as anodic electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cell application. The electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide is evaluated in the light of its preparation procedure, its structural properties as well as the pH and the composition of the anolyte solution and the catalyst load. The activity of the noble-metal-free electrocatalyst towards the oxidation of several common microbial fermentation products (hydrogen, formate, lactate, ethanol) is studied for microbial fuel cell conditions (e.g., pH 5, room temperature and ambient pressure). Current densities of up to 8.8 mA cm{sup -2} are achieved for hydrogen (hydrogen saturated electrolyte solution), and up to 2 mA cm{sup -2} for formate and lactate, respectively. No activity was observed for ethanol electrooxidation. The electrocatalytic activity and chemical stability of tungsten carbide is excellent in acidic to pH neutral potassium chloride electrolyte solutions, whereas higher phosphate concentrations at neutral pH support an oxidative degradation. (author)

  19. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  20. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  1. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  2. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  3. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  4. Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of Pt/CNT, Pt/TiO2, and Pt/CNT/TiO2 electrocatalysts for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedolla-Valdez, Z.I.; Verde-Gómez, Y.; Valenzuela-Muñiz, A.M.; Gochi-Ponce, Y.; Oropeza-Guzmán, M.T.; Berhault, Gilles; Alonso-Núñez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pt/CNT/TiO 2 electrocatalyst was successfully prepared by the sonochemical method. • The electrocatalyst Pt/CNT/TiO 2 was synthesized without heat treatments, additives or surfactants. • The TiO 2 -Pt interaction improves the CO-tolerance of Pt/CNT/TiO 2 , as well as the electrocatalyst stability. • Low amount of multi-walled carbon nanotubes increases the current density of Pt/CNT/TiO 2 significantly compared to Pt/TiO 2 . - Abstract: Pt electrocatalyst supported on composite formed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium oxide (CNT/TiO 2 ) was successfully synthesized by a sonochemical method without heat treatments, surfactants or additives. This electrocatalyst could be used for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) applications. For comparison, Pt/CNT and Pt/TiO 2 electrocatalysts were prepared as reference samples. Structural properties and morphology of the synthesized materials were examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and their specific surface areas were determined by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The Pt and acid-treated CNT contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized electrocatalysts were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry in a three-electrode cell at room temperature. The evaluation performed using electrochemical techniques suggests that TiO 2 promotes the CO-tolerance due to TiO 2 -Pt interaction. The CV tests demonstrated that 6 wt.% of acid-treated CNT increases significantly the current density when Pt selectively interacts with TiO 2 .

  5. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  6. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  7. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  8. Fuel cells for electricity generation from carbonaceous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K; Formanski, V; Roes, J [Gerhard-Mercator- Universitaet - Gesamthochschule Duisburg, Fachbereich Maschinenbau/Fachgebiet Energietechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Heinzel, A [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Fuel cells, which are electrochemical systems converting chemical energy directly into electrical energy with water and heat as by-products, are of interest as a means of generating electricity which is environmentally friendly, clean and highly efficient. They are classified according to the electrolyte used. The main types of cell in order of operating temperature are described. These are: alkaline fuel cells, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC); the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC); the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC); the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Applications depend on the type of cell and may range from power generation on a large scale to mobile application in cars or portable systems. One of the most promising options is the PEM-fuel cell stack where there has been significant improvement in power density in recent years. The production from carbonaceous fuels and purification of the cell fuel, hydrogen, is considered. Of the purification methods available, hydrogen separation by means of palladium alloy membranes seems particular effective in reducing CO concentrations to the low levels required for PEM cells. (UK)

  9. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  10. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

  11. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  12. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  13. Highly Loaded Carbon Black Supported Pt Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Larsen, M.J.; Zdražil, Miroslav; Gulková, Daniela; Vít, Zdeněk; Šolcová, Olga; Soukup, Karel; Koštejn, Martin; Bonde, J.L.; Maixnerová, Lucie; Odgaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 256, NOV 1 (2015), s. 375-383 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon black * fuell cell * electrocatalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.312, year: 2015

  14. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don

    2001-12-01

    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  15. Rapid evaluation of the electrooxidation of fuel compounds with a multiple-electrode setup for direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Naoko; Siroma, Zyun; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Kazuaki [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2007-02-10

    Electrochemical oxidation of fuel compounds in acidic media was examined on eight electrodes (Pt, Ru, PtRu, Rh, Ir, Pd, Au, and glassy carbon) simultaneously by multiple cyclic voltammetry (CV) with an electrochemical cell equipped with an eight-electrode configuration. Direct-type polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), in which aqueous solutions of the fuel compounds are directly supplied to the anode, were also evaluated. The performances of direct PEFCs with various anode catalysts could be roughly estimated from the results obtained with multiple CV. This multiple evaluation may be useful for identifying novel fuels or electrocatalysts. Methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, 2-propanol, and D-glucose were oxidized selectively on Pt or PtRu, as reported previously. However, several compounds that are often used as reducing agents show electrochemical oxidation with unique characteristics. Large current was obtained for the oxidation of formic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and phosphorous acid on a Pd electrode. L-Ascorbic acid and sulfurous acid were oxidized on all of the electrodes used in the present study. (author)

  16. Fuel cell hardware-in-loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M.; Randolf, G.; Virji, M. [University of Hawaii, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Hauer, K.H. [Xcellvision (Germany)

    2006-11-08

    Hardware-in-loop (HiL) methodology is well established in the automotive industry. One typical application is the development and validation of control algorithms for drive systems by simulating the vehicle plus the vehicle environment in combination with specific control hardware as the HiL component. This paper introduces the use of a fuel cell HiL methodology for fuel cell and fuel cell system design and evaluation-where the fuel cell (or stack) is the unique HiL component that requires evaluation and development within the context of a fuel cell system designed for a specific application (e.g., a fuel cell vehicle) in a typical use pattern (e.g., a standard drive cycle). Initial experimental results are presented for the example of a fuel cell within a fuel cell vehicle simulation under a dynamic drive cycle. (author)

  17. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  19. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  20. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  1. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  2. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  3. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in DEFC; Eletrocatalisadores de paladio para reacao de oxidacao do etanol em DEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, L.P.R. de; Elsheikh, A.; Silva, E. L. da; Radtke, C.; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: leticiaprm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells require the use of electrocatalysts to promote bond cleavage of the ethanol molecule in an efficient way. Currently, most electrocatalysts contain platinum, which enables improved catalytic activity and stability in acidic media. However platinum presents high cost and low availability. Based on that, novel catalysts have been developed, such as those based on palladium and its alloys, which have attained excellent results in the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. In this work, Pd, PdSn and PdNiSn catalysts supported on Vulcan XC72R carbon were synthesized via impregnation/reduction. The electrocatalysts were characterized by RBS, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of an alloy and not the deposition of isolated elements. The synthesized catalysts displayed good catalytic activity, as observed by cyclic voltammetry, being the best electrochemical performance achieved by the ternary alloy. (author)

  4. Doped Graphene as Non-Metallic Catalyst for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana MARINOIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming a commercial development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, a low cost, sustainable and high performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR with capability to replace/reduce rare metals, are high desirable. In this paper, we present a class of doped graphene, namely iodinated graphene with highly ORR electrochemical performances, synthesized by using the electrophilic substitution method. The prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS, Raman spectroscopy, surface area measurement by BET method, that revealed the structure and morphology. The most highly iodinated graphene was tested in a single cell by measuring the cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical performances were evaluated and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, when a single cathodic peak at 0.2 V with a current density of – 3.67 mA cm-2 for the Pt/C electrode was obtained. The best electrochemical performances in terms of electrochemical active area, was obtained for a new concept of cathode composed from Pt/C – iodine doped graphene, when a well-defined peak centred at 0.23 V with a current density of approx. – 9.1 mA cm-2 was obtained, indicating a high catalytic activity for ORR.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16216

  5. Electrocatalytic activity of carbon-supported catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, F.J. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Saltillo, Coahuila, (Mexico). Grupo de Investigacion en Energia; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) can be fueled with hydrogen, alcohols, hydrocarbons and acetals. Ethanol is an important fuel candidate because it can be electro-oxidized to carbon dioxide on platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at relatively low temperatures. This study investigated the electrocatalytic activity of some carbon-supported electrocatalysts towards the ethanol oxidation (EOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the presence of ethanol. Compared to other anode catalysts such as Pt, PtRu and Pt oxide, anodes based on PtSn alloys have a higher catalytic activity for the EOR. When tested in a DEFC, the current density at 0.4V and 90 degrees C based on a PtSn/C anode and a Pt/C cathode was 2 times higher than that of a cell based on a PtRu/C-Pt/C membrane electrode assembly (MEA) configuration. In addition, cathode catalysts based on Ru/C had good catalytic activity for the ORR and exhibited high selectivity for this reaction in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that in the presence of 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 M ethanol concentrations, a decrease in onset potential of about 60, 62 and 68 mV emerged, respectively. These values were about 10 times lower than those measured for some Pt-based cathode catalysts tested in this study in the presence of 0.125 M EtOH. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  7. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  8. The TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.

    1995-04-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC

  9. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  10. Evaluation of Pt-Ru-Ni and Pt-Sn-Ni catalysts as anodes in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribadeneira, Esteban; Hoyos, Bibian A. [Escuela de Procesos y Energia, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2008-05-15

    In this study, the electrooxidation of ethanol on carbon supported Pt-Ru-Ni and Pt-Sn-Ni catalysts is electrochemically studied through cyclic voltammetry at 50 C in direct ethanol fuel cells. All electrocatalysts are prepared using the ethylene glycol-reduction process and are chemically characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). For fuel cell evaluation, electrodes are prepared by the transfer-decal method. Nickel addition to the anode improves DEFC performance. When Pt{sub 75}Ru{sub 15}Ni{sub 10}/C is used as an anode catalyst, the current density obtained in the fuel cell is greater than that of all other investigated catalysts. Tri-metallic catalytic mixtures have a higher performance relative to bi-metallic catalysts. These results are in agreement with CV results that display greater activity for PtRuNi at higher potentials. (author)

  11. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  12. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  13. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Černý, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 44-47 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0983; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrocatalysis * hydrogen electrode Ionex membrane * membrane fuel cell Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  14. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  15. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  16. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  17. Development of solid oxide fuel cells; Desenvolvimento de celulas a combustivel do tipo oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, Jaime S.; Alencar, Marcelo Goncalves F. de; Amaral, Alexandre Alves do; Benedicto, Joao Paulo Santos; Silva, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2006-07-01

    Fuel cells allow the energy production without the thermodynamic restriction of the conversion of heat into work. Among their various types, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), operating at high temperatures, allow the methane conversion into electricity directly on the anode. The main element of the SOFC is the structure A/E/C: anode/electrolyte/cathode, all sintered at high temperature as resistant ceramic materials. Dense electrolyte (YSZ: zirconia stabilized for Yttria) separates the anode (Ni+Co/YSZ: cobalt promoted nickel, supported on YSZ) and cathode (LSM: strontium-doped lanthanum manganite), both with porosity obtained by graphite addition. To obtain suitable A/E/C pellets, the layer sintering with appropriate mechanical and textural characteristics is essential, requiring excellent electric junctions between them. The cell performance has been evaluated between 850 and 950 degree C, using hydrogen or methane fuel; the tension and current for different resistance values in the electrical circuit have been measured. The cobalt addition to the cell anode significantly increased its activity for the reform reaction. The beneficial effect was probably due to the easier nickel reduction in cobalt presence. This work had the objectives of developing and evaluating electro-catalysts, as well as the solid oxide fuel cells using these catalysts as anode. Five SOFC models (SOFC 1 to SOFC 5) are described; all of them were developed aiming at improving the preparation of the anode/electrolyte/cathode structure (A/E/C). (author)

  18. Hydrogen sulfide-powered solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man

    2004-12-01

    The potential utilization of hydrogen sulfide as fuel in solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated using an oxide-ion conducting YSZ electrolyte and different kinds of anode catalysts at operating temperatures in the range of 700--900°C and at atmospheric pressure. This technology offers an economically attractive alternative to present methods for removing toxic and corrosive H2S gas from sour gas streams and a promising approach for cogenerating electrical energy and useful chemicals. The primary objective of the present research was to find active and stable anode materials. Fuel cell experimental results showed that platinum was a good electrocatalyst for the conversion of H2S, but the Pt/YSZ interface was physically unstable due to the reversible formation and decomposition of PtS in H 2S streams at elevated temperatures. Moreover, instability of the Pt/YSZ interface was accelerated significantly by electrochemical reactions, and ultimately led to the detachment of the Pt anode from the electrolyte. It has been shown that an interlayer of TiO2 stabilized the Pt anode on YSZ electrolyte, thereby prolonging cell lifetime. However, the current output for a fuel cell using Pt/TiO2 as anode was not improved compared to using Pt alone. It was therefore necessary to investigate novel anode systems for H 2S-air SOFCs. New anode catalysts comprising composite metal sulfides were developed. These catalysts exhibited good electrical conductivity and better catalytic activity than Pt. In contrast to MoS2 alone, composite catalysts (M-Mo-S, M = Fe, Co, Ni) were not volatile and had superior stability. However, when used for extended periods of time, detachment of Pt current collecting film from anodes comprising metal sulfides alone resulted in a large increase in contact resistance and reduction in cell performance. Consequently, a systematic investigation was conducted to identify alternative electronic conductors for use with M-Mo-S catalysts. Anode catalysts

  19. Utilization of methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, V M [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Broeckerhoff, P [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Menzer, R [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Stimming, U [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The constantly growing volume of road traffic requires the introduction of new vehicle propulsion systems with higher efficiency and drastically reduced emission rates. As part of the fuel cell programme of the Research Centre Juelich a vehicle propulsion system with methanol as secondary energy carrier and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main component for energy conversion is developed. The fuel gas is produced by a heterogeneously catalyzed steam reforming reaction in which methanol is converted to H[sub 2], CO and CO[sub 2]. The required energy is provided by the catalytic conversion of methanol for both heating up the system and reforming methanol. The high CO content of the fuel gas requires further processing of the gas or the development of new electrocatalysts for the anode. Various Pt-Ru alloys show promising behaviour as CO-tolerant anodes. The entire fuel cell system is discussed in terms of energy and emission balances. The development of important components is described and experimental results are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  1. The development of microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Karube, Isao [University of Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1999-02-01

    The production of electricity by biocatalytic fuel cells has been feasible for almost two decades and can produce electric power at a practical level. These fuel cells use immobilized microorganisms or enzymes as catalysts, and glucose as a fuel. A microfabricated enzyme battery has recently been made that is designed to function as a power supply for microsurgery robots or artificial organs. (author)

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  3. Green Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hybrid N-Doped ORR Electro-Catalysts Derived from Apricot Sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Karunagaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid depletion of fossil fuel and increased energy demand has initiated a need for an alternative energy source to cater for the growing energy demand. Fuel cells are an enabling technology for the conversion of sustainable energy carriers (e.g., renewable hydrogen or bio-gas into electrical power and heat. However, the hazardous raw materials and complicated experimental procedures used to produce electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in fuel cells has been a concern for the effective implementation of these catalysts. Therefore, environmentally friendly and low-cost oxygen reduction electro-catalysts synthesised from natural products are considered as an attractive alternative to currently used synthetic materials involving hazardous chemicals and waste. Herein, we describe a unique integrated oxygen reduction three-dimensional composite catalyst containing both nitrogen-doped carbon fibers (N-CF and carbon microspheres (N-CMS synthesised from apricot sap from an apricot tree. The synthesis was carried out via three-step process, including apricot sap resin preparation, hydrothermal treatment, and pyrolysis with a nitrogen precursor. The nitrogen-doped electro-catalysts synthesised were characterised by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, and BET techniques followed by electro-chemical testing for ORR catalysis activity. The obtained catalyst material shows high catalytic activity for ORR in the basic medium by facilitating the reaction via a four-electron transfer mechanism.

  4. Green Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hybrid N-Doped ORR Electro-Catalysts Derived from Apricot Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Ramesh; Coghlan, Campbell; Shearer, Cameron; Tran, Diana; Gulati, Karan; Tung, Tran Thanh; Doonan, Christian; Losic, Dusan

    2018-01-28

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel and increased energy demand has initiated a need for an alternative energy source to cater for the growing energy demand. Fuel cells are an enabling technology for the conversion of sustainable energy carriers (e.g., renewable hydrogen or bio-gas) into electrical power and heat. However, the hazardous raw materials and complicated experimental procedures used to produce electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells has been a concern for the effective implementation of these catalysts. Therefore, environmentally friendly and low-cost oxygen reduction electro-catalysts synthesised from natural products are considered as an attractive alternative to currently used synthetic materials involving hazardous chemicals and waste. Herein, we describe a unique integrated oxygen reduction three-dimensional composite catalyst containing both nitrogen-doped carbon fibers (N-CF) and carbon microspheres (N-CMS) synthesised from apricot sap from an apricot tree. The synthesis was carried out via three-step process, including apricot sap resin preparation, hydrothermal treatment, and pyrolysis with a nitrogen precursor. The nitrogen-doped electro-catalysts synthesised were characterised by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, and BET techniques followed by electro-chemical testing for ORR catalysis activity. The obtained catalyst material shows high catalytic activity for ORR in the basic medium by facilitating the reaction via a four-electron transfer mechanism.

  5. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  6. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  7. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  8. Electronic modification of Pt via Ti and Se as tolerant cathodes in air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiwei; Habrioux, Aurélien; Morais, Cláudia; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    We reported herein on the use of tolerant cathode catalysts such as carbon supported Pt(x)Ti(y) and/or Pt(x)Se(y) nanomaterials in an air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cell. In order to show the improvement of mixed-reactant fuel cell (MRFC) performances obtained with the developed tolerant catalysts, a classical Pt/C nanomaterial was used for comparison. Using 5 M methanol concentration in a situation where the fuel crossover is 100% (MRFC-mixed reactant fuel cell application), the maximum power density of the fuel cell with a Pt/C cathodic catalyst decreased by 80% in comparison with what is observed in the laminar flow fuel cell (LFFC) configuration. With Pt(x)Ti(y)/C and Pt(x)Se(y)/C cathode nanomaterials, the performance loss was only 55% and 20%, respectively. The evaluation of the tolerant cathode catalysts in an air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell suggests the development of a novel nanometric system that will not be size restricted. These interesting results are the consequence of the high methanol tolerance of these advanced electrocatalysts via surface electronic modification of Pt. Herein we used X-ray photoelectron and in situ FTIR spectroscopies to investigate the origin of the high methanol tolerance on modified Pt catalysts.

  9. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  10. Catalysis in high-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, K; Ahmed, K

    2005-02-17

    Catalysis plays a critical role in solid oxide fuel cell systems. The electrochemical reactions within the cell--oxygen dissociation on the cathode and electrochemical fuel combustion on the anode--are catalytic reactions. The fuels used in high-temperature fuel cells, for example, natural gas, propane, or liquid hydrocarbons, need to be preprocessed to a form suitable for conversion on the anode-sulfur removal and pre-reforming. The unconverted fuel (economic fuel utilization around 85%) is commonly combusted using a catalytic burner. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. has developed anodes that in addition to having electrochemical activity also are reactive for internal steam reforming of methane. This can simplify fuel preprocessing, but its main advantage is thermal management of the fuel cell stack by endothermic heat removal. Using this approach, the objective of fuel preprocessing is to produce a methane-rich fuel stream but with all higher hydrocarbons removed. Sulfur removal can be achieved by absorption or hydro-desulfurization (HDS). Depending on the system configuration, hydrogen is also required for start-up and shutdown. Reactor operating parameters are strongly tied to fuel cell operational regimes, thus often limiting optimization of the catalytic reactors. In this paper we discuss operation of an authothermal reforming reactor for hydrogen generation for HDS and start-up/shutdown, and development of a pre-reformer for converting propane to a methane-rich fuel stream.

  11. Arrangement of fuel cell system for TNRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Takehiro; Yasuda, Ryo; Iikura, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takuro; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Hayashida, Hirotoshi

    2012-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (fuel cells) can be potentially employed as sources of clean energy because they discharge only water as by-products. Fuel cells generate electricity with supply of oxygen and hydrogen gases. However, the water produced by the fuel cells blocks the gas supply, thereby degrading their performances. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of the water produced by the fuel cells in order to facilitate their development. Neutron radiography is a useful tool for visualizing the distribution of water in fuel cells. We have designed fuel cell operation system for TNRF (Thermal Neutron Radiography Facility) at JRR-3. The fuel cell operation system consists of various components such as gas flow and humidification systems, hydrogen-diluting system, purge system, and safety system for hydrogen gas. We tested this system using a Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) standard cell. The system performed stably and efficiently. In addition, neutron radiography tests were carried out to visualize the water distribution. The water produced by the fuel cell was observed during the fuel cell operation. (author)

  12. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  13. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  14. Rapid synthesis of platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles dispersed on carbon support as improved electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhulan; Li, Shumin; Xiong, Zhiping; Xu, Hui; Gao, Fei; Du, Yukou

    2018-07-01

    Bimetallic nanocatalysts with small particle size benefit from markedly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability during small molecule oxidation. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize binary Pt-Ru nanoparticles dispersed on a carbon support at an optimum temperature. Because of its monodispersed nanostructure, synergistic effects were observed between Pt and Ru and the PtRu/C electrocatalysts showed remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. The peak current density of the Pt 1 Ru 1 /C electrocatalyst is 3731 mA mg -1 , which is 9.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (401 mA mg -1 ). Furthermore, the synthesized Pt 1 Ru 1 /C catalyst exhibited higher stability during ethanol oxidation in an alkaline medium and maintained a significantly higher current density after successive cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of 500 cycles than commercial Pt/C. Our work highlights the significance of the reaction temperature during electrocatalyst synthesis, leading to enhanced catalytic performance towards ethanol oxidation. The Pt 1 Ru 1 /C electrocatalyst has great potential for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Platinum supported on titanium–ruthenium oxide is a remarkably stable electrocatayst for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrondo, Javier; Han, Taehee; Niangar, Ellazar; Wang, Chunmei; Dale, Nilesh; Adjemian, Kev; Ramani, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique and highly stable electrocatalyst—platinum (Pt) supported on titanium–ruthenium oxide (TRO)—for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The Pt/TRO electrocatalyst was exposed to stringent accelerated test protocols designed to induce degradation and failure mechanisms identical to those seen during extended normal operation of a fuel cell automobile—namely, support corrosion during vehicle startup and shutdown, and platinum dissolution during vehicle acceleration and deceleration. These experiments were performed both ex situ (on supports and catalysts deposited onto a glassy carbon rotating disk electrode) and in situ (in a membrane electrode assembly). The Pt/TRO was compared against a state-of-the-art benchmark catalyst—Pt supported on high surface-area carbon (Pt/HSAC). In ex situ tests, Pt/TRO lost only 18% of its initial oxygen reduction reaction mass activity and 3% of its oxygen reduction reaction-specific activity, whereas the corresponding losses for Pt/HSAC were 52% and 22%. In in situ-accelerated degradation tests performed on membrane electrode assemblies, the loss in cell voltage at 1 A · cm−2 at 100% RH was a negligible 15 mV for Pt/TRO, whereas the loss was too high to permit operation at 1 A · cm−2 for Pt/HSAC. We clearly show that electrocatalyst support corrosion induced during fuel cell startup and shutdown is a far more potent failure mode than platinum dissolution during fuel cell operation. Hence, we posit that the need for a highly stable support (such as TRO) is paramount. Finally, we demonstrate that the corrosion of carbon present in the gas diffusion layer of the fuel cell is only of minor concern. PMID:24367118

  16. The TMI Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Ruhl, Robert C.; Petrik, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. Systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate (during sunlight cycles) to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis and (during dark cycles) fuel cells convert hydrogen into electricity. Common configurations use two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Reliability, power to weight and power to volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cells) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based design integrates fuel cell and electrolyzer functions and potentially simplifies system requirements. The integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer design also utilizes innovative gas storage concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H20 electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for regenerative fuel cells. Tests have shown improved cell performance in both fuel and electrolysis modes in reversible fuel cell tests. Regenerative fuel cell efficiencies, ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer mode), improved from 50 percent using conventional electrode materials to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow a single SOFC system to operate as both the electolyzer and fuel cell. Preliminary system designs have also been developed to show the technical feasibility of using the design for space applications requiring high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Small space systems also have potential for dual-use, terrestrial applications.

  17. Improved Anode for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas; Narayanan, Sekharipuram

    2005-01-01

    A modified chemical composition has been devised to improve the performance of the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell. The main feature of the modified composition is the incorporation of hydrous ruthenium oxide into the anode structure. This modification can reduce the internal electrical resistance of the cell and increase the degree of utilization of the anode catalyst. As a result, a higher anode current density can be sustained with a smaller amount of anode catalyst. These improvements can translate into a smaller fuel-cell system and higher efficiency of conversion. Some background information is helpful for understanding the benefit afforded by the addition of hydrous ruthenium oxide. The anode of a direct methanol fuel cell sustains the electro-oxidation of methanol to carbon dioxide in the reaction CH3OH + H2O--->CO2 + 6H(+) + 6e(-). An electrocatalyst is needed to enable this reaction to occur. The catalyst that offers the highest activity is an alloy of approximately equal numbers of atoms of the noble metals platinum and ruthenium. The anode is made of a composite material that includes high-surface-area Pt/Ru alloy particles and a proton-conducting ionomeric material. This composite is usually deposited onto a polymer-electrolyte (proton-conducting) membrane and onto an anode gas-diffusion/current-collector sheet that is subsequently bonded to the proton-conducting membrane by hot pressing. Heretofore, the areal density of noble-metal catalyst typically needed for high performance has been about 8 mg/cm2. However, not all of the catalyst has been utilized in the catalyzed electro-oxidation reaction. Increasing the degree of utilization of the catalyst would make it possible to improve the performance of the cell for a given catalyst loading and/or reduce the catalyst loading (thereby reducing the cost of the cell). The use of carbon and possibly other electronic conductors in the catalyst layer has been proposed for increasing the utilization of the

  18. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  19. Thermoeconomic analysis of a fuel cell hybrid power system from the fuel cell experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Tomas [Endesa Generacion, Ribera del Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: talvarez@endesa.es; Valero, Antonio [Fundacion CIRCE, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Montes, Jose M. [ETSIMM-Universidad Politecnica de.Madrid, Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    An innovative configuration of fuel cell technology is proposed based on a hybrid fuel cell system that integrates a turbogenerator to overcome the intrinsic limitations of fuel cells in conventional operation. An analysis is done of the application of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at the Guadalix Fuel Cell Test Facility, for the assessment of the performance of the fuel cell prototype to be integrated in the Hybrid Fuel Cell System. This is completed with a thermoeconomic analysis of the 100 kW cogeneration fuel cell power plant which was subsequently built. The operational results and design limitations are evaluated, together with the operational limits and thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction and losses) of the 100 kW fuel cell. This leads to the design of a hybrid system in order to demonstrate the possibilities and benefits of the new hybrid configuration. The results are quantified through a thermoeconomic analysis in order to get the most cost-effective plant configuration. One promising configuration is the MCFC topper where the fuel cell in the power plant behaves as a combustor for the turbogenerator. The latter behaves as the balance of plant for the fuel cell. The combined efficiency increased to 57% and NOx emissions are essentially eliminated. The synergy of the fuel cell/turbine hybrids lies mainly in the use of the rejected thermal energy and residual fuel from the fuel cell to drive the turbogenerator in a 500 kW hybrid system.

  20. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed.

  1. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  2. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Kobyłecki, Rafał; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  3. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  4. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  5. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  6. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  8. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  9. Single wall carbon nanotube supports for portable direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girishkumar, G; Hall, Timothy D; Vinodgopal, K; Kamat, Prashant V

    2006-01-12

    Single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes are employed as carbon supports in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The morphology and electrochemical activity of single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes obtained from different sources have been examined to probe the influence of carbon support on the overall performance of DMFC. The improved activity of the Pt-Ru catalyst dispersed on carbon nanotubes toward methanol oxidation is reflected as a shift in the onset potential and a lower charge transfer resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The evaluation of carbon supports in a passive air breathing DMFC indicates that the observed power density depends on the nature and source of carbon nanostructures. The intrinsic property of the nanotubes, dispersion of the electrocatalyst and the electrochemically active surface area collectively influence the performance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). As compared to the commercial carbon black support, single wall carbon nanotubes when employed as the support for anchoring the electrocatalyst particles in the anode and cathode sides of MEA exhibited a approximately 30% enhancement in the power density of a single stack DMFC operating at 70 degrees C.

  10. National fuel cell seminar. Program and abstracts. [Abstracts of 40 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (WHK)

  11. The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby Macdonald

    2005-04-15

    The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

  12. Evaluation of colloidal Ag and Ag-alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Northwood, Derek O. [Mechanical, Auto, and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Gyenge, Elod L. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Colombia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    In this study, colloidal silver and silver-alloys (Ag-Pt, Ag-Au, Ag-Ir, and Ag-Pd) prepared by the Boenneman technique were evaluated as anode catalysts for sodium borohydride oxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), chronopotentiometry (CP) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. The CV results show that the colloidal Ag-alloys were electrochemically active towards borohydride oxidation with oxidation potentials ranging between -0.7 and 0.4 V vs. Hg/HgO (MOE). The most negative oxidation potential was recorded on Ag-Pt. CA results show that the steady state current density was highest on Ag-Pt, followed by Ag-Ir, Ag-Au, and Ag-Pd. The lowest overpotential was recorded on Ag-Ir for a current step change of 10mAcm{sup -2}. A significant temperature effect and a small rotation speed effect were found in the rotating disc voltammetry for all the investigated colloids. The highest peak current was recorded on Ag-Au, while the most negative peak potential was recorded on Ag-Ir. (author)

  13. High stability and high activity Pd/ITO-CNTs electrocatalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei-Li; Gu, Da-Ming; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Jing-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of ITO in Pd/CNTs catalyst significantly improves the activity and stability of catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation due to excellent stability and high electrical conductivity of ITO, and metal-support interaction between Pd nanoparticles and ITO. - Highlights: • Pd catalyst with ITO and CNTs as a mixture support for DFAFC was first prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process. • The activity and stability of Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst is significantly higher than those of Pd/CNTs. • When ITO content is 50% of ITO/CNTs support mass, Pd/ITO-CNTs exhibits the best performance. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) and carbon nanotube hybrid has been explored as a support for Pd catalyst. Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts with different ITO contents were prepared by the microwave-assisted polyol process. The as-prepared Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electrochemical measurements in this work. The TEM results show that Pd particle size distribution in the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst is more uniform than that in Pd/CNTs, indicating that the ITO can promote the dispersion of Pd nanoparticles. It is found that there is metal-support interaction between Pd nanoparticles and ITO in the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst through XPS test. The results of electrochemical tests prove that the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts exhibit higher electro-catalytic activity and stability than Pd/CNTs toward formic acid electrooxidation. When the ITO content is 50% of ITO-CNTs support mass, the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst has the best catalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation. The peak current density of formic acid electrooxidation on the Pd/ITO-CNTs50% electrode is 1.53 times as high as that on Pd/CNTs, 2.31 times higher than that on Pd/ITO. The results of aging test show that the peak current density on the Pd/ITO-CNTs decreases by only 14.0%, while 56.1% on the Pd/CNTs after 500 cycles. It is due to the promoting effect of In 2 O 3 and SnO 2 in ITO, and metal-support interaction between Pd nanoparticles and ITO

  14. Electrocatalysts and their Supporting Materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Activity and Durability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permyakova, Anastasia Aleksandrovna

    of methanol electro-oxidation for ALD deposited Pt films on Si(100) and Pt-Si alloys on Si(100). ALD deposited Pt films on Si(100) were subsequently annealed at various temperatures to obtain Pt-Si alloy film on Si(100). Obtained alloys were subsequently characterised as potentially highly active methanol...... in oxygen reduction, carbon monoxide and methanol electro-oxidation reactions were explored. Employed catalysts were characterized electrochemically and physiochemically using techniques such as: cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode technique, SEM, TEM, EDS, XPS, TGA/DTA, Raman, XRD, FTIR-IR among...... to long-term durability procedures. A significant part of the PhD study involved development of electrochemical instrumentation and techniques, such as: RDE and set-up, oxygen reduction, methanol and CO electrooxidation, long-term durability procedures, etc. The techniques employed by the author were self...

  15. Carbon/manganese oxide based fuel cell electrocatalyst using "Flywheel" principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Novák, V.; Reiter, Jakub

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-4 ISSN 1480-2422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : manganese oxide * oxygen electrode * bifunctional electrode Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2005

  16. Develop high activity, low cost non-PGM fuel cell electrocatalyst and stable supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Gaillard, J. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-09-28

    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFC. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into Metallic Organic Framework (MOF) catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of FePhen@MOF catalysts have been synthesized with varying [Fe] to investigate the effect on electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties. The magnitude of the FeII/III redox couple and the electrochemical surface area are analyzed to determine if there is a correlation between [Fe] and the ORR onset potential and/or the relative number of active sites.

  17. Nanostructured platinum-free electrocatalysts in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells: catalyst design, principles and applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available in nanoparticles and semi-innite surfaces. Table 1Table 1 Typical calculated segregation energies (eV) for binary alloy nanoparticles Core Shell Ag Pd Ni Ir Co Fe Ag 0 �0.82 �2.29 �3.54 �2.15 �5.20 Pd 0.70 0 �1.09 �1.71 �1.29 �3.26 Ni 0.67 0.46 0 �0.67 �0.20 �2... compares the Wigner–Seitz radii and electron densities of somemetallic elements that are useful for making alloy catalysts for AFC systems. Table 2 clearly indicates that Pd, for example, has a stronger tendency to surface-segregate in Ni, Fe, or Fe...

  18. Activity and stability studies of platinized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as fuel cell electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2015-01-01

    A non-covalent functionalization for multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been used as an alternative to the damaging acid treatment. Platinum nanoparticles with similar particle size distribution have been deposited on the surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The interaction between...

  19. Fundamentals and Bioengineering of Enzymatic Fuel Cells. Part 1. Bioengineering of Enzymes as Electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    HSH in DI water was mixed with 10 mg mLŕ of [Os(bpy)2Cl:jC’l (1:20 molar ratio) and the reaction vessel was immersed in heating oil held to 70 °C...accomplished by drying approximately 3 u.L of wet hydrogel on the electrode surface and rehydrating prior to analysis. The rate of hydrogel erosion was...simulated annealing (MCSA) optimization algorithm was utilized and Metropolis was employed as a criterion to accept or reject solutions. The temperature

  20. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, S.; Lin, K.; Malladi, S.R.K.; Lu, Y.; Sun, S.; Xu, Q.; Steinberger-Wilckens, R.; Dong, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support

  1. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  2. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  3. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  4. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  5. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  6. Fuel cell research: Towards efficient energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available fuel cells by optimising the loading of catalyst (being expensive noble metals) and ionomer; 2) Improving conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells by developing more efficient catalysts and by investigating other fuels than methanol; 3... these components add significantly to the overall cost of a PEMFC. 1 We focused our research activities on: 1) The effect of the loading of catalytic ink on cell performance; 2) The effect of the ionomer content in the catalytic ink; 3) Testing...

  7. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  8. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  9. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells...... to a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology....

  10. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  11. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  12. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  13. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.; Kucernak, Anthony R.; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C.; Brandon, Nigel P.; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F.; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J.; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due

  14. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  15. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  16. Ancient Chemistry "Pharaoh's Snakes" for Efficient Fe-/N-Doped Carbon Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangyuan; Gao, Liangliang; Teng, Chao; Li, Yunan; Yang, Hequn; Shui, Jianglan; Lu, Xianyong; Zhu, Ying; Dai, Liming

    2018-04-04

    The method of fabricating nonprecious metal electrocatalysts with high activity and durability through a facile and eco-friendly procedure is of great significance to the development of low-cost fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we present that an ancient chemical reaction of "Pharaoh's snakes" can be a fast and convenient technique to prepare Fe-/N-doped carbon (Fe/N-C) nanosheet/nanotube electrocatalysts with sugar, soda, melamine, and iron nitrate as precursors. The resultant Fe/N-C catalyst has a hierarchically porous structure, a large surface area, and uniformly distributed active sites. The catalyst shows high electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxygen reduction reaction with a half-wave potential of 0.90 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode) better than that of Pt/C and the oxygen evolution reaction with an overpotential of 0.46 V at the current density of 10 mA cm -2 comparable to that of RuO 2 . The activity and stability of the catalyst are also evaluated in primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries. In both conditions, three-dimensional Fe/N-C exhibited performances superior to Pt/C. Our work demonstrates a success of utilizing an ancient science to make a state-of-the-art electrocatalyst.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  18. Preparation method of Ni@Pt/C nanocatalyst affects the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell: Improved power density and increased catalytic oxidation of borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem; Mahmoodi, Raana

    2017-08-15

    The Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were synthesized using two different methods: with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and without SDS. The metal loading in synthesized nanocatalysts was 20wt% and the molar ratio of Ni: Pt was 1:1. The structural characterizations of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts toward BH 4 - oxidation in alkaline medium was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni@Pt/C electrocatalyst synthesized without SDS has superior catalytic activity toward borohydride oxidation (22016.92Ag Pt -1 ) in comparison with a catalyst prepared in the presence of SDS (17766.15Ag Pt -1 ) in NaBH 4 0.1M at 25°C. The Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) used in fuel cell set-up was fabricated with catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The effect of Ni@Pt/C catalysts prepared with two methods as anode catalyst on the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell was studied. The maximum power density was obtained using Ni@Pt/C catalyst synthesized without SDS at 60°C, 1M NaBH 4 and 2M H 2 O 2 (133.38mWcm -2 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  20. Reduced size fuel cell for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flat pack type fuel cell includes a plurality of membrane electrode assemblies. Each membrane electrode assembly is formed of an anode, an electrolyte, and an cathode with appropriate catalysts thereon. The anode is directly into contact with fuel via a wicking element. The fuel reservoir may extend along the same axis as the membrane electrode assemblies, so that fuel can be applied to each of the anodes. Each of the fuel cell elements is interconnected together to provide the voltage outputs in series.

  1. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  2. Highly cost-effective and sulfur/coking resistant VOx-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles as an efficient anode catalyst for direct conversion of dry sour methane in solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.; Yan, N.; Vincent, A.; Singh, A.; Hill, J.M.; Chuang, K. T.; Luo, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we show that grafted metal oxide can be a highly cost-effective and active anode for solid oxide fuel cells for sour methane conversion. The developed electro-catalyst was composed of vanadium oxide grafted TiO2 nanoparticles (VOx/TiO2) infiltrated into a porous La0.4Sr0.5Ba0.1TiO3+δ

  3. Elaboration and study of fuel cell according to solid polymer electrolyte technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novel-Cattin, F

    1990-10-23

    A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell was built in an attempt to develop a pilot scale fuel cell of a few kW. These fuel cells were based on a polymeric ion exchange membrane commercialized by Dupont de Nemours under the trademark NAFION 117. This work consists in part of the development of different test cells, for electrodes of surface area from 1 to 25 cm{sup 2}. Different types of porous electrodes were also used containing platinum as the electro-catalyst, in the synthesis of composite electrode-membrane electrode ensembles. Different methods of electrode manufacture are detailed in this thesis. These electrodes were characterized by their current potential behaviour under stationary conditions. Different analysis technics, such as the microprobe and electronic microscopy were used. The electrode structure was studied using impedance spectroscopy. A full factorial optimization program was developed in order to optimize the performance of some of these electrodes. The use of the thermoplastic form of the membrane was used as a mean of incorporating the electrodes into the membrane. The transport of water coupled to proton migration across the membrane was also measured. (author). 82 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs., 11 curves., 14 schemes., 2 appends.

  4. Alkaline fuel cell technology in the lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) was the first fuel cell successfully put into practice, a century after William Grove patented his 'hydrogen battery' in 1839. The space program provided the necessary momentum, and alkaline fuel cells became the power source for both the U.S. and Russian manned space flight. Astris Energi's mission has been to bring this technology down to earth as inexpensive, rugged fuel cells for everyday applications. The early cells, LABCELL 50 and LABCELL 200 were aimed at deployment in research labs, colleges and universities. They served well in technology demonstration projects such as the 1998 Mini Jeep, 2001 Golf Car and a series of portable and stationary fuel cell generators. The present third generation POWERSTACK MC250 poised for commercialization is being offered to AFC system integrators as a building block of fuel cell systems in numerous portable, stationary and transportation applications. It is also used in Astris' own E7 and E8 alkaline fuel cell generators. Astris alkaline technology leads the way toward economical, plentiful fuel cells. The paper highlights the progress achieved at Astris, improvements of performance, durability and simplicity of use, as well as the current and future thrust in technology development and commercialization. (author)

  5. An investigation into carbon nanostructured materials as catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune

    acid treatment on the Vapour Grown Carbon Fibers™ manufactured by Showa Denko K. K. From these fibres, twelve platinised samples were investigated, of which one was platinised by a platinum phtalocyanine impregnation method, two were platinised by the polyol method and the remaining by the Bönnemann......Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are among the key research areas concerning clean cost-effective energy. Carbon nano fibres (CNF), single walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNT), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) and other related materials are among the possible successors to standard carbon...... black support materials for low platinum containing electrocatalyst. This is partly due to their high electronic conductivity. Partly due to their high surface area needed for the dispersion of nanoparticulate metal-clusters. In addition carbon nano-structures (CNF, SWCNT, MWCNT etc.) are more durable...

  6. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  7. Performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed methanol/ethanol solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongyao, N. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, Thung Khru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Therdthianwong, A., E-mail: apichai.the@kmutt.ac.t [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research and Engineering Center, Clean Energy System Group, PDTI, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, Thung Khru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Therdthianwong, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, Thung Khru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We examined the performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol. {yields} PtRu-PtSn/C and PtRu/C as catalysts for mixed alcohol electrooxidation reaction. {yields} Misplace adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C caused the cell performance drop. {yields} PtRu/C showed higher performance than PtRu-PtSn/C for mixed alcohol fuel. -- Abstract: In combining the advantages of both methanol and ethanol, direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol solutions (1 M methanol and 1 M ethanol in varying volume ratios) were tested for performance. Employing a PtRu-PtSn/C catalyst as anode, cell performance was found to diminish rapidly even at 2.5% by volume ethanol mixture. Further increase of ethanol exceeded 10%, the cell performance gradually decreased and finally approached that of direct ethanol fuel cells. The causes of the decrease in the cell performance were the slow electro-oxidation of ethanol and the misplaced adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C. By comparing the PtRu-PtSn/C cell with the PtRu/C cell operated with mixed alcohol solutions, the cell using PtRu/C as an anode catalyst provided higher power density since more PtRu/C surface was available for methanol oxidation reaction and less ohmic resistance of PtRu/C than that of PtRu-PtSn/C. In order to reach optimization of DAFC performance fed with mixed alcohol, the electrocatalyst used for the anode must selectively adsorb an alcohol, especially ethanol.

  8. Performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed methanol/ethanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongyao, N.; Therdthianwong, A.; Therdthianwong, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We examined the performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol. → PtRu-PtSn/C and PtRu/C as catalysts for mixed alcohol electrooxidation reaction. → Misplace adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C caused the cell performance drop. → PtRu/C showed higher performance than PtRu-PtSn/C for mixed alcohol fuel. -- Abstract: In combining the advantages of both methanol and ethanol, direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol solutions (1 M methanol and 1 M ethanol in varying volume ratios) were tested for performance. Employing a PtRu-PtSn/C catalyst as anode, cell performance was found to diminish rapidly even at 2.5% by volume ethanol mixture. Further increase of ethanol exceeded 10%, the cell performance gradually decreased and finally approached that of direct ethanol fuel cells. The causes of the decrease in the cell performance were the slow electro-oxidation of ethanol and the misplaced adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C. By comparing the PtRu-PtSn/C cell with the PtRu/C cell operated with mixed alcohol solutions, the cell using PtRu/C as an anode catalyst provided higher power density since more PtRu/C surface was available for methanol oxidation reaction and less ohmic resistance of PtRu/C than that of PtRu-PtSn/C. In order to reach optimization of DAFC performance fed with mixed alcohol, the electrocatalyst used for the anode must selectively adsorb an alcohol, especially ethanol.

  9. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  10. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  11. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  12. Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory The Energy System Integration Facility's Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory supports fuel cell research and development projects through in-situ fuel cell testing. Photo of a researcher running

  13. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  14. Fuel cells for telephone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.D.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Critical telephone network systems are currently protected from electric utility power failures by a backup system consisting of lead-acid batteries and an engine-alternator. It is considered here an alternate power system where less expensive off-peak commercial electricity electrolyses water, while fuel cells draw continuously on the stored gas products to provide direct current for the protected equipment. The lead acid batteries are eliminated. The benefits and costs of the existing and alternate systems in scenarios with various system efficiencies, capital costs, and electric utility rates and incentives, are compared. In today's conditions, the alternate system is not economical; however, cost and performance feasibility domains are identified. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  15. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  16. Microbial fuel cell: A green technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Muhamad Lebai Juri; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Leo Kwee Wah; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) was developed which was able to generate bio energy continuously while consuming wastewater containing organic matters. Even though the bio energy generated is not as high as hydrogen fuel cell, the MFC demonstrated great potential in bio-treating wastewater while using it as fuel source. Thus far, the dual-ability of the MFC to generate bio energy and bio-treating organic wastewater has been examined successfully using synthetic acetate and POME wastewaters. (author)

  17. The performance and degradation of Pt electrocatalysts on novel carbon carriers for PEMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamat, M.S.; Grant, D.M.; Walker, G.S. [Energy and Sustainability Research Division, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Grigoriev, S.A.; Dzhus, K.A. [Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology Institute, Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Kurchatov sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Electrocatalyst stability is an important factor influencing the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and is essential in maintaining the cell output. The aim of this work was to elucidate factors which influence the stability of platinum supported onto graphitic nanofibres (Pt/GNFs) and to compare the performance of these materials with the commonly used Pt/Vulcan electrocatalyst. Platinum nanoparticles (average diameter of 6.9 nm) were supported on GNFs which were prepared by chemical vapour deposition over an unsupported nickel oxide (NiO) catalyst precursor. The performance of Pt/GNFs based electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a single-cell fuel cell test and were compared with a commercially available carbon nanostructure, Vulcan XC-72, which was also impregnated with Pt nanoparticles. Characterisation of the pre- and post-operation of the Pt/GNFs by XRD and TEM showed that structural changes of the Pt had occurred during testing. It was found that the average diameter of each grain and the degree of agglomeration among particles was increased, creating elongated clusters of Pt along the carbon fibre. Analysis of electrocatalyst post-operation also identified that the sulphate from the Nafion membrane was reacting with the Pt surface forming platinum sulphide (PtS). These phases were confirmed by the presence of low intensity, but sharp XRD peaks, attributed to a few large diameter particles (49 nm). These two factors resulted in current density dropping from 0.2 A/cm{sup 2} to 0.1 A/cm{sup 2} (at 0.70 V) over a 25 h test period. (author)

  18. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  19. Strategic Partnerships in Fuel Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Dorey

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how forming strategic alliances with universities, emerging technology companies, the state of Ohio, the federal government, and the National Science Foundation, has enabled Stark State College to develop a $5.5 million Fuel Cell Prototyping Center and establish a Fuel Cell Technology program to promote economic development…

  20. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  1. The fuel cell; development and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijnsoever, J.W.M.

    Activities on fuel cells and fuel cell development in the USA and Japan are surveyed. Possibilities for large scale application are mentioned. Attention is given to efficiency and environmental aspects. There are no problems about hazardous emissions. Besides electric power some heat is generated, which is not always a disadvantage. In many cases both are useful products. (A.V.)

  2. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  3. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  4. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  5. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  6. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  7. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  8. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-08-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  9. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-07-27

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  10. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  11. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  12. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  13. Performance PtSnRh electrocatalysts supported on carbon-Sb2O5.SbO2 for the electro-oxidation of ethanol, prepared by an alcohol-reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Jose Carlos

    2013-01-01

    PtSnRh electrocatalysts supported on carbon-Sb 2 O 5 .SnO 2 , with metal loading of 20 wt%, were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process, using H 2 PtCl 6 .6H 2 O (Aldrich), RhCl 3 .xH 2 O (Aldrich) and SnCl 2 .2H 2 O (Aldrich), as source of metals; Sb 2 O 5 .SnO 2 (ATO) and carbon Vulcan XC72, as support; and ethylene glycol as reducing agent. The electrocatalysts obtained were characterized physically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diffractograms showed which PtSnRh/C-ATO electrocatalysts had FCC structure of Pt and Pt alloys, besides several peaks associated with SnO 2 and ATO. The average sizes of crystallites were between 2 and 4 nm. TEM micrographs showed a good distribution of the nanoparticles on the support. The average sizes of particles were between 2 and 3 nm, with good agreement for the average size of the crystallites. The performances of the electrocatalysts were analyzed by electrochemical techniques and in real conditions of operation using single direct ethanol fuel cell. In the chronoamperometry at 50 deg C, the electrocatalysts with carbon (85 wt%) and ATO (15 wt%) support, showed the best activity, and the atomic proportions which achieved the best results were PtSnRh(70:25:05) e (90:05:05). PtSnRh(70:25:05)/85C+15ATO electrocatalysts showed the best performance in a direct ethanol fuel cell. (author)

  14. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  15. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  16. Review of Fuel Cell Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    2 3. FUELLING FUEL CELLS ...OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PEM Proton Exchange Membrane PEMFC Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell TRL Technical...UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TN-1360 UNCLASSIFIED 4 3. Fuelling Fuel Cells 3.1 Hydrogen Hydrogen, either in its pure form or as reformate from another fuel is

  17. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  18. High index surfaces of Au-nanocrystals supported on one-dimensional MoO3-nanorod as a bi-functional electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, L.; Chen, C.Y.; Anandan, S.; Wu, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of a new class of Au nanocrystals enclosed with high index surface supported on MoO 3 nanorods by ultrasonic probe method. •The role of supporting materials reduces the loading of Au and acts as a co-catalyst. •The as prepared electrocatalyst exhibits enhanced catalytic activity and stability towards both EOR and ORR. -- Abstract: The design of highly active electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation (EOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great significance for the improvement of efficient direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). Therefore, creating high index facets nanocrystals with abundant catalytic active sites of stepped atoms is an effective way to enhance the electrocatalytic performance. In this article, we prepared the high index surface structures of Au nanocrystals supported on one-dimensional (1-D) MoO 3 nanorods by using two steps ultrasonic probe irradiation method. The size and physical properties of as electrocatalysts were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrumentation. Besides, the catalytic activity of as Au-MoO 3 electrocatalyst was determined by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometric (CA), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), CO-stripping, and linear sweep voltammetry-rotating disk electrode (LSV-RDE). As a consequence, the Au-MoO 3 nanocomposites has been considered as an effective electrocatalyst for both ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction.

  19. Low content of Pt supported on Ni-MoCx/carbon black as a highly durable and active electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions in acidic condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zang, Jianbing; Jia, Shaopei; Tian, Pengfei; Han, Chan; Wang, Yanhui

    2017-08-01

    Nickel and molybdenum carbide modified carbon black (Ni-MoCx/C) was synthesized by a two-step microwave-assisted deposition/carbonthermal reduction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared Ni-MoCx/C supported Pt (10 wt%) electrocatalyst (10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C) was synthesized through a microwave-assisted reduction method and 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions. Results showed that 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C electrocatalyst had better electrocatalytic activity and stability performance than 20 wt% Pt/C (20Pt/C) electrocatalyst. Among them, the electrochemical surface area of 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C reached 68.4 m2 g-1, which was higher than that of 20Pt/C (63.2 m2 g-1). The enhanced stability and activity of 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C electrocatalyst were attributed to: (1) an anchoring effect of Ni and MoCx formed during carbonthermal reduction process; (2) a synergistic effect among Pt, Ni, MoOx and MoCx. These findings indicated that 10Pt/Ni-MoCx/C was a promising electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

  20. Simplified fuel cell system model identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caux, S.; Fadel, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, Toulouse (France); Hankache, W. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, Toulouse (France)]|[Laboratoire de recherche en Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes, Belfort (France); Hissel, D. [Laboratoire de recherche en Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes, Belfort (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed a simplified physical fuel cell model used to study fuel cell and supercap energy applications for vehicles. Anode, cathode, membrane, and electrode elements of the cell were modelled. A quasi-static Amphlett model was used to predict voltage responses of the fuel cell as a function of the current, temperature, and partial pressures of the reactive gases. The potential of each cell was multiplied by the number of cells in order to model a fuel cell stack. The model was used to describe the main phenomena associated with current voltage behaviour. Data were then compared with data from laboratory tests conducted on a 20 cell stack subjected to a current and time profile developed using speed data from a vehicle operating in an urban environment. The validated model was used to develop iterative optimization algorithms for an energy management strategy that linked 3 voltage sources with fuel cell parameters. It was concluded that classic state and dynamic measurements using a simple least square algorithm can be used to identify the most important parameters for optimal fuel cell operation. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  1. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    of the products. The observation of internal reforming was indirectly confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, where the best fits were obtained when a Gerischer element describing preceding chemical reaction and diffusion was included in the equivalent circuit of a methanol/air operated cell...... evaporated liquid stream supply to either of the electrodes. A large number of MEAs with different component compositions have been prepared and tested in different conditions using the constructed setups to obtain a basic understanding of the nature of direct DME HT-PEM FC, to map the processes occurring...... inside the cells and to determine the lifetime. Additionally, comparison was made with methanol as fuel, which is the main competitor to DME in direct oxidation of organic fuels in fuel cells. For the reference, measurements have also been done with conventional hydrogen/air operation. All...

  2. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  3. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  4. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  5. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  6. Business Case for Fuel Cells 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016. This list is by no means exhaustive. Over the past few decades, hundreds of thousands of fuel cells have been installed around the world, for primary or backup power, as well as in various other applications including portable and emergency backup power. Fuel cells have also been deployed in other applications such as heat and electricity for homes and apartments, material handling, passenger vehicles, buses, and remote, off-grid sites.

  7. Vehicles with fuel cells: dream or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Broeck, H; Hovestreydt, G

    1979-01-01

    Elenco N.V. is developing a hydrogen/potassium hydroxide/air fuel cell system of 10-50 kw with a specific performance of 72 mw/sq cm and a practical operating life of 5000 hr, which will be available in 1981-82. A comparative cost study was performed for vehicles with 100% fuel cells, 100% batteries, hybrid systems of fuel cells combined with batteries that provide high power for acceleration, hydrogen combustion engines, and conventional diesel engines, for city bus fleets, light commercial vehicles, forklifts, and trucks in Holland and Belgium. Hybrid systems give the best economy and they should become competitive with diesel engines after 1990.

  8. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  9. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  10. Nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped chitin-derived carbon/graphene composites as effective metal-free electrocatalysts for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yi; Xiao, Zhanhai; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Ru, Geying; Chen, Bing; Feng, Jiwen

    2018-05-01

    The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is strongly influenced by the electrocatalytic ability of its counter electrode (CE) materials. To obtain the affordable and high-performance electrocatalysts, the N/S dual-doped chitin-derived carbon materials SCCh were manufactured via in-situ S-doped method in the annealing process, where richer active sites are created compared to the pristine chitin-derived carbon matrix CCh, thus enhancing the intrinsic catalytic activity of carbon materials. When SCCh is incorporated with graphene, the yielded composites hold a further boosted catalytic activity due to facilitating the electronic fast transfer. The DSSC assembled with the optimizing rGO-SCCh-3 composite CE shows a favourable power conversion efficiency of 6.36%, which is comparable with that of the Pt-sputtering electrode (6.30%), indicate of the outstanding I3- reduction ability of the composite material. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that the low charge transfer resistance and excellent electrocatalytic activity all contribute to the superior photovoltaic performance. More importantly, the composite CE exhibits good electrochemical stability in the practical operation. In consideration of the low cost and the simple preparation procedure, the present metal-free carbonaceous composites could be used as a promising counter electrode material in future large scale production of DSSCs.

  11. Hydrogen like energy and materials for fuel cells; Hidrogeno como energetico y materiales para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez V, S. M., E-mail: suilma.fernandez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The researches on the production, storage and the use of hydrogen like fuel or energy carrying are carried out in several laboratories around the world. In the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), from the year of 1993 they are carried out researches about the synthesis of electro-catalysts materials than can serve in the hydrogen production starting from the electrolysis of the water, or in fuel cells, as well as of semiconductor materials for the photo-electrolysis of the water. Recently, in collaboration with other Departments of the ININ, the hydrogen production has been approached starting from fruit and vegetable wastes, with the purpose of evaluating the possibility that this residuals can be utilized for the energy obtaining and that they are not only garbage that causes problems of environmental pollution, generate toxic gases and pollute the soil with the organic acids that take place during their fermentation. (Author)

  12. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  13. Fuel processing requirements and techniques for fuel cell propulsion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Yu, M.

    Fuels for fuel cells in transportation systems are likely to be methanol, natural gas, hydrogen, propane, or ethanol. Fuels other than hydrogen will need to be reformed to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. The fuel reformer must meet stringent requirements for weight and volume, product quality, and transient operation. It must be compact and lightweight, must produce low levels of CO and other byproducts, and must have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Catalytic steam reforming, catalytic or noncatalytic partial oxidation reforming, or some combination of these processes may be used. This paper discusses salient features of the different kinds of reformers and describes the catalysts and processes being examined for the oxidation reforming of methanol and the steam reforming of ethanol. Effective catalysts and reaction conditions for the former have been identified; promising catalysts and reaction conditions for the latter are being investigated.

  14. Infiltrated La0.4Sr0.4Fe0.03Ni0.03Ti0.94O3 based anodes for all ceramic and metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2017-01-01

    performing nanostructured Ni:CGO electrocatalyst coated A site deficient Lanthanum doped Strontium Titanate (La0.4Sr0.4Fe0.03Ni0.03Ti0.94O3) based anodes. The anodes were incorporated into the co-sintered DTU metal supported solid oxide fuel cell design and large sized 12 cm × 12 cm cells were fabricated....... The titanate material showed good processing characteristics and surface wetting properties towards the Ni:CGO electrocatalyst coating. The cell performances were evaluated on single cell level (active area 16 cm2) and a power density at 0.7 V and 700 °C of 0.650 Wcm−2 with a fuel utilization of 31...

  15. Evaluation of reaction selectivity at various Pt/C electrocatalysts using a porous microelectrode in the presence of methanol and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shironita, Sayoko; Zhang, Weiqi; Sakai, Tsukasa; Umeda, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Pt is most useful metal for various electrochemical reactions as an electrocatalyst. In a direct methanol fuel cell, Pt performs a catalytic activity for both the methanol oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction; therefore, a Pt-based catalyst is used as an anode and a cathode. For the coexistence of methanol and oxygen due to methanol crossover through an electrolyte membrane during the cell operation, the direct methanol fuel cell performance decreases. However, if a higher selective reaction electrocatalyst can be developed, the cell performance will not be suppressed. In this study, the reaction selectivities of seven types of Pt supported on carbon (Pt/C) electrocatalysts were evaluated using a porous microelectrode in the presence of methanol and oxygen. As a result, some Pt/C catalysts showed a methanol oxidation selectivity, while the other catalysts showed an oxygen reduction selectivity. It was found that the percentage of edge-atom in the Pt particle is related to the methanol oxidation selectivity or the oxygen reduction selectivity. Moreover, each current density decreases with the increasing chemical shift in the Pt binding energy

  16. High-performance Platinum-free oxygen reduction reaction and hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Priji; Ghosh, Arpita; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2018-02-26

    The integration of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack into vehicles necessitates the replacement of high-priced platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalyst, which contributes to about 45% of the cost of the stack. The implementation of high-performance and durable Pt metal-free catalyst for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) could significantly enable large-scale commercialization of fuel cell-powered vehicles. Towards this goal, a simple, scalable, single-step synthesis method was adopted to develop palladium-cobalt alloy supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Pd 3 Co/NG) nanocomposite. Rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) studies for the electrochemical activity towards ORR indicates that ORR proceeds via nearly four-electron mechanism. Besides, the mass activity of Pd 3 Co/NG shows an enhancement of 1.6 times compared to that of Pd/NG. The full fuel cell measurements were carried out using Pd 3 Co/NG at the anode, cathode in conjunction with Pt/C and simultaneously at both anode and cathode. A maximum power density of 68 mW/cm 2 is accomplished from the simultaneous use of Pd 3 Co/NG as both anode and cathode electrocatalyst with individual loading of 0.5 mg/cm 2 at 60 °C without any backpressure. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first of its kind of a fully non-Pt based PEM full cell.

  17. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  18. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  19. Electrocatalysts for hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Losiewicz, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    This special topic volume deals with the development of novel solid state electrocatalysts of a high performance to enhance the rates of the hydrogen or oxygen evolution. It contains a description of various types of metals, alloys and composites which have been obtained using electrodeposition in aqueous solutions that has been identified to be a technologically feasible and economically superior technique for the production of the porous electrodes. The goal was to produce papers that would be useful to both the novice and the expert in hydrogen technologies. This volume is intended to be us

  20. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  1. Application of PtSn/C catalysts and Nafion SiO2 membranes in direct ethanol fuel cell at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresch, Mauro Andre

    2014-01-01

    This work has as objective to evaluate anodes and electrolytes in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) operating at high temperature (130 deg C). As anode materials, electrocatalysts based on Pt Sn/C were prepared by Modified Polyol Method with various Pt:Sn atomic ratios. Such methodology promotes self organized electrocatalysts production with narrow particle size distribution and high alloying degree. The electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, and CO stripping. The results showed that these materials presented high alloying degree and Eonset CO oxidation at lower potential as commercial materials. As electrolyte, Nafion-SiO 2 hybrids were synthesized by sol-gel reaction, by the incorporation of oxide directly into the ionic aggregates of various kinds of Nafion membranes. The synthesis parameter, such sol-gel solvent, membrane thickness and silicon precursor concentration were studied in terms of silica incorporation degree and hybrid mechanical stability. Finally, the optimized anodes and electrolytes were evaluated in DEFC operating at 80 - 130 deg C temperature range. The results showed a significant improvement of the DEFC performance (122 mW cm -2 ), resulted from the acceleration of ethanol oxidation reaction rate due to anode material optimization and high temperature operation once the use of hybrids possibilities the increase of temperature without a significant conductivity loses. In this sense, the combination of optimized electrodes and electrolytes are a promising alternative for the development of these devices. (author)

  2. Annual Report: Advanced Energy Systems Fuel Cells (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Richards, George

    2014-04-16

    The comprehensive research plan for Fuel Cells focused on Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) programmatic targets and included objectives in two primary and focused areas: (1) investigation of degradation modes exhibited by the anode/electrolyte/cathode (AEC), development of computational models describing the associated degradation rates, and generation of a modeling tool predicting long term AEC degradation response; and (2) generation of novel electrode materials and microstructures and implementation of the improved electrode technology to enhance performance. In these areas, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Regional University Alliance (RUA) team has completed and reported research that is significant to the SECA program, and SECA continued to engage all SECA core and SECA industry teams. Examination of degradation in an operational solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) requires a logical organization of research effort into activities such as fundamental data gathering, tool development, theoretical framework construction, computational modeling, and experimental data collection and validation. Discrete research activity in each of these categories was completed throughout the year and documented in quarterly reports, and researchers established a framework to assemble component research activities into a single operational modeling tool. The modeling framework describes a scheme for categorizing the component processes affecting the temporal evolution of cell performance, and provides a taxonomical structure of known degradation processes. The framework is an organizational tool that can be populated by existing studies, new research completed in conjunction with SECA, or independently obtained. The Fuel Cell Team also leveraged multiple tools to create cell performance and degradation predictions that illustrate the combined utility of the discrete modeling activity. Researchers first generated 800 continuous hours of SOFC experimental

  3. Fuel cells - An option for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielstich, W.

    1984-01-01

    The direct conversion of the energy of a fuel into electrical energy in fuel cells avoids the losses inseparable from the indirect conversion via heat and mechanical energy. The idea to use this concept of energy conversion for the application in power stations would offer the following advantages: a slightly better total energy efficiency; no environmental problems; and flexibility in size according to the construction in the battery stacks. The use of acid and alkaline H 2 /O 2 fuel cells in the U.S. space program has demonstrated the high energy per weight data possible with a fuel cell device including tankage. Therefore, the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles seems to be suitable at least from the technical point of view. Kordesch has converted an Austin A-40 to electric propulsion by replacing the gasoline engine by an 8-kW truck motor powered by a 6-kW alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell/4-kW lead-acid hybrid system. Two severe handicaps that occurred were the use of gas cylinders for the storage of the hydrogen and the voluminous CO 2 scrubber to prevent carbonization of the alkaline electrolyte. The direct conversion of a liquid fuel like methanol would be advantageous

  4. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  5. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  6. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L; Scherer, G G; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  7. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbrenner, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'

  8. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...

  9. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  10. Fuel cells: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Casalegno, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development [it

  11. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  12. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  13. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  14. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  15. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Fuel cells is the topic covered in this edition.

  16. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  17. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  18. Carbonate fuel cells: Milliwatts to megawatts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Maru, H. C.

    The carbonate fuel cell power plant is an emerging high efficiency, ultra-clean power generator utilizing a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid carbonaceous fuels for commercial and industrial applications. The primary mover of this generator is a carbonate fuel cell. The fuel cell uses alkali metal carbonate mixtures as electrolyte and operates at ∼650 °C. Corrosion of the cell hardware and stability of the ceramic components have been important design considerations in the early stages of development. The material and electrolyte choices are founded on extensive fundamental research carried out around the world in the 60s and early 70s. The cell components were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The present day carbonate fuel cell construction employs commonly available stainless steels. The electrodes are based on nickel and well-established manufacturing processes. Manufacturing process development, scale-up, stack tests, and pilot system tests dominated throughout the 1990s. Commercial product development efforts began in late 1990s leading to prototype field tests beginning in the current decade leading to commercial customer applications. Cost reduction has been an integral part of the product effort. Cost-competitive product designs have evolved as a result. Approximately half a dozen teams around the world are pursuing carbonate fuel cell product development. The power plant development efforts to date have mainly focused on several hundred kW (submegawatt) to megawatt-class plants. Almost 40 submegawatt units have been operating at customer sites in the US, Europe, and Asia. Several of these units are operating on renewable bio-fuels. A 1 MW unit is operating on the digester gas from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Seattle, Washington (US). Presently, there are a total of approximately 10 MW capacity carbonate fuel cell power plants installed around the world. Carbonate fuel cell products are also being developed to operate on

  19. Highly Active PdNi/RGO/Polyoxometalate Nanocomposite Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qingfan; Gao, Mingyan; Qiu, Haifang; Huang, Keke; Feng, Shouhua; Wang, Tingting; Yang, Ying; Liu, Zhelin; Zhao, Bo

    2018-02-27

    A PdNi/RGO/polyoxometalate nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by a simple wet-chemical method. Characterizations such as transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are employed to verify the morphology, structure, and elemental composition of the as-prepared nanocomposite. Inspired by the fast-developing fuel cells, the electrochemical catalytic performance of the nanocomposite toward methanol and ethanol oxidation in alkaline media is further tested. Notably, the nanocomposite exhibits excellent catalytic activity and long-term stability toward alcohol electrooxidation compared with the PdNi/RGO and commercial Pd/C catalyst. Furthermore, the electrochemical results reveal that the prepared nanocomposite is attractive as a promising electrocatalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells, in which the phosphotungstic acid plays a crucial role in enhancing the electrocatalytic activities of the catalyst.

  20. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as