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Sample records for fuel cell chp

  1. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO 2 and other emissions (NO x , SO x and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  2. Evaluation of an alkaline fuel cell system as a micro-CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaert, Ivan; Mulder, Grietus; De Paepe, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensitivity analysis on system configuration of the AFC as a micro-CHP. • Flow rate in the secondary heating circuit can be used to control water management. • Part load behavior of fuel cells is compared to other micro-CHP technologies. • For future energy demand in buildings fuel cells have the best performance. - Abstract: Micro-cogeneration is an emerging technology to reduce the non-renewable energy demand in buildings and reduce peak load in the grid. Fuel cell based cogeneration (CHP) has interesting prospects for building applications, even at relatively low heat demand. This is due to their partial load behavior which is completely different, compared to other micro-CHP technologies. Within the fuel cell technologies suitable for small scale CHP or micro-CHP, the existing configuration of an alkaline fuel cell system is analyzed. This analysis is based on validated models and offers a control strategy to optimize both water management and energy performance of the alkaline fuel cell system. Finally, the model of the alkaline fuel cell system with optimized control strategy is used to compare its part load behavior to other micro-CHP technologies.

  3. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  4. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cells in stationary power and CHP. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in stationary power and combined heat and power (CHP) systems. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs and SOFCs in stationary power and CHP applications, the report examines those for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for these different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to stationary power and CHP, and offers estimates of market potential for SOFCs in CHP markets, SPFCs in CHP markets and SOFCs in distributed power generation markets. Both large SPFC and SOFC CHP systems require further development to deliver the necessary cost reductions in materials and manufacturing processes before pre-commercial sales can begin. The routes taken by different manufacturers and their choice of preferred technology are explained. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell cars concludes that while cost reduction is a major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells, there are insufficient data available from operating fuel cells systems (other than PAFC) in stationary power and CHP applications to assess the economic attractiveness of fuel cells compared with existing systems. More field trials are required to confirm energy and environmental performance in such applications and to evaluate operational and economic performance under commercial operating conditions. Such field trials could also provide a focus for the required developments in fuel cells for stationary power/CHP systems.

  5. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating...... the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business...

  6. An energetic-exergetic analysis of a residential CHP system based on PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Ottaviano, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A zero-dimensional of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been developed. → The electrochemical model has been validated with experimental data. → The performances of this CHP system have been evaluated through a series of simulations. → An energy/exergy analysis of the simulation results has allowed to define the PEMFC optimal operating conditions. → The PEMFC optimal operating conditions detected are: 1 atm, 353.15 K and 100% RH. -- Abstract: The use of fuel cell systems for distributed residential power generation represents an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants due to their high efficiency and the potential recovering of the heat generated by the internal electrochemical reactions. In this paper the study of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is reported. With the aim to evaluate the performance and then the feasibility of this non-conventional energy system, in consideration of thermal and electrical basic demand of a multifamily apartment blocks, a zero-dimensional PEMFC model in Aspen Plus environment has been developed. A simulations sequence has been carried out at different operating conditions of the fuel cell (varying temperature, pressure and relative humidity). Subsequently, on the basis of the obtained results, an energy/exergy analysis has been conducted to define the optimal operating conditions of the PEMFC that ensures the most efficient use of the energy and exergy inputs.

  7. Woking Park phosphoric acid fuel cell CHP monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    A phosphoric acid fuel (PC25) delivering up to 200kw of electrical power and commensurate heat was installed in Woking Park UK in late 2006 and has been monitored over a period of one year. The system supplies electric power to a leisure centre and swimming pool via a private wires network. This report gives details of the monitoring and shows a schematic of the system, data on electrical and thermal efficiencies, stack voltage variations and gaseous emissions. Extended monitoring is now taking place to provide a complete picture of the economics and operation of the fuel cell in the developing combined heat and power unit and private wires system. The contractor is Advantica of Loughborough and detailed results of the monitoring are available on the DTI website.

  8. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications; Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer dezentrale KWK-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja [FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and other emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  9. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  10. Experimental study and modelling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modelling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing...

  11. Assessment of the implementation issues for fuel cells in domestic and small scale stationary power generation and CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.; Cruden, A.; Hart, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses implementation issues associated with the use of fuel cells in <10 kW domestic, small-scale power generation and combined heat and power (CHP) operations in the UK. The report examines the key issues (fuel cell system standards and certification, fuel infrastructure, commercial issues and competing CHP technologies), before discussing non-technical issues including finance, ownership, import and export configuration, pricing structure, customer acceptability, installation, operation and training of servicing and commissioning personnel. The report goes on to discuss market and technical drivers, grid connection issues and solutions, operations and maintenance. Recommendations for the future are made.

  12. Process Intensification in Fuel Cell CHP Systems, the ReforCELL Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Viviente

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a FP7/FCH JU project (ReforCELL that developed materials (catalysts and membranes and an advance autothermal membrane reformer for a micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP system of 5 kWel based on a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. In this project, an active, stable and selective catalyst was developed for the reactions of interest and its production was scaled up to kg scale (TRL5 (TRL: Technology Readiness Level. Simultaneously, new membranes for gas separation were developed. In particular, dense supported thin palladium-based membranes were developed for hydrogen separation from reactive mixtures. These membranes were successfully scaled up to TRL4 and used in lab-scale reactors for fluidized bed steam methane reforming (SMR and autothermal reforming (ATR and in a prototype reactor for ATR. Suitable sealing techniques able to integrate the different membranes in lab-scale and prototype reactors were also developed. The project also addressed the design and optimization of the subcomponents (BoP for the integration of the membrane reformer to the fuel cell system.

  13. Assessment of the competing technologies to fuel cells in the stationary power and CHP markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pears, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the commercial technologies that are likely to compete with fuel cells in the fields of stationary power and cogeneration markets. The competing technologies examined include clean coal technologies, reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and stirling engines. Energy and environmental legislation, and the ranking of the competing technologies are discussed. (UK)

  14. Advanced m-CHP fuel cell system based on a novel bio-ethanol fluidized bed membrane reformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviente, J.L.; Melendez Rey, J.; Pacheco Tanaka, D.A.; Gallucci, F.; Spallina, V.; Manzolini, G.; Foresti, S.; Palma, V.; Ruocco, C.; Roses, L.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed power generation via Micro Combined Heat and Power (m-CHP) systems, has been proven to over-come disadvantages of centralized generation since it can give savings in terms of Primary Energy consumption and energy costs. The FluidCELL FCH JU/FP7 project aims at providing the Proof of

  15. Designing and optimization of a micro CHP system based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with different fuel processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    are the possibility to partially reform hydrocarbon in the fuel cell anode compartment and the possibility to use high quality heat for cogeneration. In this work, different configurations of solid oxide fuel cell system for decentralized electricity production are examined. The Balance of Plant (BoP) components...

  16. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit of deliver......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  17. Fuel cell-based CHP system modelling using Artificial Neural Networks aimed at developing techno-economic efficiency maximization control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio, F.J.; San Martín, J.I.; Zamora, I.; Garcia-Villalobos, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of the performance of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)-based cogeneration system to integrate it in hybrid and/or connected to grid systems and enable the optimization of the techno-economic efficiency of the system in which it is integrated. To this end, experimental tests on a PEMFC-based cogeneration system of 600 W of electrical power have been performed to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Once the learning of the ANN, it has been able to emulate real operating conditions, such as the cooling water out temperature and the hydrogen consumption of the PEMFC depending on several variables, such as the electric power demanded, temperature of the inlet water flow to the cooling circuit, cooling water flow and the heat demanded to the CHP system. After analysing the results, it is concluded that the presented model reproduces with enough accuracy and precision the performance of the experimented PEMFC, thus enabling the use of the model and the ANN learning methodology to model other PEMFC-based cogeneration systems and integrate them in techno-economic efficiency optimization control systems. - Highlights: • The effect of the energy demand variation on the PEMFC's efficiency is predicted. • The model relies on experimental data obtained from a 600 W PEMFC. • It provides the temperature and the hydrogen consumption with good accuracy. • The range in which the global energy efficiency could be improved is provided.

  18. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, Pedro [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Newell, LeLe [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  19. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savola, Tuula; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MW e combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO 2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO 2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  20. Integration of fuel cells into residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Entchev, E.; Gusdorf, J.; Szadkowski, F.; Swinton, M.; Kalbfleisch, W.; Marchand, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of small combined heat and power systems (CHP) into residential buildings is challenging as the loads are small, the load diversity is limited and there are a number of unresolved issues concerning sizing, control, peak loads, emergency operation, grid connection and export, etc. Natural Resources Canada has undertaken an initiative to investigate and develop techniques for the integration of small CHP systems into residential buildings using a highly instrumented house modified to allow quick installation and thorough monitoring of CHP integration techniques as well determining the performance of the CHP systems themselves when operating in a house. The first CHP system installed was a Stirling engine residential CHP system. It was used to examine the completeness of the CHP modifications to the house, to evaluate various building integration techniques and to measure the performance of the CHP system itself. The testing demonstrated the modified house to be an excellent facility for the development of CHP building integration techniques and the testing of residential CHP systems. The Stirling engine CHP system was found to operate well and produce meaningful input to the house. A second system (residential fuel cell) is presently being installed and building integration techniques and the performance of the fuel cell will be tested over the coming year. (author)

  1. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...

  2. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  3. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated...... temperatures, as compared to Nafion-based PEMFCs and therefore can be a significant candidate for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single-family household. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary...

  4. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  5. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...... work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning...... biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost....

  6. Integrated HT-PEMFC and multi-fuel reformer for micro CHP. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    reformed both methane and biogas although the efficiency was low, on the order of 15% due to excessive slip and heat losses. The construction and test of an integrated micro CHP system revealed several problems with the core technology. Therefore, rather than working with the integrated system, individual system components were tested separately. In spite of the problems with the reformer and the fuel cell stack the system was successfully operated and an electric efficiency of 18%{sub LHV} was demonstrated. (Author)

  7. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land: Case of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominković, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of unused agricultural land for biomass and fruit production is assessed. • Technical and energy potential of biomass from SRC and fruit pruning is calculated. • Economic feasibility of CHP plants utilizing biomass from SRC is presented for Croatia. • Sensitivity analysis and recommendations for shift toward feasibility are provided. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused for food crops, represent significant potential for growing biomass that could be used for energy. This biomass could be used to supply power plants of up to 15 MW_e in accordance with heat demands of the chosen locations. The methodology for regional energy potential assessment was elaborated in previous work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10 PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost.

  8. Optimal fuel-mix in CHP plants under a stochastic permit price. Risk-neutrality versus risk-aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappi, Pauli; Ollikka, Kimmo; Ollikainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal fuel-mix of a CHP producer under emission permit price risk. The producer's multi-fuel plant uses two CO 2 -intensive fuels and one clean fuel. Using a mean-variance framework we develop three models. The models are divided into spot-models (risk neutral and risk averse cases) and a forward-model (risk averse case). We derive the effects of price risk on optimal fuel use. An increase in price risk can in fact increase the use of CO 2 -intensive fuel in the spot-model. In the forward-model, the production and financial decisions are separate. We also evaluate the risk-bearing behavior of seven Finnish CHP producers. We found that risk-neutrality describes behavior better than risk-aversion. (author)

  9. Optimal fuel-mix in CHP plants under a stochastic permit price. Risk-neutrality versus risk-aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, Pauli; Ollikka, Kimmo; Ollikainen, Markku [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    This paper studies the optimal fuel-mix of a CHP producer under emission permit price risk. The producer's multi-fuel plant uses two CO{sub 2}-intensive fuels and one clean fuel. Using a mean-variance framework we develop three models. The models are divided into spot-models (risk neutral and risk averse cases) and a forward-model (risk averse case). We derive the effects of price risk on optimal fuel use. An increase in price risk can in fact increase the use of CO{sub 2}-intensive fuel in the spot-model. In the forward-model, the production and financial decisions are separate. We also evaluate the risk-bearing behavior of seven Finnish CHP producers. We found that risk-neutrality describes behavior better than risk-aversion. (author)

  10. Optimal fuel-mix in CHP plants under a stochastic permit price: Risk-neutrality versus risk-aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, Pauli, E-mail: pauli.lappi@helsinki.f [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Ollikka, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.ollikka@helsinki.f [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Ollikainen, Markku, E-mail: markku.ollikainen@helsinki.f [Department of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    This paper studies the optimal fuel-mix of a CHP producer under emission permit price risk. The producer's multi-fuel plant uses two CO{sub 2}-intensive fuels and one clean fuel. Using a mean-variance framework we develop three models. The models are divided into spot-models (risk neutral and risk averse cases) and a forward-model (risk averse case). We derive the effects of price risk on optimal fuel use. An increase in price risk can in fact increase the use of CO{sub 2}-intensive fuel in the spot-model. In the forward-model, the production and financial decisions are separate. We also evaluate the risk-bearing behavior of seven Finnish CHP producers. We found that risk-neutrality describes behavior better than risk-aversion.

  11. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paepe, Michel de; D'Herdt, Peter; Mertens, David

    2006-01-01

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  12. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Stobbe, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based(e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To preventdetrimental effects on the

  13. Future market relevance of CHP installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the future market relevance of combined heat and power (CHP) installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW. Developments over the past ten years are reviewed. Important reductions in the price of motor-driven CHP units and the price of the electrical power produced are noted and commented on. The technical market potential of CHP units and the degree to which this potential has been implemented are commented on. Work done, including CHP implementation in the industrial, commercial and residential areas, is commented on. Future developments both in the technical area as well as in commercial areas are commented on. Micro-gas-turbine based CHP systems are also discussed, as are fuel-cell based systems in both the higher and lower capacity power generation area. The prospects for CHP systems in general in the electricity generation area are discussed

  14. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  15. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  16. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  17. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  18. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  19. Development of Next Generation micro-CHP System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    Novel proposals for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-andpower) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology are described and analyzed to investigate the technical feasibility of such systems. The proposed systems must...

  20. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  1. Modeling and simulation of a residential micro-CHP system based on HT-PEMFC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Combined-heat-and-power (CHP) technology is a well known and proved method to produce simultaneously power and heat at high efficiencies. This can be further improved by the introduction of a novel micro-CHP residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC......). The HT-PEMFC (based on PBI-membrane technology) operates at temperatures near 200oC, and this can be an ideal match for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system provides electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical household (1-5 kWe, 5-10 kWth). The micro-CHP system...

  2. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    of the different operating conditions reveals an optimum for the chosen pressure ratio with respect to the resulting electrical efficiency. Furthermore, the SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization should be maintained at a high level and the cathode temperature gradient maximized. Based on 1st and 2nd law...... based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP plants....... The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  3. The design of Chp plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomassetti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Chp is considered with a bottom-up view, as the most efficient way to satisfy the needs of the users. In order to achieve optimal results a particular care must be used in analyzing the thermal and electrical loads and their interactions. On this basis and taking into account the relationships among the user and the suppliers of electricity, fuels and heat, the energy market structure, the cost of energy and the tax assessment it is possible to properly design Chp plants with benefits for the users [it

  4. Five-year outcomes for frontline brentuximab vedotin with CHP for CD30-expressing peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, Michelle A; Horwitz, Steven M; Forero-Torres, Andres; Bartlett, Nancy L; Advani, Ranjana H; Pro, Barbara; Chen, Robert W; Davies, Andrew; Illidge, Tim; Uttarwar, Mayur; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Ren, Hong; Kennedy, Dana A; Shustov, Andrei R

    2018-05-10

    This phase 1 study evaluated frontline brentuximab vedotin in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (BV+CHP; 6 cycles, then up to 10 cycles of brentuximab vedotin monotherapy) in 26 patients with CD30 + peripheral T-cell lymphoma, including 19 with systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. All patients (100%) achieved an objective response, with a complete remission (CR) rate of 92%; none received a consolidative stem cell transplant. After a median observation period of 59.6 months (range, 4.6-66.0) from first dose, neither the median progression-free survival (PFS) nor the median overall survival (OS) was reached. No progression or death was observed beyond 35 months. The estimated 5-year PFS and OS rates were 52% and 80%, respectively. Eighteen of 19 patients (95%) with treatment-emergent peripheral neuropathy (PN) reported resolution or improvement of symptoms. Thirteen patients (50%) remained in remission at the end of the study, with PFS ranging from 37.8+ to 66.0+ months. Eight of these 13 patients received the maximum 16 cycles of study treatment. These final results demonstrate durable remissions in 50% of patients treated with frontline BV+CHP, suggesting a potentially curative treatment option for some patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01309789. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    be considered which fuels such technologies can utilise and how these fuels can be distributed. Natural gas is not an option in future renewable energy systems and the de‐ mand for gaseous fuels, such as biogas or syngas, will increase significantly. Hence, fuel cell CHP plants represent a more fuel...... of transport, battery electric vehicles are more suitable than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in future energy system. Battery electric ve‐ hicles may, for a part of the transport demand, have limitations in their range. Hybrid tech‐ nologies may provide a good option, which can combine the high fuel efficiency......Efficient fuel cells and electrolysers are still at the development stage. In this dissertation, future developed fuel cells and electrolysers are analysed in future renewable energy sys‐ tems. Today, most electricity, heat and transport demands are met by combustion tech‐ nologies. Compared...

  6. Fuel cells for stationary energy supply; Brennstoffzellen in der stationaeren Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprich, Uwe; Thiele, Andreas [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Starting point for this investigation was the question, whether the incentives, caused by the CHP law from March the 19th 2002, are short- and medium term adequate to introduce fuel cells as small CHP plants broadly on the market or rather develop them at least to a standard of market maturity. This has - based on our analysis - definitely to be answered in the negative: for this, the fixed bonus is too small to influence the costs for investment and running of a fuel cell plant lasting. One of the aims of the CHP law - the reduction of the yearly CO2-emissions in Germany by a broader introduction of the technology on the market - can actually not be reached. Although, fuel cells may obtain a quite important climate-political significance, if their economical availability will be secured and related basic conditions are set today. By the CHP law, the federal government however demonstrated publicly that it is willing to support the development of the fuel cell and its introduction on the market. This signal is not only supporting the industry to align its middle- and long term decisions but it is also helping users and operators of fuel cells by providing a legal security about the guarantee for grid connection and remuneration Based on the perspectives for an establishing of small CHP plants including fuel cells, the range of possible stimulating and supporting measures was investigated in a second step. While doing so, it was differentiated between a flanking of the existing CHP law, its further development and other alternative measures. By this, there are several starting points to realize changes or rather adaptations in the CHP law. According to this investigation and in the interest of an increased spreading of small CHP- and fuel cell plants, these possibilities should be made use of as fast as possible. The investigation was terminated by examinating selected technical, energy-economical as well as energy political chances and requirements for hydrogen

  7. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  8. Application of an improved operational strategy for a high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    be justified as compared to other micro-CHP system technologies. The most important findings of this research study indicate that in comparison to non-fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems, such as Stirling Engine-based systems, the proposed system has significantly higher efficiencies. Moreover, the lower heat...

  9. Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the project ''Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization'' was to combine the Danish experiences with the Stirling engine and updraft gasification with the application of the FLOX gas burner technology for developing and demonstrating a flexible biomass-based small scale CHP plant with 75 kW electrical output, high power efficiency and low emissions. Further, the project has aimed at increasing the technology's reliability and decreasing the need for service. Also, the project has included the development of a control and communication system for unmanned start-up and operation of the plant. During the project the objective was altered and so the development of a new Stirling engine design was done on the 4-cylindred 35 kWe Stirling engine instead of the 8-cylindred 75 kWe Stirling engine. Focus has been on designing a more durable engine designed for easy and fast service. Cold test of the engine has been successful and now full-scale hot tests are to be performed. In the project Stirling DK has also in cooperation with project partner Danish gas Technology Centre developed the Stirling Engine with Diluted Oxidation (SEDIOX) concept which is a combustion technology based on the diluted oxidation principle. A trademark is obtained and also a patent application is filed and pending regarding the SEDIOX combustion chamber concept. All components for the Stirling gasification plant were produced and installed at Svanholm Estate. The plant consisted of one conventional combustion chamber and one SD3E-type Stirling engine. The plant was commissioned in June 2009 and 1,472 hours of operation and 43 MWh of electricity production was achieved before the plant was de-commissioned in February 2010 due to divergences between Svanholm Estate and Stirling DK. During operation the control system including remote access was tested thoroughly and with great success. The new overall

  10. Future market relevance of CHP installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW; Zukuenftige Marktbedeutung von WKK-Anlagen mit 1 - 1000 kW elektrischer Leistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R.

    2003-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the future market relevance of combined heat and power (CHP) installations with electrical ratings from 1 to 1000 kW. Developments over the past ten years are reviewed. Important reductions in the price of motor-driven CHP units and the price of the electrical power produced are noted and commented on. The technical market potential of CHP units and the degree to which this potential has been implemented are commented on. Work done, including CHP implementation in the industrial, commercial and residential areas, is commented on. Future developments both in the technical area as well as in commercial areas are commented on. Micro-gas-turbine based CHP systems are also discussed, as are fuel-cell based systems in both the higher and lower capacity power generation area. The prospects for CHP systems in general in the electricity generation area are discussed

  11. Operating Experiences with a Small-scale CHP Pilot Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, F.; Carlsen, Henrik; Schoech, M.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of the RD&D project presented a small-scale CHP plant with a hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimised in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GesmbH, an Austrian biomass furnace and boiler...... exchanger of the Stirling engine, of the air preheater and of the entire combustion system. Furthermore, the optimisation of the pneumatic cleaning system to reduce ash deposition in the hot heat exchanger is of great relevance....... manufacturer, and BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, an Austrian development and engineering company. Based on the technology developed, a pilot plant was designed and erected in Austria. The nominal electric power output of the plant is 35 kWel and the nominal thermal output amounts to approx. 220 kWth. The plant...

  12. Dynamic analysis of PEMFC-based CHP systems for domestic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Ottaviano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic model of a CHP energy system based on a PEM fuel cell was developed. ► The CHP system behavior at variable electrical and thermal load was investigated. ► The optimal RH value was assessed maximizing PEMFC performance through simulations. ► The system best operating conditions are characterized by a RH value equal to 50%. -- Abstract: Fuel cell-based CHP systems for distributed residential power generation represent an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants. This is mainly due to the high efficiency obtainable in the production of electricity and heat in a decentralised, quiet and environmental friendly way. The current paper focuses on the development, in Matlab®Simulink environment, of a complete dynamic model of a residential cogenerative (CHP) energy system consisting of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), fuel processor, heat exchangers, humidifier and auxiliary hot water boiler. The target of the study is the investigation through such a model of the behavior of CHP systems based on fuel cell (FC) at variable electrical and thermal load, in reference to typical load curves of residential users. With the aim to evaluate the system performance (efficiency, fuel consumption, hot water production, response time) and then to characterize its better operating conditions with particular attention to air relative humidity, suitable simulations were carried out. They are characterized by the following of a typical electrical load trend and in relation to two different thermal load profiles. The dynamic model presented in this paper has allowed to observe the fully functioning of the FC based system under variable loads and it has permitted to design appropriate control logics for this system.

  13. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  14. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  15. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cell-powered cars. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in the car market. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to cars and offers estimates of market potential. Some fuel-cell powered cars are now available for demonstration purposes but the report concludes that truly commercial sales are unlikely to start before 2010 and widespread deployment is expected to take a further ten years after that. The issue of fuel choice is considered largely resolved with most car manufacturers currently focussing on hydrogen as a fuel. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell cars concludes that cost reduction is now the major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells in cars. More demonstration prototypes and field trials are required to provide information on energy, environmental and economic performance of fuel cell cars. Field trials could also provide information to assist the development of refuelling systems, fuel storage systems, stacks and other system components and to gain experience of building integrated fuel cell systems within the constraints imposed by cars.

  16. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  17. Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Bus Evaluations NREL's technology validation team evaluates fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) to provide comprehensive, unbiased evaluation results of fuel cell bus early transportation applications for fuel cell technology. Buses operate in congested areas where

  18. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Through its Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, NREL researches, develops, analyzes, and validates fuel cell and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies for transportation

  19. Feed-forward control of a solid oxide fuel cell system with anode offgas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Maxime; Brandenburger, Ralf; Friede, Wolfgang; Lapicque, François; Limbeck, Uwe; da Silva, Pedro

    2015-05-01

    In this work a combined heat and power unit (CHP unit) based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is analysed. This unit has a special feature: the anode offgas is partially recycled to the anode inlet. Thus it is possible to increase the electrical efficiency and the system can be operated without external water feeding. A feed-forward control concept which allows secure operating conditions of the CHP unit as well as a maximization of its electrical efficiency is introduced and validated experimentally. The control algorithm requires a limited number of measurement values and few deterministic relations for its description.

  20. CHP Partnership Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partners of EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership include federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users, energy service companies, CHP project developers and consultants, and equipment manufacturers.

  1. Modeling work of a small scale gasifier/SOFC CHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Aravind, P.V.; Qu, Z.; Woudstra, N.; Verkooijen, A.H.M. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: ming.liu@tudelft.nl, p.v.aravind@tudelft.nl, z.qu@tudelft.nl, n.woudstra@tudelft.nl, a. h. m. verkooijen@tudelft.nl; Cobas, V.R.M. [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Pinheirinhos, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: vlad@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    For a highly efficient biomass gasification/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation system, the gasifier, the accompanying gas cleaning technologies and the CHP unit must be carefully designed as an integrated unit. This paper describes such a system involving a two-stage fixed-bed down draft gasifier, a SOFC CHP unit and a gas cleaning system. A gas cleaning system with both low temperature and high temperature sections is proposed for coupling the gasifier and the SOFC. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out for the gasifier/SOFC system with the proposed gas cleaning system. The net AC electrical efficiency of this system is around 30% and the overall system efficiency is around 60%. This paper also describes various exergy losses in the system and the future plans for integrated gasifier-GCU-SOFC experiments from which the results will be used to validate the modeling results of this system. (author)

  2. Fuel cell opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K. [Hydrogenics Corporation, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The opportunities for fuel cell development are discussed. Fuel cells are highly efficient, reliable and require little maintenance. They also produce virtually zero emissions. The author stated that there are some complicated issues to resolve before fuel cells can be widely used. These include hydrogen availability and infrastructure. While the cost of fuel cells is currently very high, these costs are constantly coming down. The industry is still in the early stages of development. The driving forces for the development of fuel cells are: deregulation of energy markets, growing expectations for distributed power generation, discontinuity between energy supply and demand, and environmental concerns. 12 figs.

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of a micro CHP system fueled by low-temperature geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Bravi, Mirko; Tempesti, Duccio; Salvatici, Enrica; Manfrida, Giampaolo; Basosi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary, ORC technology avoids CO 2 , but raises questions about environmental impact. • We proposed a micro-size system that combines geothermal energy with solar energy. • The small scale and the solar energy input edges the energy profitability. • The system’s performance is appreciable if applied to existing wells. • The feasibility of exploiting abandoned wells is preliminarily evaluated. - Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the environmental sustainability of a small combined heat and power (CHP) plant operating through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The heat sources of the system are from geothermal energy at low temperature (90–95 °C) and solar energy. The designed system uses a solar field composed only of evacuated, non-concentrating solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine of 50 kW. The project addresses an area of Tuscany, but it could be reproduced in areas where geothermal energy is extensively developed. Therefore, the aim is to exploit existing wells that are either unfit for high-enthalpy technology, abandoned or never fully developed. Furthermore, this project aims to aid in downsizing the geothermal technology in order to reduce the environmental impact and better tailor the production system to the local demand of combined electric and thermal energy. The environmental impact assessment was performed through a Life Cycle Analysis and an Exergy Life Cycle Analysis. According to our findings the reservoir is suitable for a long-term exploitation of the designed system, however, the sustainability and the energy return of this latter is edged by the surface of the heat exchanger and the limited running hours due to the solar plant. Therefore, in order to be comparable to other renewable resources or geothermal systems, the system needs to develop existing wells, previously abandoned

  5. Durable and Robust Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalmarsson, Per; Knibbe, Ruth; Hauch, Anne

    project had as one of its’ overarching goals to improve durability and robustness of the Danish solid oxide fuel cells. The project focus was on cells and cell components suitable for SOFC operation in the temperature range 600 – 750 °C. The cells developed and/or studied in this project are intended......The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an attractive technology for the generation of electricity with high efficiency and low emissions. Risø DTU (now DTU Energy Conversion) works closely together with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S in their effort to bring competitive SOFC systems to the market. This 2-year...... for use within the CHP (Combined Heat and Power) market segment with stationary power plants in the range 1 – 250 kWe in mind. Lowered operation temperature is considered a good way to improve the stack durability since corrosion of the interconnect plates in a stack is lifetime limiting at T > 750 °C...

  6. Dynamic modeling and evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell - combined heat and power system operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaeda, Kimihiro; Mueller, Fabian; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott

    Operating strategies of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are developed and evaluated from a utility, and end-user perspective using a fully integrated SOFC-CHP system dynamic model that resolves the physical states, thermal integration and overall efficiency of the system. The model can be modified for any SOFC-CHP system, but the present analysis is applied to a hotel in southern California based on measured electric and heating loads. Analysis indicates that combined heat and power systems can be operated to benefit both the end-users and the utility, providing more efficient electric generation as well as grid ancillary services, namely dispatchable urban power. Design and operating strategies considered in the paper include optimal sizing of the fuel cell, thermal energy storage to dispatch heat, and operating the fuel cell to provide flexible grid power. Analysis results indicate that with a 13.1% average increase in price-of-electricity (POE), the system can provide the grid with a 50% operating range of dispatchable urban power at an overall thermal efficiency of 80%. This grid-support operating mode increases the operational flexibility of the SOFC-CHP system, which may make the technology an important utility asset for accommodating the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power.

  7. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  9. Fuel cells 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.

    2003-06-01

    A capsule history of fuel cells is given, beginning with the first discovery in 1839 by William Grove, a Welsh judge who, when experimenting with electrolysis discovered that by re-combining the two components of electrolysis (water and oxygen) an electric charge was produced. A century later, in 1958, Francis Thomas Bacon, a British scientist demonstrated the first working fuel cell stack, a technology which was licensed and used in the Apollo spacecraft. In Canada, early research on the development of fuel cells was carried out at the University of Toronto, the Defence Research Establishment and the National Research Council. Most of the early work concentrated on alkaline and phosphoric acid fuel cells. In 1983, Ballard Research began the development of the electrolyte membrane fuel cell, which marked the beginning of Canada becoming a world leader in fuel cell technology development. The paper provides a brief account of how fuel cells work, describes the distinguishing characteristics of the various types of fuel cells (alkaline, phosphoric acid, molten-carbonate, solid oxide, and proton exchange membrane types) and their principal benefits. The emphasis is on proton exchange membrane fuel cells because they are the only fuel cell technology that is appropriate for providing primary propulsion power onboard a vehicle. Since vehicles are by far the greatest consumers of fossil fuels, it follows that proton exchange membrane fuel cells will have the greatest potential impact on both environmental matters and on our reliance on oil as our primary fuel. Various on-going and planned fuel cell demonstration projects are also described. 1 fig.

  10. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  11. Optimization of a High Temperature PEMFC micro-CHP System by Formulation and Application of a Process Integration Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A 1 kWe micro combined heat and power (CHP) system based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is modeled and optimized by formulation and application of a process integration methodology. The system can provide heat and electricity for a singlefamily household...

  12. Modeling and optimization of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based micro-CHP residential system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature-proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFC)-based micro-combined-heat-and-power (CHP) residential system is designed and optimized, using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization strategy. The proposed system consists of a fuel cell stack, steam methane reformer (SMR) reactor, water gas...

  13. Modeling and parametric study of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based residential micro-CHP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic, kinetic and geometric model of a micro-CHP (Combined-Heatand-Power) residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC) technology is developed, implemented and validated. HT-PEMFC technology is investigated as a possible candidate...

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  15. Modeling and optimization of a heat-pump-assisted high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell micro-combined-heat-and-power system for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    In this study a micro-combined-heat-and-power (micro-CHP) system is coupled to a vapor-compression heat pump to fulfill the residential needs for heating (space heating and water heating) and electricity in detached single-family households in Denmark. Such a combination is assumed to be attractive...... for application, since both fuel cell technology and electric heat pumps are found to be two of the most efficient technologies for generation/conversion of useful energy. The micro-CHP system is fueled with natural gas and includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel processor and other auxiliary components. The micro......-CHP system assumes heat-led operation, to avoid dumping of heat and the use of complicated thermal energy storage. The overall system is grid-interconnected to allow importing and exporting of electricity as necessary. In this study emphasis is given on the operational characterization of the system...

  16. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  17. Fuel cells - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegler, T.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, fuel cell publicity conveys expectations and hopes that are often based on uncritical interpretations of the underlying science. The aim here is to use that science to analyse how the technology has developed and what can realistically be delivered by fuel cells. There have been great achievements in fuel cell technology over the past decade, with most types reaching an advanced stage of engineering development. But there has been some muddled thinking about one critical aspect, fuel cell energy efficiency. The 'Carnot cycle' argument, that fuel cells must be much more efficient than heat engines, is a red herring, of no help in predicting real efficiencies. In practice, fuel cells are not always particularly efficient and there are good scientific reasons for this. Cost reduction is a big issue for fuel cells. They are not in principle especially simple devices. Better engineering and mass production will presumably bring costs down, but because of their inherent complexity there is no reason to expect them to be cheap. It is fair to conclude that predictions of fuel cells as commonplace components of energy systems (including a hydrogen economy) need to be treated with caution, at least until major improvements eventuate. However, one type, the direct methanol fuel cell, is aimed at a clear existing market in consumer electronics

  18. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  19. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  20. Analysis of the impact of Heat-to-Power Ratio for a SOFC-based mCHP system for residential application under different climate regions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Brandon, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the ability of a micro combined heat and power (mCHP) system to cover the heat and electricity demand of a single-family residence is investigated. A solid oxide fuel cell based mCHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank is analyzed. The energy profiles of single-family hous......In this paper, the ability of a micro combined heat and power (mCHP) system to cover the heat and electricity demand of a single-family residence is investigated. A solid oxide fuel cell based mCHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank is analyzed. The energy profiles of single...... according to the summer energy demand. The winter energy demand shows a Heat-to-Power Ratio which cannot be covered by the mCHP unit alone. To ensure that the mCHP system meets both the thermal and electrical energy demand over the entire year, an auxiliary boiler and a hot water storage tank need...

  1. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  3. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  4. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  5. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  6. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  7. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  8. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  9. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Validation The NREL technology validation team works on validating hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles; hydrogen fueling infrastructure; hydrogen system components; and fuel cell use in early market applications such as

  10. Power assisted fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, L P; Atwater, T B; Plichta, E J; Cygan, P J [US Army CECOM, Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States). Research Development and Engineering Center

    1998-02-01

    A hybrid fuel cell demonstrated pulse power capability at pulse power load simulations synonymous with electronics and communications equipment. The hybrid consisted of a 25.0 W Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack in parallel with a two-cell lead-acid battery. Performance of the hybrid PEMFC was superior to either the battery or fuel cell stack alone at the 18.0 W load. The hybrid delivered a flat discharge voltage profile of about 4.0 V over a 5 h radio continuous transmit mode of 18.0 W. (orig.)

  11. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cell-powered buses. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in buses. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs in buses, the report examines those for alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) in buses. The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to buses and offers estimates of market potential. Some fuel-cell powered buses are now available for demonstration purposes but the report concludes that truly commercial sales are unlikely to start before 2010 and widespread deployment is expected to take a further ten years after that. Buses have now slipped behind cars in terms of worldwide deployment. The issue of fuel choice is considered largely resolved with most fleet vehicle/bus manufacturers currently focussing on hydrogen as a fuel. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell buses concludes that cost reduction is now the major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells in buses. More demonstration prototypes and field trials are required to provide information on energy, environmental and economic performance of fuel cell buses. Field trials could also provide information to assist the development of refuelling systems, fuel storage systems, stacks and other system components and to gain experience of building integrated fuel cell systems.

  12. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  13. Reviews on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinan Soottitantawat

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC is one type of high temperature fuel cell that appears to be one of the most promising technology to provide the efficient and clean energy production for wide range of applications (from small units to large scale power plants. This paper reviews the current status and related researches on SOFC technologies. In details, the research trend for the development of SOFC components(i.e. anode, electrolyte, cathode, and interconnect are presented. Later, the current important designs of SOFC (i.e. Seal-less Tubular Design, Segmented Cell in Series Design, Monolithic Design and Flat Plate Design are exampled. In addition, the possible operations of SOFC (i.e. external reforming, indirect internal reforming, and direct internal reforming are discussed. Lastly, the research studies on applications of SOFCs with co-generation (i.e. SOFC with Combined Heat and Power (SOFC-CHP, SOFC with Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT and SOFC with chemical production are given.

  14. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  15. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Status Analysis Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Get Involved Fuel cell developers interested in collaborating with NREL on fuel cell technology status analysis should send an email to NREL's Technology Validation Team at techval@nrel.gov. NREL's analysis of fuel cell technology provides objective

  16. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development Fuel Cell Manufacturing Research and Development NREL's fuel cell manufacturing R&D focuses on improving quality-inspection practices for high costs. A researcher monitoring web-line equipment in the Manufacturing Laboratory Many fuel cell

  17. Emission and economic performance assessment of a solid oxide fuel cell micro-combined heat and power system in a domestic building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, Theo; Worall, Mark; Wu, Shenyi; Riffat, Saffa B.

    2015-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is a promising technological configuration for reducing energy consumption and increasing energy security in the domestic built environment. Fuel cells, on account of their: high electrical efficiency, low emissions and useful heat output have been identified as a key technological option for improving both building energy efficiency and reducing emissions in domestic CHP applications. The work presented in this paper builds upon results currently reported in the literature of fuel cells operating in domestic building applications, with an emission and economic performance assessment of a real, commercially available SOFC mCHP system operating in a real building; under a UK context. This paper aims to assess the emission and economic performance of a commercially available solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) mCHP system, operating at The University of Nottingham's Creative Energy Homes. The performance assessment evaluates, over a one year period, the associated carbon (emission assessment) and operational costs (economic assessment) of the SOFC mCHP case compared to a ‘base case’ of grid electricity and a highly efficient gas boiler. Results from the annual assessment show that the SOFC mCHP system can generate annual emission reductions of up to 56% and cost reductions of 177% compared to the base case scenario. However support mechanisms such as; electrical export, feed in tariff and export tariff, are required in order to achieve this, the results are significantly less without. A net present value (NPV) analysis shows that the base case is still more profitable over a 15 year period, even though the SOFC mCHP system generates annual revenue; this is on account of the SOFC's high capital cost. In summary, grid interaction and incubator support is essential for significant annual emission and cost reductions compared to a grid electricity and gas boiler scenario. Currently capital cost is the greatest barrier to the economic

  18. Learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Tinoco, R.; Schoots, K. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands). Policy Studies; Columbia Univ., New York City, NY (United States). Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy

    2010-07-01

    We present learning curves for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combined heat and power (CHP) SOFC systems with an electric capacity between 1 and 250 kW. On the basis of the cost breakdown of production cost data from fuel cell manufacturers, we developed a bottom-up model that allows for determining overall manufacturing costs from their respective cost components, among which material, energy, labor, and capital charges. The results obtained from our model prove to deviate by at most 13% from total cost figures quoted in the literature. For the early pilot stage of development, we find for SOFC manufacturing a learning rate between 14% and 17%, and for total SOFC system fabrication between 16% and 19%. We argue that the corresponding cost reductions result largely from learning-by-searching effects (R and D) rather than learning-by-doing. When considering a longer time frame that includes the early commercial production stage, we find learning rates between 14% and 39%, which represent a mix of phenomena such as learning-by-doing, learning-by-searching, economies-of-scale and automation. (orig.)

  19. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  20. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  1. Configuring a fuel cell based residential combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-01

    The design and performance of a fuel cell based residential combined heat and power (CHP) system operating on natural gas has been analyzed. The natural gas is first converted to a hydrogen-rich reformate in a steam reformer based fuel processor, and the hydrogen is then electrochemically oxidized in a low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell to generate electric power. The heat generated in the fuel cell and the available heat in the exhaust gas is recovered to meet residential needs for hot water and space heating. Two fuel processor configurations have been studied. One of the configurations was explored to quantify the effects of design and operating parameters, which include pressure, temperature, and steam-to-carbon ratio in the fuel processor, and fuel utilization in the fuel cell. The second configuration applied the lessons from the study of the first configuration to increase the CHP efficiency. Results from the two configurations allow a quantitative comparison of the design alternatives. The analyses showed that these systems can operate at electrical efficiencies of ∼46% and combined heat and power efficiencies of ∼90%.

  2. Failure analysis of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Tiefenauer, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2014-07-01

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) one key aspect is the structural integrity of the cell and hence its thermo mechanical long term behaviour. The present study investigates the failure mechanisms and the actual causes for fracture of electrolyte supported SOFCs which were run using the current μ-CHP system of Hexis AG, Winterthur - Switzerland under lab conditions or at customer sites for up to 40,000 h. In a first step several operated stacks were demounted for post-mortem inspection, followed by a fractographic evaluation of the failed cells. The respective findings are then set into a larger picture including an analysis of the present stresses acting on the cell like thermal and residual stresses and the measurements regarding the temperature dependent electrolyte strength. For all investigated stacks, the mechanical failure of individual cells can be attributed to locally acting bending loads, which rise due to an inhomogeneous and uneven contact between the metallic interconnect and the cell.

  3. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  4. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  5. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  6. Fuel cell processor with low-temperature PEM fuel cell - testing. Final report; Naturgasreformersystem med lavtgemperatur-PEM braendselsceller - TEST. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech-Madsen, J.

    2006-11-03

    The purpose of the project is to further develop a Danish natural gas reformer system including optimisation of subsystems and the overall system consisting of a natural gas reformer and fuel cell CHP generator. This will contribute to the evaluation of to what extend Denmark shall develop small reformer units for PEM fuel Cells. In the project a reformer system with a high degree of automatic control has been build that fulfils the CHP requirements to operation time, dynamics etc. This work, with a FP05 reformer unit, has given valuable results concerning the possibilities and limitations of the reformer technology for CHP usage. It is important that the reformer and fuel cell units are designed with matching yields to optimise efficiency, turn-down start-up time etc. The burner that delivers heat for the steam reaction shall be able to use natural gas as fuel. This gives the possibility of using existing burner technology. In addition this will improve the efficiency since it will not be necessary to reform natural gas to feed the burner. The large number of BoP components in the FP05 unit is primarily used for achieving good regulation dynamics and accuracy. To reduce the number of components, a CHP unit with few or only one operational point should be considered. A single point of operation will reduce the number of valves as well as the requirements to the control and regulation of the system. A large part of the reformer size is needed to meet the high demands for CO purification of the reformat. This purification results in a very narrow window of operation for the reformer system. By using more CO tolerant fuel cells this part of the system can be reduced or even eliminated. To test the developed automatic control it was planned to integrate the FP05 reformer with a 10kW CHP unit that was being build by IRD in a separate project. This unit was perfect in size for testing with the reformer. However due to a number of reasons it was not possible during the

  7. Fuel cells for commercial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppmann, Gerhard; Weisse, Eckart; Bischoff, Manfred

    1990-04-01

    The development of various types of fuel cells is described. Advantges and drawbacks are considered for alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells. It is shown that their modular construction is particularly adapted to power heat systems. A comparison which is largely in favor of fuel cells, is made between coal, oil, natural gas power stations, and fuel cells. Safety risks in operation are also compared with those of conventional power stations. Fuel cells are particularly suited for dwellings, shopping centers, swimming pools, other sporting installations, and research facilities, whose high current and heat requirements can be covered by power heat coupling.

  8. Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Characteristics Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deduce the specific characteristics of the CHP 100kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC Power System from the steady state experimental data. From the experimental data, the authors have been developed and validated the steady state mathematical model. From the control room the steady state experimental data of the SOFC power conditioning are available and using the developed steady state mathematical model, the authors have been obtained the characteristic curves of the system performed by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation. As a methodology the backward and forward power flow analysis has been employed. The backward power flow makes possible to obtain the SOFC power system operating point at different load levels, resulting as the load characteristic. By knowing the fuel cell output characteristic, the forward power flow analysis is used to predict the power system efficiency in different operating points, to choose the adequate control decision in order to obtain the high efficiency operation of the SOFC power system at different load levels. The CHP 100kWe power system is located at Gas Turbine Technologies Company (a Siemens Subsidiary, TurboCare brand in Turin, Italy. The work was carried out through the Energia da Ossidi Solidi (EOS Project. The SOFC stack delivers constant power permanently in order to supply the electric and thermal power both to the TurboCare Company and to the national grid.

  9. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  10. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cooperating households: A convenient combined heat and power solution for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, Francesco; Facci, Andrea Luigi; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare the technical and economical performances of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with those of an internal combustion engine for a 10 kW combined heat and power residential application. In a view of social innovation, this solution will create new partnerships of cooperating families aiming to reduce the energy consumption and costs. The energy system is simulated through a lumped model. We compare, in the Italian context, the total daily operating cost and energy savings of each system with respect to the separate purchase of electricity from the grid and production of the thermal energy through a standard boiler. The analysis is carried out with the energy systems operating with both the standard thermal tracking and an optimized management. The latter is retrieved through an optimization methodology based on the graph theory. We show that the internal combustion engine is much more affected by the choice of the operating strategy with respect to the fuel cell, in terms long term profitability. Then we conduct a net present value analysis with the aim of evidencing the convenience of using a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cogeneration in residential applications. - Highlights: • Fuel cells are a feasible and economically convenient solution for residential CHP. • Control strategy is fundamental for the economical performance of a residential CHP. • Flexibility is a major strength of the fuel cell CHP.

  12. Toxin-antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.K.; Pedersen, K.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes encode toxin-antitoxin loci, often in multiple copies. In most cases, the function of these genes is not known. The chpA (mazEF) locus of Escherichia coli has been described as a cell killing module that induces bacterial apoptosis during nutritional stress. However, we...... found recently that ChpAK (MazF) does not confer cell killing but rather, induces a bacteriostatic condition from which the cells could be resuscitated. Results presented here yield a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental effect on cell growth exerted by ChpAK and the homologous ChpBK protein of E......AK cleaved tmRNA in its coding region. Thus, ChpAK and ChpBK inhibit translation by a mechanism very similar to that of E. coli RelE. On the basis of these results, we propose a model that integrates TA loci into general prokaryotic stress physiology....

  13. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; De Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-02-15

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20 ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG.

  14. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; de Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-09-22

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG. (author)

  15. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    developing European sub-systems, others have chosen to develop their own novel cell technology. This paper will survey the extent of the fuel cell activities in Europe and emphasise the particular markets which fuel cell manufacturers are targeting. Demand for fuel cells in defence and military applications will be the first sector to be commercially viable — European companies such as Siemens, Elenco and VSEL are already marketing AFC or PEM systems for naval and aerospace applications. The small-scale CHP sector is also a likely early market for fuel cell plant. Co-generation fuel cells are of great interest to gas companies like ENAGAS and British Gas looking to promote sales of gas by installing on-site gas-fired generators on their customers' premises. The market for utility scale fuel cell plants is expected to develop later in the decade. The largest demonstration planned for Europe is the 1 MW PAFC for Milan, due to come onstream in 1992. MBB GmbH is considering developing MW-scale MCFC plants with the US company ERC — a 2 MW demonstration is planned for the end of 1993. The potential market for utility fuel cells is large — installation rates could reach 500-1000 MW/year by the turn of the century. Fuel cells will probably not achieve significant use in transport applications in Europe until after the turn of the century unless very stringent emissions legislation for vehicles is introduced. The likely early markets for fuel cells in the transport sector seem to be for delivery and fleet vehicles. Examples of European projects in this area include the Amsterdam city bus project which will use Elenco's AFC technology and Siemens' fork lift truck which will incorporate a PEM fuel cell. Fuel cells also link conveniently with renewable energy systems — coupled with an electrolyser a fuel cell can store solar, wind or wave power. The electrolysis proces is used to generate hydrogen from water at times of surplus energy while the fuel cell consumes hydrogen fuel

  16. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    ) process and the Stirling engine process. The ORC process represents an economically interesting technology for small-scale biomass-fired combined heat and power plants in a power range between 400 and 1,500 kWel. A newly developed ORC technology with a nominal electric capacity of 1,000 kW was implemented...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  17. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  18. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  19. Validation of a HT-PEMFC stack for CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasupathi, S.; Ulleberg, Oe. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Bujlo, P. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Electrotechnical Institute Wroclaw Division (Poland); Scholta, J. [Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell systems are very attractive for stationary co-generation applications as they can produce heat and electricity efficiently in a decentralized and environmentally friendly manner. PEMFC stacks operating at temperatures above 120 C, specifically in the range of 140-180 C, are ideal for co-generation purposes. In this study, preliminary results from a HTPEMFC stack designed for CHP applications is presented and discussed. A short, five-cell, HT-PEMFC stack was assembled with Celtec- P-2100 MEAs and validated in terms of electrical performance. The stack was operated with hydrogen and air at 160 C and the utilization curves for anode and cathode were recorded for a wide range of gas utilization at a current density of 0.52 A/cm{sup 2}. The current voltage characteristic was measured at optimal utilization values at 160 C. A 1kW stack is assembled and is currently being validated for its performance under various operating conditions for use in CHP applications. (orig.)

  20. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  1. GEC Alsthom put their hopes on fuel cells: A large potential for PEM fuel cells; GEC Alsthom setzt auf Brennstoffzellen: Grosses Potential fuer PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-07-01

    Fuel cells are regarded as one of the high-tech products of great promise for future energy supplies. High hopes are pinned on the PEM technology: This low-temperature fuel cell is applicable to both mobile applications as well as stationary systems, i.e. from small-scale heating systems through to CHP systems of medium output. GEC Alsthom, who entered into a strategic alliance with Ballard, the market leader in fuel cell technology, are the first power plant manufacturers to commit themselves in the fuel cell market sector. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Brennstoffzellen gelten als einer der Hoffnungstraeger der zukuenftigen Energieversorgung. Grosse Erwartungen werden dabei in die PEM-Technologie gesetzt: Diese Niedertemperatur-Brennstoffzelle eignet sich sowohl fuer mobile Anwendungen als auch fuer den stationaeren Einsatz - von kleinen Hausheizungsanlagen bis hin zu BHKW mittlerer Leistungklasse. Mit GEC Alsthom und seinem Engagement beim Marktfuehrer Ballard steigt nun erstmals ein grosser Energieanlagenhersteller verstaerkt in dieses Marktsegment ein. (orig.)

  2. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  3. Fuel cells (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Macchi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The article, following and completing the issues dealt with in part 1 (CH4 Energia Metano, 1/99, p. 7), describe the operating characteristic and construction features of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells (MCFC and SOFC). For the latter type, construction cost are evaluated by various authors and research institutes. The article ends by presenting some tables showing the classification and the main characteristics of various fuel cells, and well as the effect of some gases on the behaviour of some of them [it

  4. Fuel cells and electricity companies - new risk management opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whale, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Deregulation, distributed generation, combined heat and power, renewables, fuel cells, hydrogen. Power companies are facing a rapidly evolving environment that is testing their ability to effectively deploy capital and earn profits. While recent deregulation trends have shifted the structure of power markets into separating generators from distributors, the improving economic value proposition offered by smaller scale distributed generation technologies - such as fuel cells - would seem to be a conflicting development. In this complex and changing environment, decisions based on the economic reality of the capital markets are likely to prevail. By examining the opportunity to enhance risk management offered by stationary fuel cells, particularly in CHP applications, we provide a context for the issues being discussed in today's sessions focusing on power companies and electric utilities. Our risk management perspective suggests a pathway for implementing fuel cells in combined heat and power applications that large power generators can introduce in increasingly smaller sizes. With capital costs of fuel cells high and risk tolerance of power companies low, the challenge for smaller technology developers will be to reduce the apparently long time horizon that persists for substantial deployment. (author)

  5. Optimal design of CHP-based microgrids: Multiobjective optimisation and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to current centralised energy generation systems, microgrids are adopted to provide local energy with lower energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DER). Several micro combined heat and power technologies have been developed recently for applications at domestic scale. The optimal design of DERs within CHP-based microgrids plays an important role in promoting the penetration of microgrid systems. In this work, the optimal design of microgrids with CHP units is addressed by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation model which integrates the results of a life cycle assessment of the microgrids investigated. The results show that the installation of multiple CHP technologies has a lower cost with higher environmental saving compared with the case when only a single technology is installed in each site, meaning that the microgrid works in a more efficient way when multiple technologies are selected. In general, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are chosen as the basic CHP technology for most solutions, which offers lower environmental impacts at low cost. However, internal combustions engines (ICE) and Stirling engines (SE) are preferred if the heat demand is high. - Highlights: • Optimal design of microgrids is addressed by coupling environmental and economic aspects. • An MILP model is formulated based on the ε-constraint method. • The model selects a combination of CHP technologies with different technical characteristics for optimum scenarios. • The global warming potential (GWP) and the acidification potential (AP) are determined. • The output of LCA is used as an input for the optimisation model

  6. The long way to a series product - Euphoric prognoses on the market launch of fuel cells damped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the delays being encountered in the introduction of fuel cells into various application areas and the work that is still to be done before this technology breaks through into the market. The situation in the space-heating / decentralised power generation segment is examined, where a large amount of work still has to be done before such fuel cell units attain the status of everyday domestic appliances. The situation in the combined heat and power (CHP) segment in Germany is discussed, where local utilities are working together with fuel cell manufacturers within the framework of field trails of domestic fuel cell appliances. The setting-up of 'virtual power stations' - a network of remote-controlled distributed fuel-cell CHP units - is discussed and the chances for the success of applications for miniaturised fuel cells in consumer goods such as cameras and mobile telephones is examined. The situation in the automobile industry, where the introduction of fuel cell applications in vehicles is also suffering delays, is looked at. Also, the production of hydrogen for use in the fuel cells is examined

  7. Support schemes and ownership structures - the policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana; Obé, Elisabeth

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to European energy policy goals, i.e., sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Besides technical advances, regulatory framework and ownership structures are of crucial importance in order to achieve greater diffusion of the technology in residential applications. This paper analyses the interplay of policy and ownership structures for the future deployment of mCHP. Furthermore, it regards the three country cases Denmark, France and Portugal. Firstly, the implications of different kinds of support schemes on investment risk and the diffusion of a technology are explained conceptually. Secondly, ownership arrangements are addressed. Then, a cross-country comparison on present support schemes for mCHP and competing technologies discusses the national implementation of European legislation in Denmark, France and Portugal. Finally, resulting implications for ownership arrangements on the choice of support scheme are explained. From a conceptual point of view, investment support, feed-in tariffs and price premiums are the most appropriate schemes for fuel cell mCHP. This can be used for improved analysis of operational strategies. The interaction of this plethora of elements necessitates careful balancing from a private- and socio-economic point of view.

  8. Support schemes and ownership structures - The policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S.; Thorsten Schroeder, S.; Costa, A.; Obe, E.

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of the ongoing fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio-economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large-scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market-based operational support. The choice of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project, Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up previous findings and provides a short 'preview' of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way. (author)

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  10. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations NREL's technology validation team analyzes hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) operating in a real-world setting to include commercial FCEVs for the first time. Current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations build on the

  11. Stirling Energy Module (SEM) as Micro-CHP; Stirling Energy Module (SEM) als Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Since many years, a lot of effort is being put into the development of combined heat and power units (CHP) for the decentralised production of electric power. For long time, the main focus was on fuel cells. In the meantime, the Stirling technology, which is based upon classical mechanical engineering and innovative technical concepts, proceeded in its development as well. The following article describes the technology and the actual state of the development of the Stirling Energy Module (SEM) for the application as Micro-CHP in one-family-houses. SEM is based on a free-piston engine with a linear power generator, producing electric power while heating. The Stirling engine is planned the be introduced into the market as a replacement for the conventional heating systems within a couple of years. (author)

  12. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  13. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  14. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  15. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  16. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  17. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  18. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  19. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  20. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  1. Support schemes and ownership structures - the policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana; Obé, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    the national implementation of European legislation in Denmark, France and Portugal. Finally, resulting implications for ownership arrangements on the choice of support scheme are explained. From a conceptual point of view, investment support, feed-in tariffs and price premiums are the most appropriate schemes...... for fuel cell mCHP. This can be used for improved analysis of operational strategies. The interaction of this plethora of elements necessitates careful balancing from a private- and socio-economic point of view....

  2. Integration of hydrothermal carbonization and a CHP plant: Part 2 –operational and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, Jussi; Sermyagina, Ekaterina; Kaikko, Juha; Vakkilainen, Esa; Sergeev, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Wood-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants are a proven technology for producing domestic, carbon-neutral heat and power in Nordic countries. One drawback of CHP plants is the low capacity factors due to varying heat loads. In the current economic environment, uncertainty over energy prices creates also uncertainty over investment profitability. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermochemical conversion technology for producing an improved, more versatile wood-based fuel. Integrating HTC with a CHP plant allows simplifying the HTC process and extending the CHP plant operating time. An integrated polygeneration plant producing three energy products is also less sensitive to price changes in any one product. This study compares three integration cases chosen from the previous paper, and the case of separate stand-alone plants. The best economic performance is obtained using pressurized hot water from the CHP plant boiler drum as HTC process water. This has the poorest efficiency, but allows the greatest cost reduction in the HTC process and longest CHP plant operating time. The result demonstrates the suitability of CHP plants for integration with a HTC process, and the importance of economic and operational analysis considering annual load variations in sufficient detail. - Highlights: • Integration of wood hydrothermal carbonization with a small CHP plant studied. • Operation and economics of three concepts and stand-alone plants are compared. • Sensitivity analysis is performed. • Results show technical and thermodynamic analysis inadequate and misleading alone. • Minimizing HTC investment, extending CHP operating time important for profitability.

  3. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the

  6. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  7. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    of these criteria. Executive Order 13123 directs federal facilities to use CHP when life-cycle costs indicate energy reduction goals will be met. FEMP can assist facilities to conduct this analysis. The model developed for this report estimates the magnitude of CHP that could be implemented under various performance and economic assumptions associated with different applications. This model may be useful for other energy technologies. It can be adapted to estimate the market potential in federal buildings for any energy system based on the cost and performance parameters that a user desires to assess. The model already incorporates a standard set of parameters based on available data for federal buildings including total building space, building type, energy use intensity, fuel costs, and the performance of many prime movers commonly used in CHP applications. These and other variables can be adjusted to meet user needs or updated in the future as new data become available.

  8. Multi-criteria evaluation for CHP system options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilavachi, P.A.; Roumpeas, C.P.; Minett, S.; Afgan, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Several Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system options have been considered for evaluation with respect to the end-user requirements. These included Internal Combustion Engines (Otto and Diesel), Gas Turbines, Steam Turbines and Combined Cycles covering a wide range of electrical output. Data have been obtained from literature and the CHP systems have been evaluated using different criteria such as overall efficiency, investment cost, fuel cost, electricity cost, heat cost, CO 2 production and footprint. A multi-criteria method is used with an agglomeration function based on the statistical evaluation of weight factors. The technical, economic and social aspects of each system have been evaluated in an integrated manner and the results have been compared by means of the Sustainability Index. Based on the above criteria and depending on the user requirements, the best CHP system options have been established

  9. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  10. Orbiter fuel cell improvement assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    The history of fuel cells and the theory of fuel cells is given. Expressions for thermodynamic and electrical efficiencies are developed. The voltage losses due to electrode activation, ohmic resistance and ionic diffusion are discussed. Present limitations of the Orbiter Fuel Cell, as well as proposed enhancements, are given. These enhancements are then evaluated and recommendations are given for fuel cell enhancement both for short-range as well as long-range performance improvement. Estimates of reliability and cost savings are given for enhancements where possible

  11. Small-scale biomass CHP using gasa turbines: a scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.W.; Landen, R.

    1996-01-01

    Various options for small-scale (up to 250 KWe) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants evaluated in this scoping study. Plants using small gas turbines, and able to use biomass fuels when available are included. Three detailed case studies of small-scale biomass CHP plants are compared to match specific technical options with customer requirements. The commercial development of such biomass-fired CHP units, using gas turbines, is shown to be economically viable depending on fuel costs and the continuation of existing financial incentives. (UK)

  12. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  13. Fuel cells for naval aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satzberg, S.; Field, S.; Abu-Ali, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology have occurred which make fuel cells increasingly attractive for electric power generation on future naval and commercial aircraft applications. These advances include significant increases in power density, the development of compact fuel reformers, and cost reductions due to commercialization efforts. The Navy's interest in aircraft fuel cells stems from their high energy efficiency (up to 40-60% for simple cycle; 60-70% for combined gas turbine/fuel cell hybrid cycles), and their negligible NOx and hydrocarbon emissions compared to conventional generators. While the U.S. Navy has been involved with fuel cell research and development as early as the 1960s, many of the early programs were for special warfare or undersea applications. In 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) initiated a program to marinize commercial fuel cell technology for future Navy shipboard applications. The power density of fuel cell power systems is approaching the levels necessary for serious consideration for aircraft suitability. ONR and Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) are initiating a program to develop a fuel cell power system suitable for future Navy aircraft applications, utilizing as much commercially-available technology as possible. (author)

  14. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  15. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  16. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  17. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  18. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CHP Partnership seeks to reduce air pollution and water usage associated with electric power generation by promoting the use of CHP. The Partnership works to remove policy barriers and to facilitate the development of new projects.

  19. Decentralised CHP in a competitive market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark.......The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark....

  20. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, M. A.; Fernandez V, S. M.; Vargas G, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H 2 SO 4 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  1. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  2. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  3. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  4. Fuel cells fuelled by Saccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechner, P.; Mor, L.; Sabag, N.; Rubin, Z.; Bubis, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Saccharides, like glucose, fructose and lactose, are ideal renewable fuels. They have high energy content, are safe, transportable, easy to store, non-flammable, non poisonous, non-volatile, odorless, easy to produce anywhere and abundant. Fuel Cells are electro-chemical devices capable to convert chemical energy into electrical energy from fuels, with theoretical efficiencies higher than 0.8 at room temperatures and with low pollutant emissions. Fuel Cells that can produce electricity form saccharides will be able to replace batteries, power electrical plants from biomass wastes, and serve as engines for transportation. In spite of these advantages, saccharide fuelled fuel cells are no available yet. Two obstacles hinder the feasibility of this potentially revolutionary device. The first is the high stability of the saccharides, which requires a good catalyst to extract the electrons from the saccharide fuel. The second is related to the nature of the Fuel Cells: the physical process takes place at the interface surface between the fuel and the electrode. In order to obtain high densities, materials with high surface to volume ratio are needed. Efforts to overcome these obstacles will be described. The use of saccharides as a fuel was treated from the thermodynamic point of view and compared with other common fuels currently used in fuel cells. We summarize measurements performed in a membrane less Alkaline Fuel Cell, using glucose as a fuel and KOH as electrolyte. The anode has incorporated platinum particles and operated at room temperature. Measurements were done, at different concentrations of glucose, of the Open Circuit Voltage, Polarization Curves and Power Density as function of the Current Density. The maximum Power Density reached was 0.61 mW/cm 2 when the Current density was 2.13 mA/cm 2 and the measured Open Circuit Voltage was 0.771 V

  5. Islanded house operation using a micro CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2007-01-01

    The µCHP is expected as the successor of the conventional high-efficiency boiler producing next to heat also electricity with a comparable overall efficiency. A µCHP appliance saves money and reduces greenhouse gas emission. An additional functionality of the µCHP is using the appliance as a

  6. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  7. Thermodynamic evaluation of CHP (combined heat and power) plants integrated with installations of coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Malik, Tomasz; Liszka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Integration of a CHP steam plant with an installation of coal gasification and gas turbine leads to an IGCC-CHP (integrated gasification combined cycle-combined heat and power). Two installations of coal gasification have been analyzed, i.e. pressurized entrained flow gasifier – case 1 and pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with CO_2 recirculation – case 2. Basing on the results of mathematical modelling of an IGCC-CHP plant, the algorithms of calculating typical energy indices have been derived. The following energy indices are considered, i.e. coefficient of heat performance and relative savings of chemical energy of fuels. The results of coefficients of heat performance are contained between 1.87 and 2.37. Values exceeding 1 are thermodynamically justified because the idea of cogeneration of heat and electricity based on combining cycles of the heat engine and heat pump the efficiency of which exceeds 1. Higher values concerning waste heat replace more thermodynamically effective sources of heat in CHP plants. Relative savings of the chemical energy of fuels are similar in both cases of IGCC-CHP plants and are contained between the lower value of the CHP (combined heat and power) plants fuelled with coal and higher value of CHP plants fired with natural gas. - Highlights: • Energy savings of fuel is an adequate measure of cogeneration. • Relative energy savings of IGCC-CHP is near the result of a gas and steam CHP. • COHP (coefficient of heat performance) can help to divide fuel between heat fluxes. • Higher values of COHP in the case of waste heat recovery result from the lower thermal parameters.

  8. Integration of Fuel Cell Micro-CHPs on Low. Voltage Grid: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    The future significance of fuel cell (FC) powered micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) units in meeting the residential energy demands is set to increase, which may have a considerable impact on the low voltage (LV) grid. The objective of this paper is to investigate into the related technical...... issues using a Danish case study with different penetration levels of uncoordinated FC micro-CHPs. Based on the findings, it is recommended to design grid oriented integration strategies such as Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) for achieving future smart grids with a large roll out of distributed energy...

  9. Fuel cells: new technology of natural gas for energetical building; Pilas de combustible: nueva tecnologia de gas natural para edificios energeticamente autoabastecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells have emerged in the last decade as one of the most promising new and sustainable natural gas technologies for meeting the energy needs of all the economy sectors into the 21st century. Fuel Cells are an environmentally clean, quiet, and highly efficient method for generating electricity and heat from natural gas. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly to usable energy (electricity and heat) without combustion. For this reason, the application and use of the fuel cell technology may be the most important technological advancement of the next century. At the beginning of the 2000 year Sociedad de Gas de Euskadi, s. a. started a demonstration project in favour of the high-temperature planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for domestic micro-CHP utilization. This type is certainly most exacting from the materials standpoint, and it offers the advantage of uncomplicated fuel pretreatment. (Author)

  10. Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications

  11. Hydrogen fuel cell engines and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The manual documents the first training course developed on the use of hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The manual contains eleven modules covering hydrogen properties, use and safety; fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine desi...

  12. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  13. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell systems for residential micro-combined heat and power in the UK: Key economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Adam; Leach, Matthew

    The ability of combined heat and power (CHP) to meet residential heat and power demands efficiently offers potentially significant financial and environmental advantages over centralised power generation and heat-provision through natural-gas fired boilers. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) can operate at high overall efficiencies (heat and power) of 80-90%, offering an improvement over centralised generation, which is often unable to utilise waste heat. This paper applies an equivalent annual cost (EAC) minimisation model to a residential solid oxide fuel cell CHP system to determine what the driving factors are behind investment in this technology. We explore the performance of a hypothetical SOFC system—representing expectations of near to medium term technology development—under present UK market conditions. We find that households with small to average energy demands do not benefit from installation of a SOFC micro-CHP system, but larger energy demands do benefit under these conditions. However, this result is sensitive to a number of factors including stack capital cost, energy import and export prices, and plant lifetime. The results for small and average dwellings are shown to reverse under an observed change in energy import prices, an increase in electricity export price, a decrease in stack capital costs, or an improvement in stack lifetime.

  15. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  16. Technical assessment of a micro-cogeneration system based on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and fluidized bed autothermal reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marcoberardino, Gioele; Roses, Leonardo; Manzolini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of an ATR membrane reactor within a PEM FC micro-CHP system of 5 kWel. • Analysis of two different options for the H_2 permeate side: sweep and vacuum pump. • Optimization of operating conditions in terms of efficiency and membrane area. • Distribution of power and thermal consumptions and losses were discussed in detail. • A sensitivity analysis highlights the relevant design parameters of the CHP system. - Abstract: This work investigates the integration of an autothermal membrane reformer within a micro-CHP system of 5 kWel based on PEM fuel cell. The system modeled is based on a prototype developed within Reforcell European project. The optimization of the micro-CHP system is performed from a thermodynamic point of view aiming at the target of 40% of net electric efficiency and 90% of total system efficiency comparing different configuration and operating conditions. In particular, two hydrogen permeate side options as vacuum or sweep steam are evaluated together with different combination of feed temperature and pressures. A good compromise between electric efficiency (40%) and membrane surface area (0.3 m"2) was obtained for the sweep gas case at reaction side conditions of 8 bar, 600 °C and S/C of 2.5. Higher electric efficiency (40.5%) could be achieved by increasing the membrane surface area. The adoption of a vacuum pump simplifies the reactor design and manufacturing, but reduces the net electric efficiency by about 2% points with a membrane surface area of 0.15 m"2. Finally, the sensitivity analysis highlighted the influence of the main parameters and the design criteria for the definition of the CHP system.

  17. The influence of the size of the CHP (combined heat and power) system integrated with a biomass fueled gas generator and piston engine on the thermodynamic and economic effectiveness of electricity and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Bartela, Łukasz; Kotowicz, Janusz; Sobolewski, Aleksander; Iluk, Tomasz; Remiorz, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possibility and the cost of using gas from biomass gasification in the production of electricity and generation of heat using a piston engine in which the power in the supplied biomass is no more than 50 MW. A mathematical model that allows for thermodynamic and economic analysis was designed. The input data regarding the gas generator and the process gas were collected in real experiments on the research installation. Electricity and heat production efficiencies and the electric and heat power of the system were primarily used as indicators of the thermodynamic effectiveness. For the economic analysis, discount methods were adopted that consider the legal and economic environment of such investments. Given the assumptions, the analysis shows that positive economic indicators can characterize the considered systems. The work also included sensitivity analysis of change of the selected characteristic quantities on the evaluation indices. The economic viability of such systems is strongly influenced by many factors, mainly price of fuel and green certificates. When the price of fuel is higher than 9.62 €/GJ or the price of certificates lower than 26.75 €/MWh the NPV (net present value) and NPVR (net present value ratio) indices do not reach positive values for any size of installation. - Highlights: • CHP systems integrated with biomass gasification and piston engine(s) were examined. • An experiment with a biomass-fed gasifier was conducted and the data were used for calculations. • The conditions for economic profitability were determined. • Sensitivity analyses of the influence of the selected quantities were performed. • Price of green certificates and price of fuel are the most important for economic viability

  18. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  19. Technology watch of polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) 2012; Teknikbevakning av polymera braensleceller (PEMFC) 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wreland Lindstroem, Rakel; Lindbergh, Goeran

    2013-03-15

    The commercial development of the PEMFC has made strong progress in recent years. Between 2010 and 2011, the number of units shipped increased by 87%. The forecast for 2012 is a further tripling of the number of units delivered to about 71000 during the year. Sales of stationary units are increasing, and they account for a third of the number of units and almost half of the rated power with a total of over 20 MW. The increase consists of a few large units and a continued growth in small combined heat and power plant for residential use (micro-CHP). The increase is also reflected by the Japanese catalyst manufacturer Tanaka which increased its sales of catalysts for fuel cells by 67% in 2011. The number of units for transport is still small but is believed to take over the market when fuel cell vehicles enter the market around the 2015. Combined heat and power plant for residential, micro-CHP, has gained ground in Japan. The systems under the name ENE-FARM is based on natural gas reformed and used in a PEMFC. The demand increased even further after the tsunami and nuclear disaster in 2011. The global market for micro-CHP, which is dominated by the Japanese market, grew by 38%. Since 2010, the Japanese system has improved and obtained higher electrical efficiency and become 20% cheaper. The interest in micro-CHP increase also in other countries. A Germany program had in June 2012 260 systems installed, and projected 550 systems at the end of 2013. A European program called ene.field brings together European producers and users in 12 member states to test various fuel cell technologies in around 1000 installations in buildings. In Korea, 350 micro-CHP systems have been produced in 2012. The large amount of hydrogen produced as a by-product in the chemical industry has recently been highlighted. The hydrogen is today typically burned to provide heat, but calculations show that if the gas instead is used in fuel cells the industry's electricity costs could be

  20. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  1. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  2. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  3. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  4. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, F.

    1993-03-01

    In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO 2 -emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared to old coal-based power plants and oil-fuelled old heating systems. In the FRG, however, hard coal, and not natural gas, will be the main fuel for future CHP, lowering its CO 2 -advantage considerably. On the other hand high efficient combi-power plants (gas turbine plus condensing turbine) and gas heating systems have to be included in the comparative analyse. Compared to these advanced systems the CO 2 -characteristics of CHP are inferior. Moreover, the specific CO 2 -advantage of natural gas is better used by such modern mono systems rather than CHP-plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  6. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  7. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-choume, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Corporate Technology and Development Division, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system. (author)

  8. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  9. Feasibility study of a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system for CHP application in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Michele; Ferrari, Claudio; Melino, Francesco; Peretto, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The profitability of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator systems for a single-family dwelling is analyzed. ► Heat and electricity load profiles depending on hour of the day are considered for an entire year. ► The effect of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator size is evaluated for different household utilities. ► Results allow to identify the conditions for the energetic and economic convenience of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system. -- Abstract: The growing demand of energy coupled with an increasing attention to the environmental impact have forced, in the last decades, toward the study and the development of new strategies in order to reduce primary energy consumptions. The cogeneration (CHP) and the on-site generation (also known as distributed generation) could be the key strategy to achieve this goal; CHP systems allow to reduce the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (in particular the greenhouse gases) compared to separate generation; moreover on-site-generation contributes to the reduction of the energy which is lost in electricity transmission, and increases the security in the energy supply. In this scenario the Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generation (TPV) is obtaining an increasing attention; TPV is a system to convert into electrical energy the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) by the use of photovoltaic cells. A domestic gas furnace based on this technology can provide the entire thermal need of an apartment and can also contributes to satisfy the electrical demand. The aim of this study is the understanding of the behavior of a TPV in CHP application in case of residential buildings, under both the energetic and economical point of view; in particular a parametrical analysis is developed and discussed varying the TPV electrical efficiency, the thermal request and the apartment typology.

  10. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial

  11. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  12. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable of...

  13. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  14. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  15. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  16. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  17. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  18. Review of CHP projections tp 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, W.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining market conditions for combined heat and power since 2000 and assessing the commercial position of cogeneration (CHP) in order to provide advice on likely distributed generation in relation to technology, location and commissioning timetables. Details are given of the modelling of the development of 'good quality' CHP by Cambridge Econometrics (CE), and the work carried out by ILEX updating the CE study. Modelling assumptions, market conditions for CHP since the CE study, the effect of market conditions on CE modelling assumptions, justified changes in assumptions, and evaluation of likely CHP capacity to 2010 are discussed.

  19. Fuel cell catholyte regenerating apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A catholyte regenerating apparatus for a fuel cell having a cathode section containing a catholyte solution and wherein fuel cell reaction reduces the catholyte to gas and water. The apparatus includes means to conduct partically reduced water diluted catholyte from the fuel cell and means to conduct the gas from the fuel cell to a mixing means. An absorption tower containing a volume of gas absorbing liquid solvent receives the mixed together gas and diluted catholyte from the mixing means within the absorption column, the gas is absorbed by the solvent and the gas ladened solvent and diluted catholyte are commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled solvent and electrolyte from the absorption column to an air supply means wherein air is added and commingled therewith and a stoichiometric volume of oxygen from the air is absorbed thereby. A second liquid transfer means conducts the gas ladened commingled solvent and diluted catholyte into a catalyst column wherein the oxygen and gas react to reconstitute the catholyte from which the gas was generated wna wherein the reconstituted diluted catholyte is separated from the solvent. Recirculating means conducts the solvent from the catalyst column back into the absorption column and liquid conducting means conducts the reconstituted catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for recirculation through the cathode section of the fuel cell

  20. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Energy...Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel

  1. Status and promise of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy

    2001-09-01

    The niche or early entry market penetration by ONSI and its phosphoric acid fuel cell technology has proven that fuel cells are reliable and suitable for premium power and other opportunity fuel niche market applications. Now, new fuel cell technologies - solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and polymer electrolyte fuel cells - are being developed for near-term distributed generation shortly after 2003. Some of the evolving fuel cell systems are incorporating gas turbines in hybrid configurations. The combination of the gas turbine with the fuel cell promises to lower system costs and increase efficiency to enhance market penetration. Market estimates indicate that significant early entry markets exist to sustain the initially high cost of some distributed generation technologies. However, distributed generation technologies must have low introductory first cost, low installation cost, and high system reliability to be viable options in competitive commercial and industrial markets. In the long-term, solid state fuel cell technology with stack costs under $100/kilowatt (kW) promises deeper and wider market penetration in a range of applications including a residential, auxillary power, and the mature distributed generation markets. The solid state energy conversion alliance (SECA) with its vision for fuel cells in 2010 was recently formed to commercialize solid state fuel cells and realize the full potential of the fuel cell technology. Ultimately, the SECA concept could lead to megawatt-size fuel-cell systems for commercial and industrial applications and Vision 21 fuel cell turbine hybrid energy plants in 2015. (orig.)

  2. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Chuang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  3. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  4. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    logo, Direct FuelCell and “DFC” are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Applications •On-site self generation of combined heat... of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Fuels Resources for DFC • Natural Gas and LNG • Propane • Biogas (by Anaerobicnaerobic Digestion) - Municipal Waste...FUEL RESOURCES z NATURAL GAS z PROPANE z DFC H2 (50-60%) z ETHANOL zWASTE METHANE z BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency

  5. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  6. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  7. Potential for CHP in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yameogo, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested that many industries in Africa could benefit from biomass-fired cogeneration so long as the correct structures and learning processes are put in place. The article discusses Africa's energy background and gives figures for generation sources and consumption. A profile of Sudan and its energy needs is presented. It is argued that although some barriers do exist, a move to cogeneration is essential. CHP should be particularly attractive for industries able to use thermal energy for drying, heating and cooling: typical areas would be pharmaceutical and chemical plants, textile factories, cement works and steel mills

  8. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  9. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  10. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-09-26

    Reformed gas or coal gasification gas, etc. is used as the fuel gas for fused carbonate fuel cells, however sulfuric compounds are contained in these gases and even after these gases have been treated beforehand through a desulfurizer, a trace quantity of H/sub 2/S is sent to a fuel electrode. Sulfur oxide which is formed at the time of burning and oxidating the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode and becomes sulfate after substituting carbonate, which is the electrolyte of the electrode, causing deterioration of the cell characteristics and durability. With regard to a system that hydrogen rich gas which was reformed from the raw fuel is supplied to a fuel electrode, and its exhaust gas is oxidated through a burner to form carbon dioxide which is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode, this invention proposes the prevention of the aforementioned defects by providing at the down stream of the above burner a remover to trap with fused carbonate such sulfur compounds as SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ in the gas after being oxidated as above. (3 figs)

  12. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  13. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  14. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  15. Accelerated testing of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for micro combined heat and power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Barfod, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SoA) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are tested using profiles relevant for use in micro combined heat and power (CHP) units. Such applications are characterised by dynamic load profiles. In order to shorten the needed testing time and to investigate potential acceleration...... of degradation, the profiles are executed faster than required for real applications. Operation with fast load cycling, both using hydrogen and methane/steam as fuels, does not accelerate degradation compared to constant operation, which demonstrates the maturity of SoA stacks and enables transferring knowledge...... effect for long life-times than regular short time changes of operation. In order to address lifetime testing it is suggested to build a testing program consisting of defined modules that represent different application profiles, such as one module at constant conditions, followed by modules at one set...

  16. Fuel cell program - Overview reports 2007; Programm Brennstoffzellen inkl. Wasserstoff - Ueberblicksberichte der BFE-Programmleiter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzi, A.; Spirig, M.

    2008-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the overview reports made by SFOE Heads of Program on work done in 2007. Projects reported on in the natural gas-fired fuel cell area include the EU-project REAL-SFOC, the long-term testing of anode-supported SOFC stacks, intermediate-temperature fuel cells based on proton conducting electrolytes, the interdisciplinary ONEBAT project and lifetime-enhancement of SOFC stacks for CHP applications. In the polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) area, projects concerning proton-conducting polymer membranes, factors limiting the lifetime of fuel cell membranes, a new highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications, the enhancement of PEFC durability and reliability, model-based investigation of PEFC performance, and local gas analysis of PE fuel cells are briefly reported on. Long-term research activities in the hydrogen technology area reported on include those concerning the photo-chemical conversion and storage of solar energy and the storage of hydrogen in metallic and complex hydrides. Further projects reported on include those concerning the physical aspects of hydrides for system integration and safety and new, complex metal hydrides. Swiss national and international co-ordination is reviewed in the areas of fuel cell technology and hydrogen technology. Work done in several projects run within the framework of the IEA's Advanced Fuel Cells Program is reviewed. Several pilot and demonstration (P and D) projects are also reported on in the natural-gas SOFC and PEFC areas. Comments on the 2007 results and a review of work to be done in 2008, along with a list of R, D, P and D projects, complete the report.

  17. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  18. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  19. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  20. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  1. Fuel cells for electricity generation from carbonaceous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K; Formanski, V; Roes, J [Gerhard-Mercator- Universitaet - Gesamthochschule Duisburg, Fachbereich Maschinenbau/Fachgebiet Energietechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Heinzel, A [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Fuel cells, which are electrochemical systems converting chemical energy directly into electrical energy with water and heat as by-products, are of interest as a means of generating electricity which is environmentally friendly, clean and highly efficient. They are classified according to the electrolyte used. The main types of cell in order of operating temperature are described. These are: alkaline fuel cells, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC); the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC); the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC); the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Applications depend on the type of cell and may range from power generation on a large scale to mobile application in cars or portable systems. One of the most promising options is the PEM-fuel cell stack where there has been significant improvement in power density in recent years. The production from carbonaceous fuels and purification of the cell fuel, hydrogen, is considered. Of the purification methods available, hydrogen separation by means of palladium alloy membranes seems particular effective in reducing CO concentrations to the low levels required for PEM cells. (UK)

  2. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  3. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

  4. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  5. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  6. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  7. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don

    2001-12-01

    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  8. Fuel cell hardware-in-loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M.; Randolf, G.; Virji, M. [University of Hawaii, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Hauer, K.H. [Xcellvision (Germany)

    2006-11-08

    Hardware-in-loop (HiL) methodology is well established in the automotive industry. One typical application is the development and validation of control algorithms for drive systems by simulating the vehicle plus the vehicle environment in combination with specific control hardware as the HiL component. This paper introduces the use of a fuel cell HiL methodology for fuel cell and fuel cell system design and evaluation-where the fuel cell (or stack) is the unique HiL component that requires evaluation and development within the context of a fuel cell system designed for a specific application (e.g., a fuel cell vehicle) in a typical use pattern (e.g., a standard drive cycle). Initial experimental results are presented for the example of a fuel cell within a fuel cell vehicle simulation under a dynamic drive cycle. (author)

  9. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  11. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  12. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  13. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  14. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  15. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  16. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  17. The TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.

    1995-04-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC

  18. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  19. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    that three configurations are particular advantageous, whereas the two remaining configurations result in system performance close to or below what may be expected from an electric heater. One of the three advantageous configurations is required to be positioned at the location of the heat demand, whereas...... the two remaining can be located at positions with availability of high temperature sources by utilising the DH network to distribute the heat. A large amount of operational and economic constraints limit the applicability of HPs operated with natural working fluids, which may be the only feasible choice...... representation allows infeasible production. Using MIP or NLP optimisation, the number of operation hours and the total production of heat from HPs are significantly increased, as the HPs may be used to shave the load patterns of CHP units in significantly constrained energy systems. A MIP energy system model...

  20. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  1. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  2. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Černý, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 44-47 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0983; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrocatalysis * hydrogen electrode Ionex membrane * membrane fuel cell Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  3. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  4. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  5. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  6. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  7. Micro CHP: implications for energy companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jeremy [EA Technology (United Kingdom); Kolin, Simon; Hestevik, Svein [Sigma Elektroteknisk A/S (Norway)

    2000-08-01

    This article explains how micro combined heat and power (CHP) technology may help UK energy businesses to maintain their customer base in the current climate of liberalisation and competition in the energy market The need for energy companies to adopt new technologies and adapt to changes in the current aggressive environment, the impact of privatisation, and the switching of energy suppliers by customers are discussed. Three potential routes to success for energy companies are identified, namely, price reductions, branding and affinity marketing, and added value services. Details are given of the implementation of schemes to encourage energy efficiency, the impact of the emissions targets set at Kyoto, the advantages of micro CHP generation, business opportunities for CHP, business threats from existing energy companies and others entering the field, and the commercial viability of micro CHP.

  8. Kyoto commitments: CHP will help the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In order to meet the United Kingdom's targets for carbon dioxide emissions reduction, agreed at the Kyoto Summit, the UK Government is promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Such schemes need to offer over 70% efficiency, have on-site or nearby heat uses, and allow flexibility for the export of electricity where this is appropriate. Electricity trading arrangements will need to be re-organised in line with similar commodities, in order to facilitate and promote the growth of CHP and renewable energy schemes. Financial incentives and regulation of electricity prices will also contribute to the promotion of CHP schemes, ultimately leading to reduced CO 2 pollution as a result of the growth in the UK's CHP capacity. (UK)

  9. The development of microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Karube, Isao [University of Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1999-02-01

    The production of electricity by biocatalytic fuel cells has been feasible for almost two decades and can produce electric power at a practical level. These fuel cells use immobilized microorganisms or enzymes as catalysts, and glucose as a fuel. A microfabricated enzyme battery has recently been made that is designed to function as a power supply for microsurgery robots or artificial organs. (author)

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  11. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  12. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  13. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  14. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  15. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  16. Catalysis in high-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, K; Ahmed, K

    2005-02-17

    Catalysis plays a critical role in solid oxide fuel cell systems. The electrochemical reactions within the cell--oxygen dissociation on the cathode and electrochemical fuel combustion on the anode--are catalytic reactions. The fuels used in high-temperature fuel cells, for example, natural gas, propane, or liquid hydrocarbons, need to be preprocessed to a form suitable for conversion on the anode-sulfur removal and pre-reforming. The unconverted fuel (economic fuel utilization around 85%) is commonly combusted using a catalytic burner. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. has developed anodes that in addition to having electrochemical activity also are reactive for internal steam reforming of methane. This can simplify fuel preprocessing, but its main advantage is thermal management of the fuel cell stack by endothermic heat removal. Using this approach, the objective of fuel preprocessing is to produce a methane-rich fuel stream but with all higher hydrocarbons removed. Sulfur removal can be achieved by absorption or hydro-desulfurization (HDS). Depending on the system configuration, hydrogen is also required for start-up and shutdown. Reactor operating parameters are strongly tied to fuel cell operational regimes, thus often limiting optimization of the catalytic reactors. In this paper we discuss operation of an authothermal reforming reactor for hydrogen generation for HDS and start-up/shutdown, and development of a pre-reformer for converting propane to a methane-rich fuel stream.

  17. Arrangement of fuel cell system for TNRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Takehiro; Yasuda, Ryo; Iikura, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takuro; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Hayashida, Hirotoshi

    2012-02-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (fuel cells) can be potentially employed as sources of clean energy because they discharge only water as by-products. Fuel cells generate electricity with supply of oxygen and hydrogen gases. However, the water produced by the fuel cells blocks the gas supply, thereby degrading their performances. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of the water produced by the fuel cells in order to facilitate their development. Neutron radiography is a useful tool for visualizing the distribution of water in fuel cells. We have designed fuel cell operation system for TNRF (Thermal Neutron Radiography Facility) at JRR-3. The fuel cell operation system consists of various components such as gas flow and humidification systems, hydrogen-diluting system, purge system, and safety system for hydrogen gas. We tested this system using a Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) standard cell. The system performed stably and efficiently. In addition, neutron radiography tests were carried out to visualize the water distribution. The water produced by the fuel cell was observed during the fuel cell operation. (author)

  18. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  19. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Youssef; Takeda, Soichi; Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi; Mori, Hidezo; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca 2+ -binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na + /H + -exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å

  1. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru; Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 °C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 °C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system.

  2. Design of experiment study of the parameters that affect performance of three flow plate configurations of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carton, J.G.; Olabi, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature hydrogen fuel cells are electrochemical devices which offer a promising alternative to traditional power sources. Fuel cells produce electricity with a reaction of the fuel (hydrogen) and air. Fuel cells have the advantage of being clean; only producing water and heat as by products. The efficiency of a fuel cell varies depending on the type; SOFC with CHP for example, can have a system efficiency of up to 65%. What the Authors present here is a comparison between three different configurations of flow plates of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, the manufacturer's serpentine flow plate and two new configurations; the maze flow plate and the parallel flow plate. A study of the input parameters affecting output responses of voltage, current, power and efficiency of a fuel cell is performed through experimentation. The results were taken from direct readings of the fuel cell and from polarisation curves produced. This information was then analysed through a design of experiment to investigate the effects of the changing parameters on different configurations of the fuel cell's flow plates. The results indicate that, in relation to current and voltage response of the polarisation curve and the corresponding graphs produced from the DOE, the serpentine flow plate design is a much more effective design than the maze or parallel flow plate design. It was noted that the parallel flow plate performed reasonably well at higher pressures but over all statically the serpentine flow plate performed better.

  3. The TMI Regenerative Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Ruhl, Robert C.; Petrik, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. Systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate (during sunlight cycles) to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis and (during dark cycles) fuel cells convert hydrogen into electricity. Common configurations use two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Reliability, power to weight and power to volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cells) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based design integrates fuel cell and electrolyzer functions and potentially simplifies system requirements. The integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer design also utilizes innovative gas storage concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H20 electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for regenerative fuel cells. Tests have shown improved cell performance in both fuel and electrolysis modes in reversible fuel cell tests. Regenerative fuel cell efficiencies, ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer mode), improved from 50 percent using conventional electrode materials to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow a single SOFC system to operate as both the electolyzer and fuel cell. Preliminary system designs have also been developed to show the technical feasibility of using the design for space applications requiring high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Small space systems also have potential for dual-use, terrestrial applications.

  4. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  5. Thermoeconomic analysis of a fuel cell hybrid power system from the fuel cell experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Tomas [Endesa Generacion, Ribera del Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: talvarez@endesa.es; Valero, Antonio [Fundacion CIRCE, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Montes, Jose M. [ETSIMM-Universidad Politecnica de.Madrid, Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    An innovative configuration of fuel cell technology is proposed based on a hybrid fuel cell system that integrates a turbogenerator to overcome the intrinsic limitations of fuel cells in conventional operation. An analysis is done of the application of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at the Guadalix Fuel Cell Test Facility, for the assessment of the performance of the fuel cell prototype to be integrated in the Hybrid Fuel Cell System. This is completed with a thermoeconomic analysis of the 100 kW cogeneration fuel cell power plant which was subsequently built. The operational results and design limitations are evaluated, together with the operational limits and thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction and losses) of the 100 kW fuel cell. This leads to the design of a hybrid system in order to demonstrate the possibilities and benefits of the new hybrid configuration. The results are quantified through a thermoeconomic analysis in order to get the most cost-effective plant configuration. One promising configuration is the MCFC topper where the fuel cell in the power plant behaves as a combustor for the turbogenerator. The latter behaves as the balance of plant for the fuel cell. The combined efficiency increased to 57% and NOx emissions are essentially eliminated. The synergy of the fuel cell/turbine hybrids lies mainly in the use of the rejected thermal energy and residual fuel from the fuel cell to drive the turbogenerator in a 500 kW hybrid system.

  6. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed.

  7. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  8. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Kobyłecki, Rafał; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  9. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  10. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  11. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  12. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  14. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  15. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  16. National fuel cell seminar. Program and abstracts. [Abstracts of 40 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (WHK)

  17. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  18. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  19. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  20. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  1. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  2. Fuel cell research: Towards efficient energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available fuel cells by optimising the loading of catalyst (being expensive noble metals) and ionomer; 2) Improving conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells by developing more efficient catalysts and by investigating other fuels than methanol; 3... these components add significantly to the overall cost of a PEMFC. 1 We focused our research activities on: 1) The effect of the loading of catalytic ink on cell performance; 2) The effect of the ionomer content in the catalytic ink; 3) Testing...

  3. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  4. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  5. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells...... to a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology....

  6. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  7. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  8. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  9. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.; Kucernak, Anthony R.; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C.; Brandon, Nigel P.; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F.; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J.; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due

  10. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  11. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  13. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  14. Reduced size fuel cell for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flat pack type fuel cell includes a plurality of membrane electrode assemblies. Each membrane electrode assembly is formed of an anode, an electrolyte, and an cathode with appropriate catalysts thereon. The anode is directly into contact with fuel via a wicking element. The fuel reservoir may extend along the same axis as the membrane electrode assemblies, so that fuel can be applied to each of the anodes. Each of the fuel cell elements is interconnected together to provide the voltage outputs in series.

  15. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  16. Alkaline fuel cell technology in the lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) was the first fuel cell successfully put into practice, a century after William Grove patented his 'hydrogen battery' in 1839. The space program provided the necessary momentum, and alkaline fuel cells became the power source for both the U.S. and Russian manned space flight. Astris Energi's mission has been to bring this technology down to earth as inexpensive, rugged fuel cells for everyday applications. The early cells, LABCELL 50 and LABCELL 200 were aimed at deployment in research labs, colleges and universities. They served well in technology demonstration projects such as the 1998 Mini Jeep, 2001 Golf Car and a series of portable and stationary fuel cell generators. The present third generation POWERSTACK MC250 poised for commercialization is being offered to AFC system integrators as a building block of fuel cell systems in numerous portable, stationary and transportation applications. It is also used in Astris' own E7 and E8 alkaline fuel cell generators. Astris alkaline technology leads the way toward economical, plentiful fuel cells. The paper highlights the progress achieved at Astris, improvements of performance, durability and simplicity of use, as well as the current and future thrust in technology development and commercialization. (author)

  17. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  18. Design, Construction and Operation of a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) in the 100-kW-Class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiming, Andreas; Huppmann, Gerhard; Aasberg-Petersen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    In fuel cells, the electrochemical energy of the fuel is converted directly into electricity and heat. The electrochemical conversion is inherently related to high electrical efficiencies and very low pollutant emissions. Fuel cells with sufficiently high operating temperatures such as (1) the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), operating temperature: 200 o C, (2) the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), operating temperature: 650 o C and (3) the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), operating temperature: around 900 o C are best suited for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) applications. This is due to the fact, that the heat of the exothermic reaction taking place in the fuel cell can be used in the domestic, commercial and industrial sector for heating and hot water or steam production. At the present time, gas-engines or gas-turbines are the preferred CHP-technologies for these applications. Nowadays, the PAFC is commercially available. More than 160 plants, each with a power of 200 kW, have been installed world-wide. Ruhrgas has investigated the behaviour of a 200 kW PAFC at its research centre in Dorsten, Germany, and at the site of a local utility. High temperature fuel cells such as MCFC or SOFC promise electrical efficiencies above 50 % in simple cycle mode. Up to now, MCFC-test plants have been built and operated in the 100 kW to 1 MW power range. The largest MCFC ever operated consisted of 16 identical stacks of 125 kW each, resulting in a plant power of 2 MW. The initial experience with SOFC in this power-range is currently gained from the operation of a 100 kW plant. In this paper, the result of the construction and operation of a highly innovatively designed 280 kW MCFC will be presented. This plant has been designed, built and operated by a European consortium for the development and market introduction of the MCFC. Members of the consortium are MTU-Friedrichshafen GmbH, Haldor Topsoee NS, Elkraft A.m.b.H., RWE Energie AG and Ruhrgas AG. (author)

  19. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  20. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  1. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nenad V.; Studovic, Milovan

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  2. Optimal stochastic scheduling of CHP-PEMFC, WT, PV units and hydrogen storage in reconfigurable micro grids considering reliability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. • The effect of combined heat and power is considered. • Uncertainties of wind speed, solar radiation and electricity market price are considered. • Profit maximization, emission and AENS minimization are considered as objective functions. • Modified firefly algorithm is employed to solve the problem. - Abstract: Nowadays the operation of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power (CHP) units is increased in micro grids; therefore, to reach optimal performance, optimal scheduling of these units is required. In this regard, in this paper a micro grid consisting of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power (PEMFC-CHP), wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) units, is modeled to determine the optimal scheduling state of these units by considering uncertain behavior of renewable energy resources. For this purpose, a scenario-based method is used for modeling the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance. It should be noted that the hydrogen storage strategy is also applied in this study for PEMFC-CHP units. Market profit, total emission production, and average energy not supplied (AENS) are the objective functions considered in this paper simultaneously. Consideration of the above-mentioned objective functions converts the proposed problem to a mixed integer nonlinear programming. To solve this problem, a multi-objective firefly algorithm is used. The uncertainties of parameters convert the mixed integer nonlinear programming problem to a stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. Moreover, optimal coordinated scheduling of renewable energy resources and thermal units in micro-grids improve the value of the objective functions. Simulation results obtained from a modified 33-bus distributed network as a micro grid illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory The Energy System Integration Facility's Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory supports fuel cell research and development projects through in-situ fuel cell testing. Photo of a researcher running

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  5. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric

  6. Computer experimental analysis of the CHP performance of a 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit by a factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, M.; Santarelli, M. G. L.; Leone, P.

    Gas Turbine Technologies (GTT) and Politecnico di Torino, both located in Torino (Italy), have been involved in the design and installation of a SOFC laboratory in order to analyse the operation, in cogenerative configuration, of the CHP 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit, built by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC), which is at present (May 2005) starting its operation and which will supply electric and thermal power to the GTT factory. In order to take the better advantage from the analysis of the on-site operation, and especially to correctly design the scheduled experimental tests on the system, we developed a mathematical model and run a simulated experimental campaign, applying a rigorous statistical approach to the analysis of the results. The aim of this work is the computer experimental analysis, through a statistical methodology (2 k factorial experiments), of the CHP 100 performance. First, the mathematical model has been calibrated with the results acquired during the first CHP100 demonstration at EDB/ELSAM in Westerwoort. After, the simulated tests have been performed in the form of computer experimental session, and the measurement uncertainties have been simulated with perturbation imposed to the model independent variables. The statistical methodology used for the computer experimental analysis is the factorial design (Yates' Technique): using the ANOVA technique the effect of the main independent variables (air utilization factor U ox, fuel utilization factor U F, internal fuel and air preheating and anodic recycling flow rate) has been investigated in a rigorous manner. Analysis accounts for the effects of parameters on stack electric power, thermal recovered power, single cell voltage, cell operative temperature, consumed fuel flow and steam to carbon ratio. Each main effect and interaction effect of parameters is shown with particular attention on generated electric power and stack heat recovered.

  7. Fuel cells for telephone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.D.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Critical telephone network systems are currently protected from electric utility power failures by a backup system consisting of lead-acid batteries and an engine-alternator. It is considered here an alternate power system where less expensive off-peak commercial electricity electrolyses water, while fuel cells draw continuously on the stored gas products to provide direct current for the protected equipment. The lead acid batteries are eliminated. The benefits and costs of the existing and alternate systems in scenarios with various system efficiencies, capital costs, and electric utility rates and incentives, are compared. In today's conditions, the alternate system is not economical; however, cost and performance feasibility domains are identified. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  8. Deployment of FlexCHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, David [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), along with its partner Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, has developed and demonstrated an Ultra-Low-Nitrogen Oxide (ULN) Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that packages a state-of-the-art Capstone C65 gas microturbine and Johnston PFXX100 boiler with an innovative natural gas-fired supplemental burner. Supplemental burners add heat as needed in response to facility demand, which increases energy efficiency, but typically raises exhaust NOx levels, degrading local air quality unless a costly and complicated catalytic treatment system is added. The FlexCHP system increases energy efficiency and achieves the 2007 California Air Resource Board (CARB) distributed generation emissions standards for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without catalytic exhaust gas treatment. The key to this breakthrough performance is a simple and reliable burner design which utilizes staged combustion with engineered internal recirculation. This ULN burner system successfully uses turbine exhaust as an oxidizer, while achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. In tests at its laboratory facilities in Des Plaines, Illinois, GTI validated the ability of the system to achieve emissions of NOx, CO, and THC below the CARB criteria of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.02 lb/MW-h respectively. The FlexCHP system was installed at the field demonstration site, Inland Empire Foods, in Riverside, California to verify performance of the technology in an applied environment. The resulting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) package promises to make CHP implementation more attractive, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the reliability of electricity supply.

  9. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  10. Microbial fuel cell: A green technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Muhamad Lebai Juri; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Leo Kwee Wah; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) was developed which was able to generate bio energy continuously while consuming wastewater containing organic matters. Even though the bio energy generated is not as high as hydrogen fuel cell, the MFC demonstrated great potential in bio-treating wastewater while using it as fuel source. Thus far, the dual-ability of the MFC to generate bio energy and bio-treating organic wastewater has been examined successfully using synthetic acetate and POME wastewaters. (author)

  11. The PEM fuel cell as a residential power source; Die PEMFC in der Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gummert, G [HGC Hamburg Gas Consult GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The firm HGC, Hamburg Gas Consult GmbH, has been offering CHP systems based on fuel cells since 1996. There still is only one series product on the market, the 200 kW{sub el} or 220 kW{sub th} PC 25 system produced by ONSI, South Windsor, USA. Seven phosphoric acid fuel cell-driven CHPs with a total capacity of 1.4 MW{sub el} have been designed, installed and put into operation by the HGC engineers. Whereas the PC 25 system of ONSI is optimal for applications such as integration into a local heating network, fabrication of small-size phosphoric acid fuel cell systems with a capacity of just 50 kW{sub el} has been found to be non-profitable. For applications requiring 50 kW{sub el} or less, another fuel cell type is much more promising: the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Seit 1996 bietet die HGC Hamburg Gas Consult GmbH Kraft-Waermekopplung mit Brennstoffzellen an. Das einzige Serienprodukt ist damals wie heute die bei der Fa. ONSI in South Windsor, USA, gebaute PC 25 mit 200 kW{sub el} und 220 kW{sub th}. Sieben phosphorsaure Brennstoffzellen-BHKW mit einer Gesamtleistung von 1,4 MW{sub el} wurden bereits von den HGC-Ingenieuren geplant, installiert und in Betrieb genommen. Waehrend die ONSI PC 25 ideal als Blockheizkraftwerk an einem Nahwaermenetz eingesetzt werden kann, rentiert sich die Herstellung kleinerer phosphorsaurer Brennstoffzellenaggregate z.B. mit 50 kW{sub el} Leistung nicht. Fuer Anwendungen im Bereich <50 kW{sub el} bietet sich deshalb ein anderer Brennstoffzellentyp an: Die Polymer Electrolyt Membran Brennstoffzelle (PFMFC). (orig.)

  12. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  13. Strategic Partnerships in Fuel Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Dorey

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how forming strategic alliances with universities, emerging technology companies, the state of Ohio, the federal government, and the National Science Foundation, has enabled Stark State College to develop a $5.5 million Fuel Cell Prototyping Center and establish a Fuel Cell Technology program to promote economic development…

  14. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  15. The fuel cell; development and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijnsoever, J.W.M.

    Activities on fuel cells and fuel cell development in the USA and Japan are surveyed. Possibilities for large scale application are mentioned. Attention is given to efficiency and environmental aspects. There are no problems about hazardous emissions. Besides electric power some heat is generated, which is not always a disadvantage. In many cases both are useful products. (A.V.)

  16. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  17. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  18. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  19. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  20. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  1. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  2. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-08-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  3. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-07-27

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  4. Modelling Danish local CHP on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    with the liberalisation process of the energy sectors of the EU countries, it is however anticipated that Danish local CHP are to begin operating on market conditions within the year 2005. This means that the income that the local CHPs previously gained from selling electricity at the feed-in tariff is replaced in part...... the consequences of acting in a liberalised market for a given CHP plant, based on the abovementioned bottom-up model. The key assumption determining the bottom line is the electricity spot price. The formation of the spot price in the Nordic area depends heavily upon the state of the water reservoirs in Norway...

  5. Technical development and economic valuation of new cooling methods for planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, F.

    2002-02-01

    A great potential exists for the use of the solid oxide fuel cell technology based on the planar cell design concept. Besides its application as power provider there is a need to supply process heat in the temperature range of 200 to 1200 C for commercial and industrial decentralized facilities. The present study is concerned with the technical development and economic valuation of plant concepts of new fuel cell cooling methods. They can be considered as an alternative to the normal convective cell cooling with air. Besides experimental studies on the natural gas reforming with the SOFC special attention is paid to the process analysis of the power plant carried out with the simulating program PROII. The 200 kWe SOFC is linked with peripheral components such as prereformer, heat exchangers, compressors etc. Developed program subroutine serve to calculate the electrical power output of the fuel cell, the investment costs and the costs of electricity. The study shows clearly that a radiative cell cooling device on basis of an external arranged vaporizer has economic benefits in comparison with the normal air cooling. In this case the possibility is given to run the fuel cell with completely prereformed natural gas. When the internal methane reforming is carried out in excess of the electrochemical demand for hydrogen and carbon monoxide respectively a further cost reduction potential is given. The produced synthesis gas can be used in alternative to the production of power in a gas turbine to supply process steam in the temperature range of 200 to 1200 C. Sensitivity analyses show that a successive use of optimization potentials (e.g. anode structure and operating parameters of the SOFC) leads to a further reduction of the costs of electricity. In the best case the achieved costs of 12 to 13 Pf/kWh are in a range achieved by CHP plants based on engines. (orig.) [de

  6. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  7. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  8. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  9. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  10. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  11. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  12. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  13. Optimal economic dispatch of FC-CHP based heat and power micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari-Heris, Morteza; Abapour, Saeed; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi objective economic/environmental heat and power MG dispatch is solved. • The heat and power MG include FC, CHP, boiler, storage system, and heat buffer tank. • Multi objective scheduling of heat and power MG is solved using ε-constraint method. • DR program is employed in the stochastic programming of heat and power MG dispatch. • The uncertainties for load demand and price signals are taken into account. - Abstract: Micro-grids (MGs) are introduced as a solution for distributed energy resource (DER) units and energy storage systems (ESSs) to participate in providing the required electricity demand of controllable and non-controllable loads. In this paper, the authors study the short-term scheduling of grid-connected industrial heat and power MG which contains a fuel cell (FC) unit, combined heat and power (CHP) generation units, power-only unit, boiler, battery storage system, and heat buffer tank. The paper is aimed to solve the multi-objective MG dispatch problem containing cost and emission minimization with the considerations of demand response program and uncertainties. A probabilistic framework based on a scenario method, which is considered for load demand and price signals, is employed to overcome the uncertainties in the optimal energy management of the MG. In order to reduce operational cost, time-of-use rates of demand response programs have been modeled, and the effects of such programs on the load profile have been discussed. To solve the multi-objective optimization problem, the ε-constraint method is used and a fuzzy satisfying approach has been employed to select the best compromise solution. Three cases are studied in this research to confirm the performance of the proposed method: islanded mode, grid-connected mode, and the impact of time of the use-demand response program on MG scheduling.

  14. Total cost of ownership of CHP SOFC systems: Effect of installation context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduino, Francesco; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are one of the most interesting between the emerging technologies for energy production. Although some information about the production cost of these devices are already known, their operational cost has not been studied yet with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of CHP (combined heat and power) SOFC systems performed in hospitals located in various cities of the US and one in Italy. In this study the strong effects of the installation context will be analyzed using a customized use phase model for each location. The cost effectiveness of these devices has been proved without credits in Mondovi (IT), New York (NY) and Minneapolis (MN) where the payback time goes from 10 to 7 years. Considering the credits, it is possible to obtain economic feasibility also in Chicago (IL) and reduce the payback for other cities to values from 4 to 6 years. In other cities like Phoenix (AZ) and Houston (TX) the payback can’t be reached in any case. The life cycle impact assessment analysis has shown how, even in the cities with cleaner electricity grid, there is a reduction in the emissions of both greenhouse gases and pollutants. - Highlights: •Life cycle cost analysis has been performed for CHP SOFC systems. •The strong effects of the installation context have been analyzed. •Economic feasibility has been proven in new york, Minneapolis and Mondovi. •Economic feasibility can’t be reached in phoenix and Houston. •SOFC always provide a reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutant.

  15. Review of Fuel Cell Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    2 3. FUELLING FUEL CELLS ...OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PEM Proton Exchange Membrane PEMFC Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell TRL Technical...UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TN-1360 UNCLASSIFIED 4 3. Fuelling Fuel Cells 3.1 Hydrogen Hydrogen, either in its pure form or as reformate from another fuel is

  16. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  17. Simplified fuel cell system model identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caux, S.; Fadel, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, Toulouse (France); Hankache, W. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, Toulouse (France)]|[Laboratoire de recherche en Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes, Belfort (France); Hissel, D. [Laboratoire de recherche en Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes, Belfort (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed a simplified physical fuel cell model used to study fuel cell and supercap energy applications for vehicles. Anode, cathode, membrane, and electrode elements of the cell were modelled. A quasi-static Amphlett model was used to predict voltage responses of the fuel cell as a function of the current, temperature, and partial pressures of the reactive gases. The potential of each cell was multiplied by the number of cells in order to model a fuel cell stack. The model was used to describe the main phenomena associated with current voltage behaviour. Data were then compared with data from laboratory tests conducted on a 20 cell stack subjected to a current and time profile developed using speed data from a vehicle operating in an urban environment. The validated model was used to develop iterative optimization algorithms for an energy management strategy that linked 3 voltage sources with fuel cell parameters. It was concluded that classic state and dynamic measurements using a simple least square algorithm can be used to identify the most important parameters for optimal fuel cell operation. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  18. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    of the products. The observation of internal reforming was indirectly confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, where the best fits were obtained when a Gerischer element describing preceding chemical reaction and diffusion was included in the equivalent circuit of a methanol/air operated cell...... evaporated liquid stream supply to either of the electrodes. A large number of MEAs with different component compositions have been prepared and tested in different conditions using the constructed setups to obtain a basic understanding of the nature of direct DME HT-PEM FC, to map the processes occurring...... inside the cells and to determine the lifetime. Additionally, comparison was made with methanol as fuel, which is the main competitor to DME in direct oxidation of organic fuels in fuel cells. For the reference, measurements have also been done with conventional hydrogen/air operation. All...

  19. Development of PEM fuel cell stack for small combined heat and power units; Udvikling af PEM braendselscellestak for smaa decentrale kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the project was to further develop cells and stack elements in order to reach a higher yield, longer service life, lower production costs and reduced demands for the plants' help, security and SRO (control - regulation - monitoring) systems, i.e. take the PEM fuel cell core technology's yield and cost to a level that will make power generating plants based on PEM fuel cells commercial interesting for CHP production within a capacity area of a few kW. The project focused on development of materials and processes for the individual cell and stack elements, including optimization of materials and production processes for MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies) with integrated diffusion layer, development of materials and production processes for bipolar graphite plates and development of manifold end plates for casting in polymer sandwich construction. (BA)

  20. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  1. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  2. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two "off the shelf" units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow rate increase of the

  3. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott [National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC), University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3550 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two ''off the shelf'' units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow

  4. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  5. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  6. Business Case for Fuel Cells 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016. This list is by no means exhaustive. Over the past few decades, hundreds of thousands of fuel cells have been installed around the world, for primary or backup power, as well as in various other applications including portable and emergency backup power. Fuel cells have also been deployed in other applications such as heat and electricity for homes and apartments, material handling, passenger vehicles, buses, and remote, off-grid sites.

  7. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  8. Vehicles with fuel cells: dream or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Broeck, H; Hovestreydt, G

    1979-01-01

    Elenco N.V. is developing a hydrogen/potassium hydroxide/air fuel cell system of 10-50 kw with a specific performance of 72 mw/sq cm and a practical operating life of 5000 hr, which will be available in 1981-82. A comparative cost study was performed for vehicles with 100% fuel cells, 100% batteries, hybrid systems of fuel cells combined with batteries that provide high power for acceleration, hydrogen combustion engines, and conventional diesel engines, for city bus fleets, light commercial vehicles, forklifts, and trucks in Holland and Belgium. Hybrid systems give the best economy and they should become competitive with diesel engines after 1990.

  9. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  10. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  11. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  12. Fuel processing requirements and techniques for fuel cell propulsion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Yu, M.

    Fuels for fuel cells in transportation systems are likely to be methanol, natural gas, hydrogen, propane, or ethanol. Fuels other than hydrogen will need to be reformed to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. The fuel reformer must meet stringent requirements for weight and volume, product quality, and transient operation. It must be compact and lightweight, must produce low levels of CO and other byproducts, and must have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Catalytic steam reforming, catalytic or noncatalytic partial oxidation reforming, or some combination of these processes may be used. This paper discusses salient features of the different kinds of reformers and describes the catalysts and processes being examined for the oxidation reforming of methanol and the steam reforming of ethanol. Effective catalysts and reaction conditions for the former have been identified; promising catalysts and reaction conditions for the latter are being investigated.

  13. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  14. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  15. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  16. Technology watch of stationary solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) 2012; Teknikbevakning av stationaera fastoxidbraensleceller (SOFC) 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Martin; Sunden, Bengt

    2013-03-15

    The first solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was developed in 1937. However, the commercialization has waited. In 2012, 20MW of SOFC-systems are expected to be delivered to customers, compared to 1.3 MW in 2008. It is mainly in specific niche markets, such as on-site power generation for data centers, small-scale CHP for individual households and as military applications, where SOFC systems are available today. The future potential is enormous in the just mentioned areas as well as for APUs in trucks and other vehicles as well as for MW-scale distributed power generation. There are public research program, support for demonstration projects and investment support to private households as well as companies in various terms around the world. EU invests SEK 666 million (distributed at hydrogen, fuel cells for transportation, stationary systems and cogeneration) in the FCH-JU program only in 2012, compared with SEK 1.59 billion in the Japanese program (of which 125 million is directed to SOFC research and 740 million to the ENE-FARM project to be distributed between PEMFC and SOFC). The German hydrogen and fuel cell program is SEK 12 billion during 2006-2016 (of which 54% to transportation applications, 36% to stationary applications and 10% to special applications), compared with the Finnish program that invest SEK 1.3 billion in 2007-2013. The federal SECA program directs SEK 160 million to SOFC research. Denmark goes slightly over SEK 115 million annually in public funds for fuel cell research. The trend is that the proportion of public funding for demonstration projects and support to customers for purchasing pre-commercial products is increasing at the expense of basic research funding. Note that the listed research programs involve different types of fuel cells, and information regarding the percentage that goes to SOFCs is not specified for each case. Research continues to deliver new advances. Researchers at Harvard have shown that a SOFC, with vanadium oxide in the

  17. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120 kW e have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then utilized to feed the anode side of the SOFC stacks. A thermal efficiency of 0.424 LHV (lower heating value) for the plant is found to use 89.4 kg/h of feedstock to produce the above mentioned electricity. Thermoeconomic analysis shows that the production price of electricity is 0.1204 $/kWh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214 $/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost that is competitive with the corresponding renewable systems of the same size. - Highlights: • A 120 kW e integrated gasification SOFC–Stirling CHP is presented. • Effect of important parameters on plant characteristic and economy are studied. • A modest thermal efficiency of 0.41 is found after thermoeconomic optimization. • Reducing stack numbers cuts cost of electricity at expense of thermal efficiency. • The plant cost is estimated to be about 3433 $/kW when disposal costs are neglected

  18. Fuel cells - An option for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielstich, W.

    1984-01-01

    The direct conversion of the energy of a fuel into electrical energy in fuel cells avoids the losses inseparable from the indirect conversion via heat and mechanical energy. The idea to use this concept of energy conversion for the application in power stations would offer the following advantages: a slightly better total energy efficiency; no environmental problems; and flexibility in size according to the construction in the battery stacks. The use of acid and alkaline H 2 /O 2 fuel cells in the U.S. space program has demonstrated the high energy per weight data possible with a fuel cell device including tankage. Therefore, the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles seems to be suitable at least from the technical point of view. Kordesch has converted an Austin A-40 to electric propulsion by replacing the gasoline engine by an 8-kW truck motor powered by a 6-kW alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell/4-kW lead-acid hybrid system. Two severe handicaps that occurred were the use of gas cylinders for the storage of the hydrogen and the voluminous CO 2 scrubber to prevent carbonization of the alkaline electrolyte. The direct conversion of a liquid fuel like methanol would be advantageous

  19. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  20. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  1. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L; Scherer, G G; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  2. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbrenner, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'

  3. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...

  4. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  5. Fuel cells: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Casalegno, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development [it

  6. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  7. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  8. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  9. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  10. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Fuel cells is the topic covered in this edition.

  11. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  12. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  13. Carbonate fuel cells: Milliwatts to megawatts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Maru, H. C.

    The carbonate fuel cell power plant is an emerging high efficiency, ultra-clean power generator utilizing a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid carbonaceous fuels for commercial and industrial applications. The primary mover of this generator is a carbonate fuel cell. The fuel cell uses alkali metal carbonate mixtures as electrolyte and operates at ∼650 °C. Corrosion of the cell hardware and stability of the ceramic components have been important design considerations in the early stages of development. The material and electrolyte choices are founded on extensive fundamental research carried out around the world in the 60s and early 70s. The cell components were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The present day carbonate fuel cell construction employs commonly available stainless steels. The electrodes are based on nickel and well-established manufacturing processes. Manufacturing process development, scale-up, stack tests, and pilot system tests dominated throughout the 1990s. Commercial product development efforts began in late 1990s leading to prototype field tests beginning in the current decade leading to commercial customer applications. Cost reduction has been an integral part of the product effort. Cost-competitive product designs have evolved as a result. Approximately half a dozen teams around the world are pursuing carbonate fuel cell product development. The power plant development efforts to date have mainly focused on several hundred kW (submegawatt) to megawatt-class plants. Almost 40 submegawatt units have been operating at customer sites in the US, Europe, and Asia. Several of these units are operating on renewable bio-fuels. A 1 MW unit is operating on the digester gas from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Seattle, Washington (US). Presently, there are a total of approximately 10 MW capacity carbonate fuel cell power plants installed around the world. Carbonate fuel cell products are also being developed to operate on

  14. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  15. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  16. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles[1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H(sub 2) has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H(sub 2)[2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines[3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H(sub 2) from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H(sub 2) for large-scale manufacturing processes

  17. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  18. Performance and cost results from a DOE Micro-CHP demonstration facility at Mississippi State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffin, Paxton K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the cost and performance results of a Micro-CHP demonstration facility. ► Evaluation includes both summer and winter performance. ► Evaluation in comparison to a conventional HVAC system using grid power. ► Influence of improperly sized equipment. ► Influence of natural gas prices on the viability of CHP projects using that fuel. - Abstract: Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems have been around for decades, but systems that utilize 20 kW or less, designated as Micro-CHP, are relatively new. A demonstration site has been constructed at Mississippi State University (MSU) to show the advantages of these micro scale systems. This study is designed to evaluate the performance of a Micro-CHP system as opposed to a conventional high-efficiency Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system that utilizes electrical power from the existing power grid. Raw data was collected for 7 months to present the following results. The combined cycle efficiency from the demonstration site was averaged at 29%. The average combined boiler and engine cost was $1.8 h −1 of operation for heating season and $3.9 h −1 of operation for cooling season. The cooling technology used, an absorption chiller exhibited an average Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 0.27. The conventional high-efficiency system, during cooling season, had a COP of 4.7 with a combined cooling and building cost of $0.2 h −1 of operation. During heating mode, the conventional system had an efficiency of 47% with a fuel and building electrical cost of $0.28 h −1 of operation.

  19. Evaluation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems Using Fuzzy Shannon Entropy and Fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Cavallaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP or cogeneration can play a strategic role in addressing environmental issues and climate change. CHP systems require less fuel than separate heat and power systems in order to produce the same amount of energy saving primary energy, improving the security of the supply. Because less fuel is combusted, greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants are reduced. If we are to consider the CHP system as “sustainable”, we must include in its assessment not only energetic performance but also environmental and economic aspects, presenting a multicriteria issue. The purpose of the paper is to apply a fuzzy multicriteria methodology to the assessment of five CHP commercial technologies. Specifically, the combination of the fuzzy Shannon’s entropy and the fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS approach will be tested for this purpose. Shannon’s entropy concept, using interval data such as the α-cut, is a particularly suitable technique for assigning weights to criteria—it does not require a decision-making (DM to assign a weight to the criteria. To rank the proposed alternatives, a fuzzy TOPSIS method has been applied. It is based on the principle that the chosen alternative should be as close as possible to the positive ideal solution and be as far as possible from the negative ideal solution. The proposed approach provides a useful technical–scientific decision-making tool that can effectively support, in a consistent and transparent way, the assessment of various CHP technologies from a sustainable point of view.

  20. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO 2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  1. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  2. Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Bryan M. [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Bishop, Sean [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Gore, Colin [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Wang, Lei [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Correa, Luis [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Langdo, Thomas [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Deaconu, Stelu [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States); Pan, Keji [Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States)

    2018-02-15

    In this project, we improved the power output and voltage efficiency of our intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) with a focus on ~600 °C operation. At these temperatures and with the increased power density (i.e., fewer cells for same power output), the stack cost should be greatly reduced while extending durability. Most SOFC stacks operate at temperatures greater than 800 °C. This can greatly increase the cost of the system (stacks and BOP) as well as maintenance costs since the most common degradation mechanisms are thermally driven. Our approach uses no platinum group metal (PGM) materials and the lower operating temperature allows use of simple stainless steel interconnects and commercial off-the-shelf gaskets in the stack. Furthermore, for combined heating and power (CHP) applications the stack exhaust still provides “high quality” waste heat that can be recovered and used in a chiller or boiler. The anticipated performance, durability, and resulting cost improvements (< $700/kWe) will also move us closer to reaching the full potential of this technology for distributed generation (DG) and residential/commercial CHP. This includes eventual extension to cleaner, more efficient portable generators, auxiliary power units (APUs), and range extenders for transportation. The research added to the understanding of the area investigated by exploring various methods for increasing power density (Watts/square centimeter of active area in each cell) and increasing cell efficiency (increasing the open circuit voltage, or cell voltage with zero external electrical current). The results from this work demonstrated an optimized cell that had greater than 1 W/cm2 at 600 °C and greater than 1.6 W/cm2 at 650 °C. This was demonstrated in large format sizes using both 5 cm by 5 cm and 10 cm by 10 cm cells. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that high stability (no degradation over > 500 hours) can be achieved together with high performance in large

  3. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)

  4. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  5. Cationic Polymers Developed for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    into five categories: proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel...SOFC and PAFC belong to high temperature fuel cell, which can be applied in stationary power generation. PEMFC and AFC belong to low temperature fuel...function of the polymer electrolyte is to serve as electrolyte to transport ions between electrodes. PEMFC uses a polymer as electrolyte and works

  6. Investment in new power generation under uncertainty: Benefits of CHP vs. condensing plants in a copula-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westner, Günther; Madlener, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a spread-based real options approach to analyze the decision-making problem of an investor who has the choice between an irreversible investment in a condensing power plant without heat utilization and a plant with combined heat-and-power (CHP) generation. Our investigation focuses on large-scale fossil-fueled generation technologies and is based on a stochastic model that uses copula functions to provide the input parameters of the real options model. We define the aggregated annual spread as assessment criteria for our investigation since it contains all relevant volatile input parameters that have an impact on the evaluation of investment decisions. We show that the specific characteristics of CHP plants, such as additional revenues from heat sales, promotion schemes, specific operational features, and a beneficial allocation of CO 2 allowances, have a significant impact on the option value and therefore on the optimal timing for investment. For the two fossil-fueled CHP technologies investigated (combined-cycle gas turbine and steam turbine), we conclude from our analysis that a high share of CHP generation reduces the risk exposure for the investor. The maximal possible CHP generation depends significantly on the local heat demand in the surroundings of the power plant. Considering this, the size of the heat sink available could gain more relevance in the future selection process of sites for new large-scale fossil power plants.

  7. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  8. Proceedings of the fuel cells `95 review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Fuel Cells `95` Review Meeting. Topics included solid oxide fuel cells; DOE`s transportation program; ARPA advanced fuel cell development; molten carbonate fuel cells; and papers presented at a poster session. Individual papers have been processed separately for the U.S. DOE databases.

  9. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  10. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  11. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  12. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ammar, Youssef [Department of Molecular Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Takeda, Soichi [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi [Structural Biophysics Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute at SPring-8, Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mori, Hidezo [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Shigeo, E-mail: wak@ri.ncvc.go.jp [Department of Molecular Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å.

  14. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  15. Actuation method of molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kimoto, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-10-17

    A molten carbonate fuel cell uses reformed gas of crude fuel as fuel gas, but in this gas, CO/sub 2/ is contained in addition to H/sub 2/ and CO which participate the reaction in its fuel electrode. In order to make the reaction of the cell by these gases smoothly, CO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode must be introduced efficiently to its oxygen electrode, however since unreacted H/sub 2/ and CO are contained in the above exhaust gas, they are oxidated and burned once in a boiler and transformed into H/sub 2/O (steam) and CO/sub 2/, then CO/sub 2/ generated in the fuel electrode is added thereto, and afterwards these gases with the air are introduced into the oxygen electrode. However, since this method hinders the high power generation efficiency, in this invention, the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode which burns the reformed gas is introduced into separation chambers separated with CO/sub 2/ permselective membranes, and the mixture of CO/sub 2/ in the above exhaust gas separated with the aforementioned permeable membranes and the air is supplied to the oxygen electrode. At the same time, H/sub 2/ and CO in the above exhaust gas which were not separated with the above permeable membranes are recirculated to the above fuel electrode. (3 figs)

  16. Gas process technology for fuel cells. Desulfurization and other key problems; Gasprozesstechnik fuer Brennstoffzellen. Entschwefelung und andere Kernfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, A.; Kalk, T.; Kvasnicka, A.; Roes, J.; Steffen, M.; Witzany, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., (Germany). ZBT Duisburg

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells as Micro-CHP units for residential energy supply are one important technology option to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Starting from natural gas as energy carrier, hydrogen is generated by catalytic processes. Prototypes are operated in field test in the meanwhile, but there are still important technical and scientific questions to deal with, as there are e.g. the desulfurisation of natural gas, the optimisation of heat integration in order to improve the efficiency of the complete system, the realisation of a closed water loop and last but not least the formation and impact of ammonia. At the same time, cost aspects and production technology have to be considered. (orig.)

  17. Durability of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyu; Reifsnider, Ken

    Durability is still a critical limiting factor for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, a leading energy conversion technology for powering future hydrogen fueled automobiles, backup power systems (e.g., for base transceiver station of cellular networks), portable electronic devices, etc. Ionic conducting polymer (ionomer) electrolyte membranes are the critical enabling materials for the PEM fuel cells. They are also widely used as the central functional elements in hydrogen generation (e.g., electrolyzers), membrane cell for chlor-alkali production, etc. A perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer with the trade name Nafion® developed by DuPont™ is the most widely used PEM in chlor-alkali cells and PEM fuel cells. Similar PFSA membranes have been developed by Dow Chemical, Asahi Glass, and lately Solvay Solexis. Frequently, such membranes serve the dual function of reactant separation and selective ionic conduction between two otherwise separate compartments. For some applications, the compromise of the "separation" function via the degradation and mechanical failure of the electrolyte membrane can be the life-limiting factor; this is particularly the case for PEM in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells.

  18. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  19. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth; Gangi, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It features the top five fuel cell states (in alphabetical order): California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and South Carolina. State activities reported include supportive fuel cell and hydrogen policies, installations and demonstrations, road maps, and level of activism.

  20. NASA fuel cell applications for space: Endurance test results on alkaline fuel cell electrolyzer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheibley, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells continue to play a major role in manned spacecraft power generation. The Gemini and Apollo programs used fuel cell power plants as the primary source of mission electrical power, with batteries as the backup. The current NASA use for fuel cells is in the Orbiter program. Here, low temperature alkaline fuel cells provide all of the on-board power with no backup power source. Three power plants per shipset are utilized; the original power plant contained 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. For extended life and better power performance, each power plant now contains three 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. One of the possible future applications for fuel cells will be for the proposed manned Space Station in low earth orbit (LEO)(1, 2, 3). By integrating a water electrolysis capability with a fuel cell (a regenerative fuel cell system), a multikilowatt energy storage capability ranging from 35 kW to 250 kW can be achieved. Previous development work on fuel cell and electrolysis systems would tend to minimize the development cost of this energy storage system. Trade studies supporting initial Space Station concept development clearly show regenerative fuel cell (RFC) storage to be superior to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries with regard to subsystem weight, flexibility in design, and integration with other spacecraft systems when compared for an initial station power level ranging from 60 kW to 75 kW. The possibility of scavenging residual O 2 and H 2 from the Shuttle external tank for use in fuel cells for producing power also exists

  1. Test and approval center for fuel cell and hydrogen technologies: Phase I. Initiation. Final report; Test- og godkendelsescenter for braendselscelle- og brintteknologier. Fase 1. Opstart. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the present project was to initialize a Test and Approval Center for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies at the sites of the project partners Risoe DTU (Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Division), and DGC (work package 1). The project furthermore included start-up of first activities with focus on the development of accelerated life-time tests of fuel cell systems, preparations for standardization of these methods, and advising in relation to certification and approval of fuel cell systems (work package 2). The main achievements of the project were: Work package 1: 1) A large national and international network was established comprising of important commercial players, research institutions, and other test centers; 2) The test center is known in large part of the international Fuel Cell and Hydrogen community due to substantial efforts in 'marketing'; 3) New national and international projects have been successfully applied for, with significant roles of the test center, which secure the further establishment and development of the center. Work package 2: 1) Testing equipment was installed and commissioned at DTU (Risoe Campus); 2) A comprehensive survey among international players regarding activities on accelerated SOFC testing was carried out; 3) A test procedure for 'compressed' testing of SOFC in relation to {mu} CHP application was developed and used for one-cell stack and 50-cell-stack testing; 4) Guidelines for Danish authority handling were formulated. (Author)

  2. Analysis and optmization of CHP, CCHP, CHP-ORC, and CCHP-ORC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueffed, Anna Kathrine

    Increased demand for energy, rising energy costs, and heightened environmental concerns are driving forces that continually press for the improvement and development of new technologies to promote energy savings and emissions reduction. Combined heating and power (CHP), combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP), and organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are a few of the technologies that promise to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC), cost, and emissions. CHP systems generate electricity at or near the place of consumption using a prime mover, e.g. a combustion engine or a turbine, and utilize the accompanying exhaust heat that would otherwise be wasted to satisfy the building's thermal demand. In the case of CCHP systems, exhaust heat also goes to satisfy a cooling load. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) combined with a CHP or CCHP system can generate electricity from any surplus low-grade heat, thereby reducing the total primary energy, cost, and emissions.

  3. Hydrogen fuel injection - the bridge to fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrist, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' For over a century, industry has embraced a wide variety of applications for hydrogen. Since the mid-1970's, the focus of the bulk of hydrogen research has been in the area of fuel cells. Unfortunately, there is limited awareness of more immediate applications for hydrogen as a catalyst designed to improve the performance of existing hydro-carbon fuelled internal combustion engines. Canadian Hydrogen Energy Company manufactures a patented Hydrogen Fuel Injection System (HFI) that produces hydrogen and oxygen from distilled water and injects them, in measured amounts, into the air intake system on any heavy-duty diesel or gasoline application including trucks, buses, stationary generators, etc. In use on over 30 fleets, research is supported by over 40 million miles of field data. The hydrogen acts as a catalyst to promote more complete combustion, with remarkable results. Dramatically reduce emissions, particularly Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter. Increase horsepower and torque. Improved fuel efficiency (a minimum 10% improvement is guaranteed). Reduced oil degradation The HFI system offers the first large-scale application of the use of hydrogen and an excellent bridge to the fuel-cell technologies of the future. (author)

  4. Materials testing for molten carbonate fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, F.; Frangini, S.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike conventional generation systems fuel cells use an electrochemical reaction between a fossil fuel and an oxidant to produce electricity through a flame less combustion process. As a result, fuel cells offer interesting technical and operating advantages in terms of conversion efficiencies and environmental benefits due to very low pollutant emissions. Among the different kinds of fuel cells the molten carbonate fuel cells are currently being developed for building compact power generation plants to serve mainly in congested urban areas in virtue of their higher efficiency capabilities at either partial and full loads, good response to power peak loads, fuel flexibility, modularity and, potentially, cost-effectiveness. Starting from an analysis of the most important degradative aspects of the corrosion of the separator plate, the main purpose of this communication is to present the state of the technology in the field of corrosion control of the separator plate in order to extend the useful lifetime of the construction materials to the project goal of 40,000 hours

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    vehicles. Hydrogen car image Key Components of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Car Battery (auxiliary): In an Using Hydrogen? Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? on Facebook Tweet about

  6. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  7. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... oxidation of ethanol is in principle a promising concept to supply HTPEM-FCs with a sustainable and on large scale available fuel (ethanol from biomass). However, the intermediate temperature tests in the GDE setup show that even on Pt-based catalysts the reaction rates become first significant...... at potentials, which approach the usual cathode potentials of HTPEM-FCs. Therefore, it seems that H3PO4-based fuel cells are not much suited to efficiently convert ethanol in accordance with findings in earlier research papers. Given that HTPEM-FCs can tolerate CO containing reformate gas, focusing research...

  8. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  9. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  10. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  11. Performance study of an innovative natural gas CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lin; Zhao, Xiling; Zhang, Shigang; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Zuoliang

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, technological innovation and changes in the economic and regulatory environment have resulted in increased attention to distributed energy systems (DES). Combined cooling heating and power (CHP) systems based on the gas-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) are increasingly used as small-scale distribution co-generators. This paper describes an innovative ICE-CHP system with an exhaust-gas-driven absorption heat pump (AHP) that has been set up at the energy-saving building in Beijing, China. The system is composed of an ICE, an exhaust-gas-driven AHP, and a flue gas condensation heat exchanger (CHE), which could recover both the sensible and latent heat of the flue gas. The steady performance and dynamic response of the innovative CHP system with different operation modes were tested. The results show that the system's energy utilization efficiency could reach above 90% based on lower heating value (LHV) of natural gas; that is, the innovative CHP system could increase the heat utilization efficiency 10% compared to conventional CHP systems, and the thermally activated components of the system have much more thermal inertia than the electricity generation component. The detailed test results provide important insight into CHP performance characteristics and could be valuable references for the control of CHP systems. The novel CHP system could take on a very important role in the CHP market. (author)

  12. Studies on PEM Fuel Cell Noble Metal Catalyst Dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Shuang; Skou, Eivind Morten

    Incredibly vast advance has been achieved in fuel cell technology regarding to catalyst efficiency, improvement of electrolyte conductivity and optimization of cell system. With breathtakingly accelerating progress, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) is the most promising and most widely...

  13. Fuel cell technology; Brennstoffzellen-Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimming, U; Friedrich, K A; Cappadonia, M; Vogel, R

    1999-12-31

    Hydrogen from fossil or renewable sources is an important fuel for low-emission power generation in fuel cells. Methanol and maybe also ethanol can also be produced by direct electrochemical processes in low-temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, PAFC). Fuel cell systems with high operating temperatures are highly flexible with regard to fuel but tend to have material problems. On the other hand, rapid developments in materials development and the possibility of production technology transfer from the electronics industry lead one to expect a breakthrough in the near future. But in spite of this, niche market applications will prevail. Since power stations have a longer life than motor vehicles and fuel cells in mobile applications, emission reductions from fuel cell applications in road vehicles are more probable on a medium-term basis than from applications in power stations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wasserstoff, der sowohl aus fossilen wie auch aus regenerativen Quellen erschlossen werden kann, ist ein wesentlicher Brennstoff fuer die emissionsarme Elektrizitaetsproduktion in Brennstoffzellen. Methanol und eventuell Ethanol koennen auch direkt elektrochemisch in Niedertemperaturbrennstoffzellen (PEMFC, PAFC) umgesetzt werden. Brennstoffzellensysteme mit hohen Betriebstemperaturen erlauben eine hohe Flexibilitaet bezueglich der verwendeten Brennstoffe, sind aber nach wie vor durch starke Materialprobleme belastet. Die enormen Fortschritte in der Materialentwicklung einerseits sowie ein moeglicher Transfer von Fertigungstechnologien aus der Elektronikindustrie andererseits lassen eine zukuenftige grosstechnische Nutzung von Brennstoffzellen erwarten. Die technische Einfuehrung wird dennoch nur ueber Nischenmaerkte moeglich sein. Da die mittlere Lebensdauer eines Kraftwerks deutlich hoeher ist als die eines Strassenfahrzeugs, ausserdem Brennstoffzellen auch in staerkerem Masse in Fahrzeugen eingesetzt werden koennen, sind mittelfristig Emissionen eher durch

  14. Polyarylenethioethersulfone Membranes for Fuel Cells (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Electrochemical SocietyProton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs are an attrac- tive power source due to their energy efficiency and...standard in PEMFC technology.3,4 Nafion membranes have a polytetrafluoro- ethylene PTFE backbone, which provides thermal and chemical stability, and...diffusion layers to fabricate MEAs. Single-cell test (H- PEMFC ).— MEAs were positioned in a single-cell fixture with graphite blocks as current

  15. Extending EV Range with Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Steckmann, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Electric cars are the vehicles of the future, and there is a proven hybrid system for extending their mileage. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) provide safe, lightweight, onboard battery charging that can free car owners from worry about running out of power. The hybrid system includes a DMFC fuel cell, fuel cell cartridge and electric vehicle batteries. The fuel cell operates almost silently with virtually no exhaust, it is immune to extreme weather and the convenient fuel cartridges featu...

  16. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  17. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuzheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Solar Energy Science and Technology, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Cai, Yixiao [Ångström Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kim, Jung-Sik [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Wang, Baoyuan [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Wang, Jun, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se; Zhang, Yaoming [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Solar Energy Science and Technology, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Li, Junjiao [Nanjing Yunna Nano Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing (China)

    2016-05-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable, and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC) with single component was invented, which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance, and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed, and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  18. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzheng eLu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of Electrolyte -free fuel cell (EFFC with single component was invented which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  19. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  20. Resonance computations for cells with fuel annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Two methods have been developed for the computation of resonance integrals in cells containing annular fuel regions. Both are based on rational approximations. One is a generalization of a one-term rational approximation method developed by Segev for a cell with a single fuel annulus. The second modifies the earlier Chen-Gelbard two-term method originally used for double-heterogeneity calculations. Both methods were tested, in cells with two fuel annuli, for various U 235 and U 238 resonances. Both gives resonance integrals accurate enough for practical purposes. The two-term fits are substantially more accurate in some NR cases, but are somewhat more difficult to correct for finite resonance widths. 8 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yuzheng; Zhu, Bin; Cai, Yixiao; Kim, Jung-Sik; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoming; Li, Junjiao

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable, and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC) with single component was invented, which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance, and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed, and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  2. A regenerative zinc-air fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, Stuart I. [Electrochemical Technology Development Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Zhang, X. Gregory [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., 2380 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-20

    The zinc regenerative fuel cell (ZRFC) developed by the former Metallic Power Inc. over the period from 1998 to 2004 is described. The component technologies and engineering solutions for various technical issues are discussed in relation to their functionality in the system. The system was designed to serve as a source of backup emergency power for remote or difficult to access cell phone towers during periods when the main power was interrupted. It contained a 12 cell stack providing 1.8 kW, a separate fuel tank containing zinc pellet fuel and electrolyte, and a zinc electrolyzer to regenerate the zinc pellets during standby periods. Offsite commissioning and testing of the system was successfully performed. The intellectual property of the ZRFC technology is now owned by Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. (author)

  3. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  4. Energy management in fuel cell power trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, P.; Corcione, F.E.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experimental results obtained on a small size fuel cell power train (1.8 kW) based on a 500 W proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack are reported and discussed with specific regard to energy management issues to be faced for attainment of the maximum propulsion system efficiency. The fuel cell system (FCS) was realized and characterized via investigating the effects of the main operative variables on efficiency. This resulted in an efficiency higher than 30% in a wide power range with a maximum of 38% at medium load. The efficiency of the overall fuel cell power train measured during both steady state and dynamic conditions (European R40 driving cycle) was about 30%. A discussion about the control strategy to direct the power flows is reported with reference to two different test procedures used in dynamic experiments, i.e., load levelled and load following

  5. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  6. Carbon-based Fuel Cell. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO 2 , and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO 2 exhaust stream for the direct CO 2 sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts

  7. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-03-09

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

  8. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

  9. Fuel choices for fuel-cell vehicles : well-to-wheel energy and emission impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.

    2002-01-01

    Because of their high energy efficiencies and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) are undergoing extensive research and development. While hydrogen will likely be the ultimate fuel to power fuel-cell vehicles, because of current infrastructure constraints, hydrogen-carrying fuels are being investigated as transitional fuel-cell fuels. A complete well-to-wheels (WTW) evaluation of fuel-cell vehicle energy and emission effects that examines (1) energy feedstock recovery and transportation; (2) fuel production, transportation, and distribution; and (3) vehicle operation must be conducted to assist decision makers in selecting the fuel-cell fuels that achieve the greatest energy and emission benefits. A fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model--was used to evaluate well-to-wheels energy and emission impacts of various fuel-cell fuels. The results show that different fuel-cell fuels can have significantly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects. Therefore, if fuel-cell vehicles are to achieve the envisioned energy and emission reduction benefits, pathways for producing the fuels that power them must be carefully examined.

  10. Economic feasibility prediction of the commercial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yan; Karady, George G.; Winston, Anthony; Gilbert, Palomino; Hess, Robert; Pelley, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction method and corresponding Visual Basic program to evaluate the economic feasibility of the commercial fuel cells in utility systems. The economic feasibility of a fuel cell is defined as having a net present value (NPV) greater than zero. The basic process of the method is to combine fuel cell specifications and real energy market data to calculate yearly earning and cost for obtaining the NPV of fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Analysis Software was developed using Visual Basic based on the proposed method. The investigation of a 250 kW molten carbonate fuel cell (FuelCell Energy DFC300A) predicted that, for application specifically in Arizona, United States, no profit would result from the installation of this fuel cell. The analysis results indicated that the efficiency, investment cost, and operation cost are three key factors affecting potential feasibility of the commercial fuel cells

  11. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  12. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Fuel cell power plants for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.

    1983-02-01

    While the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell has until recently not been considered competitive with such commercial and industrial energy systems as gas turbine generators and internal combustion engines, electrical current density improvements have markedly improved the capital cost/kW output rating performance of SPE systems. Recent studies of SPE fuel cell applicability to vehicular propulsion have indicated that with adequate development, a powerplant may be produced which will satisfy the performance, size and weight objectives required for viable electric vehicles, and that the cost for such a system would be competitive with alternative advanced power systems.

  14. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. ChpK and MazF of the toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in the virulence of Leptospira interrogans during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Komi Koukoura; Ge, Yu-Mei; Xin, Xiao-Yang; Ojcius, David M; Sun, Dexter; Hu, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xu'ai; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a global zoonotic infectious disease. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules have been confirmed as stress-response elements that induce prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-growth arrest or death, but their role in the virulence of Leptospira has not been reported. Here, we confirmed that all the tested leptospiral strains had the chpIK and mazEF TA modules with highly-conserved sequences. The transcription and expression of the chpI, chpK, mazE, and mazF genes of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai were significantly increased during infection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced human THP-1 macrophages. The toxic ChpK and MazF but not the antitoxic ChpI and MazE proteins were detectable in the cytoplasmic fraction of leptospire-infected THP-1 cells, indicating the external secretion of ChpK and MazF during infection. Transfection of the chpK or mazF gene caused decreased viability and necrosis in THP-1 cells, whereas the chpI or mazE gene transfection did not affect the viability of THP-1 cells but blocked the ChpK or MazF-induced toxicity. Deletion of the chpK or mazF gene also decreased the late-apoptotic and/or necrotic ratios of THP-1 cells at the late stages of infection. The recombinant protein MazF (rMazF) cleaved the RNAs but not the DNAs from Leptospira and THP-1 cells, and this RNA cleavage was blocked by rMazE. However, the rChpK had no RNA or DNA-degrading activity. All these findings indicate that the ChpK and MazF proteins in TA modules are involved in the virulence of L. interrogans during infection. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of sodium borohydride as a fuel for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    Two types of fuel cell systems using NaBH 4 aqueous solution as a fuel are possible: the hydrogen/air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) which uses onsite H 2 generated via the NaBH 4 hydrolysis reaction (B-PEMFC) at the anode and the direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) system which directly uses NaBH 4 aqueous solution at the anode and air at the cathode. Recently, research on these two types of fuel cells has begun to attract interest due to the various benefits of this liquid fuel for fuel cell systems for portable applications. It might therefore be relevant at this stage to evaluate the relative competitiveness of the two fuel cells. Considering their current technologies and the high price of NaBH 4, this paper evaluated and analyzed the factors influencing the relative favorability of each type of fuel cell. Their relative competitiveness was strongly dependent on the extent of the NaBH 4 crossover. When considering the crossover in DBFC systems, the total costs of the B-PEMFC system were the most competitive among the fuel cell systems. On the other hand, if the crossover problem were to be completely overcome, the total cost of the DBFC system generating six electrons (6e-DBFC) would be very similar to that of the B-PEMFC system. The DBFC system generating eight electrons (8e-DBFC) became even more competitive if the problem of crossover can be overcome. However, in this case, the volume of NaBH 4 aqueous solution consumed by the DBFC was larger than that consumed by the B-PEMFC.

  17. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  18. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  19. Investigation of the prospect of energy self-sufficiency and technical performance of an integrated PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell), dairy farm and biogas plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Tingting; Alvfors, Per; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PEMFC stack with a 40% of electrical efficiency will make the integrated PEMFC-CHP, biogas plant and dairy farm self-sufficient. • The quality of the reformate gas is good enough to support normal operation of the PEMFC-CHP. • The methane conversion rate and the content of the CH 4 in the biogas need to be balanced in order to obtain the best system performance. • Compared with a coal-fired CHP plant, the integrated system can avoid coal consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: A PEMFC fuelled with hydrogen is known for its high efficiency and low local emissions. However, the generation of hydrogen is always a controversial issue for the application of the PEMFC due to the use of fossil fuel and the possible carbon dioxide emissions. Presently, the PEMFC-CHP fed with renewable fuels, such as biogas, appears to be the most attractive energy converter–fuel combination. In this paper, an integrated PEMFC-CHP, a dairy farm and a biogas plant are studied. A PEMFC-CHP fed with reformate gas from the biogas plant generates electricity and heat to a dairy farm and a biogas plant, while the dairy farm delivers wet manure to the biogas plant as the feedstock for biogas production. This integrated system has been modelled for steady-state conditions by using Aspen Plus®. The results indicate that the wet manure production of a dairy farm with 300 milked cows can support a biogas plant to give 1280 MW h of biogas annually. Based on the biogas production, a PEMFC-CHP with a stack having an electrical efficiency of 40% generates 360 MW h electricity and 680 MW h heat per year, which is enough to cover the energy demand of the whole system while the total efficiency of the PEMFC-CHP system is 82%. The integrated PEMFC-CHP, dairy farm and biogas plant could make the dairy farm and the biogas plant self-sufficient in a sustainable way provided the PEMFC-CHP has the electrical efficiency stated above. The effect of the methane conversion rate and the

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Fanglin [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Popov, Branko [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chao, Yuh [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Xue, Xingjian [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  1. Proceedings of the fourth annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, W.J.

    1992-07-01

    Objective of the program was to develop the essential technology for private sector commercialization of various fuel cell electrical generation systems, which promise high fuel efficiencies (40--60%), possibilities for cogeneration, modularity, possible urban siting, and low emissions. Purpose of this meeting was to provide the R and D participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with a forum. With the near commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells, major emphasis was on molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. 22 papers were given in 3 formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells; solid oxide fuel cells; and systems and phosphoric acid. In addition, the proceedings also include a welcome to METC address and comments on the Fuel Cells program from the viewpoint of EPRI and DOE's vehicular fuel cell program. Separate abstracts have been prepared

  2. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteries, making μDMFC a suitable replacement energy source. In this Ph.D. dissertation, silicon micro fabrication...... techniques where utilized to build μDMFCs with the purpose of engineering the structures, both on the micro and nano scales in order to realize a high level of control over the membrane and catalyst components. The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is based...

  3. Portable 25W hybrid fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Slee, R.; Tilley, J.

    2003-01-01

    Increased operating periods for portable electrical equipment are driving the development of battery and fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell systems promise greater endurance than battery based systems, and this paper describes the research into, and design of, a hybrid lithium-ion battery / fuel cell power source. The device is primarily aimed at military applications such as powering army radio sets and the UK MoD's Integrated Soldier Technology (IST) programme, but would be equally suitable as a power source for civilian applications such as camcorders, battery chargers etc. The air-breathing fuel cell comprises low cost, robust components, and a single cell is capable of developing >0.5W cm -2 . This power rating, however, is reduced in a stack where heat rejection becomes a critical issue. The stack design lends itself to facile manufacture, and the stack can be assembled in minutes by simply stacking the components into place. The remainder of the system includes two lithium-ion battery packs which provide start-up and shutdown power, and enable a silent-operating mode, during which the fuel cell is powered down, to be selected. The intelligent, electronic control, based upon an embedded RISC microprocessor, ensures safe operation and the recharge of the batteries. The overall system is capable of delivering 25W continuous power at an operating voltage of 12V dc. Preliminary testing results are reported. Advantages of this system include a relatively high gravimetric power density, load-following operation and the confidence of a high performance battery as an emergency backup. (author)

  4. Solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, F.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': A single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC), operating in a mixture of fuel and oxidant gases, provides several advantages over the conventional SOFC such as simplified cell structure (no sealing required). SC-SOFC allows using a variety of fuels without carbon deposition by selecting appropriate electrode materials and cell operating conditions. The operating conditions of single chamber SOFC was studied using hydrocarbon-air gas mixtures for a cell composed of NiO-YSZ / YSZ / LSCF-Ag. The cell performance and catalytic activity of the anode was measured at various gas flow rates. The results showed that the open-circuit voltage and the power density increased as the gas flow rate increased. Relatively high power densities up to 660 mW/cm 2 were obtained in a SC-SOFC using porous YSZ electrolytes instead of dense electrolytes required for operation of a double chamber SOFC. In addition to propane- or methane-air mixtures as a fuel source, the cells were also tested in a double chamber configuration using hydrogen-air mixtures by controlling the hydrogen/air ratio at the cathode and the anode. Simulation of single chamber conditions in double chamber configurations allows distinguishing and better understanding of the electrode reactions in the presence of mixed gases. Recent research efforts; the effect of hydrogen-air mixtures as a fuel source on the performance of anode and cathode materials in single-chamber and double-chamber SOFC configurations,will be presented. The presentation will address a review on hydrogen production by utilizing of reversible SOFC systems. (author)

  5. Fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Man; Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Keqin; Milliken, Christopher

    Single cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte material were constructed and tested from 600 to 800°C. Both ceria and the electrolyte material were mixed with NiO powder respectively to form composite anodes. Doped lanthanum cobaltite was used exclusively as the cathode material. While high power density from the solid oxide fuel cells at 800°C was achieved. our results clearly indicate that anode overpotential is the dominant factor in the power loss of the cells. Better anode materials and anode processing methods need to be found to fully utilize the high ionic conductivity of the doped lanthanum galiate and achieve higher power density at 800°C from solid oxide fuel cells.

  6. Fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Man [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Goodenough, J.B. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Huang Keqin [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Milliken, C. [Cerematec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Single cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte material were constructed and tested from 600 to 800 C. Both ceria and the electrolyte material were mixed with NiO powder respectively to form composite anodes. Doped lanthanum cobaltite was used exclusively as the cathode material. While high power density from the solid oxide fuel cells at 800 C was achieved, our results clearly indicate that anode overpotential is the dominant factor in the power loss of the cells. Better anode materials and anode processing methods need to be found to fully utilize the high ionic conductivity of the doped lanthanum gallate and achieve higher power density at 800 C from solid oxide fuel cells. (orig.)

  7. Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic fuel cells convert the chemical energy of biofuels into electrical energy. Unlike traditional fuel cell types, which are mainly based on metal catalysts, the enzymatic fuel cells employ enzymes as catalysts. This fuel cell type can be used as an implantable power source for a variety of medical devices used in modern medicine to administer drugs, treat ailments and monitor bodily functions. Some advantages in comparison to conventional fuel cells include a simple fuel cell design and lower cost of the main fuel cell components, however they suffer from severe kinetic limitations mainly due to inefficiency in electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. In this review article, the major research activities concerned with the enzymatic fuel cells (anode and cathode development, system design, modeling by highlighting the current problems (low cell voltage, low current density, stability will be presented.

  8. Hydrogen utilization efficiency in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metkemeyer, R; Achard, P; Rouveyre, L; Picot, D [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre D' energrtique, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work carried out within the framework of the FEVER project (Fuel cell Electric Vehicle for Efficiency and Range), an European project coordinated by Renault, joining Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ansaldo, De Nora, Air Liquide and Volvo. For the FEVER project, where an electrical air compressor is used for oxidant supply, there is no need for hydrogen spill over, meaning that the hydrogen stoichiometry has to be as close to one as possible. To determine the optimum hydrogen utilization efficiency for a 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) fed with pure hydrogen, a 4 kW prototype fuel cell was tested with and without a hydrogen recirculator at the test facility of Ecole des Mines de Paris. Nitrogen cross over from the cathodic compartment to the anodic compartment limits the hydrogen utilization of the fuel cell without recirculator to 97.4 % whereas 100% is feasible when a recirculator is used. 5 refs.

  9. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Su Jang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of microchannel technology. In this study, the conventional method of chemical etching and the mechanical machining method of micro end milling were used for the microfabrication of microchannel for fuel cell separators. The two methods were compared in terms of their performance in the fabrication with regards to dimensional errors, flatness, straightness, and surface roughness. Following microchannel fabrication, the powder blasting technique is introduced to improve the coating performance of the catalyst on the surface of the microchannel. Experimental results show that end milling can remarkably increase the fabrication performance and that surface treatment by powder blasting can improve the performance of catalyst coating.

  10. Fuel cell serves as oxygen level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Monitoring the oxygen level in the air is accomplished by a fuel cell detector whose voltage output is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen in the sampled gas. The relationship between output voltage and partial pressure of oxygen can be calibrated.

  11. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    . Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...

  12. Diffuse Charge Effects in Fuel Cell Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Franco, A.A.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, the standard model for electron transfer kinetics at the membrane/electrode

  13. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  14. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......%. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization...

  15. Degradation of H3PO4/PBI High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell under Stressed Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan

    performance loss caused by CO poisoning can be alleviated by the presence of water vapor. The CO oxidation via the water gas shift reaction is the main reason for the mitigated CO poisoning with the presence of water vapor. Meanwhile, the CO poisoning can deteriorate with the presence of CO2, although the CO2...... for HT-PEM fuel cell based micro-CHP units for households, the daily startup/shutdown operation is necessary. Moreover, the faults in the H2 supply system or in controlling the reformer can cause the H2 starvation of the HT-PEM fuel cell. The effects of these operating conditions to the degradation...... results in the degradation in cell performance of the HT-PEM fuel cell by increasing the charge transfer resistance and mass transfer resistance. The CO with volume fraction of 1% – 3% can cause significant performance loss to the HT-PEM fuel cell at the operating temperature of 150 oC. The cell...

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, L.; Pozio, A.

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes the state of art of systems for energy production in electrical vehicles, looking into the general characteristics of electrodes and membranes. The water and thermal balance of the cell in relation to operative conditions, the pressure and temperature influence on the performance are examined. Special emphasis is given to the electrode characteristics-fabrication techniques and assembly of membrane electrodes. The problems related to the oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode are examined, in relation to the fabrication techniques and to operative conditions of the cells. Finally, the possible alternative catalyzers for anode and cathode are reviewed

  17. Fuel cells. Pt. 1; Celle a combustibile. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanari, S; Macchi, E [Milan Politecnico (Italy). Dip. di Energetica

    1999-01-01

    Direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity (without intermediate heat generation) is a long-established method to improve the efficiency of power generation, as well as to reduce polluting emissions from thermal plants. The origins of fuel cells, as well as their operating principles, are dealt with. Then, various types of cells are taken into consideration, on the basis of both their characteristics and the operating principles of electrolytes. Finally, structure and operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC) and Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) are described. [Italiano] La conversione diretta dell`energia chimica del combustibile in energia elettrica, senza passare attraverso la produzione di calore, rappresenta una via ormai ampiamente collaudata per migliorare l`efficienza della produzione di energia elettrica e per contenere le emissioni generate dagli impianti termoelettrici. L`articolo, dopo una breve presentazione della storia dello sviluppo nel tempo delle celle a combustibile, espone i principi di funzionamento delle stesse. Si esaminano quindi i vari tipi di cella a partire dalle caratteristiche e dalle modalita` di funzionamento degli elettroliti che ne definiscono la classificazione. Successivamente vengono illustrate le caratteristiche costruttive e funzionali delle celle ad elettrolita polimerico (PEMFC), delle celle alcaline (AFC) e delle celle ad acido fosforico (PAFC).

  18. Integration of torrefaction in CHP plants – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starfelt, Fredrik; Tomas Aparicio, Elena; Li, Hailong; Dotzauer, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the integration of a torrefaction reactor in a CHP plant. • Techno-economic analysis for the system is performed. • Flue gas integration of torrefaction show better performance. • Heat or electricity production is not compromised in the proposed system. - Abstract: Torrefied biomass shows characteristics that resemble those of coal. Therefore, torrefied biomass can be co-combusted with coal in existing coal mills and burners. This paper presents simulation results of a case study where a torrefaction reactor was integrated in an existing combined heat and power plant and sized to replace 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of the fossil coal in one of the boilers. The simulations show that a torrefaction reactor can be integrated with existing plants without compromising heat or electricity production. Economic and sensitivity analysis show that the additional cost for integrating a torrefaction reactor is low which means that with an emission allowance cost of 37 €/ton CO 2 , the proposed integrated system can be profitable and use 100% renewable fuels. The development of subsidies will affect the process economy. The determinant parameters are electricity and fuel prices

  19. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  20. A novel direct carbon fuel cell by approach of tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Renzhu; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Junliang; Zeng, Fanrong; Wang, Shaorong; Wen, Tinglian; Wen, Zhaoyin [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Inorganic Energy Materials and Power Source Engineering Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A direct carbon fuel cell based on a conventional anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell, which consisted of a NiO-YSZ anode support tube, a NiO-ScSZ anode functional layer, a ScSZ electrolyte film, and a LSM-ScSZ cathode, has been successfully achieved. It used the carbon black as fuel and oxygen as the oxidant, and a preliminary examination of the DCFC has been carried out. The cell generated an acceptable performance with the maximum power densities of 104, 75, and 47 mW cm{sup -2} at 850, 800, and 750 C, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility for carbon directly converting to electricity in tubular solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  1. Canadian fuel cell commercialization roadmap update : progress of Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbee, S.; Karlsson, T.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells are considered an essential part of future low-carbon energy systems for transportation and stationary power. In recognition of this, Industry Canada has worked in partnership with public and private stakeholders to provide an update to the 2003 Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap to determine infrastructure requirements for near-term markets. The update includes technology and market developments in terms of cost and performance. This presentation included an overview of global hydrogen and fuel cell markets as background and context for the activities of the Canadian industry. Approaches toward commercial viability and mass market success were also discussed along with possible scenarios and processes by which these mass markets could develop. Hydrogen and fuel cell industry priorities were outlined along with recommendations for building a hydrogen infrastructure

  2. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  3. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    major types of fuel cells in practice are listed below: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell ( PEMFC ) Alkaline Fuel cell (AFC) Phosphoric Acid...Material Operating Temperature (oC) Efficiency (%) PEMFC H2, Methanol, Formic Acid Hydrated Organic Polymer < 90 40-50 AFC Pure H2 Aqueous

  4. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  5. Graphene-Based Flexible Micrometer-Sized Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.; Qaisi, Ramy M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells harvest electrical energy produced by bacteria during the natural decomposition of organic matter. We report a micrometer-sized microbial fuel cell that is able to generate nanowatt-scale power from microliters of liquids

  6. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  7. Fuel cell electrodes: Electrochemical characterization and electrodeposition of Pt nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Electrolyte: solid polymer membrane (typically Nafion) Types of fuel cells (FC) ? CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za PEMFC http://fuelcellsworks.com/ ? CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za Electrodes...

  8. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  9. Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells has...

  10. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell short stack performance testing - Part A: Experimental analysis and μ-combined heat and power unit comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, L.; Campanari, S.; Brouwer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The need to experimentally understand the detailed performance of SOFC stacks under operating conditions typical of commercial SOFC systems has prompted this two-part study. The steady state performance of a 6-cell short stack of yttria (Y2O3) stabilised zirconia (YSZ) with Ni/YSZ anodes and composite Sr-doped lanthanum manganite (LaMnO3, LSM)/YSZ cathodes is experimentally evaluated. In Part A, the stack characterisation is carried out by means of sensitivity analyses on the fuel utilisation factor and the steam-to-carbon ratio. Electrical and environmental performances are assessed and the results are compared with a commercial full-scale micro-CHP system, which comprises the same cells. The results show that the measured temperature dynamics of the short stack in a test stand environment are on the order of many minutes; therefore, one cannot neglect temperature dynamics for a precise measurement of the steady state polarisation behaviour. The overall polarisation performance is comparable to that of the full stack employed in the micro-CHP system, confirming the good representation that short-stack analyses can give of the entire SOFC module. The environmental performance is measured verifying the negligible values of NO emissions (<10 ppb) across the whole polarisation curve.

  12. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Susan; Rush, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  14. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  15. Implantable biochemical fuel cell. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-09-14

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  16. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  17. Opportunities for PEM fuel cell commercialization : fuel cell electric vehicle demonstration in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The research and development activities devoted to the development of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were discussed with reference to its application in the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). In the past decade, PEMFC technology has been successfully applied in both the automobile and residential sector worldwide. In China, more than one billion RMB yuan has been granted by the Chinese government to develop PEM fuel cell technology over the past 5 years, particularly for commercialization of the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). The City of Shanghai has played a significant role in the FCEV demonstration with involvement by Shanghai Auto Industrial Company (SAIC), Tongji University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, and Shanghai Shenli High Tech Co. Ltd. These participants were involved in the development and integration of the following components into the FCEV: fuel cell engines, batteries, FCEV electric control systems, and primary materials for the fuel cell stack. During the course of the next five year-plan (2006-2010), Shanghai will promote the commercialization of FCEV. More than one thousand FCEVs will be manufactured and an FCEV fleet will be in operation throughout Shanghai City by 2010.

  18. Hierarchical control of vehicular fuel cell / battery hybrid powertrain

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    In a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, a fuel cell system fulfills the stationary power demand, and a traction battery provides the accelerating power and recycles braking energy. The entire system is coordinated by a distributed control system, incorporating three key strategies: 1) vehicle control, 2) fuel cell control and 3) battery management. They make up a hierarchical control system. This paper introduces a hierarchical control strategy for a fuel cell / ...

  19. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate t...

  20. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    temperature fuel cells including proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) and alkaline fuel cell (AFC) with operation temperature usually lower than 120...advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) resulting in the popularity of AFCs in the US space program.[8-11] The primary benefit AFC...offered over PEMFC is better electrochemical kinetics on the anode and cathode under the alkaline environment, which results in the ability to use

  1. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-15

    This 2011 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides an update of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. State activities reported include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activities by state industries and universities.

  2. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  3. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  4. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  5. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, E.R.; Cracraft, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  6. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-03-30

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  7. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuum Magazine | NREL Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Powered by a fuel cell system with light-weight, high-pressure hydrogen tanks, an electric motor, a nickel -metal-hydride battery, and a power-control unit, the Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle has zero tailpipe

  8. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  9. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  10. Review of cell performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) have recently received increasing attention since in principle they allow for the use of non-precious metal catalysts, which dramatically reduces the cost per kilowatt of power in fuel cell devices. Until not long ago, the main barrier in the development of AEMFCs was the availability of highly conductive anion exchange membranes (AEMs); however, improvements on this front in the past decade show that newly developed AEMs have already reached high levels of conductivity, leading to satisfactory cell performance. In recent years, a growing number of research studies have reported AEMFC performance results. In the last three years, new records in performance were achieved. Most of the literature reporting cell performance is based on hydrogen-AEMFCs, although an increasing number of studies have also reported the use of fuels others than hydrogen - such as alcohols, non-alcohol C-based fuels, as well as N-based fuels. This article reviews the cell performance and performance stability achieved in AEMFCs through the years since the first reports in the early 2000s.

  11. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  12. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    E-cient fuel cell systems have started to appear in many dierent commercial applications and large scale production facilities are already operating to supply fuel cells to support an ever growing market. Fuel cells are typically considered to replace leadacid batteries in applications where...... to conventional PEM fuel cells, that use liquid water as a proton conductor and thus operate at temperatures below 100oC. The HTPEM fuel cell membrane in focus in this work is the BASF Celtec-P polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane that uses phosphoric acid as a proton conductor. The absence of water in the fuel cells...... enables the use of designing cathode air cooled stacks greatly simplifying the fuel cell system and lowering the parasitic losses. Furthermore, the fuel impurity tolerance is signicantly improved because of the higher temperatures, and much higher concentrations of CO can be endured without performance...

  13. Optimal integrated sizing and planning of hubs with midsize/large CHP units considering reliability of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Saeed; Ghaffarpour, Reza; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Mozaffari, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New hub planning formulation is proposed to exploit assets of midsize/large CHPs. • Linearization approaches are proposed for two-variable nonlinear CHP fuel function. • Efficient operation of addressed CHPs & hub devices at contingencies are considered. • Reliability-embedded integrated planning & sizing is formulated as one single MILP. • Noticeable results for costs & reliability-embedded planning due to mid/large CHPs. - Abstract: Use of multi-carrier energy systems and the energy hub concept has recently been a widespread trend worldwide. However, most of the related researches specialize in CHP systems with constant electricity/heat ratios and linear operating characteristics. In this paper, integrated energy hub planning and sizing is developed for the energy systems with mid-scale and large-scale CHP units, by taking their wide operating range into consideration. The proposed formulation is aimed at taking the best use of the beneficial degrees of freedom associated with these units for decreasing total costs and increasing reliability. High-accuracy piecewise linearization techniques with approximation errors of about 1% are introduced for the nonlinear two-dimensional CHP input-output function, making it possible to successfully integrate the CHP sizing. Efficient operation of CHP and the hub at contingencies is extracted via a new formulation, which is developed to be incorporated to the planning and sizing problem. Optimal operation, planning, sizing and contingency operation of hub components are integrated and formulated as a single comprehensive MILP problem. Results on a case study with midsize CHPs reveal a 33% reduction in total costs, and it is demonstrated that the proposed formulation ceases the need for additional components/capacities for increasing reliability of supply.

  14. Accelerated testing of fuel cell components in 2 x 2 inch fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, A.J.; Adams, A.A.; Joebstl, J.A.; Walker, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of diagnostic procedures which can be used to predict failure modes and assess the effects of these failures on fuel cell performance. Some straightforward diagnostic techniques have been used to evaluate fuel cells assembled with a variety of matrix and electrode combinations. These techniques included accelerated on-off cycling, thermal cycling with H2/CO mixtures, and automatic polarization measurements. Information has been obtained concerning the effects of electrolyte management and catalyst poisoning on performance and lifetime characteristics of 2 x 2 in. single cells. The use of on-off cycling has shown that short-term fuel cell performance is generally unaffected by load changes and cycle sequence in 2 x 2 in. cells when electrolyte management is adequate. Dynamic polarization curves can be used instead of point by point steady-state plots without any loss in accuracy

  15. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion

  16. XAS Investigations of PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christina; Ramaker, David E.

    Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are still far from an area-wide market launch due in part to long-term stability, reliability and cost issues. A more detailed knowledge of the underlying reaction mechanisms is expected to further their application, as it would allow for the design of tailor-made catalysts. However, this will only be possible by complementing traditional in situ studies on single-crystals in electrochemical cells with more sophisticated metal/electrolyte interfacial studies by novel spectroscopic methodologies, which can provide complementary insights into the behaviour of commercial catalysts under real fuel cell operating conditions. This review will focus on the advances of Xray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in applied fuel cell research utilizing several examples. XAS enables both the nanoparticle morphology and the adsorbate coverage and binding site to be investigated with just one technique. The latter is possible when complementing the conventional extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis with the more novel Δμ XANES approach.

  17. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaji, S. O. T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M.

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed.

  18. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogaji, S.O.T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M. [Power Propulsion and Aerospace Engineering Department, Centre for Diagnostics and Life Cycle Costs, Cranfield University (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-09

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Development of a CHP/DH system for the new town of Parand: An opportunity to mitigate global warming in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi Tehrani, S. Saeed; Saffar-Avval, M.; Mansoori, Z.; Behboodi Kalhori, S.; Abbassi, A.; Dabir, B.; Sharif, M.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the worldwide concern about global warming, projects that target reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have gained a lot of interest. The idea of this paper is to recover exhaust hot gases of an existing gas turbine power plant to meet dynamic thermal energy requirements of a residential area (the new town of Parand) situated in the suburb of Tehran, and also use the rest of the heat source potential to feed a steam turbine cycle. In close proximity to this town, there are two GT plants: Parand (954 MW e ) and Rudeshur (790 MW e ). For handling the CHP/STC/DH plant, two methods are considered along with thermal load following operation strategy: maximum power generation (MPG) and minimum fuel consumption (MFC). Then, the alternatives are compared in terms of annual PES, CO 2 abatement and NPV. For the best design from environmental viewpoint (Parand CHP-B), PES, CO 2 abatement and NPV are calculated to be 27.31%, 2.56 million tons and 1491 million dollar, respectively. -- Highlights: • To propose a technical and financial methodology to evaluate CHP/DH projects. • To address environmental advantages of CHPs with conventional plants. • To present practical operation strategies to increase benefits of CHP/DH plants. • To report/compare benefits of various CHP/DH alternatives for a case study in Iran. • To conduct a comprehensive energy analysis of proposed CHP/DH design options

  20. Highly durable, coking and sulfur tolerant, fuel-flexible protonic ceramic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chuancheng; Kee, Robert J; Zhu, Huayang; Karakaya, Canan; Chen, Yachao; Ricote, Sandrine; Jarry, Angelique; Crumlin, Ethan J; Hook, David; Braun, Robert; Sullivan, Neal P; O'Hayre, Ryan

    2018-05-01

    Protonic ceramic fuel cells, like their higher-temperature solid-oxide fuel cell counterparts, can directly use both hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels to produce electricity at potentially more than 50 per cent efficiency 1,2 . Most previous direct-hydrocarbon fuel cell research has focused on solid-oxide fuel cells based on oxygen-ion-conducting electrolytes, but carbon deposition (coking) and sulfur poisoning typically occur when such fuel cells are directly operated on hydrocarbon- and/or sulfur-containing fuels, resulting in severe performance degradation over time 3-6 . Despite studies suggesting good performance and anti-coking resistance in hydrocarbon-fuelled protonic ceramic fuel cells 2,7,8 , there have been no systematic studies of long-term durability. Here we present results from long-term testing of protonic ceramic fuel cells using a total of 11 different fuels (hydrogen, methane, domestic natural gas (with and without hydrogen sulfide), propane, n-butane, i-butane, iso-octane, methanol, ethanol and ammonia) at temperatures between 500 and 600 degrees Celsius. Several cells have been tested for over 6,000 hours, and we demonstrate excellent performance and exceptional durability (less than 1.5 per cent degradation per 1,000 hours in most cases) across all fuels without any modifications in the cell composition or architecture. Large fluctuations in temperature are tolerated, and coking is not observed even after thousands of hours of continuous operation. Finally, sulfur, a notorious poison for both low-temperature and high-temperature fuel cells, does not seem to affect the performance of protonic ceramic fuel cells when supplied at levels consistent with commercial fuels. The fuel flexibility and long-term durability demonstrated by the protonic ceramic fuel cell devices highlight the promise of this technology and its potential for commercial application.