WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel cell activities

  1. Phosphoric acid fuel cell R and D activities at KACST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, M.; Aba-Oud, H.; Ba-Junaid, M.; Al-Garni, M.; Quadri, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    The PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) activities are directed towards the development of components of single cell and experimental stacks at KACST. The main aim of the present task is to design and construct a 1 kW PAFC Stack and demonstrate it by integrating with an electrolyser using a DC current generated by a photovoltaic power source. This paper describes the preparation of porous teflon bonded gas diffusion carbon electrodes and their evaluation as single phosphoric acid fuel cells using hydrogen as a fuel and oxygen/air as an oxidant. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs

  2. Fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooie, D. T.; Harrington, B. C., III; Mayfield, M. J.; Parsons, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

  3. A gradient activation method for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guicheng; Yang, Zhaoyi; Halim, Martin; Li, Xinyang; Wang, Manxiang; Kim, Ji Young; Mei, Qiwen; Wang, Xindong; Lee, Joong Kee

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A gradient activation method was reported firstly for direct methanol fuel cells. • The activity recovery of Pt-based catalyst was introduced into the novel activation process. • The new activation method led to prominent enhancement of DMFC performance. • DMFC performance was improved with the novel activation step by step within 7.5 h. - Abstract: To realize gradient activation effect and recover catalytic activity of catalyst in a short time, a gradient activation method has firstly been proposed for enhancing discharge performance and perfecting activation mechanism of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). This method includes four steps, i.e. proton activation, activity recovery activation, H 2 -O 2 mode activation and forced discharging activation. The results prove that the proposed method has gradually realized replenishment of water and protons, recovery of catalytic activity of catalyst, establishment of transfer channels for electrons, protons, and oxygen, and optimization of anode catalyst layer for methanol transfer in turn. Along with the novel activation process going on, the DMFC discharge performance has been improved, step by step, to more than 1.9 times higher than that of the original one within 7.5 h. This method provides a practicable activation way for the real application of single DMFCs and stacks.

  4. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  5. Fuel cells seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  6. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report, France 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report gathers the main highlights of 2009 in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in France. It presents the political context (priority to a sustainable development and to renewable energies) and the main initiatives (official commitment, projects and programmes launched by different public bodies and organizations). It briefly presents the projects and programmes concerning the hydrogen: ANR programmes, national structures dedicated to hydrogen and fuel cells, fundamental research, demonstrator project (the H2E project), applications in transport (a project by Peugeot, the Althytude project coordinated by GDF, the Hychain European project, and other airborne or maritime projects), stationary applications (MYRTE). It also briefly describes the activities of some small companies (CETH, McPHY, RAIGI, PRAGMA Industries, N-GHY, SAGIM), and regional initiatives. Colloquiums, congresses and meetings are mentioned

  7. H2 and Fuel cell annual activity report - France 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, Paul; Julien, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This report aims making better known the hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in France and their main actors (large groups, small and medium-sized enterprises, start-ups, research centres). After a presentation of the French energy context, it presents the national programme and strategic actions, and local programmes and initiatives. The next chapter presents the main results and events for the different fields of application: leading edge markets, transports, decentralized or residential stationary applications, hydrogen and renewable energies, portable applications, transverse domains. The annual activity and main results of the different actors are then presented: research and development, small or medium sized enterprises and start-ups, large groups

  8. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...

  9. Activation method of the fuel electrode of a methanol fuel cell. Methanol nenryo denchi no nenryokyoku no kasseika hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, H.; Tanizaki, K.; Dokoshi, H. (Aisin AW Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan))

    1992-09-04

    It is known that, with the addition of 1-2% of oxygen to the fuel in a methanol fuel cell, carbon monoxide adsorbed on a platinum catalyst is oxidized to carbon dioxide, liberated from the platinum catalyst and exhausted from the fuel chamber. However, in this method, the efficiency of the fuel cell decreases because oxygen is always contained in the fuel and burnt directly in the fuel electrode. Moreover, in case platinum-ruthenium is used as a catalyst in the fuel electrode, the catalyst adsorbs oxygen very well and a small amount of hydrogen or oxygen should be supplied from the outside in order to activate the catalyst. The invention concerns an activation method of the oxygen-adsorbing fuel electrode of a methanol fuel cell, in which water in the electrolyte solution in the methanol fuel cell is eletrolyzed by the use of the fuel cell as a cathode with an external power supply so as to remove the oxygen adsorbed in the fuel electrode. 7 figs.

  10. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  11. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report - France 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The report gathers the main outstanding facts which occurred in France in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in 2009. After having noticed some initiatives (French commitment in renewable energy production, new role for the CEA, cooperation between different research and industrial bodies, development of electric vehicles, research programs), the report presents several projects and programs regarding hydrogen: ANR programs, creation of a national structure, basic research by the CEA and CNRS, demonstration projects (H2E), transport applications (a hybrid 307 by Peugeot, the Althytude project by GDF and Suez, the Hychain European project by Air Liquide, a dirigible airship, an ultra-light aviation project, a submarine), some stationary applications (the Myrte project, a wind energy project), activity in small and medium-sized enterprises, regional initiatives, colloquiums and meetings.

  12. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report - France 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report gathers the main outstanding facts which occurred in France in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in 2010. After having noticed some initiatives (the Grenelle II law, an investment package, the new role of the CEA, the new role of the IFP), the report presents several projects and programs regarding hydrogen: ANR programs, creation of a national structure (the HyPaC platform), regional initiatives and local actions, colloquiums and meetings in France and in the world, research projects (photo-synthesis as a new electric energy source), a technical-economic investigation (HyFrance3), demonstrator projects (the Althytude project by GDF and Suez, the Plathee hybrid locomotive by the SNCF, the H2E project, the Zero CO 2 sailing boat, and the Myrte project), educational applications, activity in small and medium-sized enterprises (CETH, SAGIM, HYCAN, McPhy, N-GHY).

  13. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  14. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  15. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  16. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  17. Electrode activation and passivation of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hendriksen, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of anode-supported cells with a composite LSM-YSZ cathode and an LSM current collector was investigated. Over the first 48 hours, after the application of a constant current, the cell voltage was observed to increase by up to 20%. When the current was switched off, the cell...... resistance increased significantly over the next four days at open circuit conditions. Apparently, at OCV conditions cell passivation occurs. The cell gradually reactivates, once the current is switched on again. Part of this activation/passivation process is fast enough to influence the resistance...... of the cell during i-V measurements (over less than 1 hour) and a considerable hysteresis is observed in the cell voltage during these measurements. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the activation/passivation process. It was found that the series resistance and the part of the polarisation...

  18. Fuel cells : emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan Jerram, L.; Adamson, K.A.; Butler, J.; Huleatt-James, N.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlighted the findings of the 2009 review of the fuel cell industry and emerging markets as they appeared in Fuel Cell Today (FCT), a benchmark document on global fuel cell activity. Since 2008, the industry has seen a 50 per cent increase in fuel cell systems shipped, from 12,000 units to 18,000 units. Applications have increased for backup power for datacentres, telecoms and light duty vehicles. The 2009 review focused on emerging markets which include non-traditional regions that may experience considerable diffusion of fuel cells within the next 5 year forecast period. The 2009 review included an analysis on the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Brazil and India and reviewed primary drivers, likely applications for near-term adoption, and government and private sector activity in these regions. The presentation provided a forecast of the global state of the industry in terms of shipments as well as a forecast of countries with emerging markets

  19. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  20. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  1. Development of active, and stable water-gas-shift reaction catalysts for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babich, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathu Iyer; Lefferts, Leon

    2006-01-01

    Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction CO + H2O = CO2 + H2, is a key step in the generation of H2 for fuel cells. Noble metal-based catalysts are promising single stage WGS catalysts because they less sensitive than LTS catalysts (Cu based) and more active than the HTS (Ni) catalysts. High activity in CO

  2. High-activity PtRuPd/C catalyst for direct dimethyl ether fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wen, Xiaodong; Wu, Gang; Chung, Hoon T; Gao, Rui; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-06-22

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for direct-feed fuel cells but lack of an efficient DME oxidation electrocatalyst has remained the challenge for the commercialization of the direct DME fuel cell. The commonly studied binary PtRu catalyst shows much lower activity in DME than methanol oxidation. In this work, guided by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, a ternary carbon-supported PtRuPd catalyst was designed and synthesized for DME electrooxidation. DFT calculations indicated that Pd in the ternary PtRuPd catalyst is capable of significantly decreasing the activation energy of the CO and CH bond scission during the oxidation process. As evidenced by both electrochemical measurements in an aqueous electrolyte and polymer-electrolyte fuel cell testing, the ternary catalyst shows much higher activity (two-fold enhancement at 0.5 V in fuel cells) than the state-of-the-art binary Pt50 Ru50 /C catalyst (HiSPEC 12100). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  4. Electrocatalysts and their Supporting Materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Activity and Durability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permyakova, Anastasia Aleksandrovna

    other methods. The thesis begins with an introduction in Chapter 1 providing an overview of fuel cells, their associated reaction mechanisms, catalysts and catalysts supports. Chapter 2 presents the theoretical background to the study including equipment and the techniques used to analyse the catalysts......This thesis describes investigations conducted exploring the activity, stability and durability of supported nano-particulate, bulk and thin film electrocatalysts used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The effects of different factors and conditions on the reactions involved...

  5. Performance of an Active Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Reduced Catalyst Loading MEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Falcão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The micro direct methanol fuel cell (MicroDMFC is an emergent technology due to its special interest for portable applications. This work presents the results of a set of experiments conducted at room temperature using an active metallic MicroDMFC with an active area of 2.25 cm2. The MicroDMFC uses available commercial materials with low platinum content in order to reduce the overall fuel cell cost. The main goal of this work is to provide useful information to easily design an active MicroDMFC with a good performance recurring to cheaper commercial Membrane Electrode Assemblies MEAs. A performance/cost analysis for each MEA tested is provided. The maximum power output obtained was 18.1 mW/cm2 for a hot-pressed MEA with materials purchased from Quintech with very low catalyst loading (3 mg/cm2 Pt–Ru at anode side and 0.5 mg/cm2 PtB at the cathode side costing around 15 euros. Similar power values are reported in literature for the same type of micro fuel cells working at higher operating temperatures and substantially higher cathode catalyst loadings. Experimental studies using metallic active micro direct methanol fuel cells operating at room temperature are very scarce. The results presented in this work are, therefore, very useful for the scientific community.

  6. Lattice-Strain Control of the Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, P. [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin); Koh, Shirlaine [University of Houston, Houston; Anniyev, Toyli [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Greeley, Jeff [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Yu, Chengfei [University of Houston, Houston; Liu, Zengcai [University of Houston, Houston; Kaya, Sarpa [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Nordlund, Dennis [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Ogasawara, Hirohito [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Toney, Michael F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Anders, Nilsson [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We demonstrate the core-shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity-strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  7. Lattice-Strain Control of the Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, Peter; Shirlaine, Koh; Anniyev, Toyli; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; More, Karren L.; Yu, Chengfei; Liu, Zengcai; Kaya, Sarp; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Toney, Michael F.; Nilsson, Anders R.

    2010-04-30

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal–air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal–air batteries. We demonstrate the core–shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity–strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  8. Fuel cell research: Towards efficient energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available fuel cells by optimising the loading of catalyst (being expensive noble metals) and ionomer; 2) Improving conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells by developing more efficient catalysts and by investigating other fuels than methanol; 3...) Investigating anionic membranes for use in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells, as cheaper and more efficient alternatives to conventional acidic direct alcohol fuel cells. The aim of the authors’ research activities is to develop fuel cell...

  9. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability of monodisperse Pt nanocomposites for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, Sinan; Daşdelen, Zeynep; Sen, Fatih

    2018-03-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are one of the most important fuel cells operating at low temperature using methanol as fuel and they need very efficient catalysts to activate the methanol. Generally, the most efficient fuel cell catalysts are platinum-based nanoparticles that can be used by different supporting materials such as different as prepared and functionalized carbon derivatives. For this purpose, herein, the carbon black has been mainly functionalized with an acidification process in order to increase the electrical conductivity and heterogeneous electron transfer rate of supporting materials. After functionalization of carbon black (f-CB), platinum salt (PtCl 4 ) was stabilized with propylamine (PA) in the presence of ethylene glycol (EG) and f-CB by microwave synthesis method. XPS, XRD, TEM and Raman Spectroscopy techniques were used to determine the morphology of the prepared catalyst. The results showed that the prepared nanocatalyst has face-centered cubic (fcc) structure and uniformly distribution on supporting material. Besides, chronoamperometry (CA) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques were used to determine the electrochemical activity of functionalized carbon black supported Pt NPs (Pt/f-CB) towards methanol. From the results obtained from the CV and CA, it was found that the activity of the Pt/f-CB NPs (50 mA/cm 2 ) was almost 4-5 times higher than that of the Pt/CB NPs and commercial available Pt/C catalyst (ETEK). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  11. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  12. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  13. Orbiter fuel cell improvement assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    The history of fuel cells and the theory of fuel cells is given. Expressions for thermodynamic and electrical efficiencies are developed. The voltage losses due to electrode activation, ohmic resistance and ionic diffusion are discussed. Present limitations of the Orbiter Fuel Cell, as well as proposed enhancements, are given. These enhancements are then evaluated and recommendations are given for fuel cell enhancement both for short-range as well as long-range performance improvement. Estimates of reliability and cost savings are given for enhancements where possible

  14. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  15. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  16. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  17. Electrocatalytic activity of carbon-supported catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, F.J. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Saltillo, Coahuila, (Mexico). Grupo de Investigacion en Energia; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) can be fueled with hydrogen, alcohols, hydrocarbons and acetals. Ethanol is an important fuel candidate because it can be electro-oxidized to carbon dioxide on platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at relatively low temperatures. This study investigated the electrocatalytic activity of some carbon-supported electrocatalysts towards the ethanol oxidation (EOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the presence of ethanol. Compared to other anode catalysts such as Pt, PtRu and Pt oxide, anodes based on PtSn alloys have a higher catalytic activity for the EOR. When tested in a DEFC, the current density at 0.4V and 90 degrees C based on a PtSn/C anode and a Pt/C cathode was 2 times higher than that of a cell based on a PtRu/C-Pt/C membrane electrode assembly (MEA) configuration. In addition, cathode catalysts based on Ru/C had good catalytic activity for the ORR and exhibited high selectivity for this reaction in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that in the presence of 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 M ethanol concentrations, a decrease in onset potential of about 60, 62 and 68 mV emerged, respectively. These values were about 10 times lower than those measured for some Pt-based cathode catalysts tested in this study in the presence of 0.125 M EtOH. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  18. A cost-effective microbial fuel cell to detect and select for photosynthetic electrogenic activity in algae and cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luimstra, V.M.; Kennedy, S.J.; Güttler, J.; Wood, S.A.; Williams, D.E.; Packer, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of an easily constructed, cost-effective photosynthetic microbial fuel cell design with highly reproducible electrochemical characteristics that can be used to screen algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthetic electrogenic activity. It is especially suitable for

  19. Activated carbon derived from chitosan as air cathode catalyst for high performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yong; Li, Kexun; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Pei; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan with rich of nitrogen is used as carbon precursor to synthesis activated carbon through directly heating method in this study. The obtained carbon is activated by different amount of KOH at different temperatures, and then prepared as air cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Carbon sample treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C exhibits maximum power density (1435 ± 46 mW m-2), 1.01 times improved, which ascribes to the highest total surface area, moderate micropore and mesoporous structure and the introduction of nitrogen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and powder resistivity state that carbon treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C possesses lower resistance. The other electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the best kinetic activity make the above treated sample to show the best oxygen reduction reaction activity. Besides, the degree of graphitization of samples increases with the activated temperature increasing, which is tested by Raman. According to elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, all chitosan samples are nitrogen-doped carbon, and high content nitrogen (pyridinic-N) improves the electrochemical activity of carbon treated with KOH at 850 °C. Thus, carbon materials derived from chitosan would be an optimized catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell.

  20. Facile Synthesis of Highly Active and Robust Ni-Mo Bimetallic Electrocatalyst for Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  2. Surface-Activated Amorphous Alloy Fuel Electrodes for Methanol Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Asahi, Kawashima; Koji, Hashimoto; The Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals; The Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous alloy electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of methanol and its derivatives were obtained by the surface activation treatment consisting of electrodeposition of zinc on as-quenched amorphous alloy substrates, heating at 200-300℃ for 30 min, and subsequently leaching of zinc in an alkaline solution. The surface activation treatment provided a new method for the preparation of a large surface area on the amorphous alloys. The best result for oxidation of methanol, sodium formate an...

  3. Estimation of membrane hydration status for active proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems by impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    hydration status estimator for monitoring the humidity of a fuel cell stack during standby. The fuel cell has been placed in a climatic chamber, connected to hydrogen and the start-up time has been measured with different environmental conditions. Based on the previous results and the ones presented...

  4. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  5. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal to a r......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  6. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  7. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  9. Electrochemically active thickness of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes: Effectiveness model prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jin Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Daegu University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The three-phase boundaries (TPBs) in the electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have different activity because of the distributed nature of the electrochemical reactions. The electrochemically active thickness (EAT) is a good measure to evaluate the extension of the active reaction zone into the electrode and the effective utilization of TPBs. In this study, an electrochemical reaction/charge conduction problem is formulated based on the Butler–Volmer reaction kinetics and then numerically solved to determine the EATs for the active electrode layers of SOFCs with various microstructural, dimensional, and property parameters. Thus, the EAT data and correlations presented in this study are expected to provide useful information for designing efficient electrodes of SOFCs.

  10. Durability and regeneration of activated carbon air-cathodes in long-term operated microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Wang, Feng; Yu, Qingling; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2017-08-01

    The performance of activated carbon catalyst in air-cathodes in microbial fuel cells was investigated over one year. A maximum power of 1722 mW m-2 was produced within the initial one-month microbial fuel cell operation. The air-cathodes produced a maximum power >1200 mW m-2 within six months, but gradually became a limiting factor for the power output in prolonged microbial fuel cell operation. The maximum power decreased by 55% when microbial fuel cells were operated over one year due to deterioration in activated carbon air-cathodes. While salt/biofilm removal from cathodes experiencing one-year operation increased a limiting performance enhancement in cathodes, a washing-drying-pressing procedure could restore the cathode performance to its original levels, although the performance restoration was temporary. Durable cathodes could be regenerated by re-pressing activated carbon catalyst, recovered from one year deteriorated air-cathodes, with new gas diffusion layer, resulting in ∼1800 mW m-2 of maximum power production. The present study indicated that activated carbon was an effective catalyst in microbial fuel cell cathodes, and could be recovered for reuse in long-term operated microbial fuel cells by simple methods.

  11. Catalytic autothermal reforming of diesel fuel for hydrogen generation in fuel cells. I. Activity tests and sulfur poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheekatamarla, Praveen K.; Lane, Alan M.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells require hydrogen as the fuel source for generating power. Hydrogen can be produced in a fuel processor by the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons. The objective of this paper is to present an analysis of the autothermal reforming (ATR) of synthetic diesel fuel in an adiabatic reactor using a Pt/ceria catalyst. ATR combines endothermic steam reforming and exothermic partial oxidation reactions in a single unit. This simple system provides higher efficiency and higher energy density than other conventional processes. The product composition as a function of the operating variables and the temperature and concentration profile inside the reactor were studied. Hydrogen was generated under adiabatic conditions by heating the feed mixture and ATR reactor to only 400 °C in contrast to higher temperatures reported in the literature. The stability of the catalyst and its response to the presence of S poison was also investigated.

  12. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  13. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  14. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  15. Liquid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  16. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  17. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This year's theme, 'Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,' focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  18. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  19. PEMFC catalyst layers: the role of micropores and mesopores on water sorption and fuel cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, Tatyana; Malek, Kourosh; Xie, Zhong; Navessin, Titichai; Holdcroft, Steven

    2011-06-01

    The effects of carbon microstructure and ionomer loading on water vapor sorption and retention in catalyst layers (CLs) of PEM fuel cells are investigated using dynamic vapor sorption. Catalyst layers based on Ketjen Black and Vulcan XC-72 carbon blacks, which possess distinctly different surface areas, pore volumes, and microporosities, are studied. It is found that pores <20 nm diameter facilitate water uptake by capillary condensation in the intermediate range of relative humidities. A broad pore size distribution (PSD) is found to enhance water retention in Ketjen Black-based CLs whereas the narrower mesoporous PSD of Vulcan CLs is shown to have an enhanced water repelling action. Water vapor sorption and retention properties of CLs are correlated to electrochemical properties and fuel cell performance. Water sorption enhances electrochemical properties such as the electrochemically active surface area (ESA), double layer capacitance and proton conductivity, particularly when the ionomer content is very low. The hydrophilic properties of a CL on the anode and the cathode are adjusted by choosing the PSD of carbon and the ionomer content. It is shown that a reduction of ionomer content on either cathode or anode of an MEA does not necessarily have a significant detrimental effect on the MEA performance compared to the standard 30 wt % ionomer MEA. Under operation in air and high relative humidity, a cathode with a narrow pore size distribution and low ionomer content is shown to be beneficial due to its low water retention properties. In dry operating conditions, adequate ionomer content on the cathode is crucial, whereas it can be reduced on the anode without a significant impact on fuel cell performance. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  1. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  2. NASA's Planned Fuel Cell Development Activities for 2009 and Beyond in Support of the Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Energy Storage Project is one of many technology development efforts being implemented as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The Energy Storage Project is a focused technology development effort to advance lithium-ion battery and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies to meet the specific power and energy storage needs of NASA Exploration missions. The fuel cell portion of the project has as its focus the development of both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems, and is led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), academia, and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve stack electrical performance, reduce system mass and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability.

  3. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900 exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  4. Power generation using an activated carbon and metal mesh cathode in a microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive activated carbon (AC) air cathode was developed as an alternative to a platinum-catalyzed electrode for oxygen reduction in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). AC was cold-pressed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder to form the cathode around a Ni mesh current collector. This cathode construction avoided the need for carbon cloth or a metal catalyst, and produced a cathode with high activity for oxygen reduction at typical MFC current densities. Tests with the AC cathode produced a maximum power density of 1220 mW/m2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 36 W/m3 based on liquid volume) compared to 1060 mW/m2 obtained by Pt catalyzed carbon cloth cathode. The Coulombic efficiency ranged from 15% to 55%. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for achieving useful rates of oxygen reduction in air cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuel cell sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of fuel cell technology is summarized, and the potential for utility-type fuel cell installations is assessed on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the construction of the first fuel cell by Sir William Grove. The only functional fuel-cell systems developed to date, the hydrogen-oxygen cells used by NASA, are indicated, and hydrazine and alcohol (methanol) cells are considered. Areas requiring development before the implementation of fuel cells as general purpose utility-type electric generators include catalysts for naturally occurring hydrocarbons or processes for low-cost methanol or hydrazine production, efficient means of scrubbing and enriching air, self-regulating systems, and 15- to 20-fold power density increases. It is argued that although ideas for eliminating certain of the above-mentioned problems have been proposed, fuel-cell systems can never be expected to equal the efficiency, reliability and low cost of conventional power plants, and thus developmental support should be discontinued.

  6. Fuel cell electronics packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuang, Ken; Easler, Keith

    2007-01-01

    ... more energy independent. Despite the fact that the primary focus of the new initiative revolved around automotive technologies, the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative was crafted into a balanced program that benefited a wide range of technologies and applications, including micro, portable, stationary fuel cells. This massive effort was given an addition...

  7. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  8. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  9. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  10. Fuel cells: principles, types, fuels, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrette, L; Friedrich, K A; Stimming, U

    2000-12-15

    During the last decade, fuel cells have received enormous attention from research institutions and companies as novel electrical energy conversion systems. In the near future, they will see application in automotive propulsion, distributed power generation, and in low power portable devices (battery replacement). This review gives an introduction into the fundamentals and applications of fuel cells: Firstly, the environmental and social factors promoting fuel cell development are discussed, with an emphasis on the advantages of fuel cells compared to the conventional techniques. Then, the main reactions, which are responsible for the conversion of chemical into electrical energy in fuel cells, are given and the thermodynamic and kinetic fundamentals are stated. The theoretical and real efficiencies of fuel cells are also compared to that of internal combustion engines. Next, the different types of fuel cells and their main components are explained and the related material issues are presented. A section is devoted to fuel generation and storage, which is of paramount importance for the practical aspects of fuel cell use. Finally, attention is given to the integration of the fuel cells into complete systems. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  11. Biological and microbial fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen Hao; Ghangrekar, Makarand Madhao; Erable, Benjamin; Duţeanu, Narcis Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Biological fuel cells have attracted increasing interest in recent years because of their applications in environmental treatment, energy recovery, and small-scale power sources. Biological fuel cells are capable of producing electricity in the same way as a chemical fuel cell: there is a constant supply of fuel into the anode and a constant supply of oxidant into the cathode; however, typically the fuel is a hydrocarbon compound present in the wastewater, for example. Microbial fuel cells (M...

  12. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  13. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  14. Surface strontium enrichment on highly active perovskites for oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides have high catalytic activities for oxygen electrocatalysis competitive to platinum at elevated temperatures. However, little is known about the oxide surface chemistry that influences the activity near ambient oxygen partial pressures, which hampers the design of highly active catalysts for many clean-energy technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells. Using in situ synchrotron-based, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry changes, we show that the coverage of surface secondary phases on a (001)-oriented La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC) film becomes smaller than that on an LSC powder pellet at elevated temperatures. In addition, strontium (Sr) in the perovskite structure enriches towards the film surface in contrast to the pellet having no detectable changes with increasing temperature. We propose that the ability to reduce surface secondary phases and develop Sr-enriched perovskite surfaces of the LSC film contributes to its enhanced activity for O 2 electrocatalysis relative to LSC powder-based electrodes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  16. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  17. Fuel Cell Testing - Degradation of Fuel Cells and its Impact on Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    PFRANG Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells could become an integral part in future cars. Reduction of degradation of fuel cell performance while keeping fuel cell cost under control is the key for an introduction into mass markets.

  18. Fuel cells flows study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, R.; Bador, B.; Marchand, M.; Lebaigue, O.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel cells are energy converters, which directly and continuously produce electricity from paired oxidation reduction-reactions: In most cases, the reactants are oxygen and hydrogen with water as residue. There are several types of fuel cells using various electrolytes and working at different temperatures. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells are, in particular, studied in the GESTEAU facility. PEMFC performance is chiefly limited by two thermal-hydraulic phenomena: the drying of membranes and the flooding of gas distributors. Up to now, work has been focused on water flooding of gas channels. This has showed the influence of flow type on the electrical behaviour of the cells and the results obtained have led to proposals for new duct geometries. (authors)

  19. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  20. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  1. Analysis of an active tubular liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Faghri, Amir

    2011-08-01

    A two-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal model was developed for an active, tubular, liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The liquid-gas, two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode was formulated based on the multi-fluid approach in the porous media. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode channels was modeled using the drift-flux and the homogeneous mist-flow models, respectively. Water and methanol crossovers through the membrane were considered due to the effects of diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. The model enabled a numerical investigation of the effects of various operating parameters, such as current density, methanol flow rate, and oxygen flow rate, on the mass and heat transport characteristics in the tubular DMFC. It was shown that by choosing a proper tube radius and distance between the adjacent cells, a tubular DMFC stack can achieve a much higher energy density compared to its planar counterpart. The results also showed that a large anode flow rate is needed in order to avoid severe blockage of liquid methanol to the anode electrode due to the gas accumulation in the channel. Besides, lowering the flow rate of either the methanol solution or air can lead to a temperature increase along the flow channel. The methanol and water crossovers are nearly independent of the methanol flow rate and the air flow rate.

  2. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  3. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  4. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  5. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  7. Overcoming the low-dimension crisis in the active zone of fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kompan, M. E.; Sapurina, I. Yu.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2006), s. 213-216 ISSN 1063-7850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : hydrogen fuel cell * electrochemical processes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  8. Prediction of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity with first-principles descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Kleis, Jesper; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that the experimentally measured area specific resistance and oxygen surface exchange of solid oxide fuel cell cathode perovskites are strongly correlated with the first-principles calculated oxygen p-band center and vacancy formation energy. These quantities...

  9. Preparation and characterization of Pt supported on graphene with enhanced electrocatalytic activity in fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuchen; Liu, Jian-guo; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Wenming; Gao, Jian; Xie, Yun; Yin, Ying; Zou, Zhigang

    Pt nanoparticles are deposited onto graphene sheets via synchronous reduction of H 2PtCl 6 and graphene oxide (GO) suspension using NaBH 4. Lyophilization is introduced to avoid irreversible aggregation of graphene (G) sheets, which happens during conventional drying process. Pt/G catalysts reveal a high catalytic activity for both methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction compared to Pt supported on carbon black (Pt/C). The performance of Pt/G catalysts is further improved after heat treatment in N 2 atmosphere at 300 °C for 2 h, and the peak current density of methanol oxidation for Pt/G after heat treatment is almost 3.5 times higher than Pt/C. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the Pt particles are uniformly distributed on graphene sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results demonstrate that the interaction between Pt and graphene is enhanced during annealing. It suggests that graphene has provided a new way to improve electrocatalytic activity of catalyst for fuel cell.

  10. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  11. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  12. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth; Gangi, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It features the top five fuel cell states (in alphabetical order): California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and South Carolina. State activities reported include supportive fuel cell and hydrogen policies, installations and demonstrations, road maps, and level of activism.

  13. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Best Practices and Testing Protocols for Benchmarking ORR Activities of Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Using Rotating Disk Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, Shyam S.; Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Myers, Deborah J.; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Nowicki, Tammi; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Kang, Yijin; Li, Dongguo; Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-05-02

    Abstract Thin-film-rotating disk electrodes (TF-RDEs) are the half-cell electrochemical system of choice for rapid screening of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of novel Pt supported on carbon black supports (Pt/C) electrocatalysts. It has been shown that the magnitude of the measured ORR activity and reproducibility are highly dependent on the system cleanliness, evaluation protocols, and operating conditions as well as ink formulation, composition, film drying, and the resultant film thickness and uniformity. Accurate benchmarks of baseline Pt/C catalysts evaluated using standardized protocols and best practices are necessary to expedite ultra-low-platinum group metal (PGM) catalyst development that is crucial for the imminent commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. We report results of evaluation in three independent laboratories of Pt/C electrocatalysts provided by commercial fuel cell catalyst manufacturers (Johnson Matthey, Umicore, Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo—TKK). The studies were conducted using identical evaluation protocols/ink formulation/film fabrication albeit employing unique electrochemical cell designs specific to each laboratory. The ORR activities reported in this work provide a baseline and criteria for selection and scale-up of novel high activity ORR electrocatalysts for implementation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  15. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefor...

  16. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  17. Power generation using an activated carbon fiber felt cathode in an upflow microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Qian

    2010-02-01

    An activated carbon fiber felt (ACFF) cathode lacking metal catalysts is used in an upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC). The maximum power density with the ACFF cathode is 315 mW m-2, compared to lower values with cathodes made of plain carbon paper (67 mW m-2), carbon felt (77 mW m-2), or platinum-coated carbon paper (124 mW m-2, 0.2 mg-Pt cm-2). The addition of platinum to the ACFF cathode (0.2 mg-Pt cm-2) increases the maximum power density to 391 mW m-2. Power production is further increased to 784 mW m-2 by increasing the cathode surface area and shaping it into a tubular form. With ACFF cutting into granules, the maximum power is 481 mW m-2 (0.5 cm granules), and 667 mW m-2 (1.0 cm granules). These results show that ACFF cathodes lacking metal catalysts can be used to substantially increase power production in UMFC compared to traditional materials lacking a precious metal catalyst. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Lattice-Strain Control of Exceptional Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, Peter

    2011-08-19

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical approach to demonstrate how lattice strain can be used to continuously tune the catalytic activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on bimetallic nanoparticles that have been dealloyed. The sluggish kinetics of the ORR is a key barrier to the adaptation of fuel cells and currently limits their widespread use. Dealloyed Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles, however, have been shown to exhibit uniquely high reactivity for this reaction. We first present evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure during dealloying, which involves removal of Cu from the surface and subsurface of the precursor nanoparticles. We then show that the resulting Pt-rich surface shell exhibits compressive strain that depends on the composition of the precursor alloy. We next demonstrate the existence of a downward shift of the Pt d-band, resulting in weakening of the bond strength of intermediate oxygenated species due to strain. Finally, we combine synthesis, strain, and catalytic reactivity in an experimental/theoretical reactivity-strain relationship which provides guidelines for the rational design of strained oxygen reduction electrocatalysts. The stoichiometry of the precursor, together with the dealloying conditions, provides experimental control over the resulting surface strain and thereby allows continuous tuning of the surface electrocatalytic reactivity - a concept that can be generalized to other catalytic reactions.

  19. FUEL CELL BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    References in this bibliography on fuel cells are arranged alphabetically by the authors. References for which no author is cited are arranged alphabetically by title under the general heading, Anon. The numerous references cover the time period of 1895 to 1961.

  20. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  1. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  2. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  3. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  4. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  5. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  6. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  7. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  8. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  9. Diffusion layer characteristics for increasing the performance of activated carbon air cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of several different types of diffusion layers were systematically examined to improve the performance of activated carbon air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A diffusion layer of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (CB + PTFE) that was pressed onto a stainless steel mesh current collector achieved the highest cathode performance. This cathode also had a high oxygen mass transfer coefficient and high water pressure tolerance (>2 m), and it had the highest current densities in abiotic chronoamperometry tests compared to cathodes with other diffusion layers. In MFC tests, this cathode also produced maximum power densities (1610 ± 90 mW m−2) that were greater than those of cathodes with other diffusion layers, by 19% compared to Gore-Tex (1350 ± 20 mW m−2), 22% for a cloth wipe with PDMS (1320 ± 70 mW m−2), 45% with plain PTFE (1110 ± 20 mW m−2), and 19% higher than those of cathodes made with a Pt catalyst and a PTFE diffusion layer (1350 ± 50 mW m−2). The highly porous diffusion layer structure of the CB + PTFE had a relatively high oxygen mass transfer coefficient (1.07 × 10−3 cm s−1) which enhanced oxygen transport to the catalyst. The addition of CB enhanced cathode performance by increasing the conductivity of the diffusion layer. Oxygen mass transfer coefficient, water pressure tolerance, and the addition of conductive particles were therefore critical features for achieving higher performance AC air cathodes.

  10. Activity of platinum/carbon and palladium/carbon catalysts promoted by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Feng, Ligang; Chang, Jinfa; Wickman, Björn; Grönbeck, Henrik; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol is an alternative fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells, in which the electrode materials are commonly based on Pt or Pd. Owing to the excellent promotion effect of Ni2 P that was found in methanol oxidation, we extended the catalyst system of Pt or Pd modified by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells. The Ni2 P-promoted catalysts were compared to commercial catalysts as well as to reference catalysts promoted with only Ni or only P. Among the studied catalysts, Pt/C and Pd/C modified by Ni2 P (30 wt %) showed both the highest activity and stability. Upon integration into the anode of a homemade direct ethanol fuel cell, the Pt-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst showed a maximum power density of 21 mW cm(-2) , which is approximately two times higher than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The Pd-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst exhibited a maximum power density of 90 mW cm(-2) . This is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of a commercial Pd/C catalyst. The discharge stability on both two catalysts was also greatly improved over a 12 h discharge operation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Reformate fuel cell system durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Uribe, F. A. (Francisco A.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the factors limiting the durability of fuel cells and fuel processors. This includes identifying PEM fuel cell durability issues for operating on pure hydrogen, and those that arise from the fuel processing of liquid hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline) as a function of fuel composition and impurity content. Benchmark comparisons with the durability of fuel cells operating on pure hydrogen are used to identify limiting factors unique to fuel processing. We describe the design, operation and operational results of the durability system, including the operating conditions for the system, fuel processor sub-section operation over 1000 hours, post-mortem characterization of the catalysts in the fuel processor, and single cell operation.

  12. The fuel cell; development and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijnsoever, J.W.M.

    Activities on fuel cells and fuel cell development in the USA and Japan are surveyed. Possibilities for large scale application are mentioned. Attention is given to efficiency and environmental aspects. There are no problems about hazardous emissions. Besides electric power some heat is generated, which is not always a disadvantage. In many cases both are useful products. (A.V.)

  13. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...running on JP-8 / diesel fuel & 250W RMFC Aspen : 5kWe integrated desulfurizer and JP-8 / diesel fuel processor Altex: 2-kWe integrated desulfurizer...and JP-8 / diesel fuel processor Precision Combustion : 5-kWt integrated desulfurizer and JP-8 and diesel fuel processor Customers Partners Army

  14. A review of heat-treatment effects on activity and stability of PEM fuel cell catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Cicero W.B. [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Av. dos Portugueses, S/N 65.080-040 Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hansan; Lee, Kunchan; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Marques, Aldalea L.B. [Department of Technology Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Marques, Edmar P. [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Av. dos Portugueses, S/N 65.080-040 Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    This paper reviews over 120 papers regarding the effect of heat treatment on the catalytic activity and stability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell catalysts. These catalysts include primarily unsupported and carbon-supported platinum (Pt), Pt alloys, non-Pt alloys, and transition metal macrocycles. The heat treatment can induce changes in catalyst properties such as particle size, morphology, dispersion of the metal on the support, alloying degree, active site formation, catalytic activity, and catalytic stability. The optimum heat-treatment temperature and time period are strongly dependent on the individual catalyst. With respect to Pt-based catalysts, heat treatment can induce particle-size growth, better alloying degree, and changes in the catalyst surface morphology from amorphous to more ordered states, all of which have a remarkable effect on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability. However, heat treatment of the catalyst carbon supports can also significantly affect the ORR catalytic activity of the supported catalyst. Regarding non-noble catalysts, in particular transition metal macrocycles, heat treatment is also important in ORR activity and stability improvement. In fact, heat treatment is a necessary step for introducing more active catalytic sites. For metal chalcogenide catalysts, it seems that heat treatment may not be necessary for catalytic activity and stability improvement. More research is necessary to improve our fundamental understanding and to develop a new strategy that includes innovative heat-treatment processes for enhancing fuel cell catalyst activity and stability. (author)

  15. A review of heat-treatment effects on activity and stability of PEM fuel cell catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Cicero W. B.; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hansan; Lee, Kunchan; Marques, Aldaléa L. B.; Marques, Edmar P.; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun

    This paper reviews over 120 papers regarding the effect of heat treatment on the catalytic activity and stability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell catalysts. These catalysts include primarily unsupported and carbon-supported platinum (Pt), Pt alloys, non-Pt alloys, and transition metal macrocycles. The heat treatment can induce changes in catalyst properties such as particle size, morphology, dispersion of the metal on the support, alloying degree, active site formation, catalytic activity, and catalytic stability. The optimum heat-treatment temperature and time period are strongly dependent on the individual catalyst. With respect to Pt-based catalysts, heat treatment can induce particle-size growth, better alloying degree, and changes in the catalyst surface morphology from amorphous to more ordered states, all of which have a remarkable effect on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability. However, heat treatment of the catalyst carbon supports can also significantly affect the ORR catalytic activity of the supported catalyst. Regarding non-noble catalysts, in particular transition metal macrocycles, heat treatment is also important in ORR activity and stability improvement. In fact, heat treatment is a necessary step for introducing more active catalytic sites. For metal chalcogenide catalysts, it seems that heat treatment may not be necessary for catalytic activity and stability improvement. More research is necessary to improve our fundamental understanding and to develop a new strategy that includes innovative heat-treatment processes for enhancing fuel cell catalyst activity and stability.

  16. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  17. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  18. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel...with the national grid. Source: US DOE 1/2011 6 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Biogas Resource Example

  19. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  20. Mechatronics in fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Kyungwon Suh [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Power generation from fuel cells (FCs) requires the integration of chemical, fluid, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and electronic subsystems. This integration presents many challenges and opportunities in the mechatronics field. This paper highlights important design issues and poses problems that require mechatronics solutions. The paper begins by describing the process of designing a toy school bus powered by hydrogen for an undergraduate student project. The project was an effective and rewarding educational activity that revealed complex systems issues associated with FC technology. (Author)

  1. Active load current sharing in fuel cell and battery fed DC motor drive for electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pany, Premananda; Singh, R.K.; Tripathi, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Load current sharing in FC and battery fed dc drive. • Active current sharing control using LabVIEW. • Detail hardware implementation. • Controller performance is verified through MATLAB simulation and experimental results. - Abstract: In order to reduce the stress on fuel cell based hybrid source fed electric drive system the controller design is made through active current sharing (ACS) technique. The effectiveness of the proposed ACS technique is tested on a dc drive system fed from fuel cell and battery energy sources which enables both load current sharing and source power management. High efficiency and reliability of the hybrid system can be achieved by proper energy conversion and management of power to meet the load demand in terms of required voltage and current. To overcome the slow dynamics feature of FC, a battery bank of adequate power capacity has to be incorporated as FC voltage drops heavily during fast load demand. The controller allows fuel cell to operate in normal load region and draw the excess power from battery. In order to demonstrate the performance of the drive using ACS control strategy different modes of operation of the hybrid source with the static and dynamic behavior of the control system is verified through simulation and experimental results. This control scheme is implemented digitally in LabVIEW with PCI 6251 DAQ I/O interface card. The efficacy of the controller performance is demonstrated in system changing condition supplemented by experimental validation.

  2. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  3. Improvement of Electrochemical Activity of Pt/MWCNT Catalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munkhshur Myekhlai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In last years, the carbon nanotubes have been studied as an advanced metal catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell. This study focuses on the sonochemical treatment of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs as a platinum supporting material for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC by mixture of sulfuric acid and nitric acid and mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Infrared (IR spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface of sonochemically treated MWCNT and nanostructured electrocatalyst Pt/MWCNT. According to the experimental results of this work, the surface of MWCNT can be more successfully functionalized with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups after sonochemical treatment by mixture of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. The particle size of prepared Pt -electrocatalyst on MWCNT was determined 3.4 nm by XRD.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.165 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 20-23

  4. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-15

    This 2011 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides an update of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. State activities reported include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activities by state industries and universities.

  5. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  6. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  8. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  9. Structural Dynamics and Activity of Nanocatalysts Inside Fuel Cells by in-operando Atomic Pair Distribution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay

    We present the results from a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the atomic structure and activity of nanocatalysts for chemical reactions driving fuel cells, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Using in-operando high-energy X-ray diffraction we tracked the evolution of the atomic structure and activity of noble metal-transition metal(NM-TM) nanocatalysts for ORR as they function at the cathode of a fully operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Data were analyzed in terms of atomic pair distribution functions and compared to the current output of the PEMFC, which was also recorded during the experiments. The comparison revealed that under actual operating conditions, NM-TM nanocatalysts can undergo structural changes that differ significantly in both length-scale and dynamics and so can suffer losses in their ORR activity that differ significantly in both character and magnitude. Therefore, we argue that strategies for reducing ORR activity losses should implement steps for achieving control not only over the length but also over the time-scale of the structural changes of NM-TM NPs that indeed occur during PEMFC operation.

  10. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  11. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  12. Novel synthesis of highly durable and active Pt catalyst encapsulated in nitrogen containing carbon for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Insoo; Lim, Taeho; Kwon, Oh Joong

    2017-09-01

    Novel synthesis of a Pt catalyst encapsulated in a N-containing carbon layer for use in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is described in this study. A Pt-aniline complex, formed by mixing Pt precursor and aniline monomer, was used as the source of Pt, C, and N. Heat treatment of the Pt-aniline complex with carbon black yielded 5 nm Pt nanoparticles encapsulated by a N-containing carbon layer originating from aniline carbonization. The synthesized Pt catalyst exhibited higher mass specific activity to oxygen reduction reaction than that shown by conventional Pt/C catalyst because pyridinic N with graphitic carbon in the carbon layer provided active sites for oxygen reduction reaction in addition to those provided by Pt. In single cell testing, initial performance of the synthesized catalyst was limited because the thick catalyst layer increased resistance related to mass transfer. However, it was observed that the carbon layer successfully prevented Pt nanoparticles from growing via agglomeration and Ostwald ripening under fuel cell operation, thereby improving durability. Furthermore, a mass specific performance of the synthesized catalyst higher than that of a conventional Pt/C catalyst was achieved by modifying the synthesized catalyst's layer thickness.

  13. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  14. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  15. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  16. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  17. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  18. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  19. ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF FUEL CELL ELECTRODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    optimization of fuel cell electrodes. Hydrogen oxidation and reduction, the reduction of oxygen, and the oxidation of formic acid, a soluble organic...substance, were selected for these studiees because of their relevance to fuel cell systems and because of their relative simplicity. The electrodes

  20. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  1. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  2. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  3. Shape-Dependent Activity of Ceria for Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation in Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaofeng; Luo, Ting; Meng, Xie; Wu, Hao; Li, Junliang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ji, Xiaona; Wang, Jianqiang; Chen, Chusheng; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2015-11-04

    Single crystalline ceria nanooctahedra, nanocubes, and nanorods are hydrothermally synthesized, colloidally impregnated into the porous La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) scaffolds, and electrochemically evaluated as the anode catalysts for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Well-defined surface terminations are confirmed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy--(111) for nanooctahedra, (100) for nanocubes, and both (110) and (100) for nanorods. Temperature-programmed reduction in H2 shows the highest reducibility for nanorods, followed sequentially by nanocubes and nanooctahedra. Measurements of the anode polarization resistances and the fuel cell power densities reveal different orders of activity of ceria nanocrystals at high and low temperatures for hydrogen electro-oxidation, i.e., nanorods > nanocubes > nanooctahedra at T ≤ 450 °C and nanooctahedra > nanorods > nanocubes at T ≥ 500 °C. Such shape-dependent activities of these ceria nanocrystals have been correlated to their difference in the local structure distortions and thus in the reducibility. These findings will open up a new strategy for design of advanced catalysts for reduced-temperature SOFCs by elaborately engineering the shape of nanocrystals and thus selectively exposing the crystal facets. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John C [Los Alamos, NM; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  5. Hydrogen fuel cell engines and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The manual documents the first training course developed on the use of hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The manual contains eleven modules covering hydrogen properties, use and safety; fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine desi...

  6. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  7. Effect of various concentration of sulfuric acid for Nafion membrane activation on the performance of fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, Sri; Onggo, Holia

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes an activation treatment to Nafion 117 membrane with sulfuric acid in various concentrations. The main goal of this study is to increase the Nafion 117 membrane performance, which is determined by proton number in the membrane and membrane performance in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This work was developed using sulfuric acids in four different concentrations: 1, 2, 3, and 4 M. The surface morphology and functional groups of activated membranes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope and Fourier Transform Infrared, respectively. The proton number absorbed in membranes was observed by gravimetric measurements. The performances of activated membranes in PEMFC were studied by single cell measurements with H2/O2 operation. The experimental results showed that activation of Nafion membrane did not change its surface morphology and functional groups. The proton number increased when the concentration of sulfuric acid is increased from 1 to 3 M and from 1 to 4 M. On the other hand, there is no significant increase when the concentration of sulfuric acid was increased from 1 to 2 M. Similar trends were observed when testing activated membrane performance in PEMFC, especially for current density at 0.6 V and maximum power. It is assumed that there is a correlation between the increase of sulfuric acid concentration in activation process with the increase of proton number in the membrane that are available for facilitating of transfer protons from the anode to the cathode.

  8. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  9. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  10. Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic fuel cells convert the chemical energy of biofuels into electrical energy. Unlike traditional fuel cell types, which are mainly based on metal catalysts, the enzymatic fuel cells employ enzymes as catalysts. This fuel cell type can be used as an implantable power source for a variety of medical devices used in modern medicine to administer drugs, treat ailments and monitor bodily functions. Some advantages in comparison to conventional fuel cells include a simple fuel cell design and lower cost of the main fuel cell components, however they suffer from severe kinetic limitations mainly due to inefficiency in electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. In this review article, the major research activities concerned with the enzymatic fuel cells (anode and cathode development, system design, modeling by highlighting the current problems (low cell voltage, low current density, stability will be presented.

  11. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  12. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  13. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  14. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  15. Desulfurization of Logistic Fuels for Fuel Cell Apus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    ppmw S). The effective utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds...utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds) to below 0.1 ppm. Low

  16. Shore Facility Fuel Cell Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lund, Christian; Weaver, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    ...) Air Station Cape Cod. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine whether fuel cell technology could be a reliable, more environmentally friendly, and cost-effective alternative to commercially procured electricity...

  17. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, E.; Gonzalez, E. R.

    The faster kinetics of the alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells (ADAFCs), opening up the possibility of using less expensive metal catalysts, as silver, nickel and palladium, makes the alkaline direct alcohol fuel cell a potentially low cost technology compared to acid direct alcohol fuel cell technology, which employs platinum catalysts. A boost in the research regarding alkaline fuel cells, fuelled with hydrogen or alcohols, was due to the development of alkaline anion-exchange membranes, which allows the overcoming of the problem of the progressive carbonation of the alkaline electrolyte. This paper presents an overview of catalysts and membranes for ADAFCs, and of testing of ADAFCs, fuelled with methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol, formed by these materials.

  18. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  19. Solid Acid Based Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haile, Sossina M

    2005-01-01

    ...) without pressurization. In this configuration, the thin-film fuel cell is supported on a porous stainless steel gas diffusion layer and the electrocatalyst and electrolyte layers are spray-deposited...

  20. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  1. Hybrid membranes for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, S. S.; Shashkina, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Fuel cells are a very efficient, reliable, durable, and environmentally friendly energy source. Membranes for fuel cells were developed based on nitrogen-containing high-molecular compounds and organic–inorganic composites. Their electrical conductivities were measured. The influence of a silicon block of composites on the proton exchange properties of membranes was proved.The comparative characterization of the studied materials was performed.

  2. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  3. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  4. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  5. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  6. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  7. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable of...

  8. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Fuels Resources for DFC • Natural Gas and LNG • Propane • Biogas (by Anaerobicnaerobic Digestion) - Municipal Waste...FUEL RESOURCES z NATURAL GAS z PROPANE z DFC H2 (50-60%) z ETHANOL zWASTE METHANE z BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency...trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. DFC Advantages for Biogas • More power for given amount of biogas : Higher efficiency than

  9. Use of Pyrolyzed Iron Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon as Air–Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-08-28

    Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To enhance the catalytic activity of AC cathodes, AC powders were pyrolyzed with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA) at a weight ratio of FeEDTA:AC = 0.2:1. MFCs with FeEDTA modified AC cathodes and a stainless steel mesh current collector produced a maximum power density of 1580 ± 80 mW/m2, which was 10% higher than that of plain AC cathodes (1440 ± 60 mW/m 2) and comparable to Pt cathodes (1550 ± 10 mW/m2). Further increases in the ratio of FeEDTA:AC resulted in a decrease in performance. The durability of AC-based cathodes was much better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode MFCs was 50% lower than MFCs with the AC cathodes. Pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species likely contributed to the increased activity of FeEDTA modified AC. These results show that pyrolyzing AC with FeEDTA is a cost-effective and durable way to increase the catalytic activity of AC. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  11. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  12. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  13. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  14. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  15. Carbon-Nanotubes-Supported Pd Nanoparticles for Alcohol Oxidations in Fuel Cells: Effect of Number of Nanotube Walls on Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Lu, Shanfu; Xiang, Yan; Shen, Pei Kang; Liu, Jian; Jiang, San Ping

    2015-09-07

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well known electrocatalyst supports due to their high electrical conductivity, structural stability, and high surface area. Here, we demonstrate that the number of inner tubes or walls of CNTs also have a significant promotion effect on the activity of supported Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for alcohol oxidation reactions of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Pd NPs with similar particle size (2.1-2.8 nm) were uniformly assembled on CNTs with different number of walls. The results indicate that Pd NPs supported on triple-walled CNTs (TWNTs) have the highest mass activity and stability for methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol oxidation reactions, as compared to Pd NPs supported on single-walled and multi-walled CNTs. Such a specific promotion effect of TWNTs on the electrocatalytic activity of Pd NPs is not related to the contribution of metal impurities in CNTs, oxygen-functional groups of CNTs or surface area of CNTs and Pd NPs. A facile charge transfer mechanism via electron tunneling between the outer wall and inner tubes of CNTs under electrochemical driving force is proposed for the significant promotion effect of TWNTs for the alcohol oxidation reactions in alkaline solutions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Control of power sourced from a microbial fuel cell reduces its start-up time and increases bioelectrochemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C; Kim, Jung Rae; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Premier, Giuliano C

    2013-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance depends on the selective development of an electrogenic biofilm at an electrode. Controlled biofilm enrichment may reduce start-up time and improve subsequent power performance. The anode potential is known to affect start-up and subsequent performance in electrogenic bio-catalytic consortia. Control strategies varying electrical load through gradient based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and transient poised anode potential followed by MPPT are compared to static ohmic loading. Three replicate H-type MFCs were used to investigate start-up strategies: (1) application of an MPPT algorithm preceded by poised-potential at the anode (+0.645 V vs Ag/AgCl); (2) MFC connected to MPPT-only; (3) static external load of 1 kΩ and 500 Ω. Active control showed a significant reduction in start-up time from 42 to 22 days, along with 3.5-fold increase in biocatalytic activity after start-up. Such active control may improve applicability by accelerating start-up and enhancing MFC power and bio-catalytic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fuel cell catholyte regenerating apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A catholyte regenerating apparatus for a fuel cell having a cathode section containing a catholyte solution and wherein fuel cell reaction reduces the catholyte to gas and water. The apparatus includes means to conduct partically reduced water diluted catholyte from the fuel cell and means to conduct the gas from the fuel cell to a mixing means. An absorption tower containing a volume of gas absorbing liquid solvent receives the mixed together gas and diluted catholyte from the mixing means within the absorption column, the gas is absorbed by the solvent and the gas ladened solvent and diluted catholyte are commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled solvent and electrolyte from the absorption column to an air supply means wherein air is added and commingled therewith and a stoichiometric volume of oxygen from the air is absorbed thereby. A second liquid transfer means conducts the gas ladened commingled solvent and diluted catholyte into a catalyst column wherein the oxygen and gas react to reconstitute the catholyte from which the gas was generated wna wherein the reconstituted diluted catholyte is separated from the solvent. Recirculating means conducts the solvent from the catalyst column back into the absorption column and liquid conducting means conducts the reconstituted catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for recirculation through the cathode section of the fuel cell

  18. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Chuang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  19. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  20. Engineering the Activity and Stability of Pt-Alloy Cathode Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts by Tuning the Pt-Pt Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Malacrida, Paolo; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to the commercialisation of low-temperature fuel cells is the slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In order to decrease the ORR overpotential and reduce the Pt loading we need to develop more active and stable electrocatalysts. A fruitful strategy...

  1. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Gangi, Jennifer

    2013-10-31

    This October 2013 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, continues to build on the April 2010 State of the States report that provided a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. This update report provides more details on the progress and activities that happened since the third report, issued in August 2012.

  2. State of the States. Fuel Cells in America 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cells 2000, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cells 2000, Washington, DC (United States); Skukowski, Ryan [Fuel Cells 2000, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, continues to build on the April 2010 State of the States report that provided a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. This update report provides more details on the progress and activities that happened since the second report, issued in June 2011. Details reported for each state include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activity by state industry and universities.

  3. Microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium nanoparticles intercalated nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide and their electrocatalytic activity for direct-ethanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; da Silva, Everson T S G; Singh, Rajesh K; Savu, Raluca; Alaferdov, Andrei V; Fonseca, Leandro C; Carossi, Lory C; Singh, Arvind; Khandka, Sarita; Kar, Kamal K; Alves, Oswaldo L; Kubota, Lauro T; Moshkalev, Stanislav A

    2018-04-01

    Palladium nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pd-rGO) and palladium nanoparticles intercalated inside nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide (Pd-NrGO) hybrids have been synthesized by applying a very simple, fast and economic route using microwave-assisted in-situ reduction and exfoliation method. The Pd-NrGO hybrids materials show good activity as catalyst for ethanol electro oxidation for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) as compared to Pd-rGO hybrids. The enhanced direct ethanol fuel cell can serve as alternative to fossil fuels because it is renewable and environmentally-friendly with a high energy conversion efficiency and low pollutant emission. As proof of concept, the electrocatalytic activity of Pd-NrGO hybrid material was accessed by cyclic voltammetry in presence of ethanol to evaluate its applicability in direct-ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). The Pd-NrGO catalyst presented higher electro active surface area (∼6.3 m 2  g -1 ) for ethanol electro-oxidation when compared to Pd-rGO hybrids (∼3.7 m 2  g -1 ). Despite the smaller catalytic activity of Pd-NrGO, which was attributed to the lower exfoliation rate of this material in relation to the Pd-rGO, Pd-NrGO showed to be very promising and its catalytic activity can be further improved by tuning the synthesis parameters to increase the exfoliation rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  5. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various thermopl......A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  6. Onboard fuel processor for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Brian J.; Zhao, Jian L.; Ruffo, Michael; Khan, Rafey; Dattatraya, Druva; Dushman, Nathan [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc, 20 Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Beziat, Jean-Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien [Renault, Service 64240 - FR TCR GRA 0 75, Technocentre Renault - 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France)

    2007-07-15

    To lower vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are exploring fuel cell technologies, which combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain issues, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells are developing an onboard fuel processor, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The fuel processor is now small enough and powerful enough for use on a vehicle. The catalysts and heat exchangers occupy 80 l and can be packaged with balance of plant controls components in a 150-l volume designed to fit under the vehicle. Recent systems can operate on gasoline, ethanol, and methanol with fuel inputs up to 200 kWth and hydrogen efficiencies above 77%. The startup time is now less than 4 min to lower the CO in the hydrogen stream to the target value for the fuel cell. (author)

  7. Catalysis kinetics and porous analysis of rolling activated carbon-PTFE air-cathode in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Heng; Yu, Hongbing; Wang, Xin

    2012-12-04

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC), being an environment-friendly technology for wastewater treatment, is limited by low efficiency and high cost. Power output based on capital cost had been greatly increased in our previous work by introducing a novel activated carbon (AC) air-cathode (ACAC). The catalysis behavior of this ACAC was studied here based on catalysis kinetics and pore analysis of both carbon powders and catalyst layers (CLs). Plain AC (AC1#), ultracapacitor AC (AC2#), and non-AC (XC-72) powders were used as catalysts. The electron transfer number (n) of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with CLs increased by 5-23% compared to those n values of corresponding carbon powders before being rolled to CLs with PTFE, while the n value of Pt/C decreased by 38% when it was brushed with Nafion as the CL, indicating that rolling procedure with PTFE binder substantially increased the catalytic activity of carbon catalysts. Two-four times larger in micropore area of AC powders than non-AC powder resulted in 1.3-1.9 times increase in power density of MFCs. In addition, more uniform distribution of microporosity was found in AC1# than in AC2#, which could be the reason for the 25% increase in power density of ACAC1# (1355 ± 26 mW·m(-2)) compared to 1086 ± 8 mW·m(-2) of ACAC2#.

  8. Electrochemically active microorganisms from an acid mine drainage-affected site promote cathode oxidation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Claudia

    2017-08-03

    The limited database of acidophilic or acidotolerant electrochemically active microorganisms prevents advancements on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated under low pH. In this study, three MFCs were used to enrich cathodic biofilms using acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments as inoculum. Linear sweep voltammetry showed cathodic current plateaus of 5.5 (± 0.7) mA at about − 170 mV vs Ag/AgCl and 8.5 (± 0.9) mA between − 500 mV to − 450 mV vs Ag/AgCl for biofilms developed on small graphite fiber brushes. After gamma irradiation, biocathodes exhibited a decrease in current density approaching that of abiotic controls. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed six-fold lower charge transfer resistance with viable biofilm. Pyrosequencing data showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the biofilms. Acidithiobacillus representatives were enriched in some biocathodes, supporting the potential importance of these known iron and sulfur oxidizers as cathodic biocatalysts. Other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs identified included Sulfobacillus and Leptospirillum species. The presence of chemoautotrophs was consistent with functional capabilities predicted by PICRUSt related to carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotic microorganisms. Acidophilic or acidotolerant heterotrophs were also abundant; however, their contribution to cathodic performance is unknown. This study directs subsequent research efforts to particular groups of AMD-associated bacteria that are electrochemically active on cathodes.

  9. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-06-03

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). AC powders were characterized in terms of surface chemistry and porosity, and their kinetic activities were compared to carbon black and platinum catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2). Peat-based AC performed similarly in MFC tests (1610 ± 100 mW m-2) and had the best catalyst performance, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.17 V, and n = 3.6 electrons used for oxygen reduction. Hardwood based AC had the highest number of acidic surface functional groups and the poorest performance in MFC and catalysis tests (630 ± 10 mW m-2, Eonset = -0.01 V, n = 2.1). There was an inverse relationship between onset potential and quantity of strong acid (pKa < 8) functional groups, and a larger fraction of microporosity was negatively correlated with power production in MFCs. Surface area alone was a poor predictor of catalyst performance, and a high quantity of acidic surface functional groups was determined to be detrimental to oxygen reduction and cathode performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Highly Stable and Active Pt/Nb-TiO2 Carbon-Free Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are not sufficiently durable for commercial deployment. One of the major challenges lies in the development of an inexpensive, efficient, and highly durable and active electrocatalyst. Here a new type of carbon-free Pt/Nb-TiO2 electrocatalyst has been reported. Mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by the sol-gel method using polystyrene (PS sphere templates. Pt nanoparticles (NPs were then deposited onto mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres via a simple wet-chemical route in aqueous solution, without the need for surfactants or potentiostats. The growth densities of Pt NPs on Nb-TiO2 supports could be easily modulated by simply adjusting the experimental parameters. Electrochemical studies of Pt/Nb-TiO2 show much enhanced activity and stability than commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. PtNP/Nb-TiO2 is a promising new cathode catalyst for PEMFC applications.

  11. Using ammonium bicarbonate as pore former in activated carbon catalyst layer to enhance performance of air cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Qu, Youpeng; Liu, Jia; He, Weihua; Wang, Haiman; Feng, Yujie

    2014-12-01

    The rolling catalyst layers in air cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are prepared by introducing NH4HCO3 as pore former (PF) with four PF/activated carbon mass ratios of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0. The maximum power density of 892 ± 8 mW m-2 is obtained by cathodes with the mass ratio of 0.2, which is 33% higher than that of the control reactor (without PF, 671 ± 22 mW m-2). Pore analysis indicates the porosity increases by 38% and the major pore range concentrates between 0.5 μm-0.8 μm which likely facilitates to enrich the active reaction sites compared to 0.8 μm-3.0 μm in the control and other PF-cathodes. In addition, pore structure endows the cathode improved exchange current density by 2.4 times and decreased charge transfer resistance by 44%, which are the essential reasons to enhance the oxygen reduction. These results show that addition of NH4HCO3 proves an effective way to change the porosity and pore distribution of catalyst layers and then enhance the MFC performance.

  12. Carbon monoxide-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homel, Michael; Koh, Joon Ho [Materials and Systems Research, Inc., 5395 West 700 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84104 (United States); Guer, Turgut M. [Direct Carbon Technologies, LLC, 525 University Avenue, Suite 1400, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Virkar, Anil V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study explored CO as a primary fuel in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) of both tubular and planar geometries. Tubular single cells with active areas of 24 cm{sup 2} generated power up to 16 W. Open circuit voltages for various CO/CO{sub 2} mixture compositions agreed well with the expected values. In flowing dry CO, power densities up to 0.67 W cm{sup -2} were achieved at 1 A cm{sup -2} and 850 C. This performance compared well with 0.74 W cm{sup -2} measured for pure H{sub 2} in the same cell and under the same operating conditions. Performance stability of tubular cells was investigated by long-term testing in flowing CO during which no carbon deposition was observed. At a constant current of 9.96 A (or, 0.414 A cm{sup -2}) power output remained unchanged over 375 h of continuous operation at 850 C. In addition, a 50-cell planar SOFC stack was operated at 800 C on 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}), which generated 1176 W of total power at a power density of 224 mW cm{sup -2}. The results demonstrate that CO is a viable primary fuel for SOFCs. (author)

  13. Carbon-based Fuel Cell. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-01-01

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO 2 , and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO 2 exhaust stream for the direct CO 2 sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts

  14. PEM fuel cell durability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ofstad, Axel B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization for stationary and transportation power applications. For transportation applications, the durability target for fuel cell power systems is a 5,000 hour lifespan and able to function over a range of vehicle operating conditions (-40{sup o} to +40{sup o}C). However, durability is difficult to quantify and improve because of the quantity and duration of testing required, and also because the fuel cell stack contains many components, for which the degradation mechanisms, component interactions and effects of operating conditions are not fully understood. These requirements have led to the development of accelerated testing protocols for PEM fuel cells. The need for accelerated testing methodology is exemplified by the times required for standard testing to reach their required targets: automotive 5,000 hrs = {approx} 7 months; stationary systems 40,000 hrs = {approx} 4.6 years. As new materials continue to be developed, the need for relevant accelerated testing increases. In this investigation, we examine the durability of various cell components, examine the effect of transportation operating conditions (potential cycling, variable RH, shut-down/start-up, freeze/thaw) and evaluate durability by accelerated durability protocols. PEM fuel cell durability testing is performed on single cells, with tests being conducted with steady-state conditions and with dynamic conditions using power cycling to simulate a vehicle drive cycle. Component and single-cell characterization during and after testing was conducted to identify changes in material properties and related failure mechanisms. Accelerated-testing experiments were applied to further examine material degradation.

  15. Multiphysics modeling of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serincan, Mustafa Fazil

    Fuel cells are expected to resist permanent changes in performance over time, to tolerate unexpected changes in the ambient conditions for a stable operation, and to sustain a structural integrity under different operating conditions. However, during the operation, both solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) are prone to many hazards that may cause degradation of the performance even to the extent of complete failure of these devices. In this study performance and degradation of SOFCs and PEFCs is studied. A computational modeling framework has been established to investigate the transport phenomena and the electrochemical performance as well as the mechanical behavior of SOFCs and PEFCs. The electrochemical performance of the SOFC is investigated both in steady-state and transient operations while elucidating the transport phenomena related to the fuel cell operation. The proposed computational framework for the SOFC comprises two separate models for the test furnace and the single cell in order to more accurately model the actual test system while decreasing the computational cost. The fuel cell performance in transient operation is also studied. The performance of the SOFC is investigated in case of a failure in the fuel supply system. Mechanical behavior of the SOFC is also considered to help assessing the durability of the cells. The same modeling framework is utilized for the PEFCs to investigate electrochemical and mechanical degradation during the fuel cell operation. To assess the performance degradation as a result of gas contamination, a cation transport model is presented. It is found that the effect of fuel side contamination of cationic species is much more significant than the air side contamination while there still is a significant performance degradation associated with the latter. Further, the stresses induced during the PEFC operation due to the swelling and shrinkage of the membrane with hydration changes are

  16. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  17. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  18. Proceedings of the fuel cells 1994 contractors review meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C. P., II; Mayfield, M. J.

    1994-08-01

    METC annually sponsors this conference to provide a forum for energy executives, engineers, etc. to discuss advances in fuel cell research and development projects, to exchange ideas with private sector attendees, and to review relevant results in fuel cell technology programs. Two hundred and three people from industry, academia, and Government attended. The conference attempts to showcase the partnerships with the Government and with industry, by seeking activity participation and involvement from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EPRI, GRI, and APRA. In addition to sessions on fuel cells (solid oxide, molten carbonate, etc.) for stationary electric power generation, sessions on US DOE's Fuel Cell Transportation Program and on DOD/APRA's fuel cell logistic fuel program were presented. In addition to the 29 technical papers, an abstract of an overview of international fuel cell development and commercialization plans in Europe and Japan is included. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Develop high activity, low cost non-PGM fuel cell electrocatalyst and stable supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Gaillard, J. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-09-28

    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFC. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into Metallic Organic Framework (MOF) catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of FePhen@MOF catalysts have been synthesized with varying [Fe] to investigate the effect on electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties. The magnitude of the FeII/III redox couple and the electrochemical surface area are analyzed to determine if there is a correlation between [Fe] and the ORR onset potential and/or the relative number of active sites.

  20. Mobile fuel cell development at Siemens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recent mobile fuel cell developments are reported with particular attention given to fuel cell technology based on photon exchange membrane (PEM) as electrolyte. Advantages of PEM fuel cells over conventional systems include their overload capacity, low power degradation, long lifetime, and the possibility to operate the fuel cell at different temperatures. The PEM fuel cells can be operated with CO2-containing reactants and have a considerable potential for increasing power. These facts make it possible to construct energy storage systems with H2/air fuel cells for electric cars or long-term storage facilities for regenerative energy systems.

  1. FUEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELLS: EFFECTS ON CATALYST DURABILITY AND CARBON FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. BORUP; M. INBODY; B. MORTON; L. BROWN

    2001-05-01

    On-board production of hydrogen for fuel cells for automotive applications is a challenging developmental task. The fuel processor must show long term durability and under challenging conditions. Fuel processor catalysts in automotive fuel processors will be exposed to large thermal variations, vibrations, exposure to uncontrolled ambient conditions, and various impurities from ambient air and from fuel. For the commercialization of fuel processors, the delineation of effects on catalyst activity and durability are required. We are studying fuels and fuel constituent effects on the fuel processor system as part of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation program. Pure fuel components are tested to delineate the fuel component effect on the fuel processor and fuel processor catalysts. Component blends are used to simulate ''real fuels'', with various fuel mixtures being examined such as reformulated gasoline and naptha. The aliphatic, napthenic, olefin and aromatic content are simulated to represent the chemical kinetics of possible detrimental reactions, such as carbon formation, during fuel testing. Testing has examined the fuel processing performance of different fuel components to help elucidate the fuel constituent effects on fuel processing performance and upon catalyst durability. Testing has been conducted with vapor fuels, including natural gas and pure methane. The testing of pure methane and comparable testing with natural gas (97% methane) have shown some measurable differences in performance in the fuel processor. Major gasoline fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared for their effect on the fuel processing performance. Experiments have been conducted using high-purity compounds to observe the fuel processing properties of the individual components and to document individual fuel component performance. The relative carbon formation of different fuel constituents have been measured by

  2. Bioelectricity Generation and Bioremediation of an Azo-Dye in a Microbial Fuel Cell Coupled Activated Sludge Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Danish; Abdulateif, Huda; Ismail, Iqbal M.; Sabir, Suhail; Khan, Mohammad Zain

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye degradation was achieved in the present study by using a combined anaerobic-aerobic process. The anaerobic system was a typical single chambered microbial fuel cell (SMFC) which utilizes acid navy blue r (ANB) dye along with glucose as growth substrate to generate electricity. Four different concentrations of ANB (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) were tested in the SMFC and the degradation products were further treated in an activated sludge post treatment process. The dye decolorization followed pseudo first order kinetics while the negative values of the thermodynamic parameter ∆G (change in Gibbs free energy) shows that the reaction proceeds with a net decrease in the free energy of the system. The coulombic efficiency (CE) and power density (PD) attained peak values at 10.36% and 2,236 mW/m2 respectively for 200 ppm of ANB. A further increase in ANB concentrations results in lowering of cell potential (and PD) values owing to microbial inhibition at higher concentrations of toxic substrates. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed a perfect redox reaction was taking place in the SMFC. The pH, temperature and conductivity remain 7.5–8.0, 27(±2°C and 10.6–18.2 mS/cm throughout the operation. The biodegradation pathway was studied by the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy technique, suggested the preferential cleavage of the azo bond as the initial step resulting in to aromatic amines. Thus, a combined anaerobic-aerobic process using SMFC coupled with activated sludge process can be a viable option for effective degradation of complex dye substrates along with energy (bioelectricity) recovery. PMID:26496083

  3. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  4. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  5. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  6. Canadian fuel cell commercialization roadmap update : progress of Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbee, S.; Karlsson, T.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells are considered an essential part of future low-carbon energy systems for transportation and stationary power. In recognition of this, Industry Canada has worked in partnership with public and private stakeholders to provide an update to the 2003 Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap to determine infrastructure requirements for near-term markets. The update includes technology and market developments in terms of cost and performance. This presentation included an overview of global hydrogen and fuel cell markets as background and context for the activities of the Canadian industry. Approaches toward commercial viability and mass market success were also discussed along with possible scenarios and processes by which these mass markets could develop. Hydrogen and fuel cell industry priorities were outlined along with recommendations for building a hydrogen infrastructure

  7. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  8. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... at potentials, which approach the usual cathode potentials of HTPEM-FCs. Therefore, it seems that H3PO4-based fuel cells are not much suited to efficiently convert ethanol in accordance with findings in earlier research papers. Given that HTPEM-FCs can tolerate CO containing reformate gas, focusing research...... activities on catalysts for reformate oxidation appears more rational. Improvements of the ORR activity at the cathode can have large influence on the performance of HTPEM-FCs. The measurements of oxygen diffusivity and solubility contribute to the understanding of oxygen mass transport at the interface...

  9. Solvent activities of the fluorinated solid polymer electrolyte/water system in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Bae, Young Chan

    We modified the lattice fluid equation-of-state by the introducing Debye-Hückel equation. A thermodynamic model taking into account the specific interaction and ionic strength between the polymer and the solvent is proposed. The proposed model successfully predicts the vapor/liquid equilibria (VLE) of solvents and the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). A generalized lattice fluid model is modified to describe the change of water activity in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE)/water systems. The calculated activity curves using the proposed model agree remarkably well with the experimental data.

  10. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  12. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  13. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  14. Surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide used as high efficient electrocatalyst in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Zhong; Li, Kexun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Di; Wang, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we report a simplistic method to fabricate the surface-oxidized cobalt phosphide (CoP) nanocrystals (NCs), which is used as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for the first time. The corallite-like CoP NCs are successfully prepared by a hydrothermal reaction following a phosphating treatment in N2 atmosphere. When used as an ORR catalyst, cobalt phosphide shows comparable onset potential, inferior resistance, as well as a small Tafel slope with long-term stability in neutral media. The maximum power density of MFC embellished with 10% CoP reached 1914.4 ± 59.7 mW m-2, which is 108.5% higher than the control. The four-electron pathway, observed by the RDE, plays a crucial role in electrochemical catalytic activity. In addition, material characterizations indicate that the surface oxide layer (CoOx) around the metallic CoP core is important and beneficial for ORR. Accordingly, it can be expected that the as-synthesized CoP will be a promising candidate of the non-precious metal ORR electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy applications.

  15. Poly(vinyl alcohol) separators improve the coulombic efficiency of activated carbon cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2013-09-01

    High-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) air cathodes were constructed using a combination of inexpensive materials for the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst and the electrode separator. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based electrode separator enabled high coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in MFCs with activated carbon (AC) cathodes without significantly decreasing power output. MFCs with AC cathodes and PVA separators had CEs (43%-89%) about twice those of AC cathodes lacking a separator (17%-55%) or cathodes made with platinum supported on carbon catalyst (Pt/C) and carbon cloth (CE of 20%-50%). Similar maximum power densities were observed for AC-cathode MFCs with (840 ± 42 mW/m2) or without (860 ± 10 mW/m2) the PVA separator after 18 cycles (36 days). Compared to MFCs with Pt-based cathodes, the cost of the AC-based cathodes with PVA separators was substantially reduced. These results demonstrated that AC-based cathodes with PVA separators are an inexpensive alternative to expensive Pt-based cathodes for construction of larger-scale MFC reactors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term performance of activated carbon air cathodes with different diffusion layer porosities in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2011-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes are inexpensive and useful alternatives to Pt-catalyzed electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but information is needed on their long-term stability for oxygen reduction. AC cathodes were constructed with diffusion layers (DLs) with two different porosities (30% and 70%) to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen transfer on power. The 70% DL cathode initially produced a maximum power density of 1214±123mW/m 2 (cathode projected surface area; 35±4W/m 3 based on liquid volume), but it decreased by 40% after 1 year to 734±18mW/m 2. The 30% DL cathode initially produced less power than the 70% DL cathode, but it only decreased by 22% after 1 year (from 1014±2mW/m 2 to 789±68mW/m 2). Electrochemical tests were used to examine the reasons for the degraded performance. Diffusion resistance in the cathode was found to be the primary component of the internal resistance, and it increased over time. Replacing the cathode after 1 year completely restored the original power densities. These results suggest that the degradation in cathode performance was due to clogging of the AC micropores. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for oxygen reduction that can still produce ~750mW/m 2 after 1 year. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Long-Term Performance of Chemically and Physically Modified Activated Carbons in Air Cathodes of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-31

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Activated carbon (AC) is a low-cost and effective catalyst for oxygen reduction in air cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but its performance must be maintained over time. AC was modified by three methods: 1)pyrolysis with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (AC-Fe), 2)heat treatment (AC-heat), and 3)mixing with carbon black (AC-CB). The maximum power densities after one month with these AC cathodes were 35% higher with AC-Fe (1410±50mW m-2) and AC-heat (1400±20mW m-2), and 16% higher with AC-CB (1210±30mW m-2) than for plain AC (1040±20mW m-2), versus 1270±50mW m-2 for a Pt control. After 16months, the Pt cathodes produced only 250±10mW m-2. However, the AC-heat and AC-CB cathodes still produced 960-970mW m-2, whereas plain AC produced 860±60mW m-2. The performance of the AC cathodes was restored to >85% of the initial maximum power densities by cleaning with a weak acid solution. Based on cost considerations among the AC materials, AC-CB appears to be the best choice for long-term performance.

  18. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity on surface-decorated perovskite thin films for solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mutoro, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Surface-decoration of perovskites can strongly affect the oxygen reduction activity, and therefore is a new and promising approach to improve SOFC cathode materials. In this study, we demonstrate that a small amount of secondary phase on a (001) La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC) surface can either significantly activate or passivate the electrode. LSC (001) microelectrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition on a (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate were decorated with La-, Co-, and Sr-(hydr)oxides/carbonates. "Sr"-decoration with nanoparticle coverage in the range from 50% to 80% of the LSC surface enhanced the surface exchange coefficient, k q, by an order of magnitude while "La"- decoration and "Co"-decoration led to no change and reduction in k q, respectively. Although the physical origin for the enhancement is not fully understood, results from atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the observed k q enhancement for "Sr"-decorated surfaces can be attributed largely to catalytically active interface regions between surface Sr-enriched particles and the LSC surface. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Fundamentals of fuel cell system integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kumar, Romesh; Myles, Kevin M.

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cells are theoretically very efficient energy conversion devices that have the potential of becoming a commercial product for numerous uses in the civilian economy. We have analyzed several fuel cell system designs with regard to thermal and chemical integration of the fuel cell stack into the rest of the system. Thermal integration permits the use of the stack waste heat for the endothermic steps of fuel reforming. Chemical integration provides the steam needed for fuel reforming from the water produced by the electrochemical cell reaction. High-temperature fuel cells, such as the molten carbonate and the solid oxide fuel cells, permit this system integration in a relatively simple manner. Lower temperature fuel cells, such as the polymer electrolyte and phosphoric acid systems, require added system complexity to achieve such integration. The system economics are affected by capital and fuel costs and technical parameters, such as electrochemical fuel utilization, current density, and system complexity. At today's low fuel prices and the high fuel cell costs (in part, because of the low rates of production of the early prototypes), fuel cell systems are not cost competitive with conventional power generation. With the manufacture and sale of larger numbers of fuel cell systems, the total costs will decrease from the current several thousand dollars per kW, to perhaps less than $100 per kW as production volumes approa ch a million units per year.

  20. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  2. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  3. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  4. Activity and stability studies of platinized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as fuel cell electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2015-01-01

    A non-covalent functionalization for multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been used as an alternative to the damaging acid treatment. Platinum nanoparticles with similar particle size distribution have been deposited on the surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The interaction between...... platinum nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid is studied and its electrochemical stability investigated. This study reveals the existence of a platinum-support interaction and leads to three main conclusions. First, the addition of 1-pyrenecarboxylic...... acid is improving the dispersion of platinum nanoparticles, leading to an improved electrochemical activity towards oxygen reduction reaction. Second, the investigations regarding the electrochemical stability showed that the platinum-support interaction plays an important role in improving the long...

  5. Photo-switchable microbial fuel-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Orr; Dandela, Rambabu; Bhagat, Ashok; Adepu, Raju; Meijler, Michael M; Xia, Lin; Alfonta, Lital

    2018-05-01

    Regulation of Bio-systems in a clean, simple, and efficient way is important for the design of smart bio-interfaces and bioelectronic devices. Light as a non-invasive mean to control the activity of a protein enables spatial and temporal control far superior to other chemical and physical methods. The ability to regulate the activity of a catalytic enzyme in a biofuel-cell reduces the waste of resources and energy and turns the fuel-cell into a smart and more efficient device for power generation. Here we present a microbial-fuel-cell based on a surface displayed, photo-switchable alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme was modified near the active site using non-canonical amino acids and a small photo-reactive molecule, which enables reversible control of enzymatic activity. Depending on the modification site, the enzyme exhibits reversible behavior upon irradiation with UV and visible light, in both biochemical, and electrochemical assays. The change observed in power output of a microbial fuel cell utilizing the modified enzyme was almost five-fold, between inactive and active states. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  7. Hydrogen and fuel cell research: Institute for Integrated Energy Systems (IESVic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, L.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: IESVic's mission is to chart feasible paths to sustainable energy. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Energy system analysis 2. Computational fuel cell engineering; Fuel cell parameter measurement; Microscale fuel cells 3. Hydrogen dispersion studies for safety codes 4. Active magnetic refrigeration for hydrogen liquifaction and heat transfer in metal hydrides 5. Hydrogen and fuel cell system integration (author)

  8. Direct liquid methanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfei; Peng, Ranran; Dong, Dehua; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    Anode coking problem of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) when using hydrocarbon fuels has been the major barrier for the practice and commercialization of well-developed high performance SOFC. In this work, based on fuels consideration, we chose liquid methanol as the candidate fuel for SOFC with the configuration of NiO/SDC-SDC-SSC/SDC. For comparison, traditional fuels, hydrogen and ammonia, were tested. With methanol as fuel, the maximum power densities were 698, 430 and 223 mW cm -2 at 650, 600 and 550 °C, respectively, which were higher than that with ammonia and lower than that of hydrogen. The electrochemical properties of the cells with the three fuels were investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. The long-term stability of the cell with methanol, methane and ethanol were also studied at a constant output voltage of 0.5 V.

  9. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2011-07-31

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Fanglin [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Popov, Branko [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chao, Yuh [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Xue, Xingjian [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  12. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  13. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  14. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  15. Electrocatalytic and fuel processing studies for portable fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Paul H.

    In the field of catalysis, the development of alternative catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathodes has been an ongoing task for researchers over the past two decades. PEM fuel cells are considered to be potential replacements for internal combustion engines in automobiles, and their reduced emissions and better efficiency would have huge payoffs for our environment, and in reducing our nation's dependence on foreign oil. To date, PEMFC cathode over-potentials are still significant, and the only materials discovered to be highly active and stable catalysts in an acidic environment are platinum-based. Despite several major advances in recent years in reducing platinum loading in fuel cell electrodes, the high expense and low availability of platinum will hinder the large-scale commercialization of PEM fuel cells. The most hopeful advances being made in replacing platinum are related to pyrolyzed organic macrocycles with transition metal centers (such as Fe or Co porphyrins and phthalocyanines). Encouragingly, it has recently been discovered that active electrodes could be prepared by heat-treating metal and nitrogen precursors (not necessarily organic macrocycles) together in the presence of a carbon support. In the first study of this dissertation, catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) were prepared by the pyrolysis of acetonitrile over various supports. The supports used included Vulcan Carbon, high purity alumina, silica, magnesia, and these same supports impregnated with Fe, Co, or Ni in the form of acetate salt. The catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analysis, BJH Pore Size Distribution (PSD), conductivity testing, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy (XPS), Mossbauer Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) half cell testing, and

  16. American fuel cell market development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past three decades several attempts have been made to introduce fuel cells into commercial markets. The prospective users recognized the attractive features of fuel cells, however they were unwilling to pay a premium for the features other than the easily-calculated fuel cost savings. There was no accepted method for a user to calculate and the accrue the economic value of the other features. The situation is changing. The Clean Air Act signed into law by President Bush on November 15, 1990, mandates a nation wide reduction in SO 2, NO x and ozone emissions. This law affects specific utilities for SO 2 reduction, and specific regions of the country for NO x and ozone reductions — the latter affecting the utility-, industrial- and transportation-sectors in these regions. The Act does not direct how the reductions are to be achieved; but it specifically establishes a trading market for emission allowances whereby an organization that reduces emissions below its target can sell its unused allowance to another organization. In addition to the Clean Air Act, there are other environmental issues emerging such as controls on CO 2 emissions, possible expansion of the list of controlled emissions, mandated use of alternative fuels in specific transportation districts and restrictions on electrical transmission systems. All of these so-called 'environmental externalities' are now recognized as having a real cost that can be quantified, and factored in to calculations to determine the relative economic standing of various technologies. This in turn justifies a premium price for fuel cells hence the renewed interest in the technology by the utility and transportation market segments.

  17. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  18. Fuel cells for portable, mobile and hybrid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.; Kaufman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of fuel cell systems for a variety of low-power applications (below 1000 watts) means they can be used for applications such as portable power sources and mobile power sources. The energy and power are separate elements in a fuel cell system. The power is provided by the fuel cell stack (output characteristics are dependent on the cell active area, number of cells, and operating conditions), and the energy is defined by the fuel (hydrogen) storage. The authors indicated that proton exchange membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate for small fuel cell systems, since they have a temperature range ambient to 90 Celsius, ambient air (non-humidified), and load following response. In addition, they possess a solid electrolyte, high power density and specific power, and low-pressure operation. Simplicity of operation is the key to the design of a fuel cell system. The parameters to be considered include hydrogen supply, air supply, water management, and thermal management. Some of the options available for fuels are: compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and carbon-based hydrogen storage. Some of the factors that will help in determining market penetration are: rapid cost reduction with volume, fuel infrastructure, proven reliability, and identification of applications where fuel cells provide superior performance. 2 figs

  19. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Naval Hospital - Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, CA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binder, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...). CERL has selected and evaluated application sites, supervised the design and installation of fuel cells, actively monitored the operation and maintenance of fuel cells, and compiled "lessons learned...

  20. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  1. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was req....../L (∼233 ± 1 mA/m2), with a response time of...

  2. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Černý, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 44-47 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0983; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrocatalysis * hydrogen electrode Ionex membrane * membrane fuel cell Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  3. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  4. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  5. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Battery Replacement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    gions of the electrode assembly and lowering reactor efficiency. Array fuel cells are ideal for evaluation of catalytic layers, gas diffusion...advanced high throughput screening system for flow electrochemical reactor components. 36 37 Laser Activated Membrane ...studies on performance degradation of Catalysts and Nafion™ Membrane Functional Groups in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, IN PREP (06 2013) TOTAL: 1 Books

  6. 2016 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-09

    The 2016 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2016 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; market transformation; and Small Business Innovation Research projects.

  7. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  8. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  9. Challenges in developing direct carbon fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cairong; Ma, Jianjun; Corre, Gael; Jain, Sneh L; Irvine, John T S

    2017-05-22

    A direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) can produce electricity with both superior electrical efficiency and fuel utilisation compared to all other types of fuel cells. Although the first DCFC prototype was proposed in 1896, there was, until the 1970s, little sustained effort to investigate further, because of technology development issues. Interest in DCFCs has recently been reinvigorated as a possible method of replacing conventional coal-fired power plants to meet the demands for lower CO 2 emissions, and indeed for efficient utilisation of waste derived chars. In this article, recent developments in direct carbon conversion are reviewed, with the principal emphasis on the materials involved. The development of electrolytes, anodes and cathodes as well as fuel sources is examined. The activity and chemical stability of the anode materials are a critical concern addressed in the development of new materials. Redox media of molten carbonate or molten metal facilitating the transportation of ions offer promising possibilities for carbon oxidation. The suitability of different carbon fuels in various DCFC systems, in terms of crystal structure, surface properties, impurities and particle size, is also discussed. We explore the influence of a variety of parameters on the electrochemical performance of DCFCs, with regard to their open circuit voltage, power output and lifetime. The challenges faced in developing DCFCs are summarised, and potential prospects of the system are outlined.

  10. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  11. Fuel cell with internal reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, H.C.; Patel, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system provided with a first passage means in communication with and adjacent to a cell diffusion electrode and with a second passage means having a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons and communicating with the first passage means through a gas porous member. Differential pressure means is further provided to establish a pressure differential between the passage means for promoting reformed gas flow from the second passage means to the first passage means and retarding electrolyte vapor passage from the first passage means to the second passage means

  12. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  13. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  14. Trioxane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1995-01-01

    Trioxane identified as high-energy, nontoxic, solid substitute for formaldehyde as water-soluble fuel for use in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electrochemical oxidation to water and carbon dioxide at platinum and platinum-alloy electrodes in liquid-feed-type fuel cells that contain acid electrolytes or solid proton-exchange membrane electrolytes. Exhibits less crossover than do such conventional fuels as methanol and formaldehyde. Being solid at ambient temperature, trioxane offers significant advantages in handling and transportation. Synthesized from natural gas with relative ease.

  15. Dimethoxymethane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Halpert, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Dimethoxymethane (DMM) identified as one of several high-energy fuels for direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electro-oxidation to carbon dioxide and water, with methanol as possible intermediate product. Fuel electro-oxidized at sustained high rates without poisoning electrodes. Performance superior to that of methanol at same temperature. Synthesized from natural gas (methane) and is thus viable alternative to methanol in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Better performance expected at higher temperature and by use of Pt/Sn catalyst. Alternatively, low boiling temperature of DMM also makes it candidate for gas-feed operation.

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  17. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  19. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies......The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...

  20. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  1. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  2. Pt/Ru-functionalized magnetic spheres for a magnetic-field stimulated methanol and oxygen redox processes. Towards on-demand activation of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joseph; Musameh, Mustafa; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Gonzalez-Garcia, Olga; Oni, Joshua; Gervasio, Don [Departments of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876006, Tempe, AZ 85287-5801 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Pt/Ru-functionalized magnetic spheres were used for a magnetic-field stimulated methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction processes. The electrocatalytic alloy magnetic particles were prepared by a galvanostatic co-deposition of platinum and ruthenium onto nickel spheres. The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen could be triggered by switching the position of an external magnet below the surface of the carbon electrode to confine the Pt/Ru-coated particles. The magnetic stimulation of the redox processes of methanol and oxygen allowed the reversible activation and deactivation of the operation of direct-methanol fuel cells. Such switching of fuel cells would enable on-demand power generation, for meeting the specific needs of power consuming units. (author)

  3. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new type of direct oxidation ammonia fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix...EMF’s of 0.5 to 0.6 volts. At practical levels of current density the direct ammonia fuel cell has an overall efficiency of about 60% compared to 30-35% for the indirect-type fuel cell . (Author)

  5. Proceedings of the third annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.J. (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop the essential technology for private sector characterization of the various fuel cell electrical generation systems. These systems promise high fuel to electricity efficiencies (40 to 60 percent), distinct possibilities for cogeneration applications, modularity of design, possibilities of urban siting, and environmentally benign emissions. The purpose of this meeting was to provide the research and development (R D) participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with the opportunity to present key results of their research and to establish closer business contacts. Major emphasis was on phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide technology efforts. Research results of the coal gasification and gas stream cleanup R D activities pertinent to the Fuel Cells Program were also highlighted. Two hundred seventeen attendees from industry, utilities, academia, and Government participated in this 2-day meeting. Twenty-three papers were given in three formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells R D (9 papers), solid oxide fuel cells (8 papers), phosphoric acid fuel cells R D (6 papers). In addition to the papers and presentations, these proceedings also include comments on the Fuel Cells Program from the viewpoint of DOE/METC Fuel Cell Overview by Rita A. Bajura, DOE/METC Perspective by Manville J. Mayfield, Electric Power Research Institute by Daniel M. Rastler, Natural Gas by Hugh D. Guthrie, and Transportation Applications by Pandit G. Patil.

  6. Amphoteric water as acid and base for protic ionic liquids and their electrochemical activity when used as fuel cell electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, Muhammed Shah; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Tatara, Ryoichi; Abu Bin Hasan Susan, Md; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2017-12-14

    Amphoteric water was mixed with equimolar amounts of a super-strong acid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), and a super-strong base, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-7-undecene (DBU). Bulk physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the mixtures were compared with those of the best ever reported protic ionic liquid (PIL), diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), which has excellent physicochemical properties as a fuel cell electrolyte. The acidic mixture ([H 3 O][TfO]) behaved as a protic ionic liquid, while the basic mixture ([DBU]OH) showed incomplete proton transfer. The Walden plot indicated that [H 3 O][TfO] behaves as a good PIL, similar to [dema][TfO], whereas [DBU]OH behaves as a poor PIL. [H 3 O][TfO] showed excellent H 2 /O 2 fuel cell performance at 80 °C; however, the performance deteriorated as the bulk water content increased, because of the retardation of the electrode kinetics due to the oxidation of Pt in the presence of bulk water. On the other hand, [DBU]OH exhibited very poor performance possibly because of the existence of neutral species in the system.

  7. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  8. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  9. Clean energy from a carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Kobyłecki, Rafał; Bis, Zbigniew

    2011-12-01

    The direct carbon fuel cell technology provides excellent conditions for conversion of chemical energy of carbon-containing solid fuels directly into electricity. The technology is very promising since it is relatively simple compared to other fuel cell technologies and accepts all carbon-reach substances as possible fuels. Furthermore, it makes possible to use atmospheric oxygen as the oxidizer. In this paper the results of authors' recent investigations focused on analysis of the performance of a direct carbon fuel cell supplied with graphite, granulated carbonized biomass (biocarbon), and granulated hard coal are presented. The comparison of the voltage-current characteristics indicated that the results obtained for the case when the cell was operated with carbonized biomass and hard coal were much more promising than those obtained for graphite. The effects of fuel type and the surface area of the cathode on operation performance of the fuel cell were also discussed.

  10. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  11. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  12. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  13. Bringing fuel cells to reality and reality to fuel cells: A systems perspective on the use of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, Maria

    2008-10-01

    The hopes and expectations on fuel cells are high and sometimes unrealistically positive. However, as an emerging technology, much remains to be proven and the proper use of the technology in terms of suitable applications, integration with society and extent of use is still under debate. This thesis is a contribution to the debate, presenting results from two fuel cell demonstration projects, looking into the introduction of fuel cells on the market, discussing the prospects and concerns for the near-term future and commenting on the potential use in a future sustainable energy system. Bringing fuel cells to reality implies finding near-term niche applications and markets where fuel cell systems may be competitive. In a sense fuel cells are already a reality as they have been demonstrated in various applications world-wide. However, in many of the envisioned applications fuel cells are far from being competitive and sometimes also the environmental benefit of using fuel cells in a given application may be questioned. Bringing reality to fuel cells implies emphasising the need for realistic expectations and pointing out that the first markets have to be based on the currently available technology and not the visions of what fuel cells could be in the future. The results from the demonstration projects show that further development and research on especially the durability for fuel cell systems is crucial and a general recommendation is to design the systems for high reliability and durability rather than striving towards higher energy efficiencies. When sufficient reliability and durability are achieved, fuel cell systems may be introduced in niche markets where the added values presented by the technology compensate for the initial high cost

  14. Gram-Scale Synthesis of Highly Active and Durable Octahedral PtNi Nanoparticle Catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Juhyuk; Jang, Jue-Hyuk; Roh, Chi-Woo

    2018-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are regarded as a promising renewable energy source for a future hydrogen energy society. However, highly active and durable catalysts are required for the PEMFCs because of their intrinsic high overpotential at the cathode and operation under the acidic...... condition for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Since the discovery of the exceptionally high surface activity of Pt3Ni(111), the octahedral PtNi nanoparticles have been synthesized and tested. Nonetheless, their milligram-scale synthesis method and poor durability make them unsuitable...

  15. Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity of Catalysts Derived from Co and Co/Zn Methyl-Imidazolate Frameworks in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Lina [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming and State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai P.R. China; Goenaga, Gabriel A. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA; Williams, Kia [University of South Florida, Tampa FL 33620 USA; Barkholtz, Heather M. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Grabstanowicz, Lauren R. [Alcoa Technical Center, New Kensington PA 15068 USA; Brooksbank, Jeremy A. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA; Papandrew, Alex B. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA; Elzein, Radwan [University of South Florida, Tampa FL 33620 USA; Schlaf, Rudiger [University of South Florida, Tampa FL 33620 USA; Zawodzinski, Thomas A. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA; Zou, Jianxin [Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming and State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai P.R. China; Ma, Shengqian [University of South Florida, Tampa FL 33620 USA; Liu, Di-Jia [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA

    2016-05-31

    We demonstrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity over the catalysts derived from pyrolyzed cobalt zeolitic imidazolate frameworks depends strongly on the imidazole ligand structure and cobalt content. The activity and durability of these catalysts were tested in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell for the first time. The membrane electrode assembly containing a catalyst derived from Co/Zn bimetallic ZIF at cathode achieved an open circuit voltage of 0.93 V, a current density of 28 mA cm-2 at 0.8 ViR-free and a peak power density of 374 mW cm-2.

  16. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  17. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Luo, Jin; Fang, Bin; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Njoki, Peter N.; Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Yin, Jun

    2010-02-01

    One of the most important challenges for the ultimate commercialization of fuel cells is the preparation of active, robust, and low-cost catalysts. This review highlights some findings of our investigations in the last few years in developing advanced approaches to nanostructured catalysts that address this challenge. Emphasis is placed on nanoengineering-based fabrication, processing, and characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles with controllable size (1-10 nm), shape, composition (e.g. MlnM2100-n, M1nM2mM3100-n-m, M1@M2, where M (1 or 2) = Pt, Co, Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Pd, W, Ag, Au etc) and morphology (e.g. alloy, core@shell etc). In addition to an overview of the fundamental issues and the recent progress in fuel cell catalysts, results from evaluations of the electrocatalytic performance of nanoengineered catalysts in fuel cell reactions are discussed. This approach differs from other traditional approaches to the preparation of supported catalysts in the ability to control the particle size, composition, phase, and surface properties. An understanding of how the nanoscale properties of the multimetallic nanoparticles differ from their bulk-scale counterparts, and how the interaction between the nanoparticles and the support materials relates to the size sintering or evolution in the thermal activation process, is also discussed. The fact that the bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticle system displays a single-phase character different from the miscibility gap known for its bulk-scale counterpart serves as an important indication of the nanoscale manipulation of the structural properties, which is useful for refining the design and preparation of the bimetallic catalysts. The insight gained from probing how nanoparticle-nanoparticle and nanoparticle-substrate interactions relate to the size evolution in the activation process of nanoparticles on planar substrates serves as an important guiding principle in the control of nanoparticle sintering on different

  19. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  20. FUEL CELL ELECTRODES FOR ACID MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    fuel cell electrodes for acid media. Activated carbon electrodes were prepared, wetproofed with paraffin or Teflon, and catalyzed with platinum. The wetproofing agent was applied by immersion or electrodeposition and the catalyst applied by chemical decomposition of H2P+Cl6 solutions. Half cell studies with hydrogen anodes and oxygen (air) cathodes showed that electrochemical performance is essentially the same for paraffin and Teflontreated electrodes; however, the life of the Teflon-treated electrodes under equal conditions of load is greater than that for

  1. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  2. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Susan; Rush, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  4. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogaji, S.O.T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M. [Power Propulsion and Aerospace Engineering Department, Centre for Diagnostics and Life Cycle Costs, Cranfield University (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-09

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Modelling fuel cell performance using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaji, S. O. T.; Singh, R.; Pilidis, P.; Diacakis, M.

    Over the last few years, fuel cell technology has been increasing promisingly its share in the generation of stationary power. Numerous pilot projects are operating worldwide, continuously increasing the amount of operating hours either as stand-alone devices or as part of gas turbine combined cycles. An essential tool for the adequate and dynamic analysis of such systems is a software model that enables the user to assess a large number of alternative options in the least possible time. On the other hand, the sphere of application of artificial neural networks has widened covering such endeavours of life such as medicine, finance and unsurprisingly engineering (diagnostics of faults in machines). Artificial neural networks have been described as diagrammatic representation of a mathematical equation that receives values (inputs) and gives out results (outputs). Artificial neural networks systems have the capacity to recognise and associate patterns and because of their inherent design features, they can be applied to linear and non-linear problem domains. In this paper, the performance of the fuel cell is modelled using artificial neural networks. The inputs to the network are variables that are critical to the performance of the fuel cell while the outputs are the result of changes in any one or all of the fuel cell design variables, on its performance. Critical parameters for the cell include the geometrical configuration as well as the operating conditions. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modelling are discussed. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed.

  6. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  7. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  9. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  10. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  11. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Curtin and Jennifer Gangi

    2015-12-17

    This December 2015 report, the sixth in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, profiles of leading states, and a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

  12. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  13. Compact Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Yipeng

    2003-01-01

    In Phase I, we demonstrate the feasibility of making supported electronically insulating, proton conducting inorganic thin films on metal hydride foils for intermediate temperature fuel cell electrolytes...

  14. DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-07

    DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots E2S2 Conference May 7, 2009 Rob Hardison LMI rhardison@lmi.org Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DLA’s Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pilots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...and fuel cells offer potential „green‟ solutions •DLA‟s efforts to measure and improve viability of fuel cells DoD is supporting long term solutions

  15. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  16. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  17. Fuel cell vehicle technologies, infrastructure and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) use hydrogen as fuel and exhaust only water and heat. They : provide driving ranges and fueling times comparable to gasoline vehicles. Despite the advantages, : FCEVs have been in and out of the spot light of the a...

  18. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  19. Multivariable control system for dynamic PEM fuel cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanislav, Vasile; Carcadea, Elena; Capris, Catalin; Culcer, Mihai; Raceanu, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The main objective of this work was to develop a multivariable control system of robust type for a PEM fuel cells assembly. The system will be used in static and mobile applications for different values of power, generated by a fuel cell assembly of up to 10 kW. Intermediate steps were accomplished: a study of a multivariable control strategy for a PEM fuel cell assembly; a mathematic modeling of mass and heat transfer inside of fuel cell assembly, defining the response function to hydrogen and oxygen/air mass flow and inlet pressure changes; a testing stand for fuel cell assembly; experimental determinations of transient response for PEM fuel cell assembly, and more others. To define the multivariable control system for a PEM fuel cell assembly the parameters describing the system were established. Also, there were defined the generic mass and energy balance equations as functions of derivative of m i , in and m i , out , representing the mass going into and out from the fuel cell, while Q in is the enthalpy and Q out is the enthalpy of the unused reactant gases and heat produced by the product, Q dis is the heat dissipated to the surroundings, Q c is the heat taken away from the stack by active cooling and W el is the electricity generated. (authors)

  20. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  1. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  2. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; York, Cynthia A [Newington, CT; Waszczuk, Piotr [White Bear Lake, MN; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  3. Prospects for development of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Шабер

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the solution of a complex of problems that arise in small and medium-scale treatment complexes, gas production plants and small and medium-capacity power plants associated with the processing of crude methane and the possibility of reducing the greenhouse effect.The economic feasibility of the development of fuel cells (FC on raw biomethane was demonstrated by the authors in previous publications.The specificity of the solution of problems is focused on small and medium-scale treatment complexes, gas production plants and small and medium power plants.The aim of the study is to show the possibility of solving a multicomponent task of developing fuel cells, including the experimental determination of the actual use of sodium formate as a reducing agent for the production of electricity in a fuel cell (FC.Results are the following: the possibility of solving the issues of reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere during processing of waste products of human vital activity is proved. A method for converting methane and carbon dioxide emissions into useful products is shown.

  4. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  5. Mathematical modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ruy; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.

    Fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been receiving more and more attention. Modeling plays an important role in the development of fuel cells. In this paper, the state-of-the-art regarding modeling of fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane is reviewed. Modeling has allowed detailed studies concerning the development of these cells, e.g. in discussing the electrocatalysis of the reactions and the design of water-management schemes to cope with membrane dehydration. Two-dimensional models have been used to represent reality, but three-dimensional models can cope with some important additional aspects. Consideration of two-phase transport in the air cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell seems to be very appropriate. Most fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel. Besides safety concerns, there are problems associated with production, storage and distribution of this fuel. Methanol, as a liquid fuel, can be the solution to these problems and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are attractive for several applications. Mass transport is a factor that may limit the performance of the cell. Adsorption steps may be coupled to Tafel kinetics to describe methanol oxidation and methanol crossover must also be taken into account. Extending the two-phase approach to the DMFC modeling is a recent, important point.

  6. Achieving high-powered Zn/air fuel cell through N and S co-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tunable active-sites as oxygen electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiaowei; Wang, Luming; Wu, Mingjie; Xu, Nengneng; Jiang, Lei; Qiao, Jinli

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical reduction of oxygen is the heart of the next-generation energy technologies to fuel cells and metal-air batteries, of which the reference catalysts suffer from two critical bottlenecks lying in their insufficient electroactivities and unclear active site structures. Herein, we introduce the effectively hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs) as the active-sites enriched platform for oxygen electroreduction. Three quaternized copolymers (PUB, PAADDA and PICP) with different chemical structures are used to pursue Fe/N/S-tailored ORR electrocatalysts. The most efficient one prepared by PAADDA gives the onset potential of 0.94 V and a half-wave potential of 0.85 V in basic solution, as well as superb electroactivities of low H2O2% and high electron transfer number in both alkaline and acidic medium. Surprisingly, they all display high discharge power density as applied to Zn-air fuel cells, and the HPCs-PAADDA catalyst thrillingly reaches 516.3 mW cm-2 when catalyst loading is optimized to 5.0 mg cm-2. The results elucidate that the polymer with long aliphatic chain is propitious to trap metals to create active sites and enwrap silica template to construct uniform pore structure. Only two kinds of nitrogen configuration (pyridinic-N and graphitic-N) are found with distinct structure in these HPCs, which happens to be active sites.

  7. Regenerative fuel cell engineering - FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Inbody; Rodney L. Borup; James C. Hedstrom; Jose Tafoya; Byron Morton; Lois Zook; Nicholas E. Vanderborgh

    2000-01-01

    The authors report the work conducted by the ESA-EPE Fuel Cell Engineering Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY99 on regenerative fuel cell system engineering. The work was focused on the evaluation of regenerative fuel cell system components obtained through the RAFCO program. These components included a 5 kW PEM electrolyzer, a two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack, and samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode. The samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode were analyzed to determine their structure and operating characteristics. Tests were conducted on the two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack to characterize its operation as an electrolyzer and as a fuel cell. The 5 kW PEM electrolyzer was tested in the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Test Facility. These tests served to characterize the operation of the electrolyzer and, also, to verify the operation of the newly completed test facility. Future directions for this work in regenerative fuel cell systems are discussed.

  8. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  9. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  10. Fuel cells - from the laboratory to the road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, M.H. [Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell faces stiff competition from existing automotive powerplants and other Hybrid APUs. To be successful, the Fuel Cell will have to demonstrate real customer advantages such as fuel economy and emissions. The PEM technology has an inherent advantage over other powerplants in both thermal efficiency and emission performance, and as such fits in very well with the future regulations that strive to clean up the environment. In addition, it will need to be cost competitive and provide acceptable performance. The majority of development activity on PEM Fuel Cells to date has concentrated primarily in the area of Stack refinement and optimization with improvements coming in higher power densities and higher specific power. To make the Fuel Cell compatible with an automotive environment the entire system will need to be analyzed, understood, and then engineered to work together in an efficient manner.

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  12. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  13. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-07-27

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  14. Molybdenum Carbide Synthesis Using Plasmas for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    containing a dissolved metal precursor salt (e.g., platinum chloride ) to a high surface area refractory oxide (e.g., alumina). The liquid is added in an...Acid Fuel Cells, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, and Direct and Indirect Methanol Fuel Cell

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  16. Identical location transmission electron microscopy in combination with rotating disc electrode measurements. The activity of fuel cell catalysts and their degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloegl, Katrin G.

    2011-07-13

    As an alternative to conventional combustion engines, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) using hydrogen as a fuel is a promising concept owing to its potential independence from fossil fuels, high efficiency and zero emissions. Concerning its commercial viability, the fundamental problem of high system cost per power output and lifetime is closely related to finding more active and stable catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. In the presented work, several methods are combined to examine the parameters and processes responsible for both activity and degradation of platinum-based catalysts. Degradation mechanisms are scrutinized by means of electrochemical measurements with the rotating disc electrode in combination with a recently developed TEM technique, which allows for the comparison of identical locations before and after accelerated stress tests. (orig.) [German] Die mit Wasserstoff betriebene Proton Exchange Membrane Brennstoffzelle (PEMFC) stellt aufgrund ihrer potentiellen Unabhaengigkeit von fossilen Energietraegern, ihrem hohen Wirkungsgrad und fehlendem Schadstoffausstoss eine vielversprechende Alternative zum konventionellen Verbrennungsmotor dar. Das grundlegende Problem der zu hohen Systemkosten und zu geringen Lebensdauer fuer kommerzielle Anwendungen ist eng mit der Entwicklung aktiverer und stabiler Elektrokatalysatoren fuer die Sauerstoffreduktion verknuepft. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden verschiedene Methoden kombiniert, um die Parameter und Prozesse zu untersuchen, welche fuer die Aktivitaet und Degradation platinbasierter Katalysatoren verantwortlich sind. Zur Aufklaerung vorliegender Degradationsmechanismen werden elektrochemische Messungen mit der rotierenden Scheibenelektrode in Kombination mit einer neu entwickelten TEM Methode eingesetzt, welche es ermoeglicht, identische Stellen vor und nach beschleunigten Degradationstests zu untersuchen.

  17. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  18. Fuel cell and membrane therefore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aindow, Tai-Tsui

    2016-08-09

    A fuel cell includes first and second flow field plates, and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode between the flow field plates. A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is arranged between the electrodes. At least one of the flow field plates influences, at least in part, an in-plane anisotropic physical condition of the PEM that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM has an in-plane physical property that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM is oriented with its high value direction substantially aligned with the high value direction of the flow field plate.

  19. Fuel cells for telephone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.D.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Critical telephone network systems are currently protected from electric utility power failures by a backup system consisting of lead-acid batteries and an engine-alternator. It is considered here an alternate power system where less expensive off-peak commercial electricity electrolyses water, while fuel cells draw continuously on the stored gas products to provide direct current for the protected equipment. The lead acid batteries are eliminated. The benefits and costs of the existing and alternate systems in scenarios with various system efficiencies, capital costs, and electric utility rates and incentives, are compared. In today's conditions, the alternate system is not economical; however, cost and performance feasibility domains are identified. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  20. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  1. Catalysis in solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorte, R J; Vohs, J M

    2011-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolyzers (SOEs) hold much promise as highly efficient devices for the direct interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Commercial application of these devices, however, requires further improvements in their performance and stability. Because the performance of SOFC and SOE electrodes depends on their microstructures, electronic and ionic conductivities, and chemical reactivities, the needed improvements require the expertise of various disciplines, with catalytic science playing an important role. Highly active and thermally stable catalysts are required to limit the internal losses in the devices, increase the range of fuels they can use, and decrease the temperatures at which they operate. In this article we review some of the most important recent advances in catalysis for SOFC and SOE electrodes and highlight additional improvements that are needed.

  2. Microbial fuel cell as new technol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimnejad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, great attentions have been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs due to their mild operating conditions and using variety of biodegradable substrates as fuel. The traditional MFC consisted of anode and cathode compartments but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are generated. MFCs could be utilized as power generator in small devices such as biosensor. Besides the advantages of this technology, it still faces practical barriers such as low power and current density. In the present article different parts of MFC such as anode, cathode and membrane have been reviewed and to overcome the practical challenges in this field some practical options have been suggested. Also, this research review demonstrates the improvement of MFCs with summarization of their advantageous and possible applications in future application. Also, Different key factors affecting bioelectricity generation on MFCs were investigated and these key parameters are fully discussed.

  3. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  4. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  5. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  6. Microbial fuel cells: Running on gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2017-06-01

    Methane is an abundant energy source that is used for power generation in thermal power plants via combustion, but direct conversion to electricity in fuel cells remains challenging. Now, a microbial fuel cell is demonstrated to efficiently convert methane directly to current by careful selection of a consortium of microorganisms.

  7. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  8. Durable and Robust Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalmarsson, Per; Knibbe, Ruth; Hauch, Anne

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an attractive technology for the generation of electricity with high efficiency and low emissions. Risø DTU (now DTU Energy Conversion) works closely together with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S in their effort to bring competitive SOFC systems to the market. This 2-year...

  9. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  10. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; I. Zafina; H. Bosma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  11. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  12. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore ac...

  13. Electrochemistry of fuel cells for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, E. R.; Srinivasan, S.

    Fuel cells are the most promising power sources for electric vehicles and do not suffer the inherent limitations of efficiency, energy density, and lifetime, and encountered with all types of batteries considered for this application. The projected performance of fuel-cell-powered vehicles is comparable to that of the internal combustion and diesel engine vehicles but with the additional advantages of higher fuel efficiency, particularly with synfuels from coal. The ideal fuel for a fuel cell power plant for electric vehicles is methanol. This fuel is reformed to hydrogen, which combines with oxygen from the air in an acid electrolyte (phosphoric, solid polymer, or superacid) fuel cell to produce electricity. Though the phosphoric acid fuel cell is in the most advanced state of development (mainly for power generation applications), the solid polymer and superacid electrolyte fuel cells are more promising for the transportation application because of the faster oxygen reduction kinetics (and hence potential for higher power densities) and shorter start-up times.

  14. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  15. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EY A) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  16. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  17. Gasifiers optimized for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, G.; Fruchtman, J.; Hauserman, W. B.; Lee, A.; Meyers, S. J.

    Conventional coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems are typically configured so that the fuel gas is primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, with waste heat recovery for process requirements and to produce additional power in a steam bottoming cycle. These systems make use of present day gasification processes to produce the low to medium Btu fuel gas which in turn is cleaned up and consumed by the fuel cell. These conventional gasification/fuel cell systems have been studied in recent years projecting system efficiencies of 45-53 percent (HHV). Conventional gasification systems currently available evolved as stand-alone systems producing low to medium Btu gas fuel gas. The requirements of the gasification process dictates high temperatures to carry out the steam/carbon reaction and to gasify the tars present in coal. The high gasification temperatures required are achieved by an oxidant which consumes a portion of the feed coal to provide the endothermic heat required for the gasification process. The thermal needs of this process result in fuel gas temperatures that are higher than necessary for most end use applications, as well as for gas cleanup purposes. This results in some efficiency and cost penalties. This effort is designed to study advanced means of power generation by integrating the gasification process with the unique operating characteristics of carbonate fuel cells to achieve a more efficient and cost effective coal based power generating system. This is to be done by altering the gasification process to produce fuel gas compositions which result in more efficient fuel cell operation and by integrating the gasification process with the fuel cell as shown in Figure 2. Low temperature catalytic gasification was chosen as the basis for this effort due to the inherent efficiency advantages and compatibility with fuel cell operating temperatures.

  18. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    . The kinetics can however be improved by using a superior catalyst. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to identify new catalyst material for methanol fuel cells. By analysing the performance of the standard catalysts (PtRu and Pt) currently being applied in methanol fuel cells as anode and cathode......The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...... demonstrated by the Danish Technological Institute; however, for the technology to become more widely adapted, the power density of the fuel cell must be increased. It is well known that a considerable part of the energy from the methanol is lost in the fuel cell during the conversion due to poor kinetics...

  19. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  20. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The following Coordinated Research Projects: 1) FUel performance at high burn-up and in ageing plant by management and optimisation of WAter Chemistry Technologies (FUWAC ); 2) Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy; 3) Fuel Modelling (FUMEX-III) are shortly described. The data collected by the IAEA Expert Group of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors including information about fuel failure cause for PWR (1994-2006) and failure mechanisms for BWR fuel (1994-2006) are shown. The just published Fuel Failure Handbook as well as preparation of a Monograph on Zirconium including an overview of Zirconium for nuclear applications are presented. The current projects in Sub-programme B2 - Power Reactor Fuel Engineering are also listed

  1. From bio-mineralisation to fuel cells: biomanufacture of Pt and Pd nanocrystals for fuel cell electrode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, P; Paterson-Beedle, M; Mikheenko, I P; Macaskie, L E

    2007-04-01

    Biosynthesis of nano-scale platinum and palladium was achieved via enzymatically-mediated deposition of metal ions from solution. The bio-accumulated Pt(0) and Pd(0) crystals were dried, applied onto carbon paper and tested as anodes in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell for power production. Up to 100% and 81% of the maximum power generation was achieved by the bio-Pt and bio-Pd catalysts, respectively, compared to commercial fuel cell grade Pt catalyst. Hence, biomineralisation could pave the way for economical production of fuel cell catalysts since previous studies have shown that precious metals can be biorecovered from wastes into catalytically active bionanomaterials.

  2. Enhanced activity of Pt/CNTs anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells using Ni2P as co-catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Lanping; Peng, Feng; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao

    2018-03-01

    The direct methanol fuel cell is a promising energy conversion device because of the utilization of the state-of-the-art platinum (Pt) anode catalyst. In this work, novel Pt/Ni2P/CNTs catalysts were prepared by the H2 reduction method. It was found that the activity and stability of Pt for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) could be significantly enhanced while using nickel phosphide (Ni2P) nanoparticles as co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the existence of Ni2P affected the particle size and electronic distribution of Pt obviously. Pt/CNTs catalyst, Pt/Ni2P/CNTs catalysts with different Ni2P amount were synthesized, among which Pt/6%Ni2P/CNTs catalyst exhibited the best MOR activity of 1400 mAmg-1Pt, which was almost 2.5 times of the commercial Pt/C-JM catalyst. Moreover, compared to other Pt-based catalysts, this novel Pt/Ni2P/CNTs catalyst also exhibited higher onset current density and better steady current density. The result of this work may provide positive guidance to the research on high efficiency and stability of Pt-based catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  4. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  5. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  6. Symmetrical, bi-electrode supported solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Sofie, Stephen W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is a symmetrical bi-electrode supported solid oxide fuel cell comprising a sintered monolithic framework having graded pore electrode scaffolds that, upon treatment with metal solutions and heat subsequent to sintering, acquire respective anodic and cathodic catalytic activity. The invention is also a method for making such a solid oxide fuel cell. The graded pore structure of the graded pore electrode scaffolds in achieved by a novel freeze casting for YSZ tape.

  7. Micro-cogeneration with fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Marek; Čierny, Jaroslav

    2014-08-01

    The article is aimed at perspective and fast developing field of micro-cogeneration with small performance. Fuel cell application which uses natural gas as a fuel is high sophisticated technology of combined produce of heat and electric power. The aim of article is analysis of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which as a fuel uses natural gas. The device is installed in University of Zilina laboratory. Measured parameters were electric input and output, thermal energy and electric, thermal and overall efficiency.

  8. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  9. Proceedings of the 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-05

    The 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It was held August 3 to 5 in Chicago, Illinois. The goal of this conference was to provide a forum for reviewing fuel cell research and development (R&D) programs, assist in strategic R&D planning, promote awareness of sponsor activities, and enhance interactions between manufacturers, researchers, and stakeholders. This conference was attended by over 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, gas and electric utilities, DOE, and other Government agencies. The conference agenda included a keynote session, five presentation sessions, a poster presentation reception, and three breakout sessions. The presentation session topics were DOD Fuel Cell Applications, Low-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, Low-Temperature Component Research, High-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, and High-Temperature Component Research; the breakout session topics were Future R&D Directions for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells, Future R&D Directions for High-Temperature Fuel Cells, and a plenary summary session. All sessions were well attended.

  10. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, Ben [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Martinez-Baca, Carlos [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Rush, Greg [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  11. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Pleasant Hill, CA

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  12. Non-platinum electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Zhang, L.; Shi, Z.; Hui, R.; Zhang, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. For Fuel Cell Innovation

    2008-07-01

    High cost, low reliability and durability are the main barriers preventing widespread commercialization of fuel cells. In particular, the platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts used in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are major contributors to the high cost of PEM fuel cells. The Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation at the National Research Council of Canada has developed several new non-Pt electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cell applications. This paper presented the research results on these catalysts, including transition metal macrocycles, chalcogenides, and Ir- or Pd-based alloys. It also described catalyst structure modes via theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Research activities on these electrocatalysts was summarized in terms of catalytic activity and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Typical catalysts such as cobalt(Co)-polypyrrole (PPy) and the chalcogenides show promising results in terms of catalytic activity and a 4-electron reaction mechanism. Efforts are underway to modify both catalyst structure and synthesis methods in order to further improve catalyst performance. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  14. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  15. Comparative study of different fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado-Flores, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fuel cells generate electricity and heat during electrochemical reaction which happens between the oxygen and hydrogen to form the water. Fuel cell technology is a promising way to provide energy for rural areas where there is no access to the public grid or where there is a huge cost of wiring and transferring electricity. In addition, applications with essential secure electrical energy requirement such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), power generation stations and distributed systems can employ fuel cells as their source of energy. The current paper includes a comparative study of basic design, working principle, applications, advantages and disadvantages of various technologies available for fuel cells. In addition, techno-economic features of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) are compared. The results indicate that fuel cell systems have simple design, high reliability, noiseless operation, high efficiency and less environmental impact. The aim of this paper is to serve as a convenient reference for fuel cell power generation reviews. (Author)

  16. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    %. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization......An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......-fuel recirculation depends strongly on type of the fuel used in the system. Anode recycling combined with fuel cell utilization factors have an important impact on plant efficiency, which will be analysed here. The current study may provide an in-depth understanding of reasons for using anode off-fuel recycling...

  17. Proceedings of the fuel cells `94 contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, C.P. II; Mayfield, M.J. [eds.] [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1994-08-01

    METC annually sponsors this conference to provide a forum for energy executives, engineers, etc. to discuss advances in fuel cell research and development projects, to exchange ideas with private sector attendees, and to review relevant results in fuel cell technology programs. Two hundred and three people from industry, academia, and Government attended. The conference attempts to showcase the partnerships with the Government and with industry, by seeking activity participation and involvement from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EPRI, GRI, and APRA. In addition to sessions on fuel cells (solid oxide, molten carbonate, etc.) for stationary electric power generation, sessions on US DOE`s Fuel Cell Transporation Program and on DOD/APRA`s fuel cell logistic fuel program were presented. In addition to the 29 technical papers, an abstract of an overview of international fuel cell development and commercialization plans in Europe and Japan is included. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    The CO-concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream.

  19. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  20. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  1. Business Case for Fuel Cells 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016. This list is by no means exhaustive. Over the past few decades, hundreds of thousands of fuel cells have been installed around the world, for primary or backup power, as well as in various other applications including portable and emergency backup power. Fuel cells have also been deployed in other applications such as heat and electricity for homes and apartments, material handling, passenger vehicles, buses, and remote, off-grid sites.

  2. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  3. Method for Making a Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Setlock, John A. (Inventor); Farmer, Serene C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack comprising individual bi-electrode supported fuel cells in which an electrolyte layer is supported between porous electrodes. The porous electrodes may be made from graded pore ceramic tape that has been created by the freeze cast method followed by freeze-drying. Each piece of graded pore tape later becomes a graded pore electrode scaffold that, subsequent to sintering, is made into either an anode or a cathode. The electrode scaffold comprising the anode includes a layer of liquid metal. The pores of the electrode scaffolds gradually increase in diameter as the layer extends away from the electrolyte layer. As a result of this diameter increase, any forces that would tend to pull the liquid metal away from the electrolyte are reduced while maintaining a diffusion path for the fuel. Advantageously, the fuel cell of the invention may utilize a hydrocarbon fuel without pre-processing to remove sulfur.

  4. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao

    2010-01-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  5. Fuels for fuel cells: Fuel and catalyst effects on carbon formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Perry, W. L. (William Lee); Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the effects of fuels, fuel constituents, additives and impurities on the performance of on-board hydrogen generation devices and consequently on the overall performance of fuel cell systems using reformed hydrocarbon fuels. Different fuels and components have been tested in automotive scale, adiabatic autothermal reactors to observe their relative reforming characteristics with various operating conditions. Carbon formation has been modeled and was experimentally monitored in situ during operation by laser measurements of the effluent reformate. Ammonia formation was monitored, and conditions varied to observe under what conditions N H 3 is made.

  6. Effect of the Pd/MWCNTs anode catalysts preparation methods on their morphology and activity in a direct formic acid fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesiak, B., E-mail: blesiak-orlowska@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, M.; Malolepszy, A. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Mierzwa, B.; Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Juchniewicz, K.; Borodzinski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162-53 Prague 6, Cukrovarnicka 10 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Catalysts properties studied by XRD, STEM, XPS methods. • Differences in Pd particle size, content of Pd, functional groups, PdC{sub x.}. • Catalytic activity studied in a Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell. • Highest activity–catalyst prepared using a strong reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}). - Abstract: Impact of Pd/MWCNTs catalysts preparation method on the catalysts morphology and activity in a formic acid electrooxidation reaction was investigated. Three reduction methods of Pd precursor involving reduction in a high pressure microwave reactor (Pd1), reduction with NaBH{sub 4} (Pd2) and microwave-assisted polyol method (Pd3) were used in this paper. Crystallites size and morphology were studied using the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas elemental composition, Pd chemical state and functional groups content by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared catalysts were tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) as an anode material. The catalytic activity was correlated with a mean fraction of the total Pd atoms exposed at the surface (FE). The value of FE was calculated from the crystallites size distribution determined by the STEM measurements. Non-linear dependence of a current density versus FE, approaching the maximum at FE≈0.25 suggests that the catalytic process proceeded at Pd nanocrystallites faces, with inactive edges and corners. Pd2 catalyst exhibited highest activity due to its smallest Pd crystallites (3.2 nm), however the absence of Pd crystallites aggregation and low content of carbon in PdC{sub x} phase, i.e. x = 4 at.% may also affect the observed.

  7. Fuel cell systems and production aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomen, L.J.M.J. [Blomenco, Rumpt (Netherlands)

    1995-02-01

    Attention is paid to some system integration and production aspects of fuel cell systems. After an introduction of the main performance differences of fuel cell systems with different types of fuel cells, and the causes for such differences, a few aspects of building up sub-systems towards large and small capacity fuel cell systems are being discussed. Subsequently, some production aspects are being highlighted: the concept of an automated plant and automated plant contracting, the trends towards greater simplicity m reactors, and a systematic evaluation of the differences in fuel processing steps required in systems with different types of fuel cells. In this section also the cost aspects of a total plant contracting project are being discussed. As a next step, some emphasis has been placed on system integration aspects, explaining that hydrogen purification does not always `destroy` system efficiency, and can be used in dispersed hydrogen generation concepts. Advanced system integration concepts include simplified flow sheet design, in which instead of special dedicated rotating equipment standard gas turbine rotary components are being employed. As an example, it is claimed that gas turbine - fuel cell combinations can be made with very high electrical efficiencies. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Innovative membrane development for fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vaivars, G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available will take time, and the first alternative commercial car will be hybrid. The critical issue is the power source for an electrical engine. The fuel cell (FC)-battery hybrid is a promising solution to replace the combustion engine. Liquid fuel (e.g. methanol...

  9. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  10. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of battery-powere...

  11. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  12. Fuel cells: A handbook (Revision 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Stauffer, D.B.; Engleman, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of reaction directly into electrical energy. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode (negative electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric current. A fuel cell, although having similar components and several characteristics, differs from a typical battery in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device, that is, the maximum energy that is available is determined by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself. Thus, the battery will cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device which theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

  13. Fuel cells - An option for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielstich, W.

    1984-01-01

    The direct conversion of the energy of a fuel into electrical energy in fuel cells avoids the losses inseparable from the indirect conversion via heat and mechanical energy. The idea to use this concept of energy conversion for the application in power stations would offer the following advantages: a slightly better total energy efficiency; no environmental problems; and flexibility in size according to the construction in the battery stacks. The use of acid and alkaline H 2 /O 2 fuel cells in the U.S. space program has demonstrated the high energy per weight data possible with a fuel cell device including tankage. Therefore, the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles seems to be suitable at least from the technical point of view. Kordesch has converted an Austin A-40 to electric propulsion by replacing the gasoline engine by an 8-kW truck motor powered by a 6-kW alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell/4-kW lead-acid hybrid system. Two severe handicaps that occurred were the use of gas cylinders for the storage of the hydrogen and the voluminous CO 2 scrubber to prevent carbonization of the alkaline electrolyte. The direct conversion of a liquid fuel like methanol would be advantageous

  14. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells...... determination; morphology; oxidation state of components and stability.  Electrode composition investigation: optimization on ionomer content and electrode protonic conductivity.  Interaction between electrode components  Morphology of electrode surface and MEA cross section. The above efforts all contribute...... to a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology....

  15. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; LaConti, A.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power application in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton-exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt-catalyzed fuel and air/O 2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 °C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm 2 current density and an operating temperature of 90 °C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  16. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  17. Fuel cells: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Casalegno, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development [it

  18. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  19. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  20. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  1. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbrenner, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'

  2. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  3. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  4. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  5. Carbonate fuel cells: Milliwatts to megawatts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Maru, H. C.

    The carbonate fuel cell power plant is an emerging high efficiency, ultra-clean power generator utilizing a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid carbonaceous fuels for commercial and industrial applications. The primary mover of this generator is a carbonate fuel cell. The fuel cell uses alkali metal carbonate mixtures as electrolyte and operates at ∼650 °C. Corrosion of the cell hardware and stability of the ceramic components have been important design considerations in the early stages of development. The material and electrolyte choices are founded on extensive fundamental research carried out around the world in the 60s and early 70s. The cell components were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The present day carbonate fuel cell construction employs commonly available stainless steels. The electrodes are based on nickel and well-established manufacturing processes. Manufacturing process development, scale-up, stack tests, and pilot system tests dominated throughout the 1990s. Commercial product development efforts began in late 1990s leading to prototype field tests beginning in the current decade leading to commercial customer applications. Cost reduction has been an integral part of the product effort. Cost-competitive product designs have evolved as a result. Approximately half a dozen teams around the world are pursuing carbonate fuel cell product development. The power plant development efforts to date have mainly focused on several hundred kW (submegawatt) to megawatt-class plants. Almost 40 submegawatt units have been operating at customer sites in the US, Europe, and Asia. Several of these units are operating on renewable bio-fuels. A 1 MW unit is operating on the digester gas from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Seattle, Washington (US). Presently, there are a total of approximately 10 MW capacity carbonate fuel cell power plants installed around the world. Carbonate fuel cell products are also being developed to operate on

  6. A direct methanol fuel cell system with passive fuel delivery based on liquid surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuming; Liang, Yung C.

    The existing direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems are fed with a fixed concentration of fuel, which are either a diluted methanol solution or an active fuel delivery driven by an attached active pump. Both approaches limit the power conversion density or degrade the overall efficiency of the DMFC system significantly. Such disadvantages become more severe in small-scale DMFCs, which require a high conversion efficiency and a small physical space suitable for portable electronics. In this paper, passive fuel delivery based on a surface tension driving mechanism was designed and integrated in a laboratory-made prototype to achieve consumption depending on fuel concentration and power-free fuel delivery. Unidirectional methanol-to-water smooth flow is achieved through the capillaries of a Teflon PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane based on the difference in liquid surface tension. The prototype was demonstrated to exhibit a better polarization performance and to last for an extended operating time compared to conventional DMFCs. Its high efficiency and load regulation performance were also demonstrated in contrast to an active DMFC supplied with a constant concentration fuel. The fuel delivery driven by the liquid surface tension effect demonstrated here is believed to be more applicable for future small-scale DMFCs for portable electronics.

  7. Activated carbon from orange peels as supercapacitor electrode and catalyst support for oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dhelipan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon is synthesized using orange peel as precursor through chemical activation using H3PO4 and its ability as electrocatalyst support for ORR reaction is examined. The prepared material was subjected to various structural, compositional, morphological and electrochemical studies. For ORR activity, the platinum loaded on activated carbon (Pt/OP-AC was investigated by cyclic voltammograms (CVs recorded in N2 and O2 saturated 0.1 M aqueous HClO4. For supercapacitor performance, three electrode systems was tested in aqueous H2SO4 for feasibility determination and showed electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC behaviour which is expected for activated carbon like materials. Electrochemical surface area (ECSA of the activated carbon from orange peel is measured using CV. The physical properties of the prepared carbon are studied using SEM (scanning electron microscope, XRD (X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The AC derived from orange peels delivered a high specific capacitance of 275 F g−1 at 10 mV s-1 scan rate. Hence, this study suggested that orange peels may be considered not only as a potential alternative source for synthesizing carbon supported catalyst for fuel cell application but also highlight the production of low-cost carbon for further applications like supercapacitors.

  8. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  9. Microcontroller-driven hydrogen fuel cell car

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Hugo; Lafuente, António; Sepúlveda, João; Esteves, João Sena

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fuel cell car with 8 minutes autonomy, capable of following a white line on a black track, using infrared sensors that detect white and black colors. A servomotor controls its direction. Guidelines to the servomotor are given by a system based on an 8051 microcontroller, according to the information it receives from the infrared sensors. The hydrogen needed by the fuel cell is produced by electrolysis, which requires an external power supply. The gas is retained on an is...

  10. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteri...... variation in the path length through the proton conductive phase. In addition the trade-off between mass transfer losses and activation losses deriving from the catalyst layer density is developed.......The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... on a perforated silicon plate which acts as a mechanical support structure a proton conducting polymer membrane, which connects catalyst layers deposited through spray coating on either side of the silicon device. An improvement of this design is also presented which integrates the catalyst layer into the current...

  11. Proceedings of the NETL Workshop on Fuel Cell Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Gemmen; J. R. Selman

    2000-04-18

    This workshop was the first U.S. DOE sponsored meeting devoted to fuel cell modeling. The workshop was attended by over 45 people from industry, universities, and the government. The goals of the meeting were to assess the status of fuel cell modeling, and determine how new developments in fuel cell modeling can improve cell design, stack design, and power system design. The primary focus was on cell and stack modeling. Following a review of DOE/NETL fuel cell related programs and activities, Professor Robert Selman (Illinois Institute of Technology) kicked off the technical portion of the workshop by presenting an overview of fuel cell phenomena and the status of fuel cell modeling. This overview provided the necessary background for establishing a common framework for discussing fuel cell modeling. A distinction was made between micro modeling, electrode modeling, cell modeling, stack modeling, and system modeling. It was proposed that all modeling levels be supported for further development. In addition, due to significant advances being made outside the U.S., it was proposed that dialog/exchange with other international researchers be established. Following the Overview Session, eight leading researchers in modeling gave individual presentations. These presentations provided additional information on the status and present direction of model developments. All these presentations can be found in Attachment A. Before the workshop, a survey was sent out requesting comments from the attendees. Results from this survey can be found in Attachment B. This survey was then used as initial talking points at the individual breakout sessions on the afternoon of the workshop. Breakouts were organized by microfundamental modeling, cell modeling, stack modeling, and systems modeling.

  12. Shortcut model for water-balanced operation in fuel processor fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Kramer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a fuel processor, a hydrocarbon or oxygenate fuel is catalytically converted into a mixture rich in hydrogen which can be fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. In these fuel processor fuel cell systems (FPFCs), water is recovered from the exhaust gases and recycled back into the system. We

  13. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  14. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Einan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT, fuel cells (FC, photo-voltaic (PV and battery energy storage systems (BESS. FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA techniques for active power controllers in isolated networks is proposed. In this paper, COA is compared with genetic algorithm (GA and particles swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. In order to show efficiency of the proposed controller, this optimal controller has been compared with droop, optimized droop, and conventional fuzzy methods, the dynamic analysis of the island is implemented to assess the behavior of isolated generations accurately and simulation results are reported.

  15. A single-chamber microbial fuel cell for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand using low-cost activated carbon as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Xianhua; Wang, Meiyu; Zhang, Pingping; Zong, Yanping; Zhang, Qiufeng

    2017-09-13

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is widely used for the evaluation of water and wastewater quality. However, the conventional method to measure BOD is time-consuming and requires complicated processes. In this study, a Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based BOD sensor was developed by using low-cost activated carbon as the cathode catalyst. The sensor was calibrated with an aerated nutrient medium containing sodium acetate as the BOD source. When the sensor was operated with an external resistance of 1 K Ω, linear correlation (R 2  = 0.9965) was obtained for BOD concentrations ranging from 80 to 1280 mg/L in a reaction time of 50 h. Besides acetate, glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) and ethanol could also be analyzed by the sensor. In a low concentration range (200 mg/L), the relationship between GGA solution concentration and output voltage was in accord with Monod growth kinetics.

  16. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cells is the pH membrane gradient which reduces cell voltage and power output. This problem is caused by acid production at the anode, alkaline production at the cathode, and the nonspecific proton exchange through the membrane. Here we report a solution for a new kind of solar energy powered microbial fuel cell via development of a reversible bioelectrode responsible for both biocatalyzed anodic and cathodic electron transfer. Anodic produced protons were used for the cathodic reduction reaction which held the formation of a pH membrane gradient. The microbial fuel cell continuously generated electricity and repeatedly reversed polarity dependent on aeration or solar energy exposure. Identified organisms within biocatalyzing biofilm of the reversible bioelectrode were algae, (cyano)bacteria and protozoa. These results encourage application of solar energy powered microbial fuel cells.

  17. The origin of high activity but low CO(2) selectivity on binary PtSn in the direct ethanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Mei; Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Kavanagh, Richard; Hamer, Philip; Hu, Peijun; Hardacre, Christopher; Martinez-Bonastre, Alex; Sharman, Jonathan; Thompsett, David; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2014-05-28

    The most active binary PtSn catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell applications has been studied at 20 °C and 60 °C, using variable temperature electrochemical in situ FTIR. In comparison with Pt, binary PtSn inhibits ethanol dissociation to CO(a), but promotes partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 60 °C facilitates both ethanol dissociation to CO(a) and then further oxidation to CO2, leading to an increased selectivity towards CO2; however, acetaldehyde and acetic acid are still the main products. Potential-dependent phase diagrams for surface oxidants of OH(a) formation on Pt(111), Pt(211) and Sn modified Pt(111) and Pt(211) surfaces have been determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that Sn promotes the formation of OH(a) with a lower onset potential on the Pt(111) surface, whereas an increase in the onset potential is found upon modification of the (211) surface. In addition, Sn inhibits the Pt(211) step edge with respect to ethanol C-C bond breaking compared with that found on the pure Pt, which reduces the formation of CO(a). Sn was also found to facilitate ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid which, combined with the more facile OH(a) formation on the Pt(111) surface, gives us a clear understanding of the experimentally determined results. This combined electrochemical in situ FTIR and DFT study provides, for the first time, an insight into the long-term puzzling features of the high activity but low CO2 production found on binary PtSn ethanol fuel cell catalysts.

  18. Strategic alliances for the development of fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruo, Kanehira [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section of Science and Technology Studies

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore and describe the current stage of fuel cell vehicle development in the world. One can write three possible future scenarios - an optimistic, a realistic, and a pessimistic scenario: - The optimistic scenario -- The Daimler/Ballard/Ford alliance continues to develop fuel cell stacks and fuel cell vehicle systems as eagerly as they have been doing in recent years. Daimler(/Chrysler)-Benz continues to present its Necar 4, Necar 5, and so on, as planned, and thus keeps Toyota and Honda under severe pressure. Toyota`s and Honda`s real motivation seems to be not to allow Daimler-Benz to be the first to market. Their investment in fuel cell technology will be very large. At the same time, governments and other stake-holders will quickly and in a timely fashion build up infrastructures. We will then see many fuel cell vehicles by 2004. A paradigm shift in automotive technology will have taken place. - The realistic scenario -- Fuel cell vehicles will reach the same level of development by 2004/2005 as pure electric vehicles were at in 1997/1998. This means that fuel cell vehicles will be produced at the rate of several hundred vehicles per year per manufacturer and cost about $40,000 or more, which is still considerably more expensive than ordinary gasoline cars. These fuel cell vehicles will have a performance similar to today`s advanced electric vehicles, e.g., Toyota`s RAV4/EV and Honda`s EV Plus. To go further from this stage to the mass-production stage strong government incentives will be needed. - The pessimistic scenario -- It turns out that fuel cells are not as pure or efficient as in theory and in laboratory experiments. Prices of gasoline and diesel gas continue to be very low. The Californian 10% ZEV Requirement that has been meant to be valid at least ten years from 2003 through 2012 will be suspended or greatly modified. Daimler-Benz, Toyota, and Honda slow down their fuel cell vehicle development activities. No one is

  19. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  20. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  1. European Fuel Cells R&D Review. Final report, Purchase Order No. 062014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J. [Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  2. Microfluidic platforms and fundamental electrocatalysis studies for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jamie Lee

    The fabrication and testing of a planar membraneless microchannel fuel cell, based on a silicon microchannel, is described in detail. Laminar flow of fuel and oxidant streams, one on top of the other, prevents fuel crossover while allowing ionic transport at the interface between the two solutions. By employing laminar flow, the useful functions of a membrane are retained, while bypassing its inherent limitations. The planar design maximizes the anode and cathode areas, and elimination of the membrane affords broad flexibility in the choice of fuel and oxidant. Fuels including formic acid, methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and hydrogen were tested along with oxidants such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate. Steps taken to improve voltage, current density, and overall power output have been addressed, including the testing of a dual electrolyte system and the use of micro-patterned electrode surfaces to enhance fuel utilization. As the complexity of the fuels studied in the microchannel fuel cell increased, it was imperative to characterize these fuels using electrochemical techniques prior to utilization in the fuel cell. The oxidation pathway of the liquid fuel methanol was studied rigorously because of its importance for micro-fuel cell applications. Activation energies for methanol oxidation at a Ptpoly surface were determined using electrochemical techniques, providing a benchmark for the comparison of activation energies of other Pt-based electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation at a given potential. A protocol to obtain Ea values was established in three different electrolytes and experimental parameters that influence the magnitude of these values are discussed in detail. The oxidation pathways of sodium borohydride were also examined at Au, Pt, and Pd surfaces using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. In addition to studies on bulk Ptpoly surfaces, new bulk intermetallic catalysts were

  3. Rigorous dynamic model of a direct methanol fuel cell based on Maxwell-Stefan mass transport equations and a Flory-Huggins activity model: Formulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Thorsten; Sundmacher, Kai

    A one-dimensional rigorous process model of a single-cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is presented. Multi-component mass transport in the diffusion layers and the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is described using the generalised Maxwell-Stefan (MS) equation for porous structures. In the PEM, also local swelling behaviour and non-idealities are accounted for by a Flory-Huggins model for the activities of the mobile species inside the pores of the PEM. Phase equilibria between the pore liquid inside the PEM and those inside the pores of both catalyst layer are formulated based on literature data and activity models. Although two-phase behaviour in both diffusion layers is neglected, the model shows good agreement to own experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions, with respect to methanol and water crossover fluxes as well as to current-voltage characteristics. Only for very low current densities and in the limiting current regime significant deviations between model and experiments are found.

  4. Microbial fuel cells for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijia; Zhou, Minghua; Liu, Mengmeng; Yang, Weilu; Gu, Tingyue

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) face major hurdles for real-world applications as power generators with the exception of powering small sensor devices. Despite tremendous improvements made in the last two decades, MFCs are still too expensive to build and operate and their power output is still too small. In view of this, in recently years, intensive researches have been carried out to expand the applications into other areas such as acid and alkali production, bioremediation of aquatic sediments, desalination and biosensors. Unlike power applications, MFC sensors have the immediate prospect to be practical. This review covers the latest developments in various proposed biosensor applications using MFCs including monitoring microbial activity, testing biochemical oxygen demand, detection of toxicants and detection of microbial biofilms that cause biocorrosion.

  5. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  7. A transient fuel cell model to simulate HTPEM fuel cell impedance spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a spatially resolved transient fuel cell model applied to the simulation of high temperature PEM fuel cell impedance spectra. The model is developed using a 2D finite volume method approach. The model is resolved along the channel and across the membrane. The model considers...

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Canada (SOFCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Borglum, B.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: To enhance co-ordination and to ensure sustainable funding of research, development, and commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells and related technologies in Canada in order to create products that serve the world. Current Research Areas of Investigation: Mission: To provide cleaner air, reduce CO 2 emissions, better utilize fuel resources, increase economic prosperity, and enhance the quality of life in Canada and the world by enabling and accelerating development of the Canadian SOFC industry. To achieve this, we will: 1. Establish national priorities for the research, development, design, demonstration, and the innovation process; commercialization of SOFC and related technologies; 2. Develop a strategy to produce commercial products within 5 years; 3. Co-ordinate activities as one integrated Canada-wide initiative; 4. Facilitate effective access to funding by providing a venue for funders to directly participate in; 5. Provide an integrating and interdisciplinary function to maximize the collective knowledge, expertise, and capacity of the alliance partners; 6. Maintain strategic relevance within an ever changing global context by providing high-quality intelligence. (author)

  9. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  10. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  11. Large stationary fuel cell systems: Status and dynamic requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Manfred

    Molten carbonate fuel cell demonstrations to-date, have been able to show the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies (>50%) of any stand-alone fuel cell type. The primary developer of this type of fuel cell in United States is Fuel Cell Energy Corporation (FCE), the developer and manufacturer of the Direct FuelCell ™ concept. FCE and MTU CFC Solutions in Germany, a licensee of FCE have demonstrated carbonate fuel cells from 10 kW to 2 MW of electrical output on a variety of fuels. IHI in Japan are also developing carbonate fuel cells for stationary power and have recently successfully demonstrated the technology in Kawagoe, Japan. In Italy, Ansaldo fuel cell have demonstrated a 100 kW carbonate fuel cell in Milan. In Korea, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy has committed to install 300 fuel cell units, sized 250 kW to 1 MW, for distributed power generation by 2012. Carbonate fuel cell technology is more fuel flexible than lower temperature fuel cell technologies and is well suited for on-site stationary CHP applications as well as to marine, military, and traction applications. The present paper gives an overview about the commercialisation efforts for the molten carbonate fuel cell technology.

  12. A methanol/air fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    High power-density, self-regulating fuel cell develops electrical power from catalyzed reaction between methanol and atmospheric oxygen. Cells such as these are of particular interest, because they may one day offer an emission-free, extremely efficient alternative to internal-combustion engines as power source.

  13. Building the hydrogen/fuel cell industry: an EDC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canada has world-leading expertise in a number of hydrogen and fuel cell research segments. However, there are no guarantees that a strong research position necessarily translates into a large industry sector. The challenge facing Canada is to remain a leader in the coming years and decades as this hub of research activity evolves into an actual business sector. Many other countries are actively investing in hydrogen and fuel cell research. If these countries and their national governments are more committed than Canada to this commercial pursuit, then we will be left behind. Mr. Stothart's presentation will highlight a number of observations and recommendations regarding what is needed to build a successful hydrogen and fuel cell sector in Canada. (author)

  14. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  15. The origin of the selectivity and activity of ruthenium-cluster catalysts for fuel-cell feed-gas purification: a gas-phase approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sandra M; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Krstić, Marjan; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2014-05-19

    Gas-phase ruthenium clusters Ru(n)(+) (n=2-6) are employed as model systems to discover the origin of the outstanding performance of supported sub-nanometer ruthenium particles in the catalytic CO methanation reaction with relevance to the hydrogen feed-gas purification for advanced fuel-cell applications. Using ion-trap mass spectrometry in conjunction with first-principles density functional theory calculations three fundamental properties of these clusters are identified which determine the selectivity and catalytic activity: high reactivity toward CO in contrast to inertness in the reaction with CO2; promotion of cooperatively enhanced H2 coadsorption and dissociation on pre-formed ruthenium carbonyl clusters, that is, no CO poisoning occurs; and the presence of Ru-atom sites with a low number of metal-metal bonds, which are particularly active for H2 coadsorption and activation. Furthermore, comprehensive theoretical investigations provide mechanistic insight into the CO methanation reaction and discover a reaction route involving the formation of a formyl-type intermediate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of the Pd/MWCNTs anode catalysts preparation methods on their morphology and activity in a direct formic acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, B.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Mierzwa, B.; Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Juchniewicz, K.; Borodzinski, A.; Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P.

    2016-11-01

    Impact of Pd/MWCNTs catalysts preparation method on the catalysts morphology and activity in a formic acid electrooxidation reaction was investigated. Three reduction methods of Pd precursor involving reduction in a high pressure microwave reactor (Pd1), reduction with NaBH4 (Pd2) and microwave-assisted polyol method (Pd3) were used in this paper. Crystallites size and morphology were studied using the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas elemental composition, Pd chemical state and functional groups content by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared catalysts were tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) as an anode material. The catalytic activity was correlated with a mean fraction of the total Pd atoms exposed at the surface (FE). The value of FE was calculated from the crystallites size distribution determined by the STEM measurements. Non-linear dependence of a current density versus FE, approaching the maximum at FE≈0.25 suggests that the catalytic process proceeded at Pd nanocrystallites faces, with inactive edges and corners. Pd2 catalyst exhibited highest activity due to its smallest Pd crystallites (3.2 nm), however the absence of Pd crystallites aggregation and low content of carbon in PdCx phase, i.e. x = 4 at.% may also affect the observed.

  17. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos, NM; Choi, Jong-Ho [Los Alamos, NM; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  18. Micro-Fuel Cells{sup TM} for portable electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockaday, R.G.; DeJohn, M.; Navas, C.; Turner, P.S.; Vaz, H.L.; Vazul, L.L. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Micro-Fuel Cell{sup TM} is a new power supply which provides a superior alternative compared to rechargeable batteries. A prototype has been developed by Manhattan Scientifics Inc. in collaboration with Energy Related Devices Inc. This mass-producible high-energy power supply can be used for cellular telephones, portable computers and other portable devices. Instead of being recharged, it can be easily refueled with methanol. The approach taken in designing this product was to develop a competitive product with definite advantages over existing products. The Micro-Fuel Cell{sup TM} is based on the idea that a fuel cell can be built onto an engineered microplastic substrate. In this case, the integrated design makes use of thin film vacuum deposition techniques to coat patterned, etched-nuclear-particle-track plastic membranes. This process forms catalytically active surface area electrodes on either side of a single structured proton-exchange-membrane electrolyte. Methanol was the choice fuel for this system because compared to hydrogen and metal hydrides, it was considered to be safer and more compact. In addition, the theoretical specific energy of methanol is significantly higher than for lithium-ion batteries. The problem of crossover, whereby methanol fuel diffuses across the fuel cell from the anode to the cathode, has also been solved by using a selectively permeable membrane. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Towards operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. S.; Yang, W. W.; Chen, R.; Wu, Q. X.

    A significant advantage of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is the high specific energy of the liquid fuel, making it particularly suitable for portable and mobile applications. Nevertheless, conventional DMFCs have to be operated with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and the detrimental consequences. Operation with diluted methanol solutions significantly reduces the specific energy of the power pack and thereby prevents it from competing with advanced batteries. In view of this fact, there exists a need to improve conventional DMFC system designs, including membrane electrode assemblies and the subsystems for supplying/removing reactants/products, so that both the cell performance and the specific energy can be simultaneously maximized. This article provides a comprehensive review of past efforts on the optimization of DMFC systems that operate with concentrated methanol. Based on the discussion of the key issues associated with transport of the reactants/products, the strategies to manage the supply/removal of the reactants/products in DMFC operating with highly concentrated methanol are identified. With these strategies, the possible approaches to achieving the goal of concentrated fuel operation are then proposed. Past efforts in the management of the reactants/products for implementing each of the approaches are also summarized and reviewed.

  20. Application of Fuel Cells to Marine Power Generation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Senichi, Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are one of the future technologies for marine energy sources. A fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water and heat as its by-product. Since the conversion of the fuel to energy takes place via an electrochemical process, the process is clean, quiet and highly efficient. This paper presents the types and characteristics of fuel cells, the status of marine use, and the outline of safety requirements which apply to fuel cell power generation systems.

  1. Electricity generation using chocolate industry wastewater and its treatment in activated sludge based microbial fuel cell and analysis of developed microbial community in the anode chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil A; Surakasi, Venkata Prasad; Koul, Sandeep; Ijmulwar, Shrikant; Vivek, Amar; Shouche, Y S; Kapadnis, B P

    2009-11-01

    Feasibility of using chocolate industry wastewater as a substrate for electricity generation using activated sludge as a source of microorganisms was investigated in two-chambered microbial fuel cell. The maximum current generated with membrane and salt bridge MFCs was 3.02 and 2.3 A/m(2), respectively, at 100 ohms external resistance, whereas the maximum current generated in glucose powered MFC was 3.1 A/m(2). The use of chocolate industry wastewater in cathode chamber was promising with 4.1 mA current output. Significant reduction in COD, BOD, total solids and total dissolved solids of wastewater by 75%, 65%, 68%, 50%, respectively, indicated effective wastewater treatment in batch experiments. The 16S rDNA analysis of anode biofilm and suspended cells revealed predominance of beta-Proteobacteria clones with 50.6% followed by unclassified bacteria (9.9%), alpha-Proteobacteria (9.1%), other Proteobacteria (9%), Planctomycetes (5.8%), Firmicutes (4.9%), Nitrospora (3.3%), Spirochaetes (3.3%), Bacteroides (2.4%) and gamma-Proteobacteria (0.8%). Diverse bacterial groups represented as members of the anode chamber community.

  2. Fuel cells for a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graver, Sissel

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cells offer one of the most promising technologies for the production of clean energy, both for transportation and for stationary production of electricity and heating. Currently, more than 100 billion m3 gas are flared each year because it has no market. If this gas were converted to methanol, the emission of greenhouse gases would be substantially reduced. Methanol is produced and distributed all over the globe and 99% of the infrastructure is present. Thus, if used as energy source for fuel cells, this may be the optimum solution for a clean environment. Although the concept is simple, a transition from a hydrocarbon-based economy to one based on hydrogen is a great technological and financial challenge. For the fuel cell technology to play an important role in energy production, it must be introduced on a large scale. This can be done by means of methanol

  3. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  4. Energy management in fuel cell power trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, P.; Corcione, F.E.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experimental results obtained on a small size fuel cell power train (1.8 kW) based on a 500 W proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack are reported and discussed with specific regard to energy management issues to be faced for attainment of the maximum propulsion system efficiency. The fuel cell system (FCS) was realized and characterized via investigating the effects of the main operative variables on efficiency. This resulted in an efficiency higher than 30% in a wide power range with a maximum of 38% at medium load. The efficiency of the overall fuel cell power train measured during both steady state and dynamic conditions (European R40 driving cycle) was about 30%. A discussion about the control strategy to direct the power flows is reported with reference to two different test procedures used in dynamic experiments, i.e., load levelled and load following

  5. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzheng eLu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of Electrolyte -free fuel cell (EFFC with single component was invented which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  6. A regenerative zinc-air fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Stuart I.; Zhang, X. Gregory

    The zinc regenerative fuel cell (ZRFC) developed by the former Metallic Power Inc. over the period from 1998 to 2004 is described. The component technologies and engineering solutions for various technical issues are discussed in relation to their functionality in the system. The system was designed to serve as a source of backup emergency power for remote or difficult to access cell phone towers during periods when the main power was interrupted. It contained a 12 cell stack providing 1.8 kW, a separate fuel tank containing zinc pellet fuel and electrolyte, and a zinc electrolyzer to regenerate the zinc pellets during standby periods. Offsite commissioning and testing of the system was successfully performed. The intellectual property of the ZRFC technology is now owned by Teck Cominco Metals Ltd.

  7. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    a virtual forklift system. This investigation examines important performance metrics such as hydrogen consumption and battery SOC as a function of fuel cell and battery size, control strategy, drive cycle, and load variation for a forklift truck system. This study can be used as a benchmark for choosing......Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector....... Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...

  8. New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, R. P.; Breuer, C. T.

    1983-11-01

    New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells were identified and evaluated. Candidates considered included all possibilities except grid connected electric utility applications, on site total energy systems, industrial cogeneration, opportunistic use of waste hydrogen, space and military applications, and applications smaller than 10 kW. Applications identified were screened, with the most promising subjected to technical and economic evaluation using a fuel cell and conventional power system data base developed in the study. The most promising applications appear to be the underground mine locomotive and the railroad locomotive. Also interesting are power for robotic submersibles and Arctic villages. The mine locomotive is particularly attractive since it is expected that the fuel cell could command a very high price and still be competitive with the conventionally used battery system. The railroad locomotive's attractiveness results from the (smaller) premium price which the fuel cell could command over the conventional diesel electric system based on its superior fuel efficiency, and on the large size of this market and the accompanying opportunities for manufacturing economy.

  9. Fuel cell tubes and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglum, Brian P.

    1999-11-30

    A method of manufacturing porous ceramic tubes for fuel cells with improved properties and higher manufacturing yield is disclosed. The method involves extruding a closed end fuel cell tube, such as an air electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell, in which the closed end also functions as the sintering support. The resultant fuel cell tube has a superior porosity distribution which allows improved diffusion of oxygen at the closed end of the tube during operation of the fuel cell. Because this region has the highest current density, performance enhancement and improved reliability of the fuel cell tube result. Furthermore, the higher manufacturing yield associated with the present method decreases the overall fuel cell cost. A method of manufacturing porous ceramic tubes for fuel cells with improved properties and higher manufacturing yield is disclosed. The method involves extruding a closed end fuel cell tube, such as an air electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell, in which the closed end also functions as the sintering support. The resultant fuel cell tube has a superior porosity distribution which allows improved diffusion of oxygen at the closed end of the tube during operation of the fuel cell. Because this region has the highest current density, performance enhancement and improved reliability of the fuel cell tube result. Furthermore, the higher manufacturing yield associated with the present method decreases the overall fuel cell cost.

  10. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  11. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The impact of anode design on fuel crossover of direct ethanol fuel cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuel cell; PEM; ethanol; anode design; fuel crossover; characterization. Abstract. Direct-ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) hold a promising future owing to its simple balance of plant operation and potential high-energy density. The significant challenges associated with it is the fuel crossover, which limits its performance and ...

  13. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Paul R.

    2017-04-11

    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  14. Fuel cells for distributed power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarman, Paul B.

    Deregulation has caused a major change in power distribution in the USA. Large central power stations are being and will continue to be replaced by smaller, distributed power generation sources of less than 20 kW. Fuel cells, specifically molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), are best suited to serve this need. Small turbines cannot achieve the efficiency or environmental friendliness of MCFCs in this power range. This paper discusses the goals of M-C Power Corporation and the advantages of its IMHEX® MCFC technology. M-C Power's factory, demonstration testing program, and its market-entry power plant are also described, as are its commercialization strategy and schedule.

  15. Fuel cells: a survey of current developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Mark A. J.; Geiger, Stefan; Jollie, David M.

    Since the first practical uses of fuel cells were developed, it has become clear that they could find use in many products over a wide power range of milliwatts to tens of megawatts. Throughout the 1990s, and later, there has been significant work carried out on adapting the various different fuel cell technologies for use in targetted consumer and industrial applications. This paper discusses these developments and gives details on the specific market segments for providing power to vehicles, portable devices and large- and small-scale stationary power generation.

  16. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.; Tataria, H.; Duong, T.

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  17. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of pressure for direct fuel cells using DME-based fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ji-Young; Kim, Bum-Soo; Choi, Hoo-Gon; Cho, Sung Min

    The performance of direct fuel cells using dimethyl ether(DME)-based fuels is presented at a relatively low temperature of 80 °C. DME is supplied to the fuel cells either by gas phase or aqueous phase for the operation of direct fuel cells. In order to keep DME in liquid phase during operation, fuel cells were operated at higher pressure up to 5 bar. For further increase of the power density from direct DME fuel cells, DME was mixed with methanol solution and fed into the fuel cells by the vapor pressure of DME itself without a liquid pump. In this study, we have obtained the highest power density of 210 mW cm -2 at a temperature of 80 °C when the fuel cell is operated with the mixed fuel with 2 M methanol solution under 4 bar.

  19. Electricity generation from real industrial wastewater using a single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell with an activated carbon anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hend Omar; Obaid, M; Sayed, Enas Taha; Liu, Yang; Lee, Jinpyo; Park, Mira; Barakat, Nasser A M; Kim, Hak Yong

    2017-08-01

    This study introduces activated carbon (AC) as an effective anode for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using real industrial wastewater without treatment or addition of external microorganism mediators. Inexpensive activated carbon is introduced as a proper electrode alternative to carbon cloth and carbon paper materials, which are considered too expensive for the large-scale application of MFCs. AC has a porous interconnected structure with a high bio-available surface area. The large surface area, in addition to the high macro porosity, facilitates the high performance by reducing electron transfer resistance. Extensive characterization, including surface morphology, material chemistry, surface area, mechanical strength and biofilm adhesion, was conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the AC material as an anode in MFCs. The electrochemical performance of AC was also compared to other anodes, i.e., Teflon-treated carbon cloth (CCT), Teflon-treated carbon paper (CPT), untreated carbon cloth (CC) and untreated carbon paper (CP). Initial tests of a single air-cathode MFC display a current density of 1792 mAm -2 , which is approximately four times greater than the maximum value of the other anode materials. COD analyses and Coulombic efficiency (CE) measurements for AC-MFC show the greatest removal of organic compounds and the highest CE efficiency (60 and 71%, respectively). Overall, this study shows a new economical technique for power generation from real industrial wastewater with no treatment and using inexpensive electrode materials.

  20. Iron-nitrogen-activated carbon as cathode catalyst to improve the power generation of single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yajun; Mo, Xiaoping; Li, Kexun; Pu, Liangtao; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC), iron-nitrogen-activated carbon (Fe-N-C) as an excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst was prepared here using commercial activated carbon (AC) as matrix and employed in single chamber MFC. In MFC, the maximum power density increased to 2437±55 mW m(-2), which was 2 times of that with AC. The open circuit potential (OCP) of Fe-N-C cathode (0.47) was much higher than that of AC cathode (0.21 V). The R0 of Fe-N-C decreased by 47% from 14.36 Ω (AC) to 7.6 Ω (Fe-N-C). From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species were present, which played an important role in the ORR performance of Fe-N-C. These results demonstrated that the as-prepared Fe-N-C material provided a potential alternative to Pt in AC air cathode MFC for relatively desirable energy generation and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineered Nanostructured MEA Technology for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yimin

    2009-07-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalyst support technology based on unique engineered nanostructures for low temperature fuel cells which: (1) Achieves high catalyst activity and performance; (2) Improves catalyst durability over current technologies; and (3) Reduces catalyst cost. This project is directed at the development of durable catalysts supported by novel support that improves the catalyst utilization and hence reduce the catalyst loading. This project will develop a solid fundamental knowledge base necessary for the synthetic effort while at the same time demonstrating the catalyst advantages in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs).

  2. Near-surface alloys for hydrogen fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2006-01-01

    facile H-2 activation. These NSAs could, potentially, facilitate highly selective hydrogenation reactions at low temperatures. In the present work, the suitability of NSAs for use as hydrogen fuel cell anodes has been evaluated: the combination of properties, possessed by selected NSAs, of weak binding...... of such materials for use in fuel cells and in an ever. increasing range of catalytic applications. Furthermore, we introduce a new concept for NSA-defect sites, which could be responsible for the promotional catalytic effects of a second metal added. even in minute quantities, to a host metal catalyst....

  3. Strategic planning for molten carbonate fuel cell development and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Mayfield, M. J.

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), a high-temperature fuel cell, is a promising energy conversion product for generating electricity. Natural gas availability appears to play a key role in MCFC commercialization; natural gas MCFC and Integrated Gasification MCFC (IGMCFC) are emerging power generation options that are responsive to requirements of Clean Air Act amendments and to guidance in National Energy Strategy. Goal of DOE IGMCFC program is to demonstrate the commercial readiness of this technology by the year 2010. DOE MCFC development objectives and planned activities are outlined.

  4. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  5. Advanced catalyst supports for PEM fuel cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lei; Shao, Yuyan; Sun, Junming; Yin, Geping; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Electrocatalyst support materials are key components for polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, which play a critical role in determining electrocatalyst durability and activity, mass transfer and water management. The commonly-used supports, e.g. porous carbon black, cannot meet all the requirements under the harsh operation condition of PEM fuel cells. Great efforts have been made in the last few years in developing alternative support materials. In this paper, we selectively review recent progress on three types of important support materials: carbon, non-carbon and hybrid carbon-oxides nanocomposites. A perspective on future R&D of electrocatalyst support materials is also provided.

  6. Method of operating a molten carbonate fuel cell, a fuel cell, a fuel cell stack and an apparatus provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    A method of operating a molten carbonate fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and in between a matrix comprising molten carbonate. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the matrix at a distance from the cathode. This greatly reduces the cathode's deterioration and in the system design increases the

  7. Fuel cell anode configuration for CO tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2004-11-16

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is designed to operate on a reformate fuel stream containing oxygen and diluted hydrogen fuel with CO impurities. A polymer electrolyte membrane has an electrocatalytic surface formed from an electrocatalyst mixed with the polymer and bonded on an anode side of the membrane. An anode backing is formed of a porous electrically conductive material and has a first surface abutting the electrocatalytic surface and a second surface facing away from the membrane. The second surface has an oxidation catalyst layer effective to catalyze the oxidation of CO by oxygen present in the fuel stream where at least the layer of oxidation catalyst is formed of a non-precious metal oxidation catalyst selected from the group consisting of Cu, Fe, Co, Tb, W, Mo, Sn, and oxides thereof, and other metals having at least two low oxidation states.

  8. Fueling the Cell Division Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Roa, María; Malumbres, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Cell division is a complex process with high energy demands. However, how cells regulate the generation of energy required for DNA synthesis and chromosome segregation is not well understood. Recent data suggest that changes in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis crosstalk with, and are tightly regulated by, the cell division machinery. Alterations in energy availability trigger cell-cycle checkpoints, suggesting a bidirectional connection between cell division and general metabolism. Some of these connections are altered in human disease, and their manipulation may help in designing therapeutic strategies for specific diseases including cancer. We review here recent studies describing the control of metabolism by the cell-cycle machinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  10. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  11. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  12. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  13. Study of catalysis for solid oxide fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xirong

    Fuel cells offer the enticing promise of cleaner electricity with lower environmental impact than traditional energy conversion technologies. Driven by the interest in power sources for portable electronics, and distributed generation and automotive propulsion markets, active development efforts in the technologies of both solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices have achieved significant progress. However, current catalysts for fuel cells are either of low catalytic activity or extremely expensive, presenting a key barrier toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cell devices. In this thesis work, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a novel thin film deposition technique, was employed to apply catalytic Pt to SOFC, and investigate both Pt skin catalysts and Pt-Ru catalysts for methanol oxidation, a very important reaction for DMFC, to increase the activity and utilization levels of the catalysts while simultaneously reducing the catalyst loading. For SOFCs, we explored the use of ALD for the fabrication of electrode components, including an ultra-thin Pt film for use as the electrocatalyst, and a Pt mesh structure for a current collector for SOFCs, aiming for precise control over the catalyst loading and catalyst geometry, and enhancement in the current collect efficiency. We choose Pt since it has high chemical stability and excellent catalytic activity for the O2 reduction reaction and the H2 oxidation reaction even at low operating temperatures. Working SOFC fuel cells were fabricated with ALD-deposited Pt thin films as an electrode/catalyst layer. The measured fuel cell performance reveals that comparable peak power densities were achieved for ALD-deposited Pt anodes with only one-fifth of the Pt loading relative to a DC-sputtered counterpart. In addition to the continuous electrocatalyst layer, a micro-patterned Pt structure was developed via the technique of area selective ALD. By coating yttria-stabilized zirconia, a

  14. Proceedings of the fourth annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, W.J.

    1992-07-01

    Objective of the program was to develop the essential technology for private sector commercialization of various fuel cell electrical generation systems, which promise high fuel efficiencies (40--60%), possibilities for cogeneration, modularity, possible urban siting, and low emissions. Purpose of this meeting was to provide the R and D participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with a forum. With the near commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells, major emphasis was on molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. 22 papers were given in 3 formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells; solid oxide fuel cells; and systems and phosphoric acid. In addition, the proceedings also include a welcome to METC address and comments on the Fuel Cells program from the viewpoint of EPRI and DOE's vehicular fuel cell program. Separate abstracts have been prepared

  15. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  16. Improved Oxygen Reduction Activity and Durability of Dealloyed PtCox Catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Strain, Ligand, and Particle Size Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qingying; Caldwell, Keegan; Strickland, Kara; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M.; Liu, Zhongyi; Yu, Zhiqiang; Ramaker, David E.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The development of active and durable catalysts with reduced platinum content is essential for fuel cell commercialization. Herein we report that the dealloyed PtCo/HSC and PtCo3/HSC nanoparticle (NP) catalysts exhibit the same levels of enhancement in oxygen reduction activity (~4-fold) and durability over pure Pt/C NPs. Surprisingly, ex situ high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) shows that the bulk morphologies of the two catalysts are distinctly different: D-PtCo/HSC catalyst is dominated by NPs with solid Pt shells surrounding a single ordered PtCo core; however, the D-PtCo3/HSC catalyst is dominated by NPs with porous Pt shells surrounding multiple disordered PtCo cores with local concentration of Co. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals that these two catalysts possess similar Pt–Pt and Pt–Co bond distances and Pt coordination numbers (CNs), despite their dissimilar morphologies. The similar activity of the two catalysts is thus ascribed to their comparable strain, ligand, and particle size effects. Ex situ XAS performed on D-PtCo3/HSC under different voltage cycling stage shows that the continuous dissolution of Co leaves behind the NPs with a Pt-like structure after 30k cycles. The attenuated strain and/or ligand effects caused by Co dissolution are presumably counterbalanced by the particle size effects with particle growth, which likely accounts for the constant specific activity of the catalysts along with voltage cycling. PMID:26413384

  17. Catalytic Activity Enhancement for Oxygen Reduction on Epitaxial Perovskite Thin Films for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    la O', Gerardo Jose

    2010-06-22

    Figure Presented The active ingredient: La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC) epitaxial thin films are prepared on (001 )-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals with a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) buffer layer (see picture). The LSC epitaxial films exhibit better oxygen reduction kinetics than bulk LSC. The enhanced activity is attributed in part to higher oxygen nonstoichiometry. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KCaA, Weinheim.

  18. DISMANTLING OF THE FUEL CELL LABORATORY AT RESEARCH CENTRE JUELICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahn, B.; Matela, K.; Bensch, D.; Ambos, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The fuel cell laboratory was constructed in three phases and taken into operation in the years 1962 to 1966. The last experimental work was carried out in 1996. After all cell internals had been disassembled, the fuel cell laboratory was transferred to shutdown operation in 1997. Three cell complexes, which differed, in particular, by the type of shielding (lead, cast steel, concrete), were available until then for activities at nuclear components. After approval by the regulatory authority, the actual dismantling of the fuel cell laboratory started in March 2000. The BZ I laboratory area consisted of 7 cells with lead shieldings of 100 to 250 mm thickness. This area was dismantled from April to September 2000. Among other things, approx. 30,000 lead bricks with a total weight of approx. 300 Mg were dismantled and disposed of. The BZ III laboratory area essentially consisted of cells with concrete shieldings of 1200 to 1400 mm thickness. The dismantling of this area started in the fir st half of 2001 and was completed in November 2002. Among other things, approx. 900 Mg of concrete was dismantled and disposed of. Since more than 90 % of the dismantled materials was measurable for clearance, various clearance measurement devices were used during dismantling. The BZ II laboratory area essentially consists of cells with cast steel shieldings of 400 to 460 mm thickness. In September 2002 it was decided to continue using this laboratory area for future tasks. The dismantling of the fuel cell laboratory was thus completed. After appropriate refurbishment, the fuel cell laboratory will probably take up operation again in late 2003

  19. Diffusion and conversion impedance in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Koch, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In fuel cell electrodes where the thin, active electrode layer is supported by a porous layer the diffusion processes as well as the change in the gas phase composition due to the conversion of reactants will influence the cell impedance. Two models are developed for the description of these proc......In fuel cell electrodes where the thin, active electrode layer is supported by a porous layer the diffusion processes as well as the change in the gas phase composition due to the conversion of reactants will influence the cell impedance. Two models are developed for the description...... to consumption of reactants and accumulation of products. For simplicity this model is restricted to cases dominated by mass transfer and conversion of the gas supply. Qualitatively the predictions by both models are alike. At high frequencies a Warburg diffusion impedance is seen. Depending on the dimensions...

  20. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  1. Effect of catalyst distribution in the active layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells; Effet de la distribution du catalyseur dans les couches actives de piles a combustible de type PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultel, Y.; Durand, R.; Ozil, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrochimie et d' Electrometallurgie, Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, UMR 5631, 38 - Grenoble (France); Antoine, O. [Geneva Univ., Dept. de Chimie Minerale, Analytique et Appliquee, Sciences 2 (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the influence of the distribution of the platinum catalyst in the active layers on the performances of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) electrodes. In the one hand, the results predicted by the classical models and those in which the active layers is modified have been compared; these results have allowed to demonstrate theoretically the effect of the discrete distribution of the platinum catalyst in the form of nano-particles. On the other hand, the influence of a distribution gradient of the platinum catalyst for porous and non-porous active layers of PEMFC cathode has been experimentally demonstrated and predicted by numerical simulations. (O.M.)

  2. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas [Buxerolles, FR; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM; Choi, Jong-Ho [Los Alamos, NM; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL; Cao, Dianxue [Urbana, IL

    2009-09-15

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  3. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  4. New tigers in the fuel cell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Service, R.F.

    2000-06-16

    At last researchers have made critical strides in developing commercially viable fuel cells that extract electricity from natural gas, ethane and other fossil fuels. A new generation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) such as that described in a paper by Hibino et al in this issue of Science (pp 2031-2033) convert hydrocarbons directly into electricity at low temperatures. New designs overcome the earlier problem of carbon atoms sticking to the anode of the cell and ruining it. Scott Barnett and his colleagues at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, have used an atomic spray-painting technique to grow yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes much thinner than the standard 150 micrometer membranes so oxygen ions can slip through them at temperatures closer to 600{degree}C and also developed a nickel-spiked cerium-oxide anode that works at those temperatures. Lower operating temperatures mean fuel cells could be constructed from steel rather than costly heat-resistant alloys. Another group of researchers have developed a copper based anode that reduces carbon buildup. The novel design of Hibino's groups, at Nagoya University, Japan has a cerium oxide wafer with a nickel anode on one side and a ceramic composite cathode which passes oxygen to form ions which react at the anode to form CO{sub 2} water and electricity. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 photo.

  5. Diffuse Charge Effects in Fuel Cell Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Franco, A.A.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, the standard model for electron transfer kinetics at the membrane/electrode

  6. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  7. Microbial Fuel Cells for Sulfide Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, K.; Sompel, van de S.; Maignien, L.; Boon, N.; Aelterman, P.; Clauwaert, P.; Schamphelaire, de L.; The Pham, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Verhaege, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thus far, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to convert carbon-based substrates to electricity. However, sulfur compounds are ubiquitously present in organic waste and wastewater. In this study, a MFC with a hexacyanoferrate cathodic electrolyte was used to convert dissolved sulfide to

  8. Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rozendal, R.A.; Schröder, U.; Keller, J.; Freguia, S.; Aelterman, P.; Verstraete, W.; Rabaey, K.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) research is a rapidly evolving field that lacks established terminology and methods for the analysis of system performance. This makes it difficult for researchers to compare devices on an equivalent basis. The construction and analysis of MFCs requires knowledge of

  9. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Su Jang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of microchannel technology. In this study, the conventional method of chemical etching and the mechanical machining method of micro end milling were used for the microfabrication of microchannel for fuel cell separators. The two methods were compared in terms of their performance in the fabrication with regards to dimensional errors, flatness, straightness, and surface roughness. Following microchannel fabrication, the powder blasting technique is introduced to improve the coating performance of the catalyst on the surface of the microchannel. Experimental results show that end milling can remarkably increase the fabrication performance and that surface treatment by powder blasting can improve the performance of catalyst coating.

  10. IAEA Activities in the Area of Fast Reactors and Related Fuels and Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, S.; Basak, U.; Dyck, G.; Inozemtsev, V.; Toti, A.; Zeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • The IAEA role to support fast reactors and associated fuel cycle development programmes; • Main IAEA activities on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology; • Main IAEA deliverables on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology

  11. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    major types of fuel cells in practice are listed below: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell ( PEMFC ) Alkaline Fuel cell (AFC) Phosphoric Acid...Material Operating Temperature (oC) Efficiency (%) PEMFC H2, Methanol, Formic Acid Hydrated Organic Polymer < 90 40-50 AFC Pure H2 Aqueous

  12. Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral solutions by ammonia gas treatment and their performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral pH solutions used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The ammonia treated ACs exhibited better catalytic performance in rotating ring-disk electrode tests than their untreated precursors, with the bituminous based AC most improved, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.12 V (untreated, Eonset = 0.08 V) and n = 3.9 electrons transferred in oxygen reduction (untreated, n = 3.6), and the hardwood based AC (treated, E onset = 0.03 V, n = 3.3; untreated, Eonset = -0.04 V, n = 3.0). Ammonia treatment decreased oxygen content by 29-58%, increased nitrogen content to 1.8 atomic %, and increased the basicity of the bituminous, peat, and hardwood ACs. The treated coal based AC cathodes had higher maximum power densities in MFCs (2450 ± 40 mW m-2) than the other AC cathodes or a Pt/C cathode (2100 ± 1 mW m-2). These results show that reduced oxygen abundance and increased nitrogen functionalities on the AC surface can increase catalytic performance for oxygen reduction in neutral media. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polypyrrole/sargassum activated carbon modified stainless-steel sponge as high-performance and low-cost bioanode for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gaoming; Bao, Han; Xia, Zheng; Yang, Bin; Lei, Lecheng; Li, Zhongjian; Liu, Chunxian

    2018-04-01

    Anode materials, as the core component of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), have huge impacts on power generation performance and overall cost. Stainless-steel sponge (SS) can be a promising material for MFC anodes, due to its open continuous three-dimensional structure, high conductivity and low cost. However, poor biocompatibility limits its application. In this paper, a polypyrrole/sargassum activated carbon modified SS anode (Ppy/SAC/SS) is developed by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on the SS with the SAC as a dopant. The maximum power density achieved with the Ppy/SAC/SS anode is 45.2 W/m3, which is increased by 2 orders of magnitude and 2.9 times compared with an unmodified SS anode and a solely Ppy modified SS anode (Ppy/SS), respectively. In addition, the Ppy/SAC layer effectively eliminates electrochemical corrosion of the SS substrate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that Ppy/SAC modification decreases electron transfer resistance between the bacteria and the electrode. Furthermore, in vivo fluorescence imaging indicates that a more uniform biofilm is formed on the Ppy/SAC/SS compared to the unmodified SS and Ppy/SS. Due to the low cost of the materials, easy fabrication process and relatively high performance, our developed Ppy/SAC/SS can be a cost efficient anode material for MFCs in practical applications.

  14. Efficient removal of nitrobenzene and concomitant electricity production by single-chamber microbial fuel cells with activated carbon air-cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Wang, Feng; Zhai, Wenjing; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2017-04-01

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (S-MFCs) with bio-anodes and activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes showed high nitrobenzene (NB) tolerance and NB removal with concomitant electricity production. The maximum power over 25Wm -3 could be obtained when S-MFCs were operated in the NB loading range of 1.2-6.2molm -3 d -1 , and stable electricity production over 13.7Wm -3 could be produced in a NB loading range of 1.2-14.7molm -3 d -1 . The present S-MFCs exhibited high NB removal performance with NB removal efficiency over 97% even when the NB loading rate was increased to 17.2molm -3 d -1 . The potential NB reduced product (i.e. aniline) could also be effectively removed from influents. The findings in this study means that single-chamber MFCs assembled with pre-enriched bio-anodes and AC air-cathodes could be developed as effective bio-electrochemical systems to remove NB from wastewaters and to harvest energy instead of consuming energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-Step Fabrication Using a Phase Inversion Method of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) Activated Carbon Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin

    2014-10-14

    Air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to have high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction, but they must also be easy to manufacture, inexpensive, and watertight. A simple one-step, phase inversion process was used here to construct an inexpensive MFC cathode using a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder and an activated carbon catalyst. The phase inversion process enabled cathode preparation at room temperatures, without the need for additional heat treatment, and it produced for the first time a cathode that did not require a separate diffusion layer to prevent water leakage. MFCs using this new type of cathode produced a maximum power density of 1470 ± 50 mW m–2 with acetate as a substrate, and 230 ± 10 mW m–2 with domestic wastewater. These power densities were similar to those obtained using cathodes made using more expensive materials or more complex procedures, such as cathodes with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diffusion layer, or a Pt catalyst. Even though the PVDF cathodes did not have a diffusion layer, they withstood up to 1.22 ± 0.04 m of water head (∼12 kPa) without leakage, compared to 0.18 ± 0.02 m for cathodes made using PTFE binder and PDMS diffusion layer. The cost of PVDF and activated carbon ($3 m–2) was less than that of the stainless steel mesh current collector ($12 m–2). PVDF-based AC cathodes therefore are inexpensive, have excellent performance in terms of power and water leakage, and they can be easily manufactured using a single phase inversion process at room temperature.

  16. Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, L.; Pozio, A.

    1995-05-01

    The report summarizes the state of art of systems for energy production in electrical vehicles, looking into the general characteristics of electrodes and membranes. The water and thermal balance of the cell in relation to operative conditions, the pressure and temperature influence on the performance are examined. Special emphasis is given to the electrode characteristics-fabrication techniques and assembly of membrane electrodes. The problems related to the oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode are examined, in relation to the fabrication techniques and to operative conditions of the cells. Finally, the possible alternative catalyzers for anode and cathode are reviewed

  18. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  19. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  20. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The report discusses the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment us...

  1. Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells has...

  2. Design and Response of a Structural Multifunctional Fuel Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    South, Joseph; Baechle, Daniel; Hilton, Corydon; DeSchepper, Daniel; Wetzel, Eric

    2008-01-01

    .... In this study, structural fuel cells are proposed and evaluated. A structural multifunctional fuel cell system is designed so that material elements participating in power and energy processes are also carrying significant structural loads...

  3. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  4. Poly (Ethylene-Alit-Tetrafluoroethylene) Based Membranes For Fuel Cells: Synthesis And Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan Guersel, S.; Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.

    2005-03-01

    Proton exchange membranes have been synthesized by pre-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly (ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) in the presence of divinyl benzene (DVB) as the cross linker and characterized ex-situ for their fuel cell relevant properties. The optimum graft level was determined as between 20 and 30 %. ETFE based membranes exhibited encouraging fuel cell performance yet, there is room for improvement through optimization of the membrane-electrode interface. (author)

  5. The atomistic origin of the extraordinary oxygen reduction activity of Pt3Ni7 fuel cell catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunelli, Alessandro; Goddard Iii, William A; Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Negreiros, Fabio R; Jaramillo-Botero, Andrés

    2015-07-01

    Recently Debe et al. reported that Pt 3 Ni 7 leads to extraordinary Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) activity. However, several reports show that hardly any Ni remains in the layers of the catalysts close to the surface ("Pt-skin effect"). This paradox that Ni is essential to the high catalytic activity with the peak ORR activity at Pt 3 Ni 7 while little or no Ni remains close to the surface is explained here using large-scale first-principles-based simulations. We make the radical assumption that processing Pt-Ni catalysts under ORR conditions would leach out all Ni accessible to the solvent. To simulate this process we use the ReaxFF reactive force field, starting with random alloy particles ranging from 50% Ni to 90% Ni and containing up to ∼300 000 atoms, deleting the Ni atoms, and equilibrating the resulting structures. We find that the Pt 3 Ni 7 case and a final particle radius around 7.5 nm lead to internal voids in communication with the exterior, doubling the external surface footprint, in fair agreement with experiment. Then we examine the surface character of these nanoporous systems and find that a prominent feature in the surface of the de-alloyed particles is a rhombic structure involving 4 surface atoms which is crystalline-like but under-coordinated. Using density-functional theory, we calculate the energy barriers of ORR steps on Pt nanoporous catalysts, focusing on the O ad -hydration reaction (O ad + H 2 O ad → OH ad + OH ad ) but including the barriers of O 2 dissociation (O 2ad → O ad + O ad ) and water formation (OH ad + H ad → H 2 O ad ). We find that the reaction barrier for the O ad -hydration rate-determining-step is reduced significantly on the de-alloyed surface sites compared to Pt(111). Moreover we find that these active sites are prevalent on the surface of particles de-alloyed from a Pt-Ni 30 : 70 initial composition. These simulations explain the peak in surface reactivity at Pt 3 Ni 7 , and provide a rational guide to

  6. Fuel cell commercialization: The key to a hydrogen economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, P.

    With the current level of global oil production, oil reserves will be sufficient for 40 years. However, due to the fact that the global GDP will have increased by a factor seven in 2050, oil reserves are likely to be exhausted in a much shorter time period. The EU and car industry aim at a reduction of the consumption of oil, at energy savings (with a key role for fuel cells) and an increased use of hydrogen from natural gas and, possibly, coal, in the medium term. The discovery of huge methane resources as methane hydrates (20 times those of oil, gas and coal together) in oceans at 1000-3000 m depth could be of major importance. In the long term, the EU aims at a renewable energy-based energy supply. The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform is expected to play a major role in bringing about a hydrogen economy. The availability of commercial fuel cells is here a prerequisite. However, after many years of research, fuel cells have not yet been commercialized. If they will not succeed to enter the market within 5 years there is a real danger that activities aiming at a hydrogen society will peter out. In a hydrogen strategy, high priority should therefore be given to actions which will bring about fuel cell commercialization within 5 years. They should include the identification of fuel cell types and (niche) markets which are most favorable for a rapid market introduction. These actions should include focused short-term RTD aiming at cost reduction and increased reliability.

  7. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  8. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  9. A review of fuel cell systems for maritime applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Biert, L.; Godjevac, M.; Visser, K.; Aravind, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    Progressing limits on pollutant emissions oblige ship owners to reduce the environmental impact of their operations. Fuel cells may provide a suitable solution, since they are fuel efficient while they emit few hazardous compounds. Various choices can be made with regard to the type of fuel cell system and logistic fuel, and it is unclear which have the best prospects for maritime application. An overview of fuel cell types and fuel processing equipment is presented, and maritime fuel cell application is reviewed with regard to efficiency, gravimetric and volumetric density, dynamic behaviour, environmental impact, safety and economics. It is shown that low temperature fuel cells using liquefied hydrogen provide a compact solution for ships with a refuelling interval up to a tens of hours, but may result in total system sizes up to five times larger than high temperature fuel cells and more energy dense fuels for vessels with longer mission requirements. The expanding infrastructure of liquefied natural gas and development state of natural gas-fuelled fuel cell systems can facilitate the introduction of gaseous fuels and fuel cells on ships. Fuel cell combined cycles, hybridisation with auxiliary electricity storage systems and redundancy improvements are identified as topics for further study.

  10. Cold Start of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Kazuya; Wang, Chao-Yang

    The ability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) to startup and operate under subzero temperatures has been an issue for the commercialization of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV). It is widely believed that during PEFC operation in a subzero temperature environment a portion of water produced from the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) forms ice in the catalyst layer (CL) that hinders the oxygen transport to the reaction sites, until the PEFC eventually stops operation due to oxygen starvation. For the automotive application, successful cold start is defined as PEFC temperature increase above 0°C with self-heating before the cell shutdown due to oxygen starvation. Several automakers have already claimed capability of FCV startup from a subzero temperature environment. However, the underlying physics has only begun to emerge in the most recent literature.

  11. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  12. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate t...

  13. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  14. Yeast fuel cell: Application for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, Ummy; Innocent, Christophe; Cretin, Marc; Buchari, Buchari; Gandasasmita, Suryo

    2016-02-01

    Yeasts have been implicated in microbial fuel cells as biocatalysts because they are non-pathogenic organisms, easily handled and robust with a good tolerance in different environmental conditions. Here we investigated baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the oxidation of glucose. Yeast was used in the anolyte, to transfer electrons to the anode in the presence of methylene blue as mediator whereas K3Fe(CN)6 was used as an electron acceptor for the reduction reaction in the catholyte. Power production with biofuel cell was coupled with a desalination process. The maximum current density produced by the cell was 88 mA.m-2. In those conditions, it was found that concentration of salt was removed 64% from initial 0.6 M after 1-month operation. This result proves that yeast fuel cells can be used to remove salt through electrically driven membrane processes and demonstrated that could be applied for energy production and desalination. Further developments are in progress to improve power output to make yeast fuel cells applicable for water treatment.

  15. Recent developments in microbial fuel cell technologies for sustainable bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microbial catabolic activities to generate electricity from a variety of materials, including complex organic waste and renewable biomass. These sources provide MFCs with a great advantage over chemical fuel cells that can utilize only purified reactive fuels (e.g., hydrogen). A developing primary application of MFCs is its use in the production of sustainable bioenergy, e.g., organic waste treatment coupled with electricity generation, although further technical developments are necessary for its practical use. In this article, recent advances in MFC technologies that can become fundamentals for future practical MFC developments are summarized. Results of recent studies suggest that MFCs will be of practical use in the near future and will become a preferred option among sustainable bioenergy processes.

  16. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  17. Synthesis on power electronics for large fuel cells: From power conditioning to potentiodynamic analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardinis, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Active load for fuel cell managing electrical drive constraints: frequency and current ripple can be adjusted independently. • Multi-port resonant soft-switched topology for power management of a thirty kilowatt segmented PEM fuel cell. • Splitting current control strategy for power segmented PEM fuel cell in case of a segment is under fault. • Reversible Buck topology for large fuel cell with control of the fuel cell potential linked to current density nonlinearity. - Abstract: The work addressed in this paper deals with a synthesis on power electronic converters used for fuel cells. The knowledge gap concerns conceptually different electronic converter architectures for PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells able to perform three types of functionalities: The first one is the capacity of emulating an active load representative of electrical drive constraints. In that case, frequency and fuel cell current ripple can be set independently to investigate the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell. The second one is power conditioning applied to large high power and segmented fuel cell systems (“Large” represents several tens of cells and multi-kilowatt stacks), which is a non trivial consideration regarding the topological choices to be made for improving efficiency, compactness and ensure operation under faulty condition. A multi-port resonant isolated boost topology is analyzed enabling soft switching over a large operating range for a thirty kilowatt segmented fuel cell. A splitting current control strategy in case of a segment is under fault is proposed. Each considered converter topologies meet specific constraints regarding fuel cell stack design and power level. The third functionality is the ability for the power electronics to perform analysis and diagnosis techniques, like the cyclic voltammetry on large PEM fuel cell assemblies. The latter technique is an uncommon process for large fuel cell stacks since it is rather performed on

  18. Microbial fuel cell assisted band gap narrowed TiO2for visible light-induced photocatalytic activities and power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ehtisham; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Min, Bong-Ki; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2018-01-29

    This paper reports a simple, biogenic and green approach to obtain narrow band gap and visible light-active TiO 2 nanoparticles. Commercial white TiO 2 (w-TiO 2 ) was treated in the cathode chamber of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC), which produced modified light gray TiO 2 (g-TiO 2 ) nanoparticles. The DRS, PL, XRD, EPR, HR-TEM, and XPS were performed to understand the band gap decline of g-TiO 2 . The optical study revealed a significant decrease in the band gap of the g-TiO 2 (E g  = 2.80 eV) compared to the w-TiO 2 (E g  = 3.10 eV). The XPS revealed variations in the surface states, composition, Ti 4+ to Ti 3+ ratio, and oxygen vacancies in the g-TiO 2 . The Ti 3+ and oxygen vacancy-induced enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of g-TiO 2 was confirmed by degrading different model dyes. The enhanced photoelectrochemical response under visible light irradiation further supported the improved performance of the g-TiO 2 owing to a decrease in the electron transfer resistance and an increase in charge transfer rate. During the TiO 2 treatment process, electricity generation in MFC was also observed, which was ~0.3979 V corresponding to a power density of 70.39 mW/m 2 . This study confirms narrow band gap TiO 2 can be easily obtained and used effectively as photocatalysts and photoelectrode material.

  19. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Applied for Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is investigated. PEMFC may be the most promising technology for fuel cell automotive systems, which is operating at quite low temperatures, (between 60 to 80℃). In this study the fuel cell motive power part of a lift truck has...

  20. State of the states : fuel cells in America, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    There is no doubt that there will be fuel cells in our future. In fact, fuel cells are here today, : available for purchase and already taking off in early markets: : Telecommunication companies are purchasing fuel cells to provide back-up or pri...