WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel alcohol production

  1. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  2. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  3. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  4. The alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation shows the antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported gasoline, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol fuel, consumption, and trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data

  5. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel alcohol...

  6. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  7. Perspectives of the alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation overviews the following aspects: antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported fuels, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol, consumption, trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data. Also problems with environmental impact of CO and CO2 are discussed and possible solutions, incentives to private sector for trading, tax reductions and legislation to support the production are included

  8. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastari, Plinio Mario

    1993-01-01

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country

  9. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  10. Proceedings of the international symposium on alcohol fuel technology: methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The papers presented dealt with the following topics: international situation and economic and political aspects, use of alcohol fuels as automotive fuels, production of methanol and methyl fuels, production of ethanol, methanol application and modeling, alcohol fuel optimization, and environmental considerations. Each paper was prepared for introduction into the EDB data base. (JSR)

  11. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D S; Lee, D S [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  13. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  14. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  15. Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

  16. Future of alcohol fuels programs in Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A. V., Jr.; Rechtschaffen, E.; Goldstein, L., Jr.

    An updating is given of the Brazilian National Alcohol Program's production and utilization achievements to date in the substitution of ethanol and methanol for imported oil products. A series of Eucalyptus forestry and processing-industry projections are made for fuel output and jobs creation that may be expected by the year 2000. With few exceptions, methanol produced from wood grown on poorer soils than can now be used for sugarcane substitute for oil products and result in jobs creation several orders of magnitude higher than petroleum fuels.

  17. Recent advances on Zeolite modification for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    The increase of energy demand and global warming issues has driven studies of alternative energy sources. The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) can be an alternative energy source by (partially) replacing the use of fossil fuel which is in line with the green technology concept. However, the usage of hydrogen as a fuel has several disadvantages mainly transportation and storage related to its safety aspects. Recently, alcohol has gained attention as an energy source for fuel cell application, namely direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC). Among alcohols, high-mass energy density methanol and ethanol are widely used as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC), respectively. Currently, the performance of DMFC is still rudimentary. Furthermore, the use of ethanol gives some additional privileges such as non-toxic property, renewable, ease of production in great quantity by the fermentation of sugar-containing raw materials. Direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) still has weakness in the low proton conductivity and high alcohol crossover. Therefore, to increase the performance of DAFC, modification using zeolite has been performed to improve proton conductivity and decrease alcohol crossover. Zeolite also has high thermal resistance properties, thereby increasing DAFC performance. This paper will discuss briefly about modification of catalyst and membrane for DAFC using zeolite. Zeolite modification effect on fuel cell performance especially proton conductivity and alcohol crossover will be presented in detail.

  18. Control device of air-fuel ratio of alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazuo

    1987-08-19

    Concerning alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel, even the same amount of the fuel shows different air-fuel ratio depending upon alcohol concentration in the fuel, accordingly it is required to know the alcohol concentration when it is intended to make the air-fuel ratio to be the same as the predetermined ratio. Although a sensor which can detect in quick response and exactly the alcohol concentration has not been developed, the alcohol concentration in gasoline can be detected by detecting the concentration of the water in exhaust gas and many hygrometers which can detect the concentration of the water with high precision are available. With regard to an internal combustion engine equipped with a fuel supply device in order to supply alcohol-gasoline mixed fuel into an engine suction passage, this invention offers an air-fuel ratio control device to control the amount of the fuel to be supplied from the fuel supply device by detecting the concentration of alcohol in the gasoline from among the output signals of the main hygrometer and the auxiliary hygrometer. The former hygrometer to detect the concentration of the water in the exhaust gas is set in the engine exhaust gas passage and the latter is installed to detect the concentration of the water in the air. (4 figs)

  19. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices; Os equivocos do combate a inflacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastari, Plinio Mario [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country 8 figs.

  20. North America markets for alcohol and alcohol-derived motor fuels and need for tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigwood, B.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. fuel alcohol and ether industry has grown from its infancy in 1979 to approximately 2.9 billion gallons of production capacity in 1991. With the emphasis on clean air, the uncertainties in the Middle East, and fluctuating oil prices, IRI believes the demand for alcohol-derived motor fuels is poised to begin a second phase of expansion. Historically, the two primary alcohol-derived motor fuels sold in the U.S. have been methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol. There is also a limited but growing use of methanol as 85% blendstock for gasoline. Since 1978, fuel ethanol has provided the U.S. petroleum industry with an additional source of supply, octane, and profit. Its price was based on the price of wholesale gasoline plus available federal and state tax incentives. These incentives allowed ethanol, with production costs of $1.00 to $1.25 per gallon, to compete with gasoline at prices of 40 to 65 per gallon. Without the federal and state tax incentives, it would not be economically feasible to sell or manufacture fuel ethanol. On the other hand, the largest consumption of methanol has been as a feedstock for the production of MTBE, the world's fastest growing chemical over the past seven years. MTBE prices are based on the cost of raising the octane level of gasoline, and this commodity does not receive subsidies. Beginning in 1992, IRI predicts the price relationship between ethanol, MTBE, and gasoline will change as U.S. refiners and marketers are required to include oxygenated fuels (alcohol-derived) in their gasoline. In total, over 60 billion gallons of gasoline will need to be reformulated by the year 2000. The increased demand for oxygen will result in a 2.5-billion gallon deficit of MTBE and 1.2-billion gallon deficit of ethanol by the year 2000. 2 tabs

  1. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  2. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  3. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol by...

  4. Production costs of liquid fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)

  5. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  6. The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Atadashi Musa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of alcohol and alcohol to oil molar ratio plays an important role on the method of biodiesel production. As a result, this paper examined different alcohols commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel with more emphasis on methanol and ethanol. Further the different alcohol to oil molar ratios used for the production of biodiesel have been extensively discussed and reported. Also the effects of alcohol to molar ratios on biodiesel refining process and its physicochemical properties were investigated.

  7. Methanol and ethanol from lignocellulosic Swedish wood fuels. Appendices. Comparison of the costs of alcohols from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, N.; Ekstroem, C.; Oestman, A.; Rensfelt, E.

    1994-01-01

    Swedish wood fuel has a considerable volume and, apart from the utilization today, its use in year 2010 is estimated to amount to 75 TWh/year. Wood fuel can be converted to the alcohols methanol or ethanol and, as such, can be utilized as fuels or components capable of replacing petrol or diesel. This comparison of costs in producing methanol or ethanol from 250 000 tonnes DM of wood fuel using technology available today, or similar levels of technology, shows that methanol can be produced for about 2 SEK/1 (about 450 SEK/MWh) and ethanol for about 4,85 SEK/1 (825 SEK/MWh). The world market price today is around 1 SEK/1 for methanol and 2.60-2.80 SEK/1 for ethanol. Investment and production costs for the two types of production plants do not differ to any particular extent. The investment cost in the methanol plant is about 20 per cent higher, whereas production and maintenance costs are more than 20 per cent higher for ethanol. The explanation of considerable difference in production costs is, instead, primarily the difference in alcohol yield and secondarily the difference in the total efficiency. The valuation of secondary products, particularly lignin fuel from the ethanol process, is also important. The alcohols can be used as propellant fuels in several different ways as admixture components or as pure fuels. It is concluded that there are quality differences between the alcohols that can influence the driving capacity, emissions and which also affect the value of the alcohols. Among the uncertainties that particularly require more penetrating studies are questions dealing with health aspects related to the higher emissions of formaldehyde when used as an engine fuel, total environmental and health influence of ethanol emission, and the contents of polluting substances in lignin fuel that affect its range of use and its value

  8. Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables : final report for IEA Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program of research and development on alternative motor fuels, Annex 4/Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancea, L. (comp.) [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program was to exchange information on the production of alcohols and other oxygenates between 6 participating countries including Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Various production methods were reviewed in an effort to identify potential areas of cooperative research programs. The original scope was to examine the production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels only, but some participants examined their production from renewables. This report provided a brief description of the Annex and the list of participants. It presented the Operating Agent's Report and contained a summary of the contributions submitted by participating countries by topic. In Canada, Iogen of Ottawa, Ontario has conducted a study on the energy, carbon and economic budgets estimated for wheat grain, corn grain, wheat straw, and switchgrass. Iogen has developed a process for fermenting wheat straw and switchgrass into ethanol. Most research has focused on enzymatic hydrolysis processes because of the low yields inherent in dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymes hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose without producing any degradation products, thereby yielding high quantity products with no toxicity. Future bioethanol production will probably be cellulosic-based rather than grain-based. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables : final report for IEA Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program of research and development on alternative motor fuels, Annex 4/Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancea, L [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) Alternative Motor Fuels Agreement Program was to exchange information on the production of alcohols and other oxygenates between 6 participating countries including Canada, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States. Various production methods were reviewed in an effort to identify potential areas of cooperative research programs. The original scope was to examine the production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels only, but some participants examined their production from renewables. This report provided a brief description of the Annex and the list of participants. It presented the Operating Agent's Report and contained a summary of the contributions submitted by participating countries by topic. In Canada, Iogen of Ottawa, Ontario has conducted a study on the energy, carbon and economic budgets estimated for wheat grain, corn grain, wheat straw, and switchgrass. Iogen has developed a process for fermenting wheat straw and switchgrass into ethanol. Most research has focused on enzymatic hydrolysis processes because of the low yields inherent in dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymes hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose without producing any degradation products, thereby yielding high quantity products with no toxicity. Future bioethanol production will probably be cellulosic-based rather than grain-based. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Esters of ricebran oil with short chain alcohols as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Zaher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of ricebran oil as a feedstock for the production of a fuel for diesel engines alternative to regular diesel fuel has been assessed. Esterification rate of crude ricebran oil with methyl alcohol was studied using different volumetric ratios of alcohol to oil, different catalyst loads and catalyst types. Catalysts used were sulfuric acid at a concentration of 2% of the oil/alcohol mixture in addition to hydrochloric acid and Amberlite IR-120 cation exchange resin at the same molar concentration of H+ as in case of sulfuric acid. The reaction was fastest using sulfuric acid which has been then used to prepare esters of ricebran oil with methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. The four products have been evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines according to their fuel properties compared to regular diesel fuel. These properties include the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, cetane number, sulfur content and ASTM distillation characteristics. The results have shown that the methyl as well as the ethyl esters have the closest properties to those of regular diesel fuel. Diesel engine performance using blends of regular diesel fuel with methyl and ethyl esters of ricebran oil have been tested and compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the engine performance using a blend of 50% regular diesel fuel and 50% methyl esters of ricebran oil is better than that using regular diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency at full load was 30.2% using the fuel blend compared to 27.5% in case of regular fuel.

  11. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  12. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures... equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual...

  13. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... for these renewable alcohols, together with other primary renewable building blocks, has been highlighted in the introductory chapter. While the first chapter covers the general potential of a renewable chemical industry, the other chapters deal with particular possibilities. It is shown how ethanol and glycerol can...... be converted into hydrogen by steam reforming over nickel or ruthenium based catalysts. This process could be important in a future hydrogen society, where hydrogen can be utilized in high efficiency fuel cells. Hydrogen produced from biofeedstocks can also be used directly in the chemical industry, where...

  14. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  15. Methanol and ethanol from lignocellulosic Swedish wood fuels - Main report. Comparison of the costs of alcohols from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, N.; Ekstroem, C.; Oestman, A.; Rensfelt, E.

    1994-06-01

    Swedish wood fuel has a considerable volume and, apart from the utilization today, its use in year 2010 is estimated to amount to 75 TWh/year. Wood fuel can be converted to the alcohols methanol or ethanol and, as such, can be utilized as fuels or components capable of replacing petrol or diesel. This comparison of costs in producing methanol or ethanol from 250 000 tonnes DM of wood fuel using technology available today, or similar levels of technology, shows that methanol can be produced for about 2 SEK/1 (about 450 SEK/MWh) and ethanol for about 4,85 SEK/1 (825 SEK/MWh). The world market price today is around 1 SEK/1 for methanol and 2.60-2.80 SEK/1 for ethanol. Investment and production costs for the two types of production plants do not differ to any particular extent. The investment cost in the methanol plant is about 20 per cent higher, whereas production and maintenance costs are more than 20 per cent higher for ethanol. The explanation of considerable difference in production costs is, instead, primarily the difference in alcohol yield and secondarily the difference in the total efficiency. The valuation of secondary products, particularly lignin fuel from the ethanol process, is also important. The alcohols can be used as propellant fuels in several different ways as admixture components or as pure fuels. It is concluded that there are quality differences between the alcohols that can influence the driving capacity, emissions and which also affect the value of the alcohols. Among the uncertainties that particularly require more penetrating studies are questions dealing with health aspects related to the higher emissions of formaldehyde when used as an engine fuel, total environmental and health influence of ethanol emission, and the contents of polluting substances in lignin fuel that affect its range of use and its value. 25 figs, 29 tabs

  16. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  17. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3-C10 alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna N. Lamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  19. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  20. Complete utilization of whey for alcohol and methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L; Strube, R

    1978-01-01

    The quality of the rectified alcohol obtained by 2-stage fermentation of whey permeate with Kluyveromyces fragilis followed by distillation was similar to that of rectified alcohol from molasses, though composition in terms of fusel oils, aldehydes, and diacetyls was varied. A contact process of anaerobic biological treatment reduced the COD of the effluent from 7000 to 350 and 1000 mg/L in laboratory and full-scale plant experiments respectively. The gas drawn off from this process contained 63% CH/sub 4/ and was almost odorless because of the low S content in the whey permeate; it had an energy value of 1.8 kg fuel oil/m/sup 3/ permeate and was able to replace 17 to 20% of the fuel oil used at the plant. The alcohol yield was 80% of the theoretical yield, and corresponded to the use of 42 L of whey permeate containing 4.4% lactose for production of 1 L of 100% alcohol and the total energy gain was 30%.

  1. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

  2. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy; Kania, John

    2018-01-23

    Methods, reactor systems, and catalysts are provided for converting in a continuous process biomass to fuels and chemicals, including methods of converting the water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  3. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  4. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  5. Developments in National Fuel Alcohol (biofuel) Programs: implications for world sugar trade. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments in the national fuel alcohol programmes of Brazil, the European Union and USA with the main emphasis on Brazil. A brief history of Brazil's alcohol production is given, and the deregulation of the alcohol sector in Brazil, the impacts of partial liberalisation of Brazil's alcohol sector, government delays in further liberalisation and attempts to manage supply, the PROALCOOL programme, the government's actions to boost ethanol demand, the slump in ethanol output in 1998/1999, and the increase in sugar output are examined. The long term goal of increasing reliance on biofuels in the European Union, the EU's alcohol industry, and ethanol production in France are considered. Market factors affecting ethanol production in the US, the US government's extension of its ethanol tax incentive, the US ethanol sector, and the future demand for ethanol in the US are discussed. The short and medium-term implications for sugar in Brazil, the EU and the US are assessed. (UK)

  6. Principles and Materials Aspects of Direct Alkaline Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Hao Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs have attracted increasing interest over the past decade because of their favourable reaction kinetics in alkaline media, higher energy densities achievable and the easy handling of the liquid fuels. In this review, principles and mechanisms of DAAFCs in alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction are discussed. Despite the high energy densities available during the oxidation of polycarbon alcohols they are difficult to oxidise. Apart from methanol, the complete oxidation of other polycarbon alcohols to CO2 has not been achieved with current catalysts. Different types of catalysts, from conventional precious metal catalyst of Pt and Pt alloys to other lower cost Pd, Au and Ag metal catalysts are compared. Non precious metal catalysts, and lanthanum, strontium oxides and perovskite-type oxides are also discussed. Membranes like the ones used as polymer electrolytes and developed for DAAFCs are reviewed. Unlike conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells, anion exchange membranes are used in present DAAFCs. Fuel cell performance with DAAFCs using different alcohols, catalysts and membranes, as well as operating parameters are summarised. In order to improve the power output of the DAAFCs, further developments in catalysts, membrane materials and fuel cell systems are essential.

  7. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  8. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Biobutanol as fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells - Investigation of Sn-modified Pt catalyst for butanol electro-oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Dan J. L. Brett,; Andrea E. Russell,; Wen-Feng Lin,; Hardacre, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies ...

  10. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels

  11. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A V; Double, J M [Aston Univ. Birmingham (GB). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels.

  12. Alcohol fuels in New Zealand's energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titchener, A.L. (Liquid Fuels Trust Board, Wellington, New Zealand); Walker, B.V.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the structure of energy planning, research, and development in New Zealand, and the resource bases on which future energy supplies may be expected to depend. It addresses the problem of imported liquid fuels and the means of substituting for them. Recent decisions taken by the government are outlined. New Zealand is economically and strategically vulnerable to the supply of oil. A problem of increasing importance will be the supply of middle distillate fuels, especially diesel. In the longer term, and in the absence of discovery of indigenous oil or additional gas, the resource bases for synthetic liquid fuels in New Zealand will be coal or biomass or both. Prima facie the most obvious synthetic liquid fuels are liquid hydrocarbons. However, the alcohols have a number of advantages over synthetic hydrocarbon liquids, the most important of which are higher conversion efficiency (especially when used in spark-ignition engines) and known and relatively simple conversion technology. The present programme aimed at investigating means of substituting for imported liquid fuels is planned to embrace all reasonable options. Consequently it includes a significant body of research into the alcohols as engine fuels. The present paper has reviewed this research programme. Decisions on whether to move towards alcohol fuels must be ragarded as some way in the future. (DMC)

  13. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium autoethanogenum for selective alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Fungmin; Henstra, Anne M; Kӧpke, Michael; Winzer, Klaus; Simpson, Sean D; Minton, Nigel P

    2017-03-01

    Gas fermentation using acetogenic bacteria such as Clostridium autoethanogenum offers an attractive route for production of fuel ethanol from industrial waste gases. Acetate reduction to acetaldehyde and further to ethanol via an aldehyde: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and alcohol dehydrogenase has been postulated alongside the classic pathway of ethanol formation via a bi-functional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). Here we demonstrate that AOR is critical to ethanol formation in acetogens and inactivation of AdhE led to consistently enhanced autotrophic ethanol production (up to 180%). Using ClosTron and allelic exchange mutagenesis, which was demonstrated for the first time in an acetogen, we generated single mutants as well as double mutants for both aor and adhE isoforms to confirm the role of each gene. The aor1+2 double knockout strain lost the ability to convert exogenous acetate, propionate and butyrate into the corresponding alcohols, further highlighting the role of these enzymes in catalyzing the thermodynamically unfavourable reduction of carboxylic acids into alcohols. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conversion of hydrocarbons and alcohols for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Finn; Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens R.

    The growing demand for clean and efficient energy systems is the driving force in the development of fuel processing technology for providing hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gaseous fuels for power generation in fuel cells. Successful development of low cost, efficient fuel processing systems will be critical to the commercialisation of this technology. This article reviews various reforming technologies available for the generation of such fuels from hydrocarbons and alcohols. It also briefly addresses the issue of carbon monoxide clean-up and the question of selecting the appropriate fuel(s) for small/medium scale fuel processors for stationary and automotive applications.

  15. Biobutanol as Fuel for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells-Investigation of Sn-Modified Pt Catalyst for Butanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Brett, Dan J L; Russell, Andrea E; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-05-25

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies are available for longer chain alcohols such as butanol. A significant development in the production of biobutanol and its proposed application as an alternative fuel to gasoline in the past decade makes butanol an interesting candidate fuel for fuel cells. Different butanol isomers were compared in this study on various Pt and PtSn bimetallic catalysts for their electro-oxidation activities in acidic media. Clear distinctive behaviors were observed for each of the different butanol isomers using cyclic voltammetry (CV), indicating a difference in activity and the mechanism of oxidation. The voltammograms of both n-butanol and iso-butanol showed similar characteristic features, indicating a similar reaction mechanism, whereas 2-butanol showed completely different features; for example, it did not show any indication of poisoning. Ter-butanol was found to be inactive for oxidation on Pt. In situ FTIR and CV analysis showed that OHads was essential for the oxidation of primary butanol isomers which only forms at high potentials on Pt. In order to enhance the water oxidation and produce OHads at lower potentials, Pt was modified by the oxophilic metal Sn and the bimetallic PtSn was studied for the oxidation of butanol isomers. A significant enhancement in the oxidation of the 1° butanol isomers was observed on addition of Sn to the Pt, resulting in an oxidation peak at a potential ∼520 mV lower than that found on pure Pt. The higher activity of PtSn was attributed to the

  16. The Brazilian experience with alcohol fuel: microeconomic and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seroa da Motta, R.

    1990-01-01

    Producers and consumers in Brazil are not longer regarding alcohol (ethanol) as a valuable fuel choice. Although the falling of oil prices has contributed to this situation, the lack of concern on microeconomic behaviour has also played an important role. Furthermore, environmental gains derived from the use of a mixture of alcohol and gasoline have been forgotten when alcohol fuel is evaluated. From the Brazilian experience some fruitful lessons can be learnt, to support research efforts for renewable energy programmes in Europe and the U.S.A. (author)

  17. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Jari; Knoop, Henning; Stanford, Natalie J; Guerrero, Fernando; Akhtar, M Kalim; Aro, Eva-Mari; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R

    2012-11-30

    Cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into hydrocarbon fuel or precursors thereof. Many biological and non-biological factors will influence the ability of such a production system to become economically sustainable. We evaluated two factors in engineerable cyanobacteria which could potentially limit economic sustainability: (i) tolerance of the host to the intended end-product, and (ii) stoichiometric potential for production. Alcohols, when externally added, inhibited growth the most, followed by aldehydes and acids, whilst alkanes were the least inhibitory. The growth inhibition became progressively greater with increasing chain-length for alcohols, whilst the intermediate C6 alkane caused more inhibition than both C3 and C11 alkane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was more tolerant to some of the tested chemicals than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, particularly ethanol and undecane. Stoichiometric evaluation of the potential yields suggested that there is no difference in the potential productivity of harvestable energy between any of the studied fuels, with the exception of ethylene, for which maximal stoichiometric yield is considerably lower. In summary, it was concluded that alkanes would constitute the best choice metabolic end-product for fuel production using cyanobacteria if high-yielding strains can be developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  19. Production of microbiological fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyeris, S

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of programs developed in different countries for increasing production of alcohol by fermenting substrates for use in the pure form or in a mixture with gasoline (gasoline alcohol) as liquid fuel for transportation vehicles. Direct conversion of cellulose into alcohol using bacteria excluding hydrolytic processes for production of sugars (substrates for yeast and bacteria Zymomonas) is important. This conversion is done by thermophilic bacteria Clostridium thermocellum with growth temperature 60-65/sup 0/C. It is established that with joint growth of these bacteria with bacteria Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, there is a considerable acceleration in the process of cellulose conversion to ethanol and decrease in the number of other products of fermentation (acetyl cellulose and hydrogen) formed with the use of the indicated cultures separately. Under corresponding conditions almost any organic compound (sugar, starch, protein) contained in the straw, natural polymers, wastewater, etc. by fermentation can be converted into methane. The methane produced by the method of fermentation can be used for daily needs or be added to natural gas. In the region of London, Tuyknem, anaerobic units generate a quantity of biogas sufficient to generate electricity needed to guarantee operation of the unit for purifying wastewater and pumping stations supplying the wastewater. Under conditions of sanitary dumps (United States) spontaneous formation of methane occurs. The methane is lifted through drilled wells upwards and can be transmitted on pipes. In recent years extensive study and modeling have begun of the process of fermentation of solid wastes.

  20. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  1. Performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed methanol/ethanol solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongyao, N. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, Thung Khru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Therdthianwong, A., E-mail: apichai.the@kmutt.ac.t [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research and Engineering Center, Clean Energy System Group, PDTI, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, Thung Khru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Therdthianwong, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, Thung Khru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We examined the performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol. {yields} PtRu-PtSn/C and PtRu/C as catalysts for mixed alcohol electrooxidation reaction. {yields} Misplace adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C caused the cell performance drop. {yields} PtRu/C showed higher performance than PtRu-PtSn/C for mixed alcohol fuel. -- Abstract: In combining the advantages of both methanol and ethanol, direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol solutions (1 M methanol and 1 M ethanol in varying volume ratios) were tested for performance. Employing a PtRu-PtSn/C catalyst as anode, cell performance was found to diminish rapidly even at 2.5% by volume ethanol mixture. Further increase of ethanol exceeded 10%, the cell performance gradually decreased and finally approached that of direct ethanol fuel cells. The causes of the decrease in the cell performance were the slow electro-oxidation of ethanol and the misplaced adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C. By comparing the PtRu-PtSn/C cell with the PtRu/C cell operated with mixed alcohol solutions, the cell using PtRu/C as an anode catalyst provided higher power density since more PtRu/C surface was available for methanol oxidation reaction and less ohmic resistance of PtRu/C than that of PtRu-PtSn/C. In order to reach optimization of DAFC performance fed with mixed alcohol, the electrocatalyst used for the anode must selectively adsorb an alcohol, especially ethanol.

  2. Performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed methanol/ethanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongyao, N.; Therdthianwong, A.; Therdthianwong, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We examined the performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol. → PtRu-PtSn/C and PtRu/C as catalysts for mixed alcohol electrooxidation reaction. → Misplace adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C caused the cell performance drop. → PtRu/C showed higher performance than PtRu-PtSn/C for mixed alcohol fuel. -- Abstract: In combining the advantages of both methanol and ethanol, direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol solutions (1 M methanol and 1 M ethanol in varying volume ratios) were tested for performance. Employing a PtRu-PtSn/C catalyst as anode, cell performance was found to diminish rapidly even at 2.5% by volume ethanol mixture. Further increase of ethanol exceeded 10%, the cell performance gradually decreased and finally approached that of direct ethanol fuel cells. The causes of the decrease in the cell performance were the slow electro-oxidation of ethanol and the misplaced adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C. By comparing the PtRu-PtSn/C cell with the PtRu/C cell operated with mixed alcohol solutions, the cell using PtRu/C as an anode catalyst provided higher power density since more PtRu/C surface was available for methanol oxidation reaction and less ohmic resistance of PtRu/C than that of PtRu-PtSn/C. In order to reach optimization of DAFC performance fed with mixed alcohol, the electrocatalyst used for the anode must selectively adsorb an alcohol, especially ethanol.

  3. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  4. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C(sub 2) to C(sub 5+)) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline

  5. Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable oil fuels have not been acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for Diesel engines. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, but some engine performance problems still exist. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Pyrolysis produces more biogasoline than biodiesel fuel. Soap pyrolysis products of vegetable oils can be used as alternative Diesel engine fuel. Methyl and ethyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The main factors affecting transesterification are the molar ratio of glycerides to alcohol, catalyst, reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time and the contents of free fatty acids and water in oils. The commonly accepted molar ratios of alcohol to glycerides are 6:1-30:1

  6. Potential and limitations of biomass production for energy purposes: Vegetable oils compared with alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.S.; Rosa, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Since Brazil has favourable conditions for biomass production, as regards land mass, soil and climate, several agricultural products have been proposed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. An analysis is made of the potential and limitations of energy systems using biomass production aimed at the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines compared with the experience acquired in Brazil with alcohol fuel in Otto engines. The current status of the national programme for alcohol production (PNA) within the framework of Brazilian agriculture in the last few years is presented, taking into account its objectives, achievements and impacts. Regarding vegetable oils, it must be emphasized that freight and mass passenger transport is being researched in every aspect - from the agricultural production of oleaginous plants to the use of oils in diesel engines. To assess the potential of oleaginous plant production, land needs for the years 1990 and 2000 have been estimated. From the study of some selected oleaginous plants and their potential expansion in a realistic way it was concluded that the viability of this alternative to diesel oil is limited in the short and medium term compared with alcohol, which provides better conditions for great expansion in the short term. It is believed that the option is viable, provided that it is launched gradually to avoid repeating the negative impacts that (according to some experts) were generated by PNA. (author)

  7. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance. It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance.

  8. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  9. Ozone applied to the homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to control alcohol fuels combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masurier, J.-B.; Foucher, F.; Dayma, G.; Dagaut, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ozone was useful to control combustion phasing of alcohol fuels in HCCI engine. • Ozone helps to improve the combustion and advance its phasing. • Butanol is more impacted by ozone than methanol and ethanol. • HCCI combustion parameters may be controlled by managing ozone concentration. • Kinetics demonstrates that alcohol fuels are initially oxidized by O-atoms. - Abstract: The present investigation examines the impact of seeding the intake of an HCCI engine with ozone, one of the most oxidizing chemical species, on the combustion of three alcohol fuels: methanol, ethanol and n-butanol. The research was performed through engine experiments and constant volume computations. The results showed that increasing the ozone concentration led to an improvement in combustion coupled with a combustion advance. It was also observed, by comparing the results for each fuel selected, that n-butanol is the most impacted by ozone seeding and methanol the least. Further analyses of the experimental results showed that the alcohol fuel combustion can be controlled with ozone, which presents an interesting potential. Finally, computation results confirmed the experimental results observed. They also showed that in presence of ozone, alcohol fuels are not initially oxidized by molecular oxygen but by O-atoms coming from the ozone decomposition.

  10. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas.

  11. The potential role of alcohol fuels in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, S.J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 have increased from 280 to 350 mg/l over the past two hundred years. One of the principal causes has been the increased reliance on combustion of fossil fuels to generate energy. Higher CO 2 levels have been historically correlated with warming of the earth. While attempts have been made to quantify and model the relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and global climate changes, the state of the current knowledge base is such that large uncertainties persist. It is precisely these uncertainties which has evoked justifiable concern among the scientific community. The use of biomass fuels such as alcohols can provide a partial solution to the problem of increasing emissions of CO 2 . Combustion of biomass fuels releases carbon previously sequestered from the atmosphere during growth. There is a cycling of carbon, with net additions to the atmosphere resulting only from losses, or the use of fossil fuels for process energy. Alcohol fuels can make their biggest impact in the transportation sector, which, in industrial nations, contributes up to 32% of CO 2 emissions. While not the complete answer, alcohol fuels can make a significant impact, and will no doubt be one factor in a multidimensional approach to reducing CO 2 emissions. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Contribution to the microeconomics of fuel alcohol from agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the economic viability of renewable resources presumes that at first micro- and macroeconomic aspects have been analysed. For this purpose the paper deals from a microeconomic point of view with one aspect that is the economics of supply of fuel alcohol. For those crops, which are currently of interest, the costs of production and conversion and the revenues from by-products are investigated. As the results suggest, the economics of supply are mostly affected by the following facts: at the crop production stage: output per unit of area, production management, utilization of crop by-products; at the plant stage: plant design, use of plant capacity, scale effects; at the stage of waste disposal: type of crop, type of processing, utilization. The partial economic analysis indicates that the minimum prices of ethanol are in the range from 1.06 to 1.38 DM per litre. This is higher than the prices of fossil fuel and ethylene. In the long run the competitiveness of renewable resources will depend on the change in price relations between agricultural raw materials and fossil energy, substitution possibilities and on the rate of technical progress. But already now another assessment of the competitiveness of renewable resources might be possible if the overall economic efficient use of renewable resources has been investigated.

  13. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  14. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa J. Leo; Miguel A. Raso; Emilio Navarro; Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent opera...

  15. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  16. A novel membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Yang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Membrane-less fuel cell possesses such advantages as simplified design and lower cost. In this paper, a membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) supported Pd and ternary PdSnNi composites as the anode catalysts and Fe/C-PANI composite, produced by direct pyrolysis of Fe-doped polyaniline precursor, as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The alcohols investigated in the present study are methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol and sec-butanol. The cathode catalyst Fe/C-PANI is electrochemically inactive to oxidation of the alcohols. The performance of the cell with various alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH solution on either Pd/MWCNT or PdSnNi/MWCNT catalyst has been evaluated. In any case, the performance of the cell using the anode catalyst PdSnNi/MWCNT is considerably better than Pd/MWCNT. For the PdSnNi/MWCNT, the maximum power densities of the cell using methanol (0.5 mol L-1), ethanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), iso-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-butanol (0.2 mol L-1), iso-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) and sec-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) are 0.34, 1.03, 1.07, 0.44, 0.50, 0.31 and 0.15 mW cm-2, respectively.

  17. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  18. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  19. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jingnan [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Brigham, Christopher J.; Gai, Claudia S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sinskey, Anthony J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Health Sciences and Technology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Engineering Systems Div.

    2012-10-15

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis. (orig.)

  20. Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of terpene mixture enriched in caryophyllene and caryophyllene alcohol as potential aviation fuel compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol. Furthermore, a marine microalgae hydrolysate was used as the sole carbon source for the production of caryophyllene and other terpene compounds. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, 360 mg/L of total terpene, 322 mg/L of sesquiterpene, and 75 mg/L caryophyllene were obtained from the pretreated algae hydrolysates. The highest yields achieved on the biomass basis were 48 mg total terpene/g algae and 10 mg caryophyllene/g algae and the caryophyllene yield is approximately ten times higher than that from plant tissues by solvent extraction. The study provides a sustainable alternative for production of caryophyllene and its alcohol from microalgae biomass as potential candidates for next generation aviation fuels. Keywords: Caryophyllene, Caryolan-1-ol, Caryophyllene synthase, Caryolan-1-ol synthase, Mevalonate pathway, Bioproduct

  1. Renewable fuels - a growing future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackledge, C.

    1997-01-01

    The production of ethanol fuels, industrial alcohol, vodka, and gasoline additives from barley and corn by Commercial Alcohols and Alberta Bioclean is reported. The reformulated gasoline market, the reduced emission with ethanol fuels, plans for a new alcohol plant, sale of byproduct high protein animal feed and carbon dioxide, and the encouragement offered by the Canadian government are discussed. (UK)

  2. Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Jet Fuel-Like Product Lignocellulose corn stover forest waste switchgrass sugarcane Fermentation Genetically Engineered Microbes Jet...Fuel-Like Product Bio-Crude Pyrolysis Dehydration Hydroprocessing Synthetic Biology Pyrolysis Alcohol Oligomerization Conventional

  3. A broad model for demand forecasting of gasoline and fuel alcohol; Um modelo abrangente para a projecao das demandas de gasolina e alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonfiglio, Antonio [PETROBRAS, Paulinia, SP (Brazil). Dept. Industrial; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1992-12-31

    Formulating a broad, mixed: econometric/end-use, demand forecasting model for gasoline and fuel alcohol is the main objective of this work. In the model, the gasoline and hydrated alcohol demands are calculated as the corresponding products if their fleet by the average car mileage, divided by the average specific mileage. Several simulations with the proposed forecasting model are carried out, within the context of alternative scenarios for the development of these competing fuels in the Brazilian market. (author) 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, J W; Irick, D K [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  5. Present crisis and the future of alcohol programs in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    After the oil shortages of the 1970s, an intensive program to enhance the use of alcohol as an automotive fuel substitute was instigated in Brazil. This program was successfully developed during the 1980s decade, to the extent that 90% of the demand for new automobiles has been carried by alcohol cars. Since 1989 the paradox of a current gasoline surplus and alcohol shortage has caused the sales of alcohol cars to plummet. The technical solutions presented by the authors for the alcohol crisis include changing the relative pricing of fuels and vehicles, reaching an equilibrium between fuel demand and production, and obtaining a recovery of alcohol credibility. Together, these factors may help improve sales of the alcohol-fueled car

  6. Feedback controlled fuel injection system can accommodate any alcohol-gasoline blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pefley, R K; Pullman, J B; Suga, T P; Espinola, S

    1980-01-01

    A fuel metering system has been adapted and permits operation on all blends of alcohols and gasoline ranging from pure gasoline to pure ethanol and methanol. It is a closed loop electronic feedback controlled fuel injection system (EFI) with exhaust oxygen sensor. The system is used by Toyota Motor Company in their Supra and Cressida models in conjunction with a 3-way catalytic exhaust system. These models meet California exhaust and evaporative emission standards. An unmodified model has been tested on alcohol gasoline blends from pure gasoline to 50% ethanol-50% gasoline and 30% methanol-70% gasoline and found to meet all exhaust and evaporative emissions standards. A Cressida with modified EFI system is currently being tested. It is capable of operating on pure gasoline, pure methanol or ethanol and all intermediate blends. The testing to date shows that the vehicle meets all exhaust emissions standards while operating over the blend range from pure gasoline to pure ethanol while maintaining driveability and energy based fuel economy. The paper will present the total test evidence for all gasoline-alcohol blends. This will include exhaust and evaporative emissions, fuel economy and driveability as determined in accordance with United States Federal Test Procedures. Additionally, the paper will report experiences accumulated from road operation of the vehicle over a six-month period.

  7. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  8. New, innovative and sustainable transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassi, U. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: ulla.lassi@oulu.fi; Keiski, R. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)); Kordas, K. (Univ. of Oulu, Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories (Finland)); Mikkola, J.-P. (Aabo Akademi Univ., Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Turku (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Secondary products from the industry - e.g. by-products of food and paper/pulp industry - can be used to manufacture new liquid biofuels or fuel components. A particularly interesting alternative is provided by butanol, which can be produced from biomass, since it seems to be most suitable for replacing petrol as fuel in gasoline engines. Besides, it is very energy efficient and also suitable to be produced on an industrial scale. Production of biobutanol and other higher alcohols is studied in the research project 'New, innovative sustainable transportation fuels for mobile applications; from biocomponents to flexible liquid fuels (SusFuFlex)'. The project is carried out as a joint project between the University of Oulu and Aabo Akademi University. It is financied by the Academy of Finland in 2008-2011, within the research programme for Sustainable Energy. Research focuses on the production of higher bioalcohols and other compounds suitable as oxygenates (e.g. butanol, pentanol, mixed alcohols; e.g. glycerine ethers, glycerol carbonate). The objectives of the research are (1) to evaluate the old and novel procedures for microbiological production of butanol, higher alcohols and oxygenates as fossil fuel substitutes, (2) to develop and optimize catalytic materials and chemical reaction routes for the production of higher alcohols and other bio-derived compounds applicable as gasoline fuel and its additives, (3) to conduct a sustainability analysis of the processes to be developed, to analyze the atom economy of the new processes and to make a preliminary economical analysis, and (4) to integrate the processes and know-how developed by the research groups

  9. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  10. Exhaust emissions of low level blend alcohol fuels from two-stroke and four-stroke marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevik, James M., Jr.

    The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be produced on a yearly basis. Ethanol production is capped at 15 billion gallons, meaning 21 billion gallons must come from different alternative fuel sources. A viable alternative to reach the remainder of this mandate is iso-butanol. Unlike ethanol, iso-butanol does not phase separate when mixed with water, meaning it can be transported using traditional pipeline methods. Iso-butanol also has a lower oxygen content by mass, meaning it can displace more petroleum while maintaining the same oxygen concentration in the fuel blend. This research focused on studying the effects of low level alcohol fuels on marine engine emissions to assess the possibility of using iso-butanol as a replacement for ethanol. Three marine engines were used in this study, representing a wide range of what is currently in service in the United States. Two four-stroke engine and one two-stroke engine powered boats were tested in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, near Annapolis, Maryland over the course of two rounds of weeklong testing in May and September. The engines were tested using a standard test cycle and emissions were sampled using constant volume sampling techniques. Specific emissions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines were compared to the baseline indolene tests. Because of the nature of the field testing, limited engine parameters were recorded. Therefore, the engine parameters analyzed aside from emissions were the operating relative air-to-fuel ratio and engine speed. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the four-stroke engines were consistent, when analyzing a single round of testing. The same trends were not consistent when comparing separate rounds because of uncontrolled weather conditions and because the four-stroke engines operate without fuel control feedback during full load conditions. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each

  11. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  12. Synthesis of fuels and feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Andrew D.; Brooks, Ty; Jenkins, Rhodri; Moore, Cameron; Staples, Orion

    2017-10-10

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a method for making fuels and feedstocks from readily available alcohol starting materials. In some embodiments, the method concerns converting alcohols to carbonyl-containing compounds and then condensing such carbonyl-containing compounds together to form oligomerized species. These oligomerized species can then be reduced using by-products from the conversion of the alcohol. In some embodiments, the method further comprises converting saturated, oligomerized, carbonyl-containing compounds to aliphatic fuels.

  13. Mixtures of methanol and 2-propanol as a potential fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LJ. GOJKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of methanol, 2-propanol, and their mixtures was investigated on a Pt/C thin film electrode in acid solution. It was confirmed that the oxidation of 2-propanol commences at less positive potentials than that of methanol and exhibits significantly higher oxidation current densities at low potentials. When both methanol and 2-propanol were present in the solution, the onset of the oxidation current was the same as for the oxidation of pure 2-propanol. Although both alcohols inhibit the oxidation reaction of each other to a certain extent, steady-state polarization measurements showed that their mixture provides higher current densities than single alcohols over the entire potential region from the hydrogen region to oxide formation on the Pt surface. This implies that the addition of 2-propanol into the fuel may extend the operational range of direct methanol fuel cells.

  14. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  15. JP-8 and Other Military Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation Jet Fuel-Like Product sugarcane Alcohol Oligomerization Conventional Refinery ProcessesSugar switchgrass Dehydration Pyrolysis Fermentation...PolymerizationOlefins Lignocellulose corn stover forest waste Jet Fuel-Like ProductBio-CrudePyrolysis Hydroprocessing Unclassified Back Up Slides

  16. Efficient solar-to-fuels production from a hybrid microbial-water-splitting catalyst system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P; Gagliardi, Christopher J; Chen, Janice S; Bediako, D Kwabena; Colón, Brendan; Way, Jeffery C; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-02-24

    Photovoltaic cells have considerable potential to satisfy future renewable-energy needs, but efficient and scalable methods of storing the intermittent electricity they produce are required for the large-scale implementation of solar energy. Current solar-to-fuels storage cycles based on water splitting produce hydrogen and oxygen, which are attractive fuels in principle but confront practical limitations from the current energy infrastructure that is based on liquid fuels. In this work, we report the development of a scalable, integrated bioelectrochemical system in which the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is used to efficiently convert CO2, along with H2 and O2 produced from water splitting, into biomass and fusel alcohols. Water-splitting catalysis was performed using catalysts that are made of earth-abundant metals and enable low overpotential water splitting. In this integrated setup, equivalent solar-to-biomass yields of up to 3.2% of the thermodynamic maximum exceed that of most terrestrial plants. Moreover, engineering of R. eutropha enabled production of the fusel alcohol isopropanol at up to 216 mg/L, the highest bioelectrochemical fuel yield yet reported by >300%. This work demonstrates that catalysts of biotic and abiotic origin can be interfaced to achieve challenging chemical energy-to-fuels transformations.

  17. Efficient solar-to-fuels production from a hybrid microbial–water-splitting catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P.; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Chen, Janice S.; Bediako, D. Kwabena; Colón, Brendan; Way, Jeffery C.; Silver, Pamela A.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells have considerable potential to satisfy future renewable-energy needs, but efficient and scalable methods of storing the intermittent electricity they produce are required for the large-scale implementation of solar energy. Current solar-to-fuels storage cycles based on water splitting produce hydrogen and oxygen, which are attractive fuels in principle but confront practical limitations from the current energy infrastructure that is based on liquid fuels. In this work, we report the development of a scalable, integrated bioelectrochemical system in which the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is used to efficiently convert CO2, along with H2 and O2 produced from water splitting, into biomass and fusel alcohols. Water-splitting catalysis was performed using catalysts that are made of earth-abundant metals and enable low overpotential water splitting. In this integrated setup, equivalent solar-to-biomass yields of up to 3.2% of the thermodynamic maximum exceed that of most terrestrial plants. Moreover, engineering of R. eutropha enabled production of the fusel alcohol isopropanol at up to 216 mg/L, the highest bioelectrochemical fuel yield yet reported by >300%. This work demonstrates that catalysts of biotic and abiotic origin can be interfaced to achieve challenging chemical energy-to-fuels transformations. PMID:25675518

  18. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  19. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  20. Fuel cells: spectroscopic studies in the electrocatalysis of alcohol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasita Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern spectroscopic methods are useful for elucidating complex electrochemical mechanisms as those occurring during the oxidation of small organic molecules (CH3OH, HCOH, HCOOH. In the present paper it is shown the use of spectroscopic methods to study the oxidation of alcohols on platinum or Pt-based binary electrodes. These reactions are of importance in conexion with the development of anode systems for use in fuel cells. Mass spectrometry and FT infrared spectroscopy allow to establishing the reaction intermediates and products and the dependence of the amount of species on the applied potential. FTIR and scanning tunneling microscopy contribute to understand the effects of the surface structure on the rate of reaction. Examples are presented for methanol and ethanol oxidation at pure and modified Pt catalysts.

  1. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; De La Ree, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  2. Economic analyse of industrial production and electric energy consumption on a sugar-alcohol plant; Analise economica da producao industrial e do consumo de energia eletrica em uma usina sucro-alcooleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bini, Aderson

    1993-10-01

    Economic aspects of industrial production of sugar cane and automotive alcohol fuel, the relation between its production and electric energy consumption, electric energy costs to self generated electric power and concessionary supply, involved in plant production on Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, are presented. Studies to verify the relationships between sugar and alcohol production with milling ours as well as sugar cane processed with sugar and alcohol produced are also discussed 27 refs., 12 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Novel Strategies for the Production of Fuels, Lubricants, and Chemicals from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylesh, Sankaranarayanapillai; Gokhale, Amit A; Ho, Christopher R; Bell, Alexis T

    2017-10-17

    Growing concern with the environmental impact of CO 2 emissions produced by combustion of fuels derived from fossil-based carbon resources has stimulated the search for renewable sources of carbon. Much of this focus has been on the development of methods for producing transportation fuels, the major source of CO 2 emissions today, and to a lesser extent on the production of lubricants and chemicals. First-generation biofuels such as bioethanol, produced by the fermentation of sugar cane- or corn-based sugars, and biodiesel, produced by the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with alcohols to form a mixture of long-chain fatty esters, can be blended with traditional fuels in limited amounts and also arise in food versus fuel debates. Producing molecules that can be drop-in solutions for fossil-derived products used in the transportation sector allows for efficient use of the existing infrastructure and is therefore particularly interesting. In this context, the most viable source of renewable carbon is abundantly available lignocellulosic biomass, a complex mixture of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. Conversion of the carbohydrate portion of biomass (hemicellulose and cellulose) to fuels requires considerable chemical restructuring of the component sugars in order to achieve the energy density and combustion properties required for transportation fuels-gasoline, diesel, and jet. A different set of constraints must be met for the conversion of biomass-sourced sugars to lubricants and chemicals. This Account describes strategies developed by us to utilize aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furfurals, and carboxylic acids derived from C 5 and C 6 sugars, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation mixtures, and various biomass-derived carboxylic acids and fatty acids to produce fuels, lubricants, and chemicals. Oxygen removal from these synthons is achieved by dehydration, decarboxylation, hydrogenolysis, and hydrodeoxygenation, whereas reactions such as

  4. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  6. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  7. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... studies are very important and required and will be prepared by competent and knowledgeable independent...

  8. Ethanol Fuels Reference Guide: A Decision-Makers Guide to Ethanol Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    This guide is a compendium of information on alcohol fuel production and use. Chapter titles are: facts about ethanol; gasohol-answers to the basic questions; feedstocks and their coproducts; ethanol production processes; and vehicle fuel use and performance. In addition, there are 8 appendices which include fermentation guides for common grains and potatoes, component and enzyme manufacturers, and information on regulations and permits. (DMC)

  9. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  10. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  11. Preliminary evaluation of supply decentralization of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, C.O.C. da.

    1990-03-01

    Energy policy in Brazil has been made in a centralized way. The total transportation costs for liquid fuel were calculated the local production of an alternative fuel was examined. It was concluded that locally produced alcohol, although is not competitive with diesel, can substitute, at this moment, the alcohol imported from other regions and approaches competitiveness with gasoline. (author)

  12. The safe operation zone of the spark ignition engine working with dual renewable supplemented fuels (hydrogen+ethyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission while increasing the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. An equation has been derived from experimental data to specify the least quantity of ethyl alcohol blended with gasoline and satisfying constant NOx emission when hydrogen is added. A chart limiting the safe operation zone of the engine fueled with dual renewable supplemented fuel, (hydrogen and ethyl alcohol) has been produced. The safe zone provides lower NOx and CO emission, lower s.f.c. and higher brake power compared to an equivalent gasoline engine. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  13. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  14. Utilization of agricultural raw material as an energy source - a case study on the alcohol industry in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabel, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Brazilian National Alcohol Programme (Proalcool) can well be considered the world's largest technical effort to replace petroleum with fuels from plant biomass: 11.5 billion liters of alcohol for fuel and industrial use were produced in the harvest of 1987/88. About 3.7 million of the 13 million Brazilian cars run on straight hydrous alcohol, the rest on gasohol (gasoline blend with up to 22% anhydrous alcohol). The following survey is focused on Sao Paulo State, which is responsible for 64% of Brazil's alcohol production (7.33 billion liters). In this state alcohol from sugarcane is produced in the largest (average 370.000 1/day) and technically most effective production units, at lowest production costs. This paper attempts to estimate via simulation the future productivity and cost of fuel alcohol, and evaluates its market position compared to energy of fossil origin. (author)

  15. Combinatorial investigation of Pt-Ru-Sn alloys as an anode electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Young Hwan [Department of New Energy.Resource Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Sangji University, 124, Sangjidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-Do 220-702 (Korea); Shul, Yong Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    Low-temperature direct alcohol fuel cells fed with different kinds of alcohol (methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol) have been investigated by employing ternary electrocatalysts (Pt-Ru-Sn) as anode catalysts. Combinatorial chemistry has been applied to screen the 66-PtRuSn-anode arrays at the same time to reduce cost, time, and effort when we select the optimum composition of electrocatalysts for DAFCs (Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells). PtRuSn (80:20:0) showed the lowest onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation, PtRuSn (50:0:50) for ethanol, and PtRuSn (20:70:10) for 2-propanol in CV results respectively, and single cell performance test indicated that Ru is more suitable for direct methanol fuel cell system, Sn for direct ethanol fuel cell system, and 2-propanol could be applied as fuel with low platinum composition anode electrocatalyst. The single cell performance results and electrochemical results (CV) were well matched with the combinatorial electrochemical results. As a result, we could verify the availability of combinatorial chemistry by comparing the results of each extreme electrocatalysts compositions as follows: PtRuSn (80:20:0) for methanol, PtRuSn (50:0:50) for ethanol and PtRuSn (20:70:10) for 2-propanol. (author)

  16. Brazil: good news for oil is bad news for alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    The impact of the doubling of oil prices and the devaluation of the Brazilian currency on the alcohol fuel programme is examined in this article, and the recent discovery by the Brazilian oil company, Petrobras, of a major new offshore oil field, the government's efforts to boost the consumption of alcohol fuel with subsidies and cheap loans, and the lower costs of running alcohol powered cars are discussed. Details of a major restructuring of the alcohol industry, the production of alcohol between 1994-1999, the boom in sugar exports, the glut of sugar cane, the falling confidence of motorists in alcohol powered cars, and the general move away from subsidies spearheaded by the World Trade Organisation are considered. (UK)

  17. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted.

  19. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  20. Distribution of motor-alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1996-10-01

    The study is made on the assumption that Sweden, as a first step, will substitute alcohol fuels for five percent of the gasoline and diesel consumption, i.e. 700-900,000 m 3 alcohol/year, and later increase the alcohol share. Alcohol will be mixed into all gasoline, and one new fuel quality (85 percent alcohol) will be introduced during a ten year period. The cost for adapting the distribution system to alcohol fuels, and for building new service stations etc are also estimated. 15 refs

  1. Engineering Brevibacterium flavum for the production of renewable bioenergy: C4-C5 advanced alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, HaiFeng; Lin, JiaFu; Wang, YuanHong; Chen, Qiao; Wang, GuangWei; Tan, FuRong

    2017-09-01

    Biosynthesis of advanced biofuels by engineered non-natural microorganisms has been proposed to be the most promising approach for the replacement of dwindling fossil fuel resources. Brevibacterium flavum (Bf) is a model brevibacterium aerobe which lacks basic and applied research that could enable this species to produce biofuels. There are no reports regarding engineering this microorganism to produce advanced alcohols before. Here, for the first time, we developed the bacterium as a novel biosynthetic platform for advanced alcohols production via the mutagenesis and engineering to produce 2-ketoacids derived alcohols. In order to enhance the strain's capability of producing advanced alcohols, we preferentially improved intrinsic metabolism ability of the strain to obtain improved expression host (IEH) via generating mutagenesis libraries by whole cell mutagenesis (WCM). The IEH was determined via screening out the mutant strain with the highest production of branched-chain organic acids (BCOA) using high throughput screening method.. Subsequently, a novel vector system for Bf was established, and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway of directing carbon flux into the target advanced alcohols was recruited to make the bacterium possess the capability of producing advanced alcohols and further enhance the production using the IEH. Specifically, we generated bioengineered strains that were able to synthesize up to the highest 5362 and 4976 mg/L isobutanol, 1945 and 1747 mg/L 2-methyl-1-butanol (2 MB), and 785.34 and 781 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol (3 MB) from pure glucose and duckweed substrates, respectively. Our findings confirmed the feasibility and potential of using Bf as a novel biosynthetic platform to generate advanced biofuels with glucose and inexpensive renewable feedstock-duckweed as a fermentation substrate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1946-1958. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  3. Electrochemical device for syngas and liquid fuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Robert J.; Becker, William L.; Penev, Michael

    2017-04-25

    The invention relates to methods for creating high value liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet and alcohols using carbon dioxide and water as the starting raw materials and a system for using the same. These methods combine a novel solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) for the efficient and clean conversion of carbon dioxide and water to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, uniquely integrated with a gas-to-liquid fuels producing method.

  4. The use of methanol as a fuel for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K E [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Walsh, M P [Arlington, VA (United States); Westerholm, R [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the project was to collect and report international experiences concerning the use of methanol as an automotive fuel. The method has been to study the literature which covers the subject and most of the information has been collected that way. The project started with a participation in a conference and a visit to people who have been involved in activities concerning the use of automotive alcohols. Car manufacturers, environmental authorities and users of alcohol fuels i.e. representatives of bus companies, were interviewed. The different applications for the use of methanol as an automotive fuel has been described in the report as well as the production of methanol. Some results, mostly in form of emission data and other experiences derived from the use of alcohol fuels, have also been presented. The use of ethanol and methanol has been compared and based on information from engine manufacturers and users of alcohol fueled vehicles there seems to be a preference for the use of ethanol. However, the question `methanol or ethanol` has not been answered as the decision which of the two is to be used seems to depend more on economic factors, such as cost of the production of the fuel etc., than on other factors. 165 refs, 15 figs, 14 tabs

  5. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  6. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  7. Alternative Fuels for use in DoD/Army Tactical Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    Jet Fuel-Like Product Lignocellulose corn stover forest waste switchgrass sugarcane Fermentation Genetically Engineered Microbes Jet Fuel-Like...Product Bio-CrudePyrolysis Dehydration Hydroprocessing Synthetic Biology Pyrolysis Alcohol Oligomerization Conventional Refinery ProcessesSugar

  8. Costs of electronuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

    1978-07-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding 233 U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg 233 U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U 3 O 8 (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound

  9. Adding fuel to the fire: alcohol's effect on the HIV epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Judith A; Woolf-King, Sarah E; Muyindike, Winnie

    2011-09-01

    Alcohol consumption adds fuel to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA has the highest prevalence of HIV infection and heavy episodic drinking in the world. Alcohol consumption is associated with behaviors such as unprotected sex and poor medication adherence, and biological factors such as increased susceptibility to infection, comorbid conditions, and infectiousness, which may synergistically increase HIV acquisition and onward transmission. Few interventions to decrease alcohol consumption and alcohol-related sexual risk behaviors have been developed or implemented in SSA, and few HIV or health policies or services in SSA address alcohol consumption. Structural interventions, such as regulating the availability, price, and advertising of alcohol, are challenging to implement due to the preponderance of homemade alcohol and beverage industry resistance. This article reviews the current knowledge on how alcohol impacts the HIV epidemic in SSA, summarizes current interventions and policies, and identifies areas for increased research and development.

  10. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J S [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  11. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.; Aakko, P. [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S.; Paanu, T. [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions

  12. Alcohols/Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuel: Properties of Blended Fuels and Evaluation of Practiacl Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N; Aakko, P [TEC Trans Energy Consulting Ltd (Finland); Niemi, S; Paanu, T [Turku Polytechnic (Finland); Berg, R [Befri Konsult (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Oxygenates blended into diesel fuel can serve at least two purposes. Components based on renewable feedstocks make it possible to introduce a renewable component into diesel fuel. Secondly, oxygenates blended into diesel fuel might help to reduce emissions. A number of different oxygenates have been considered as components for diesel fuel. These oxygenates include various alcohols, ethers, esters and carbonates. Of the oxygenates, ethanol is the most common and almost all practical experiences have been generated from the use of diesel/ethanol blends (E-diesel). Biodiesel was not included in this study. Adding ethanol to diesel will reduce cetane, and therefore, both cetane improver and lubricity additives might be needed. Diesel/ethanol emulsions obtained with emulsifiers or without additives are 'milky' mixtures. Micro-emulsions of ethanol and diesel can be obtained using additives containing surfactants or co-solvents. The microemulsions are chemically and thermodynamically stable, they are clear and bright blends, unlike the emulsions. Storage and handling regulations for fuels are based on the flash point. The problem with, e.g., ethanol into diesel is that ethanol lowers the flash point of the blend significantly even at low concentrations. Regarding safety, diesel-ethanol blends fall into the same category as gasoline. Higher alcohols are more suitable for diesel blending than ethanol. Currently, various standards and specifications set rather tight limits for diesel fuel composition and properties. It should be noted that, e.g., E-diesel does not fulfil any current diesel specification and it cannot, thus, be sold as general diesel fuel. Some blends have already received approvals for special applications. The critical factors of the potential commercial use of these blends include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also

  13. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) anion exchange membrane for fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available less than proton exchange membrane systems using alcohol as fuel. Many anion exchange membranes based on quaternised polymers have been developed and studied for AMFC3-5. The quaternary ammonium functional groups are the anion conductors...

  14. Improvement of performance and reduction of pollutant emissions of a four-stroke spark ignition engine fuelled with a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bagdhadi, M.A.-R.S. [University of Babylon (Iraq). College of Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Owing to the energy crisis and pollution problems of today, investigations have concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products by using non-petroleum, renewable, sustainable and non-polluting fuels. While conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal are non-renewable, hydrogen and alcohol can be coupled to renewable and sustainable energy sources. The usage of a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to an alcohol-air mixture for spark ignition engines results in a considerable improvement in engine performance and in the reduction of the toxic components in exhaust gases in comparison with the conventional spark ignition gasoline engine. In tests, the gas comprising 40 per cent H, and 60 per cent CH{sub 4} by volume was added to alcohol as 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 per cent by mass. Operating test results for a range of compression ratio (CR) and equivalent ratio are presented. Gasoline fuel was used as a basis for comparison. The important improvement in methane addition reduced the specific fuel consumption (s.f.c.) and CO emission of alcohol engines. The performance of the engine is enhanced when relatively small amounts of hydrogen are present with methane. This improvement in performance, which is especially pronounced at operational equivalence ratios that are much leaner than the stoichiometric value, can be attributed largely to the faster and cleaner burning characteristics of hydrogen in comparison with methane or alcohol. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen decreases the s.f.c. of the engine. The possibility of an engine power quality adjustment has also been studied. (author)

  15. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  16. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  17. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  18. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  19. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  20. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  1. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols.

  4. Analysis of the structure of a product line of alcoholic beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agalarova, C.; Askadullina, A.; Tilburg, van A.

    2012-01-01

    AB This article deals with marketing decisions on the optimal product line of alcoholic beverages manufactured under the brand name «Praskoveyskoe». KEY WORDS Product line, turnover analysis, ABC-analysis, production of alcoholic beverages, policy to optimize a product line INTRODUCTION A product

  5. Direct alcohol fuel cells: toward the power densities of hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxin; Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Fornasiero, Paolo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish A; Wang, Lianqin; Vizza, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    A 2 μm thick layer of TiO2 nanotube arrays was prepared on the surface of the Ti fibers of a nonwoven web electrode. After it was doped with Pd nanoparticles (1.5 mgPd  cm(-2) ), this anode was employed in a direct alcohol fuel cell. Peak power densities of 210, 170, and 160 mW cm(-2) at 80 °C were produced if the cell was fed with 10 wt % aqueous solutions of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, respectively, in 2 M aqueous KOH. The Pd loading of the anode was increased to 6 mg cm(-2) by combining four single electrodes to produce a maximum peak power density with ethanol at 80 °C of 335 mW cm(-2) . Such high power densities result from a combination of the open 3 D structure of the anode electrode and the high electrochemically active surface area of the Pd catalyst, which promote very fast kinetics for alcohol electro-oxidation. The peak power and current densities obtained with ethanol at 80 °C approach the output of H2 -fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  7. Biodiesel production via non-catalytic SCF method and biodiesel fuel characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    Vegetable oil (m)ethyl esters, commonly referred to as 'biodiesel,' are prominent candidates as alternative Diesel fuels. Biodiesel is technically competitive with or offers technical advantages compared to conventional petroleum Diesel fuel. The vegetable oils, as alternative engine fuels, are all extremely viscous with viscosities ranging from 10 to 20 times greater than that of petroleum Diesel fuel. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Transesterifications of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are performed without using any catalyst. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and the reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the main obstacle to commercialization of the product. With cooking oils used as raw material, the viability of a continuous transesterification process and recovery of high quality glycerol as a biodiesel by product are primary options to be considered to lower the cost of biodiesel. Supercritical methanol has a high potential for both transesterification of triglycerides and methyl esterification of free fatty acids to methyl esters for a Diesel fuel substitute. In the supercritical methanol transesterification method, the yield of conversion increases to 95% in 10 min. The viscosity values of vegetable oils are between 27.2 and 53.6 mm 2 /s, whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters are between 3.59 and 4.63 mm 2 /s. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are much lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885 kg/m 3 for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63 mm 2 /s. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any Diesel engine without modification

  8. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Oleson, Kathryn C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

    2017-01-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive—albeit less important—behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles—non-procrastinators, academic productive procrastinators, non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators, and classic procrastinators. Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:28804158

  9. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Erin C; Wormington, Stephanie V; Oleson, Kathryn C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-03-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive-albeit less important-behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles- non-procrastinators , academic productive procrastinators , non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators , and classic procrastinators . Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.

  10. Utilization of Microalgal Biofractions for Bioethanol, Higher Alcohols, and Biodiesel Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. El-Dalatony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a crucial energy resource used for the generation of electricity and transportation fuels. Microalgae exhibit a high content of biocomponents which makes them a potential feedstock for the generation of ecofriendly biofuels. Biofuels derived from microalgae are suitable carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. Fermentation is the major process for metabolic conversion of microalgal biocompounds into biofuels such as bioethanol and higher alcohols. In this review, we explored the use of all three major biocomponents of microalgal biomass including carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids for maximum biofuel generation. Application of several pretreatment methods for enhancement the bioavailability of substrates (simple sugar, amino acid, and fatty acid was discussed. This review goes one step further to discuss how to direct these biocomponents for the generation of various biofuels (bioethanol, higher alcohol, and biodiesel through fermentation and transesterification processes. Such an approach would result in the maximum utilization of biomasses for economically feasible biofuel production.

  11. Fuel-sodium reaction product formation in breached mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, S.

    1988-01-01

    The run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) operation of mixed-oxide LMR fuel pins has been studied for six years in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as part of a joint program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The formation of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP), Na 3 MO 4 , where M = U/sub 1-y/Pu/sub y/, in the outer fuel regions is the major phenomenon governing RBCB behavior. It increases fuel volume, decreases fuel stoichiometry, modifies fission-product distributions, and alters thermal performance of a pin. This paper describes the morphology of Na 3 MO 4 observed in 5.84-mm diameter pins covering a variety of conditions and RBCB times up to 150 EFPD's. 8 refs., 1 fig

  12. Fuel cells: spectroscopic studies in the electrocatalysis of alcohol oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasita Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Modern spectroscopic methods are useful for elucidating complex electrochemical mechanisms as those occurring during the oxidation of small organic molecules (CH3OH, HCOH, HCOOH). In the present paper it is shown the use of spectroscopic methods to study the oxidation of alcohols on platinum or Pt-based binary electrodes. These reactions are of importance in conexion with the development of anode systems for use in fuel cells. Mass spectrometry and FT infrared spectroscopy allow to establishi...

  13. Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid-based C5 alcohols in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin W.; Thompson, Mitchell G.; Kang, Aram; Baidoo, Edward; Wang, George; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Adams, Paul D.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Soon Lee, Taek

    2015-01-01

    Branched five carbon (C5) alcohols are attractive targets for microbial production due to their desirable fuel properties and importance as platform chemicals. In this study, we engineered a heterologous isoprenoid pathway in E. coli for the high-yield production of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, three C5 alcohols that serve as potential biofuels. We first constructed a pathway for 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, where metabolite profiling identified NudB, a promiscuous phosphatase, as a likely pathway bottleneck. We achieved a 60% increase in the yield of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol by engineering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of nudB, which increased protein levels by 9-fold and reduced isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) accumulation by 4-fold. To further optimize the pathway, we adjusted mevalonate kinase (MK) expression and investigated MK enzymes from alternative microbes such as Methanosarcina mazei. Next, we expressed a fusion protein of IPP isomerase and the phosphatase (Idi1~NudB) along with a reductase (NemA) to diversify production to 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Finally, we used an oleyl alcohol overlay to improve alcohol recovery, achieving final titers of 2.23 g/L of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (~70% of pathway-dependent theoretical yield), 150 mg/L of 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 300 mg/L of 3-methyl-1-butanol. PMID:26052683

  14. Carbon composites with metal nanoparticles for Alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrapragada, Lakshman; Siddhardha, R. S.; Podilla, Ramakrishna; Muthukumar, V. S.; Creager, Stephen; Rao, A. M.; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2015-03-01

    Graphene due to its high surface area and superior conductivity has attracted wide attention from both industrial and scientific communities. We chose graphene as a substrate for metal nanoparticle deposition for fuel cell applications. There are many chemical routes for fabrication of metal-graphene composites, but they have an inherent disadvantage of low performance due to the usage of surfactants, that adsorb on their surface. Here we present a design for one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles and simultaneous deposition on graphene with laser ablation of gold strip and functionalized graphene. In this process there are two natural advantages, the nanoparticles are synthesized without any surfactants, therefore they are pristine and subsequent impregnation on graphene is linker free. These materials are well characterized with electron microscopy to find their morphology and spectroscopic techniques like Raman, UV-Vis. for functionality. This gold nanoparticle decorated graphene composite has been tested for its electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols for alkaline fuel cell applications. An electrode made of this composite showed good stability for more than 200 cycles of operation and reported a low onset potential of 100 mV more negative, an important factor for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  16. Study of alcohol fuel of butanol and ethanol effect on the compression ignition (CI) engine performance, combustion and emission characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. A.; Yusop, A. F.; Mat Yasin, M. H.; Hamidi, M. A.; Alias, A.; Hussin, H.; Hamri, S.

    2017-10-01

    Diesel engine which is one of the larger contributors to total consumption for petroleum is an attractive power unit used widely in many fields. However, diesel engines are among the main contributors to air pollutions for the large amount of emissions, such as CO, CO2 and NOx lead to an adverse effect on human health. Many researches have been done to find alternative fuels that are clean and efficient. Biodiesel is preferred as an alternative source for diesel engine which produces lower emission of pollutants. This study has focused on the evaluation of diesel and alcohol-diesel fuel properties and also the performance, combustion and exhaust emission from diesel engine fuelled with diesel and alcohol. Butanol and ethanol is blend with diesel fuel at 1:9 ratio. There are three test fuel that is tested which Diesel (100% diesel), D90BU10 (10% Butanol and 90% diesel) and D90E10 (10% Ethanol and 90% diesel). The comparison between diesel and alcohol-diesel blend has been made in terms of fuel properties characterization, engine performance such as brake power (BP) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) also the in cylinder maximum pressure characteristic. Thus, exhaust gas emission of CO, CO2, NOx and O2 emission also has been observed at constant load of 50% but in different operating engine speed (1100 rpm, 1400 rpm, 1700 rpm, 2000 rpm and 2300 rpm). The results show the addition of 10% of each butanol and ethanol to diesel fuel had decreased the fuel density about 0.3% to 0.5% compared to mineral diesel. In addition, viscosity and energy content are also decrease. The addition of 10% butanol had improved the fuel cetane number however the ethanol blends react differently. In term of engine performance, as the engine speed increased, BP output also increase respectively. Hence, the alcohol blends fuel generates lower BP compared to diesel, plus BSFC for all test fuel shows decreasing trend at low and medium speed, however increased gradually at higher engine

  17. Fuel morphology effects on fission product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations for the observed differences are offered that relate fuel morphology changes to the releases

  18. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  19. Fumed Silica Nanoparticles Incorporated in Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membrane for Enhanced Power Densities in Direct Alcohol Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite polymer membrane based on quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol/fumed silica (QPVA/FS was prepared via a quaternization process and solution casting method. The physico-chemical properties of the QPVA/FS membrane were investigated. Its high ionic conductivity was found to depend greatly on the concentration of fumed silica in the QPVA matrix. A maximum conductivity of 3.50 × 10−2 S/cm was obtained for QPVA/5%FS at 60 °C when it was doped with 6 M KOH. The permeabilities of methanol and ethanol were reduced with increasing fumed silica content. Cell voltage and peak power density were analyzed as functions of fumed silica concentration, temperature, methanol and ethanol concentrations. A maximum power density of 96.8 mW/cm2 was achieved with QPVA/5%FS electrolyte using 2 M methanol + 6 M KOH as fuel at 80 °C. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was obtained using the QPVA/5%FS electrolyte with 3 M ethanol + 5 M KOH as fuel. The resulting peak power densities are higher than the majority of published reports. The results confirm that QPVA/FS exhibits promise as a future polymeric electrolyte for use in direct alkaline alcoholic fuel cells.

  20. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  1. A case study of a sugar and alcohol plant: prospects for the production of alcohol and exceeding energy; Um estudo de caso de uma usina de acucar e alcool: perspectivas para a producao de alcool e energia excedente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cristhalmeman@gmail.com; Halmenan, Radames Juliano [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Michels, Roger Nabeyama [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Luzerna, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Brazil stands out in the world scene as the largest producer and exporter of sugar and the main producer of ethanol derived from sugar cane, which generates the bagasse used to produce electrical energy for the plant as well as for electricity companies. Energy products from sugar cane, such as ethanol and bagasse have contributed significantly to reduce the gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect by replacing fossil fuels, that is, gasoline and diesel. The research is defined as exploratory and descriptive, the data were obtained in June, 2009 in a sugar cane and alcohol plant located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was sought through direct interviews, to check what the prospects for the processing of sugar cane, alcohol production and generation of exceeding energy are. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to contextualize the current production of alcohol and electrical energy, with projections up to 2016. (author)

  2. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvel A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative

  3. Study of a Fuel Supply Pump with a Piezoelectric Effect for Microdirect Alcohol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hsiao-Kang; Wang, Jyun-Sheng; Cheng, Wei-Yang; Huang, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    A novel design for an ethanol injection system has been proposed, which consists of one pump chamber, two valves, and one central-vibrating piezoelectric device. The system uses a microdiaphragm pump with a piezoelectric device for microdirect alcohol fuel cells. The diameters of the pump chamber are 31 mm and 23 mm, and the depths of the chamber are 1 mm and 2 mm. When the piezoelectric device actuates for changing pump chamber volume, the valves will be opened/closed, and the ethanol will b...

  4. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  5. Dimension Health: Ignored in Alcohol Fuel Politics (PAC in Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García-Lozada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide debate about global warming of the atmosphere, and the recognition of the decisive contribution of fossil fuels to gas emissions that intensify this phenomenon, have allowed the resurgence of energy options such as biomass, with the goal of reducing carbon emissions and provide benefits to farmers. These suppositions, currently quite controversial, leave out considerations about potential impacts on ecosystems and public health, due to the emission of high-risk substances, such is the case when ethanol mixed with gasoline is burned. This article examines how Alcohol Fuel politics are surging in the country and the way that the public health dimension is contemplated in those politics; through the use of the “multiple streams” model proposed by Kingdon and a narrative method to understand the process as well as the context of political decisions.

  6. Carbery milk products in Ireland produces alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R

    1980-01-01

    A brief illustrated description is given of alcohol production by Carbery Milk Products Ltd., introduced in 1976 as an alternative to whey drying. The initial investment into the new alcohol factory was 1.6 million. The process includes whey ultrafiltration at a rate of 125,000 gallons/day, fermentation of the premeate in 6 fermentation tanks (total capacity 42,000 gallons) in batch operation, each requiring on average 6 hours; efficiency of lactose conversion to alcohol is 86% of the theoretical yield. After separation of the yeasts, the liquor is pasteurized and heated to the correct temperature for distillation which is carried out in a plant consisting of six 32-metre high cylinders incorporating rectification towers. The finished alcohol is stored under customs supervision in 3 storage tanks, each with a capacity of 125000 gallons. The waste products from the fermentation and distillation stages necessitated the installation of a purification plant for treating daily about 200000 gallons effluent with 9000 lb BOD, in addition to another plant handling 400 000 gallons with also 9000 lb BOD of normal dairy waste water.

  7. Profitability increase of alcohol distilleries by the rational use of sub-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, Adrianus C. van; Catunda, Paula F.C. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1994-12-31

    Industrial alcohol production in Brazil is based on fermentation of sugar cane juice. After concentration and distillation, azeotropic alcohol is obtained along with four side streams. The profitability of alcohol distilleries could be improved by a more rational use of side stream products. An alternative for improved energy production is to abandon alcohol fermentation and apply anaerobic digestion directly to vegetal energy source. In that case the useful energy production is much higher and can be obtained using much simpler equipment. More importantly, the source for energy production would no longer be restricted to sugar cane, but other crops, notably those produced in the drier hinterland of Northeast Brazil could also de used for this purpose. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Profitability increase of alcohol distilleries by the rational use of sub-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, Adrianus C. van; Catunda, Paula F.C. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1993-12-31

    Industrial alcohol production in Brazil is based on fermentation of sugar cane juice. After concentration and distillation, azeotropic alcohol is obtained along with four side streams. The profitability of alcohol distilleries could be improved by a more rational use of side stream products. An alternative for improved energy production is to abandon alcohol fermentation and apply anaerobic digestion directly to vegetal energy source. In that case the useful energy production is much higher and can be obtained using much simpler equipment. More importantly, the source for energy production would no longer be restricted to sugar cane, but other crops, notably those produced in the drier hinterland of Northeast Brazil could also de used for this purpose. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  10. Catalytic production of sugar alcohols (polyols) and their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R; Straetz, A; Vollheim, G

    1980-07-01

    The article surveys the numerous applications of the principal sugar alcohols sorbitol and xylitol and their world production in 1978. Nowadays, the industrial production of sugar alcohols is almost exclusively by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding sugars; thus sorbitol is manufactured by hydrogenation of D-glucose, xylitol by hydrogenation of xylose, and mannitol by hydrogenation of invert sugar or fructose. Some 80% of the world production of sugar alcohols are manufactured in batch suspension processes using Raney nickel catalysts. Apart from the Atlas Powder continuous suspension process employing nickel-carrier catalysts, continuous processes have recently been developed which use Raney nickel and prove more economical owing to the lower catalyst costs. Trickling processes with fixed catalyst continue to play a minor role. Available production capacity based on batch suspension processes can be expanded by process optimization and new catalyst developments. A newly developed special Raney nickel catalyst reduces the specific catalyst consumption by about 50%.

  11. Biodiesel production by direct esterification of fatty acids with propyl and butyl alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial A. Zaher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The expected depletion of natural petroleum resources in the near future and pollution of the environment due to excessive carbon dioxide emissions by fossil fuel and its adverse effect on global warming constitute two major problems facing the whole world. In view of these problems, much research work is now directed worldwide to find fuels alternative to those derived from petroleum which should be renewable and more environmentally friendly fuels. Biodiesel fuel which is a blend of fatty acid esters with alcohols is considered the most suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this scope of research work, a previous study (Soliman et al., 2013 has been made to explore the opportunity of utilizing the fatty acids that can be obtained from the waste of edible oil industry in Egypt to produce biodiesel fuel by direct esterification with methanol as well as ethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. This paper is a continuation of that work where two other alcohols of a chain length longer than ethanol have been used being propanol and butanol. The performance of a diesel engine running using a 50% blend of regular diesel fuel and each of the two biodiesels prepared was compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and the brake thermal efficiency at full engine loading were almost the same in all cases. This indicates that the produced fuel could be used as an efficient fuel substitute for diesel engines. By comparing the results of the present work to those reported in our previous work, it appeared that methanol which has the shortest carbon chain length is the most recommended in view of the brake thermal efficiency of a diesel engine at full loading.

  12. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the statutory requirement that the Commission make such determinations. Section 423(c) of the Tax...

  13. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells - Degradation and Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon

    for storage and distribution of hydrogen, it is more practical to use liquid alcohols as energy carriers for fuel cells. Among these, methanol is very attractive, as it can be obtained from a variety of renewable sources and has a relatively low reforming temperature for the production of hydrogen rich...... be stored in liquid alcohols such as methanol, which can be sources of hydrogen for fuel cell applications. In addition, fuel cells unlike other technologies can use a variety of other fuels that can provide a source of hydrogen, such as biogas, methane, butane, etc. More fuel flexibility combined....... On the other hand, CO and methanol-water vapor mixture degrade the fuel cell proportionally to the amounts in which they are tested. In this dissertation some of the mechanisms with which the impurities affect the fuel cell are discussed and interdependence among the effects is also studied. This showed...

  14. The electricity cogeneration in sugar mills and alcohol and the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés Delgado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Electric power in Cuba currently produces -in high proportion- plants employing fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuels and the negative influence on the environment by emissions of greenhouse gases, has indicated the need to develop other energy sources. Biomass sugarcane provides ample opportunities to produce this energy with positive economic and environmental results. The technological process for the production of sugar requires the use of mechanical energy, low power consumption compared to thermal energy requirements and their use at low pressures determine the possibility of implementing a cogeneration system of mechanical, thermal and electrical energy. The power consumption for the driving equipment of a factory is about 15-30 kw-kr / ton rod. The amount of electrical energy generated in a sugar cane factory is sufficient to meet their own needs, being able to obtain an additional amount for supply to the public network and meet the needs of other productions as is alcohol. Agricultural crop residues (RAC) and sugarcane bagasse and a liquid fuel: alcohol and gaseous fuel: different energy possibilities derived from the sugar industry reflected in the disposal of solid fuels such as is the biogas. The preparation of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from sugar and alcohol production avoids the use of fossil fuels such as gasoline and fuel oil and gas enables not be sent into the atmosphere that impact on the greenhouse effect. (full text)

  15. Novel Strategies for Production of Medium and High Chain Length Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Kuit, W.; Springer, J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation-derived ethanol is currently widely used as transport fuel, both as such or as a blending component in gasoline (Antoni et al. 2007; Mielenz 2001). However, longer chain alcohols have higher energy densities and are less soluble in water than ethanol, which are important advantages for

  16. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrero, Manuel Antonio Valdes; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Miranda, Evaristo Eduardo de

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized

  17. Behavior of fission products released from severely damaged fuel during the PBF severe fuel damage tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Hagrman, D.L.; Broughton, J.M.; Rest, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of fission product release behavior during the first two Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests are presented. Measured fission product release is compared with calculated release using temperature dependent release rate correlations and FASTGRASS analysis. The test results indicate that release from fuel of the high volatility fission products (Xe, Kr, I, Cs, and Te) is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature; namely fuel/fission product morphology, fuel and cladding oxidation state, extent of fuel liquefaction, and quench induced fuel shattering. Fission product transport from the test fuel through the sample system was strongly influenced by chemical effects. Holdup of I and Cs was affected by fission product chemistry, and transport time while Te release was primarily influenced by the extent of zircaloy oxidation. Analysis demonstrates that such integral test data can be used to confirm physical, chemical, and mechanistic models of fission product behavior for severe accident conditions

  18. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  19. Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily. Biodiesel fuels are attracting increasing attention worldwide as blending components or direct replacements for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel fuel typically comprises lower alkyl fatty acid (chain length C 14 -C 22 ), esters of short-chain alcohols, primarily, methanol or ethanol. Various methods have been reported for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsification, pyrolysis, and transesterification. Among these, transesterification is an attractive and widely accepted technique. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The most important variables affecting methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and the reaction temperature. Methanol is the commonly used alcohol in this process, due in part to its low cost. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages over other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. Biodiesel fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel fuel made from vegetable or animal fats; it can be used in any mixture with petrodiesel fuel, as it has very similar characteristics, but it has lower exhaust emissions. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petrodiesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future; it has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification

  20. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  1. Fuel gas production by anaerobic digestion of kelp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, R.A. (Dynatech R/D Co., Cambridge, MA); Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D.C.; Kispert, R.G.; Cooney, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of the experimental program was to explore the feasibility of the anaerobic digestion of kelp to produce methane. Experiments were carried out with freshly harvested U.S. East Coast kelp, Laminaria saccharina. The use for fuel conversion of the rapidly growing U.S. West Coast kelp, the so-called ''giant kelp,'' Macrocystis pyrifera, has been elsewhere. L. saccharina is similar to M. pyrifera in physical structure as well as chemical composition. Both are brown algae (phaeophyta) of the order Laminariales (kelp). Their principal products of photosynthesis are the sugar alcohol, mannitol, and the polysaccharide, laminarin. The cell walls are composed mostly of algin with some cellulose and fucoidin (a phycocolloid-like algin) and the brown color is due to fucoxanthin pigment. It was anticipated that all these constituents of kelp would be subject to anaerobic digestion. The digester operation, alkali pretreatment of kelp, and a comparison of kelp digestion with other substrates are discussed.

  2. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  3. Impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, C.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van den Berghe, S.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains a series of papers presented at SCK-CEN's workshop on the impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour. Contributing authors discuss different processes affecting the behaviour of fission products in different types of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, a number of papers discusses the behaviour of actinides and fission products released from spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste in geological disposal conditions

  4. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  5. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of determination. SUMMARY: Section 423(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, as amended (19 U.S.C...

  6. Materials and processes for solar fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    This book features different approaches to non-biochemical pathways for solar fuel production. This one-of-a-kind book addresses photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting for clean hydrogen production and CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuel through in-depth comprehensive contributions from a select blend of established and experienced authors from across the world. The commercial application of solar based systems, with particular emphasis on non-PV based devices have been discussed. This book intends to serve as a primary resource for a multidisciplinary audience including chemists, engineers and scientists providing a one-stop location for all aspects related to solar fuel production. The material is divided into three sections: Solar assisted water splitting to produce hydrogen; Solar assisted CO2 utilization to produce green fuels and Solar assisted electricity generation. The content strikes a balance between theory, material synthesis and application with the central theme being solar fuels.

  7. Production of bio-jet fuel from microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoraghy, Marian

    The increase in petroleum-based aviation fuel consumption, the decrease in petroleum resources, the fluctuation of the crude oil price, the increase in greenhouse gas emission and the need for energy security are motivating the development of an alternate jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel has to be a drop in fuel, technically and economically feasible, environmentally friendly, greener than jet fuel, produced locally and low gallon per Btu. Bic jet fuel has been produced by blending petro-based jet fuel with microalgae biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, or simply FAME). Indoor microalgae growth, lipids extraction and transetrification to biodiesel are energy and fresh water intensive and time consuming. In addition, the quality of the biodiesel product and the physical properties of the bio-jet fuel blends are unknown. This work addressed these challenges. Minimizing the energy requirements and making microalgae growth process greener were accomplished by replacing fluorescent lights with light emitting diodes (LEDs). Reducing fresh water footprint in algae growth was accomplished by waste water use. Microalgae biodiesel production time was reduced using the one-step (in-situ transestrification) process. Yields up to 56.82 mg FAME/g dry algae were obtained. Predicted physical properties of in-situ FAME satisfied European and American standards confirming its quality. Lipid triggering by nitrogen deprivation was accomplished in order to increase the FAME production. Bio-jet fuel freezing points and heating values were measured for different jet fuel to biodiesel blend ratios.

  8. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE...

  9. Corrosion products study of alcohol by Mossbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, R.; Gil de Larre, M.

    1995-01-01

    Simulated corrosion essays in alcohol is presented and corrosion products of storage tanks (CAPASA) were analyzed. The analysis by Mossbauer absortion and transmission spectroscopy shows the formation of hematite substratum in the rust of the storage tanks of carburetant and burning alcohol. In the sample of corrosion with strong rum shows the formation of lepidocrocite and with destilled water besides of lepidocrocite, magnetite (Fe3 O4) is detected

  10. Water for energy and fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Yatish T

    2014-01-01

    Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy-hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water's use as a direct source of energy and fuel-such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways-but also: Describes water's benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water's role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst-as well as steam's role as a reactant-for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feed...

  11. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  12. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  13. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  14. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  15. Performance study of a four-stroke spark ignition engine working with both of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol as supplementary fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, M.A.-R.S. [Babylon Univ. (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-10-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NO{sub x} emission with increase in the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. The addition of 8 mass% of hydrogen, with 30 vol% of ethyl alcohol into a gasoline engine operating at 9 compression ratio and 1500 rpm causes a 48.5% reduction in CO emission, 31.1% reduction in NO{sub x} emission and 58.5% reduction in specific fuel consumption. Moreover, the engine thermal efficiency and output power increased by 10.1 and 4.72%, respectively. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both the break power and efficiency. (Author)

  16. BNFL pushes fuel production into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, Mark.

    1992-01-01

    When the New Oxide Fuels Complex (NOFC) begins commercial production in May 1995, its operators will have one of the world's most advanced fuel production facilities, designed to compete on international markets by using the latest technology and exploiting economies of scale. British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL's) multi-million pound investment in its Springfields fuel operation is a bold move, aimed at gaining a greater share of the oxide fuel business worldwide. The complex is designed to achieve fuel cost savings and increase the site's manufacturing capacity. The building itself will bring all current fuel production operations at Springfields under one roof, merging five plants into one. Automation will ensure further economies through the use of automated guided vehicles (AGVs) for product transfer, walking beam furnaces for pellet sintering and on-line inspection and handling of pellets and pins. The use of a binderless route for AGR (advanced gas-cooled reactor) fuel means much of the manufacturing process for both AGR and PWR (pressurised water reactor) fuels will proceed on a single line, thereby reducing the fixed costs of both fuels. Two other features which contribute to cost savings are production flexibility which allows both non-irradiated and oxide reprocessed materials to follow the same route and longer kilns which increase the throughput. It is estimated that overall NOFC will reduce fuel manufacturing costs by some 40%. (author)

  17. Production process and quality control for the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimuta, S.; Suzuki, N.; Kaneko, M.; Fukuda, K.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the production and inspection technology for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) fuel has been carried out by cooperative work between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd (NFI). The performance and the quality level of the developed fuel are well established to meet the design requirements of the HTTR. For the commercial scale production of the fuel, statistical quality control and quality assurance must be carefully considered in order to assure the safety of the HTTR. It is also important to produce the fuel under well controlled process condition. To meet these requirements in the production of the HTTR fuel, a new production process and quality control system is to be introduced in the new facilities. The main feature of the system is a computer integrated control system. Process control data at each production stage of products and semi-products are all gathered by terminal computers and processed by a host computer. The processed information is effectively used for the production, quality and accountancy control. With the aid of this system, all the products will be easily traceable from starting materials to final stages and the statistical evaluation of the quality of products becomes more reliable. (author). 8 figs

  18. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  19. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  20. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10 6 y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (β-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products

  1. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  2. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  3. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  4. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  5. Improving the electrocatalytic properties of Pd-based catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells: effect of solid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cuilian; Wei, Ying; Tang, Dian; Sa, Baisheng; Zhang, Teng; Chen, Changxin

    2017-07-07

    The tolerance of the electrode against the CO species absorbed upon the surface presents the biggest dilemma of the alcohol fuel cells. Here we report for the first time that the inclusion of (Zr, Ce)O 2 solid solution as the supporting material can significantly improve the anti-CO-poisoning as well as the activity of Pd/C catalyst for ethylene glycol electro-oxidation in KOH medium. In particular, the physical origin of the improved electrocatalytic properties has been unraveled by first principle calculations. The 3D stereoscopic Pd cluster on the surface of (Zr, Ce)O 2 solid solution leads to weaker Pd-C bonding and smaller CO desorption driving force. These results support that the Pd/ZrO 2 -CeO 2 /C composite catalyst could be used as a promising effective candidate for direct alcohol fuel cells application.

  6. Preparation of Biofuel Using Acetylatation of Jojoba Fatty Alcohols and Assessment as a Blend Component in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of biodiesel fuels are produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification of oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In this study, a new class of biofuel is explored by acetylation of fatty alcohols from Jojoba oil. Recently, we reported Jojoba oil methyl este...

  7. Product Conversion: The Link between Separations and Fuel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, L.K.; Vedder, R.J.; Walker, E.A.; Collins, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Several chemical processing flowsheets are under development for the separation and isolation of the actinide, lanthanide, and fission product streams in spent nuclear fuel. The conversion of these product streams to solid forms, typically oxides, is desired for waste disposition and recycle of product fractions back into transmutation fuels or targets. The modified direct denitration (MDD) process developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980's offers significant advantages for the conversion of the spent fuel products to powder form suitable for direct fabrication into recycle fuels. A glove-box-contained MDD system and a fume-hood-contained system have been assembled at ORNL for the purposes of testing the co-conversion of uranium and mixed-actinide products. The current activities are focused on the conversion of the first products from the processing of spent nuclear fuel in the Coupled End-to-End Demonstration currently being conducted at ORNL. (authors)

  8. An Electricity-Alcohol Transportation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, David [Inst. for Local Self-Reliance, Minneapolis (United States)

    2006-07-15

    In the United States, a dual fuel system may be emerging as a consensus strategy for a rapid transition to an oil free transportation system. The energy source for the vehicles will be a combination of electricity and alcohols. The technology will be a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle whose batteries can be charged from the national grid system, and a backup flexible fueled engine, primarily fueled by alcohols.

  9. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed

  10. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  12. An Evaluation of a Fission Product Inventory for CANDU Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jong Yeob; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Fission products are released by two processes when a single channel accident occurs. One is a 'prompt release' and the other is a 'delayed release'. Prompt release assumes that the gap inventory of the fuel elements is released by a fuel element failure at the time of an accident. Delayed release assumes that the inventories within the grain or at the grain boundary are released after a accident due to a diffusion through grains, an oxidation of the fuel and an interaction between the fuel and the Zircaloy sheath. Therefore, the calculation of a fission product inventory and its distribution in a fuel during a normal operating is the starting point for the assessment of a fission product release for single channel accidents. In this report, the fission product inventories and their distributions within s fuel under a normal operating condition are evaluated for three types of CANDU fuels such as the 37 element fuel, CANFLEX-NU and CANFLEX-RU fuel bundles in the 'limiting channel'. To accomplish the above mentioned purposes, the basic power histories for each type of CANDU fuel were produced and the fission product inventories were calculated by using the ELESTRES code

  13. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-07

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical development of alcohol for fuel. Inspection and breeding of superior bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Heat- and alcohol-resistant bacteria for alcoholic fermentation were separated from the soils in Japan and abroad and the performance was evaluated to develop superior bacteria for ethanol fermentation. The superior bacteria pertinent to alcoholic fermentation were bred by domestication, variation treatment, cell fusion and gene manipulation. The productivity of ethanol was increased by controlling pH of thermophilic, aerobic cellulase and culturing the mixture of added nutrients. CMC ase and Beta-glucosidase genes, the component enzymes of cellulase, were successfully developed by Zymomonas sp. A promotor selecting vector of Zymomonas was produced for developing xylolase gene to acquire an active promotor.

  15. The alcohol program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Jose R.; Goldemberg, Jose

    1999-01-01

    The rationale for the launching of the Alcohol Program from sugarcane in Brazil in the mid-1970s is described as an answer to the first ''oil crisis'' as well as a solution to the problem of the fluctuating sugar prices in the international market. The technical characteristics of ethanol as a fuel are given as well as a discussion of the evolution of the cost of production, environmental and social consequences. Regarding costs, ethanol production was close to 100 dollars a barrel in the initial stages of the Program in 1980 falling rapidly due to economies of scale and technological progress to half that value in 1990, followed by a slower decline in recent years. Considering the hard currency saved by avoiding oil importation through the significant displacement of gasoline by ethanol and the decrease in the amount of external debt that the displaced oil importation was able to provide it is possible to demonstrate that the Alcohol Program has been an efficient way of exchanging dollar debt by national currency subsidies which are paid by the liquid fossil fuel users. Even with this economic gains for society, the continuity of the Program is difficult to maintain. Two solutions to this problem are discussed: internal expansion of the use of ethanol and exports to industrialized countries where it could be used as an octane enhancer. The main attractiveness of the Program - the reduction of CO 2 emissions as compared to fossil fuels - is stressed, mainly as a solution for industrialized countries to fulfill their commitments with the United Nations Framework Climate Change Convention. (Author)

  16. On Cherenkov light production by irradiated nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branger, E.; Grape, S.; Svärd, S. Jacobsson; Jansson, P.; Sundén, E. Andersson

    2017-01-01

    Safeguards verification of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage is frequently done by measuring the Cherenkov light in the surrounding water produced due to radioactive decays of fission products in the fuel. This paper accounts for the physical processes behind the Cherenkov light production caused by a single fuel rod in wet storage, and simulations are presented that investigate to what extent various properties of the rod affect the Cherenkov light production. The results show that the fuel properties have a noticeable effect on the Cherenkov light production, and thus that the prediction models for Cherenkov light production which are used in the safeguards verifications could potentially be improved by considering these properties. It is concluded that the dominating source of the Cherenkov light is gamma-ray interactions with electrons in the surrounding water. Electrons created from beta decay may also exit the fuel and produce Cherenkov light, and e.g. Y-90 was identified as a possible contributor to significant levels of the measurable Cherenkov light in long-cooled fuel. The results also show that the cylindrical, elongated fuel rod geometry results in a non-isotropic Cherenkov light production, and the light component parallel to the rod's axis exhibits a dependence on gamma-ray energy that differs from the total intensity, which is of importance since the typical safeguards measurement situation observes the vertical light component. It is also concluded that the radial distributions of the radiation sources in a fuel rod will affect the Cherenkov light production.

  17. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  18. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  19. Bio-fuels production and the environmental indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de Paula [Mechanical Engineering Department/Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro - PUC-Rio, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, Gavea, CEP 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Muylaert de Araujo, Maria Silvia [Energy and Environment Planning Program/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, sala 211, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21945-970, Caixa Postal: 68501, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The paper evaluates the role of the bio-fuels production in the transportation sector in the world, for programs of greenhouse gases emissions reductions and sustainable environmental performance. Depending on the methodology used to account for the local pollutant emissions and the global greenhouse gases emissions during the production and consumption of both the fossil and bio-fuels, the results can show huge differences. If it is taken into account a life cycle inventory approach to compare the different fuel sources, these results can present controversies. A comparison study involving the American oil diesel and soybean diesel developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presents CO{sub 2} emissions for the bio-diesel which are almost 20% of the emissions for the oil diesel: 136 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the bio-diesel from soybean and 633 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the oil diesel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Besides that, important local environmental impacts can also make a big difference. The water consumption in the soybean production is much larger in comparison with the water consumption for the diesel production [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Brazil has an important role to play in this scenario because of its large experience in bio-fuels production since the seventies, and the country has conditions to produce bio-fuels for attending great part of the world demand in a sustainable pathway. (author)

  20. Fission product induced swelling of U–Mo alloy fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured fuel swelling of U–Mo alloy by fission products at temperatures below 250 °C. ► We quantified the swelling portion of U–Mo by fission gas bubbles. ► We developed an empirical model as a function of fission density. - Abstract: Fuel swelling of U–Mo alloy was modeled using the measured data from samples irradiated up to a fission density of ∼7 × 10 27 fissions/m 3 at temperatures below ∼250 °C. The overall fuel swelling was measured from U–Mo foils with as-fabricated thickness of 250 μm. Volume fractions occupied by fission gas bubbles were measured and fuel swelling caused by the fission gas bubbles was quantified. The portion of fuel swelling by solid fission products including solid and liquid fission products as well as fission gas atoms not enclosed in the fission gas bubbles is estimated by subtracting the portion of fuel swelling by gas bubbles from the overall fuel swelling. Empirical correlations for overall fuel swelling, swelling by gas bubbles, and swelling by solid fission products were obtained in terms of fission density.

  1. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  2. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification

  3. Brazilian Alcohol Program (Proalcool): economic re-evaluation and demand adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da; Rocha Ferreira, L. da

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the economic impact on the Brazilian National Alcohol Programme caused by changes in the energy scenery, in view of recent oil price fall in the international market, and evaluate the necessary adjustments of the Programme according to the new Brazilian economic reality. The economic analysis concludes that the alcohol production, considering current production capacity and its investments, could be economically feasible at international oil prices near US$ 30.00. Excluding investments, its feasibility would be between US$ 18.00 and US$ 20.00 per equivalent oil barrel. Based on these conclusions, proposals for adjusting the PROALCOOL are discussed, including alternative pricing, fiscal and credit policies to control the alcohol-fuel demand. (author)

  4. Radioactive characteristics of spent fuels and reprocessing products in thorium fueled alternative cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuru

    1978-09-01

    In order to provide one fundamental material for the evaluation of Th cycle, compositions of the spent fuels were calculated with the ORIGEN code on following fuel cycles: (1) PWR fueled with Th- enriched U, (2) PWR fueled with Th-denatured U, (3) CANDU fueled with Th-enriched U and (4) HTGR fueled with Th-enriched U. Using these data, product specifications on radioactivity for their reprocessing were calculated, based on a criterion that radioactivities due to foreign elements do not exceed those inherent in nuclear fuel elements, due to 232 U in bred U or 228 Th in recovered Th, respectively. Conclusions are as the following: (1) Because of very high contents of 232 U and 228 Th in the Th cycle fuels from water moderated reactors, especially from PWR, required decontamination factors for their reprocessing will be smaller by a factor of 10 3 to 10 4 , compared with those from U-Pu fueled LWR cycle. (2) These less stringent product specifications on the radioactivity of bred U and recovered Th will justify introduction of some low decontaminating process, with additional advantage of increased proliferation resistance. (3) Decontamination factors required for HTGR fuel will be 10 to 30 times higher than for the other fuels, because of less 232 U and 228 Th generation, and higher burn-up in the fuel. (author)

  5. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  6. Tailoring the key fuel properties using different alcohols (C2–C6) and their evaluation in gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum, B.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Palash, S.M.; Wakil, M.A.; Imtenan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized C 2 –C 6 alcohols–gasoline blends achieved better properties than E15. • Optimum blends improved torque and reduced BSFC than that of E15 fuel. • Higher peak in-cylinder pressure obtained for alcohol gasoline blends. • Compared to E15, optimum blends reduced BSCO, BSHC and BSNOx emission. - Abstract: The use of ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel. Higher carbon number alcohols, such as propanol, butanol, pentanol and hexanol also have the potential to use as alternatives as they have higher energy content, octane number and can displace more petroleum gasoline than that of ethanol. Therefore, this study focuses on improvement of different physicochemical properties using multiple alcohols at different ratios compared to that of the ethanol–gasoline blend (E10/E15). To optimize the properties of multiple alcohol–gasoline blends, properties of each fuel were measured. An optimization tool of Microsoft Excel “Solver” was used to find out the optimum blend. Three optimum blends with maximum heating value (MaxH), maximum research octane number (MaxR) and maximum petroleum displacement (MaxD) are selected for testing in a four cylinder gasoline engine. Tests were conducted under the wide open throttle condition with varying speeds and compared results with that of E15 (Ethanol 15% with gasoline 85%) as well as gasoline. Optimized blends have shown higher brake torque than gasoline. In the terms of BSFC (Brake specific fuel consumption), optimized blends performed better than that of E15. In-cylinder pressure started to rise earlier for all alcohol–gasoline blends than gasoline. The peak in-cylinder pressure and peak heat release rate obtained higher for alcohol gasoline blend than that of gasoline. On the other hand, the use of optimized blends reduces BSCO (Brake specific carbon

  7. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Martinsen, Arnold Kyrre; Sandberg, Eiliv; Fladset, Per Olav; Kjerschow, Einar; Teslo, Einar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  8. Comparative TEA for Indirect Liquefaction Pathways to Distillate-Range Fuels via Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Gray, Michael; Dagle, Robert; Padmaperuma, Asanga; Gerber, Mark; Sahir, Asad; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Yanan

    2017-03-03

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates (derived either via thermochemical or biochemical conversion steps). The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates, followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. We show that the emerging pathways via oxygenated intermediates have the potential to be cost competitive with the conventional Fischer-Tropsch process. The evaluated pathways and the benchmark process generally exhibit similar fuel yields and carbon conversion efficiencies. The resulting minimum fuel selling prices are comparable to the benchmark at approximately $3.60 per gallon-gasoline equivalent, with potential for two new pathways to be more economically competitive. Additionally, the coproduct values can play an important role in the economics of the processes with oxygenated intermediates derived via syngas fermentation. Major cost drivers for the integrated processes are tied to achievable fuel yields and conversion efficiency of the intermediate steps, i.e., the production of oxygenates/alcohols from syngas and the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to hydrocarbon fuels.

  9. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  10. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  11. The brazilian alcohol program in the national energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Araujo, J.L.R.H. de

    1987-01-01

    The new national as well as international energy context demands revision of the Brazilian Alcohol Program. This revision should aim at the preservation of alcohol as an energy source while reducing subsidies. To this end a moratorium on new distilleries should be enforced till the middle of the next decade, accompanied by a policy focusing on cost reductions and improvements in productivity aimed at making alcohol competitive in the middle term, as well as a motor fuel policy which acts on demand and makes this moratorium viable while preserving the existing production structure. Concrete mechanisms to implement such a policy are proposed which segment the market for new vehicles and preserve the stability of alcohol and gasoline markets for existing vehicles. The effects of this policy were analyzed through simulation of 7 scenarios through the year 2005, which showed its feasibility; the continuation of the present policy, on the other hand, implies heavy additional subsidies. (author)

  12. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  13. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  14. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  15. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  16. Direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoqiang; Li, Qiong; Feng, Jiange; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Zuojun; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Mu, Xindong

    2014-01-01

    The direct α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols has emerged as a new green protocol to construct C-C bonds with H2 O as the sole byproduct. In this work, a very simple and convenient Pd/C catalytic system for the direct α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols in pure water is developed. Based on this catalytic system, aqueous mixtures of dilute acetone, 1-butanol, and ethanol (mimicking ABE fermentation products) can be directly transformed into C5 -C11 or longer-chain ketones and alcohols, which are precursors to fuels. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bio-fuel - millions to be invested despite great uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2005-01-01

    A directive passed by Brussels which directs Europe Union (EU) members to replace traditional fuels has created problems for many countries as they are not yet ready for bio-fuels. The directive counts with most euro-citizens no longer using pure petrol or diesel as of next year. Most refineries and petrol stations will have to sell a mixture of petrol and alcohol, or diesel and MERO. From 2007, bio-elements should comprise up to 5.75% of the energy content of diesel and petrol. The content of the bio-elements should be gradually increased to reach this figure - by the end of this year the required level will be 2%. For EU members, bio-fuels will create major problems and few advantages. Their share of car fuels will still be too low to have a major environmental effect or decrease dependency on oil imports. Reaching the prescribed percentage of bio-components in fuels will be expensive for the state. Exact figures are not yet available, but according to the National Program of Bio-Fuel Development this process will cost Slovakia over 500 mil Slovak crowns (Sk) (13.158 mil. Eur) in 2007 and by 2010 total state budget contributions will double. EC Directive 2003/30/EC creates business opportunities for certain business groups. But to benefit from this development they will have to act fast. In 2010, 29,000 ha. of maize and a greater acreage of grain will be needed for the production of the required volumes of bio-ethanol and so farmers have a chance to benefit from this situation. But farmers still do not have a clear view of what their cooperation with refineries will be like. In Slovakia, bio-alcohol will be produced from maize or grain. Its price is currently around 100 euro (4 000 Sk) per ton. To produce 1 ton of alcohol, 3 tons of grain are needed. A faster solution for Slovakia could be mixing diesel with MERO as in this area sufficient production capacity already exists, currently a part of production is exported to Germany, according to the head of Palma

  18. Development and perspective of promising energy plants for bioethanol production in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sin-Yie; Lin, Chien-Yih

    2009-01-01

    The global energy crisis and continual soaring prices of fossil fuels force people to seek the new and recycled alternative energy sources hard. Biodiesel oil as well as bioethanol fuel, as two new and clean fuels for environmental protection, have already been approved as substitutes for fuel or fuel additive. Some common bottlenecks for production of biodiesel crops have been found. However, developing bioethanol crops in Taiwan has many benefits. Four most promising alcohol crops in Taiwan, i.e., sweet potato, maize, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum have been discussed. Sweet sorghum can be strongly recommended as a key alcohol crop in Taiwan, because of its short growing period, low water requirement, large amount of biomass and alcohol produced, and greater income obtained from sweet sorghum cultivation. (author)

  19. The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, A. van; Cavalcanti, P.F.F. [Univ. of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Since the seventies Brazil maintains a large production program of alcohol from sugar cane. However, the conventional production process is not very efficient: only 40% of the chemical energy of the cane plant are converted into alcohol. On the other hand large amounts of residues are generated, which in many cases have an adverse impact on the environment. In this paper it is shown that what is perceived as a residue, is in fact a subproduct that can be transformed into useful products that can be used in the industrial or agricultural activities of distilleries and sugar mills or be commercialized, thus increasing the profitability of the companies and reducing the environmental impact of these industries. The most important subproducts are bagasse (the solid phase of the cane plant) and stillage (the waste water resulting from the distillation operation). One possibility for application of bagasse is combustion for electric energy generation, which has a potential of 1 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol. By applying anaerobic digestion to stillage, it is possible to generate methane which can be used for electric power generation in explosion motors with a potential of 0,5 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol. Thus there is a production potential of 1,5 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol from the subproducts generated at alcohol distilleries. These operations are already installed at full scale at some industries in Brazil and hold the promise not only to increase substantially the output of useful products, but also have the potential to reduce the environmental impact and can increase the profitability of the entreprises. At lab scale it was demonstrated that there are perspectives of an even larger increase of electric power production if anaerobic digestion of bagasse is applied. The application of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is a promising development for the near future to increase the useful energy output even further. The production potential of electric

  20. An Evaluation of the Use of Biomass as an Energy Source: The Brazilian Alcohol Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Leo da Rocha; Tourinho, Octavio A.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the prehmmaiy results of Brazil's Economic and Social Planmng lnst1tute's BIOMASS linear programming model with emphasis on three aspects: temporal and spatial crop mix patterns along the analysis horizon; evaluation of the social cost of alcohol fuel; and the impact of alcohol production on the balance of payments. Brazil's national alcohol programme (PROALCOOL) increases domestic costs but its impact on the balance of payments is positive and substantial.

  1. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  2. Selection and development of advanced nuclear fuel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, David L.; Miller, Richard S.; Arnsberger, Peter L.

    2004-01-01

    The highly competitive international marketplace requires a continuing product development commitment, short development cycle times and timely, on-target product development to assure customer satisfaction and continuing business. Westinghouse has maintained its leadership position within the nuclear fuel industry with continuous developments and improvements to fuel assembly materials and design. This paper presents a discussion of the processes used by Westinghouse in the selection and refinement of advanced concepts for deployment in the highly competitive US and international nuclear fuel fabrication marketplace. (author)

  3. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Macroalgae Cultivation for Fuel Production (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, D. A.; Hock, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    The potential of macroalgae as sources of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels is evaluated. A series of options for production of macroalgae feedstock is considered. Because of their high carbohydrate content, the fuel products for which macroalgae are most suitable are methane and ethanol. Fuel product costs were compared with projected fuel costs in the year 1995.

  4. Traditional technologies of fuels production for air-jet engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бойченко С. В.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available energy resources for various fuels, mainly for gas-turbine engines are presented in the given article. Traditional technologies for jet fuels production from nonrenewable raw materials, such as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil-shales and others are analyzed in details. Cause and effect relationship between production and use of such fuels and their impact on natural environment is defined. The timeliness and necessity for development of alternative technologies of aviation biofuels production are determined in the given article.

  5. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. The standard deviations of some TRISO layer characteristics were diminished while others have become more significant in the larger processing equipment. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products, as equipment was scaled, are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels meeting all fuel quality specifications. (author)

  6. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2017-07-04

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  7. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  8. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues.

  9. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  10. Study of poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium oxide composite polymer membranes and their application on alkaline direct alcohol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Chiu, Shwu-Jer; Lee, Kuo-Tong; Chien, Wen-Chen; Lin, Che-Tseng; Huang, Ching-An

    The novel poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium oxide (PVA/TiO 2) composite polymer membrane was prepared using a solution casting method. The characteristic properties of the PVA/TiO 2 composite polymer membrane were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a micro-Raman spectroscopy, a methanol permeability measurement and the AC impedance method. An alkaline direct alcohol (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) fuel cell (DAFC), consisting of an air cathode based on MnO 2/C inks, an anode based on PtRu (1:1) black and a PVA/TiO 2 composite polymer membrane, was assembled and examined for the first time. The results indicate that the alkaline DAFC comprised of a cheap, non-perfluorinated PVA/TiO 2 composite polymer membrane shows an improved electrochemical performances. The maximum power densities of alkaline DAFCs with 4 M KOH + 2 M CH 3OH, 2 M C 2H 5OH and 2 M isopropanol (IPA) solutions at room temperature and ambient air are 9.25, 8.00, and 5.45 mW cm -2, respectively. As a result, methanol shows the highest maximum power density among three alcohols. The PVA/TiO 2 composite polymer membrane with the permeability values in the order of 10 -7 to 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 is a potential candidate for use on alkaline DAFCs.

  11. Fission-product SiC reaction in HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, F.

    1981-01-01

    The primary barrier to release of fission product from any of the fuel types into the primary circuit of the HTGR are the coatings on the fuel particles. Both pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings are very effective in retaining fission gases under normal operating conditions. One of the possible performance limitations which has been observed in irradiation tests of TRISO fuel is chemical interaction of the SiC layer with fission products. This reaction reduces the thickness of the SiC layer in TRISO particles and can lead to release of fission products from the particles if the SiC layer is completely penetrated. The experimental section of this report describes the results of work at General Atomic concerning the reaction of fission products with silicon carbide. The discussion section describes data obtained by various laboratories and includes (1) a description of the fission products which have been found to react with SiC; (2) a description of the kinetics of silicon carbide thinning caused by fission product reaction during out-of-pile thermal gradient heating and the application of these kinetics to in-pile irradiation; and (3) a comparison of silicon carbide thinning in LEU and HEU fuels

  12. Alcohol production from pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Koffi, L. (Ministry of Scientific Research, Abidjan (CI). Ivorian Center of Technological Research); Han, Y.W. (USDA, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA (US))

    1990-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis were grown on pineapple waste and their alcohol production characteristics compared. The pineapple waste consisted of 19% cellulose, 22% hemi-cellulose, 5% lignin and 53% cell soluble matters but concentration of soluble sugars, which included 5.2% sucrose, 3.1% glucose and 3.4% fructose, was relatively low and pretreatment of the substrate was needed. Pretreatment of pineapple waste with cellulase and hemi-cellulase and then fermentation with S. cerevisiae or Z. mobilis produced about 8% ethanol from pineapple waste in 48 h. (author).

  13. Various oils and detergents enhance the microbial production of farnesol and related prenyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2008-09-01

    The object of this research was improvement of prenyl alcohol production with squalene synthase-deficient mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 64031. On screening of many kinds of additives, we found that oils and detergents significantly enhanced the extracellular production of prenyl alcohols. Soybean oil showed the most prominent effect among the additives tested. Its effect was accelerated by a high concentration of glucose in the medium. The combination of these cultivation conditions led to the production of more than 28 mg/l of farnesol in the soluble fraction of the broth. The addition of these compounds to the medium was an effective method for large-scale production of prenyl alcohols with microorganisms.

  14. Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, M.; Martin, D.W.; Carder, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols and gasoline (UTG96) blends. While lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in blends with gasoline, very little work has been done or reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol and pentanol). Comparisons of emissions and fuel characteristics between higher alcohol/gasoline blends and neat gasoline were made to determine the advantages and disadvantages of blending higher alcohols with gasoline. All tests were conducted on a single-cylinder Waukesha Cooperative Fuel Research engine operating at steady state conditions and stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Emissions test were conducted at the optimum spark timing-knock limiting compression ratio combination for the particular blend being tested. The cycle emission [mass per unit time (g/h)] of CO, CO 2 and organic matter hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) from the higher alcohol/gasoline blends were very similar to those from neat gasoline. Cycle emissions of NO x from the blends were higher than those from neat gasoline. However, for all the emissions species considered, the brake specific emissions (g/kW h) were significantly lower for the higher alcohol/gasoline blends than for neat gasoline. This was because the blends had greater resistance to knock and allowed higher compression ratios, which increased engine power output. The contribution of alcohols and aldehydes to the overall OMHCE emissions was found to be minimal. Cycle fuel consumption (g/h) of higher alcohol/gasoline blends was slightly higher than with neat gasoline due to the lower stoichiometric A/F ratios required by the blends. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (g/kW h) for the blends was significantly lower than that for neat gasoline. (Author)

  15. Influence of the fuel and dosage on the performance of double-compartment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Y; Fernandez-Marchante, C M; Lobato, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript focuses on the evaluation of the use of different types and dosages of fuels in the performance of double-compartment microbial fuel cell equipped with carbon felt electrodes and cationic membrane. Five types of fuels (ethanol, glycerol, acetate, propionate and fructose) have been tested for the same organic load (5,000 mg L(-1) measured as COD) and for one of them (acetate), the range of dosages between 500 and 20,000 mg L(-1) of COD was also studied. Results demonstrate that production of electricity depends strongly on the fuel used. Carboxylic acids are much more efficient than alcohols or fructose for the same organic load and within the range 500-5,000 mg L(-1) of acetate the production of electricity increases linearly with the amount of acetate fed but over these concentrations a change in the population composition may explain a worse performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Target-fueled nuclear reactor for medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Richard L.; Parma, Edward J.

    2017-06-27

    A small, low-enriched, passively safe, low-power nuclear reactor comprises a core of target and fuel pins that can be processed to produce the medical isotope .sup.99Mo and other fission product isotopes. The fuel for the reactor and the targets for the .sup.99Mo production are the same. The fuel can be low enriched uranium oxide, enriched to less than 20% .sup.235U. The reactor power level can be 1 to 2 MW. The reactor is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days.

  17. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  18. Several varieties of sugar sorghum and their possibilities for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, P W; Fernandez, P W

    1956-01-01

    To study the possibility of using sugar sorghum as a raw material for the production of industrial alcohol, 17 sugar-sorghum varieties from the USA were grown experimentally under field conditions in Uruguay. The best were White African, Honey (Texas) T.S. 21001, and Axtell, which yielded 35,300, 34,200, and 32,450 kg. of stems (1271), 1539, and 14211.100% alcohol)/ha., respectively. The quantity of alcohol/ha obtained from sugar sorghum is almost 3 times that obtained from corn.

  19. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thieng; Newman, Ian M

    2014-07-18

    Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas

  20. Three generation production biotechnology of biomass into bio-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    The great change of climate change, depletion of natural resources, and scarcity of fossil fuel in the whole world nowadays have witnessed a sense of urgency home and abroad among scales of researchers, development practitioners, and industrialists to search for completely brand new sustainable solutions in the area of biomass transforming into bio-fuels attributing to our duty-that is, it is our responsibility to take up this challenge to secure our energy in the near future with the help of sustainable approaches and technological advancements to produce greener fuel from nature organic sources or biomass which comes generally from organic natural matters such as trees, woods, manure, sewage sludge, grass cuttings, and timber waste with a source of huge green energy called bio-fuel. Biomass includes most of the biological materials, livings or dead bodies. This energy source is ripely used industrially, or domestically for rather many years, but the recent trend is on the production of green fuel with different advance processing systems in a greener. More sustainable method. Biomass is becoming a booming industry currently on account of its cheaper cost and abundant resources all around, making it fairly more effective for the sustainable use of the bio-energy. In the past few years, the world has witnessed a remarkable development in the bio-fuel production technology, and three generations of bio-fuel have already existed in our society. The combination of membrane technology with the existing process line can play a vital role for the production of green fuel in a sustainable manner. In this paper, the science and technology for sustainable bio-fuel production will be introduced in detail for a cleaner world.

  1. YqhD. A broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase with various applications in production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Laura R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2011-01-15

    The Escherichia coli NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase YqhD has contributed to a variety of metabolic engineering projects for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. As a scavenger of toxic aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, YqhD has reductase activity for a broad range of short-chain aldehydes, including butyraldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malondialdehyde, isobutyraldehyde, methylglyoxal, propanealdehyde, acrolein, furfural, glyoxal, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetol. This reductase activity has proven useful for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, such as isobutanol and 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol; additional capability exists for production of 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and allyl alcohol. A drawback of this reductase activity is the diversion of valuable NADPH away from biosynthesis. This YqhD-mediated NADPH depletion provides sufficient burden to contribute to growth inhibition by furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, inhibitory contaminants of biomass hydrolysate. The structure of YqhD has been characterized, with identification of a Zn atom in the active site. Directed engineering efforts have improved utilization of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and NADPH. Most recently, two independent projects have demonstrated regulation of yqhD by YqhC, where YqhC appears to function as an aldehyde sensor. (orig.)

  2. Cogeneration of electricity and organic chemicals using a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.; Ma, Z.; Bueb, H.; Drillet, J.-F.; Hagen, J.; Schmidt, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several unsaturated organic alcohols (allyl alcohol, propargyl alcohol, 2-butin-1,4-diol, 2- buten-1,4-diol) and acids (maleic acid, acrylic acid, crotonic acid, acetylendicarboxylic acid) were used as oxidants together with hydrogen as fuel in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The standard free enthalpies (Δ R G θ ) of the overall fuel cell reactions H 2 /oxidant were calculated to be negative and the equilibrium voltages of such systems are in the range of U 00 = 0.4-0.6 V. In this way, the cogeneration of electric energy and desired hydrogenated products in a fuel cell reactor is apparent. Nafion[reg] 117, as polymer electrolyte, and commercial gas diffusion electrodes (ETEK) with carbon supported Pt were used in a PEFC reactor. The aqueous solutions of unsaturated alcohols and organic acids (c = 1-2 mol dm -3 ) were pumped under ambient pressure through the cathode compartment of the cell whereas hydrogen was fed into the cell at p 0.15 MPa. The open circuit voltages were measured to be in the range of 0.1-0.25 V. Current densities up to 50 mA cm -2 and maximum power densities of around 1 mW cm -2 has been achieved in the case of allyl alcohol, 2-butene-1,4-diol and acrylic acid. HPLC analysis indicates that the double or triple bond in unsaturated alcohols and organic acids is selectively hydrogenated. In addition, the electrochemical behaviour of the alcohols and acids was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry at a smooth polycrystalline Pt electrode in H 2 SO 4 . Reduction reactions were observed at potentials of E < 200 mV versus RHE. It was found that the onset potential for electrochemical hydrogenation of the double and triple bond in the cyclic voltamogram correlates well with the fuel cell performances using these compounds as oxidants

  3. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  4. potential for liquid biofuel production in the southern african region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... There has been a sustained and growing interest in the production of liquid fuel from biomass in recent years. ... This work looks at the energy situation in South Africa and especially the liquid fuel sector and explores the ...... alcohol production.http://www.lowcvp.org.uk/assets/reports/HGCA%20RR61.

  5. Fission product release from fuel of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.; Marks, P.; Klisinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a review of theoretical models and experimental works of gaseous and volatile fission products from uranium dioxide fuel. The experimental results of activity release at low burnup and the model of fission gas behaviour at initial stage of fuel operational cycle are presented. Empirical models as well as measured results of transient fission products release rate in the temperature up to UO 2 melting point, with consideration of their chemical reactions with fuel and cladding, are collected. The theoretical and experimental data were used for calculations of gaseous and volatile fission products release, especially iodine and caesium, to the gas volume of WWER-1000 and WWER-440 type fuel rods at low and high burnup and their further release from defected rods at the assumed loss-of-coolant accident. (author)

  6. Are Alcohol Taxation and Pricing Policies Regressive? Product-Level Effects of a Specific Tax and a Minimum Unit Price for Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian; Sharma, Anurag

    2016-07-01

    To compare estimated effects of two policy alternatives, (i) a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol and (ii) specific (per-unit) taxation, upon current product prices, per capita spending (A$), and per capita consumption by income quintile, consumption quintile and product type. Estimation of baseline spending and consumption, and modelling policy-to-price and price-to-consumption effects of policy changes using scanner data from a panel of demographically representative Australian households that includes product-level details of their off-trade alcohol spending (n = 885; total observations = 12,505). Robustness checks include alternative price elasticities, tax rates, minimum price thresholds and tax pass-through rates. Current alcohol taxes and alternative taxation and pricing policies are not highly regressive. Any regressive effects are small and concentrated among heavy consumers. The lowest-income consumers currently spend a larger proportion of income (2.3%) on alcohol taxes than the highest-income consumers (0.3%), but the mean amount is small in magnitude [A$5.50 per week (95%CI: 5.18-5.88)]. Both a MUP and specific taxation will have some regressive effects, but the effects are limited, as they are greatest for the heaviest consumers, irrespective of income. Among the policy alternatives, a MUP is more effective in reducing consumption than specific taxation, especially for consumers in the lowest-income quintile: an estimated mean per capita reduction of 11.9 standard drinks per week (95%CI: 11.3-12.6). Policies that increase the cost of the cheapest alcohol can be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, without having highly regressive effects. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells with different solution conductivities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoskins, Daniel L.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Separators are used to protect cathodes from biofouling and to avoid electrode short-circuiting, but they can adversely affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. A spray method was used to apply a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) separator to the cathode. Power densities were unaffected by the PVA separator (339 ± 29 mW/m2), compared to a control lacking a separator in a low conductivity solution (1mS/cm) similar to wastewater. Power was reduced with separators in solutions typical of laboratory tests (7-13 mS/cm), compared to separatorless controls. The PVA separator produced more power in a separator assembly (SEA) configuration (444 ± 8 mW/m2) in the 1mS/cm solution, but power was reduced if a PVA or wipe separator was used in higher conductivity solutions with either Pt or activated carbon catalysts. Spray and cast PVA separators performed similarly, but the spray method is preferred as it was easier to apply and use.

  8. Commercial Aspect of Research Reactor Fuel Element Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G; Suripto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects affecting the commercialization of the Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (RR FEPI) under a BUMN (state-owned company)have been studied. The break event point (BEP) value based on total production cost used is greatly depending upon the unit selling price of the fuel element. At a selling price of USD 43,500/fuel element, the results of analysis shows that the BEP will be reached at 51% of minimum available capacity. At a selling price of US$ 43.500/fuel element the total income (after tax) for 7 years ahead is US $ 4.620.191,- The net present value in this study has a positive value is equal to US $ 2.827.527,- the internal rate of return will be 18% which is higher than normal the bank interest rare (in US dollar) at this time. It is concluded therefore that the nuclear research reactor fuel element produced by state-owned company BUMN has a good prospect to be sold commercially

  9. Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites

  10. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  11. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  12. Irradiated fuel by-product separation research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, M.

    1984-01-01

    Although no decision has been made to reprocess irradiated CANDU fuel, by-product separation research has recently been initiated in Canada because of its potential importance to Canadian research programs in advanced fuel cycles (especially U/Pu cycle development in the near term) and nuclear waste management. In addition, separated by-products could have a significant commercial potential. Demonstrated applications include: heat sources, gamma radiation sources, light sources, new materials for productions of other useful isotopes, etc. For illustrative purposes the calculated market value of by-products currently stored in irradiated CANDU fuel is approximately $210/kgU. Ontario Hydro has initiated a program to study the application of new separation technolgies, such as laser-based techniques and the plasma ion cyclotron resonance separation technique, to either augment and/or supplant the chemical extraction methods. The main goal is to develop new, more economical extraction methods in order to increase the magnitude of the advantages resulting from this approach to reprocessing. (author)

  13. Reducing Actinide Production Using Inert Matrix Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, Mark [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-23

    The environmental and geopolitical problems that surround nuclear power stem largely from the longlived transuranic isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and Pu that are contained in spent nuclear fuel. New methods for transmuting these elements into more benign forms are needed. Current research efforts focus largely on the development of fast burner reactors, because it has been shown that they could dramatically reduce the accumulation of transuranics. However, despite five decades of effort, fast reactors have yet to achieve industrial viability. A critical limitation to this, and other such strategies, is that they require a type of spent fuel reprocessing that can efficiently separate all of the transuranics from the fission products with which they are mixed. Unfortunately, the technology for doing this on an industrial scale is still in development. In this project, we explore a strategy for transmutation that can be deployed using existing, current generation reactors and reprocessing systems. We show that use of an inert matrix fuel to recycle transuranics in a conventional pressurized water reactor could reduce overall production of these materials by an amount that is similar to what is achievable using proposed fast reactor cycles. Furthermore, we show that these transuranic reductions can be achieved even if the fission products are carried into the inert matrix fuel along with the transuranics, bypassing the critical separations hurdle described above. The implications of these findings are significant, because they imply that inert matrix fuel could be made directly from the material streams produced by the commercially available PUREX process. Zirconium dioxide would be an ideal choice of inert matrix in this context because it is known to form a stable solid solution with both fission products and transuranics.

  14. Aliphatic alcohols of illegally produced spirits can act synergistically on superoxide-anion production by human granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnyas, Ervin M; Pál, László; Kovács, Csilla; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2012-10-01

    Aliphatic alcohols present in illegally produced spirits in a large number of low and middle income countries have been implicated in the etiology of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Previous studies have confirmed that chronic alcoholism can lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reduced superoxide-anion (O(2)·(-)) production by granulocytes could provide a mechanism by which antimicrobial defense is impaired in alcoholics. In vitro experiments have also demonstrated that ethanol can inhibit granulocyte O(2)·(-) generation. Aliphatic alcohols consumed as contaminants of illicit spirits may also influence O(2)·(-) production thereby contributing to a decrease in microbicidal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate this possibility. It measured the O(2)·(-) production by human granulocytes following treatment of the cells with aliphatic alcohol contaminants found in illicit spirits. Granulocytes were isolated from human buffy coats with centrifugal elutriation and then treated with individual aliphatic alcohols and their mixture. The O(2)·(-) production was stimulated with phorbol-12-13-dibutyrate and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and measured by superoxide dismutase inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. Aliphatic alcohols of illegally produced spirits inhibited the FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production in a concentration dependent manner. They suppressed O(2)·(-) generation at 2.5-40 times lower concentrations when combined than when tested individually. Aliphatic alcohols found in illegally produced spirits can inhibit FMLP-induced O(2)·(-) production by granulocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Due to their synergistic effects, it is possible that, in combination with ethanol, they may inhibit O(2)·(-) formation in heavy episodic drinkers.

  15. Recent advances on the production and utilization trends of bio-fuels: A global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, M.F.; Balat, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits for the environment, economy and consumers in using bio-fuels. Bio-oil can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Upgrading of bio-oil to a transportation fuel is technically feasible, but needs further development. Bio-fuels are made from biomass through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction or biochemical. Biochemical conversion of biomass is completed through alcoholic fermentation to produce liquid fuels and anaerobic digestion or fermentation, resulting in biogas. In wood derived pyrolysis oil, specific oxygenated compounds are present in relatively large amounts. Basically, the recovery of pure compounds from the complex bio-oil is technically feasible but probably economically unattractive because of the high costs for recovery of the chemical and its low concentration in the oil

  16. Fuel cycle related parametric study considering long lived actinide production, decay heat and fuel cycle performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Damian, F.; Lenain, R.; Lecomte, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the very attractive HTGR reactor characteristics is its highly versatile and flexible core that can fulfil a wide range of diverse fuel cycles. Based on a GTMHR-600 MWth reactor, analyses of several fuel cycles were carried out without taking into account common fuel particle performance limits (burnup, fast fluence, temperature). These values are, however, indicated in each case. Fuel derived from uranium, thorium and a wide variety of plutonium grades has been considered. Long-lived actinide production and total residual decay heat were evaluated for the various types of fuel. The results presented in this papers provide a comparison of the potential and limits of each fuel cycle and allow to define specific cycles offering lowest actinide production and residual heat associated with a long life cycle. (author)

  17. Investigation of emissions characteristics of secondary butyl alcohol-gasoline blends in a port fuel injection spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions especially from light duty gasoline engine are a major contributor to air pollution due to the large number of vehicles on the road. The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the exhaust pollutant emissions of a four-stroke port fuel spark ignition engines operating using secondary butyl alcohol–gasoline blends by percentage volume of 5% (GBu5, 10% (GBu10 and 15% (GBu15 of secondary butyl- alcohol (2-butanol additives in gasoline fuels at 50% of wide throttle open. The exhaust emissions characteristics of the engine using blended fuels was compared to the exhaust emissions of the engine with gasoline fuels (G100 as a reference fuels. Exhaust emissions analysis results show that all of the blended fuels produced lower CO by 8.6%, 11.6% and 24.8% for GBu5, GBu10 and GBu15 respectively from 2500 to 4000 RPM, while for HC, both GBu10 and GBu15 were lower than that G100 fuels at all engine speeds. In general, when the engine was operated using blended fuels, the engine produced lower CO and HC, but higher CO2.

  18. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  19. Polyol Synthesis of Cobalt–Copper Alloy Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Laiza V.P.; Snider, Jonathan L.; Fleischman, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Novel catalysts for the selective production of higher alcohols from syngas could offer improved pathways towards synthetic fuels and chemicals. Cobalt–copper alloy catalysts have shown promising results for this reaction. To improve control over particle properties, a liquid phase nanoparticle s...

  20. Nanotechnology Role for the Production of Clean Fuel E-85 and Petrochemical Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskander K. Basily

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of substantive technical changes that can be described as revolutionary process and evolutionary process. One of these approaches is the use of nanotechnology in the two-stage pyrolysis of petroleum residues of the heavy distillates separated from the Arabian crude oil. Two-stage catalytic pyrolysis technique proved to be an excellent method for the production of unsaturated hydrocarbons (which easily can be converted to alcohol, by addition of H2O, for the production of E-85, i.e., clean fuel regardless the type of feed stocks used. Basically, the catalysts are arranged into three large groups; amorphous and crystalline alumino-silicates, alkaline or alkaline earth alumino compounds, and different metal oxides on different catalyst carriers such as Zeolites. The high yield of ethylene (30–40% brought by different catalysts at temperatures of 700–750°C appear to justify the intensive research work in this field.

  1. Use of phyllosilicates in electrochemical devices: possible use of sepiolite as a support of catalysts in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra-Silva, J.; Silva, A.C.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.; Cerpa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Direct alcohol Fuel cells (DAFC) are interesting to use Brazil for reasons of fuel logistics and availability. The catalysts used in these devices to promote the oxidation of alcohol at the anode need to be fixed on a substrate which must provide high specific surface area, porosity, chemical and thermal resistance, this target can be achieved with the characteristics sepiolite. This paper proposes sepiolite as catalyst support for DAFC. Sepiolite is a phyllosilicate with double layered tetrahedral silicon cells and fibrillar structure. Catalysts (Pt / Sb / Sn) were prepared by cation substitution method and tested by cyclic voltammetry. Techniques as XRD and FT-IR were also used for characterizing materials. Was obtained up to 35 mA / g (Pt) peak current (redox ethanol) indicating the possibility of sepiolite technology development to use un proposed purpose. (author)

  2. Fission product release from TRIGA-LEU reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.L.; Foushee, F.C.; Greenwood, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Due to present international concerns over nuclear proliferation, TRIGA reactor fuels will utilize only low-enriched uranium (LEU) (enrichment <20%). This requires increased total uranium loading per unit volume of fuel in order to maintain the appropriate fissile loading. Tests were conducted to determine the fractional release of gaseous and metallic fission products from typical uranium-zirconium hydride TRIGA fuels containing up to 45 wt-% uranium. These tests, performed in late 1977 and early 1978, were similar to those conducted earlier on TRIGA fuels with 8.5 wt-% U. Fission gas release measurements were made on prototypic specimens from room temperature to 1100 deg. C in the TRIGA King Furnace Facility. The fuel specimens were irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at a low power level. The fractional releases of the gaseous nuclides of krypton and xenon were measured under steady-state operating conditions. Clean helium was used to sweep the fission gases released during irradiation from the furnace into a standard gas collection trap for gamma counting. The results of these tests on TRIGA-LEU fuel agree well with data from the similar, earlier tests on TRIGA fuel. The correlation used to calculate the release of fission products from 8.5 wt-% U TRIGA fuel applies equally well for U contents up to 45 wt-%. (author)

  3. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Bio production of Alcohols as Alternative Fuels From Some Agricultural Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd ElTawab, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    With the inevitable depletion of the world’s energy supply, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in alternative sources of energy. It’s now understood that it is important to use biomass energy as a means of providing modern energy to the billions who lack it. Bi oethanol continues to be offered as a viable solution for complex problems ranging from global warming and national energy security to local economic development. Fuel bi oethanol burns cleaner than gasoline, is derived from renewable agricultural products. The aim of the current study is the isolation of local yeast isolate has the ability to produce bi oethanol from molasses. The local isolate of yeast E10 from sugar cane waste (bagasse) which identified as(Candida tropicalis strain JH8 26S ribosomal RNA gen) was employed for ethanol production in submerged fermentation conditions compared with standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae EMCC number 71"T. The production of bi oethanol is influenced to a great extent by a variety of physical factors (incubation time, temperature, ph, agitation speed) also; bi oethanol production by yeast depends upon the nature and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimization of these factors is prerequisite for the development of commercial process. The use of seed culture inocula (24 h) age at rate of (8% v/v) also enhances the production. The results showed that, the maximum ethanol production in local strain Candida tropicalis was 30.28 g/l achieved at incubation temperature 30 °C, with ph 5, incubation time 48 hr, agitation rate 150 rpm. Also, the best ethanol production in standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 42.57 g/l at the same conditions. . Low doses of gamma radiation (0.2 kGy) stimulate bi oethanol production and microbial growth by the local Candida isolate. Batch fermentation was also investigated

  4. Fission product released experiment of coated fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shijiang, Xu; Bing, Yang; Chunhe, Tang; Junguo, Zhu; Jintao, Huang; Binzhong, Zhang [Inst. of Nucl. Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Jinghan, Luo [Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1992-01-15

    Four samples of coated fuel particles were irradiated in the Heavy-Water Research Reactor of the Institute of Atomic Energy. Each of them was divided into two groups and irradiated to the burn up of 0.394% fima and 0.788% fima in two static capsules, respectively. After irradiation and cooling, post irradiation annealing experiment was carried out, the release ratios of the fission product {sup 133}Xe and {sup 131}I were measured, they are in the order of 10{sup -6}{approx}10{sup -7}. The fission product release ratio of naked kernel was also measured under the same conditions as for the coated fuel particles, the ratio of the fission product release of the coated fuel particles and of the naked kernel was in the order of 10{sup -5}{approx}10{sup -4}.

  5. The composition of alcohol products from markets in Lithuania and Hungary, and potential health consequences: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sarsh, Bart; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The rates of alcohol-attributable mortality in Lithuania and Hungary have been shown to be higher than those in most other European countries. Quality of alcohol products is investigated as a possible explanation. In a descriptive pilot study, a convenience sample of alcohol products was collected from local city markets in both countries (Lithuania n = 10, Hungary n = 15) and chemical analyses, including some that have not been done in prior studies, were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, anions (including nitrate) and inorganic elements (including lead). Additionally, a multi-target screening analysis for toxicologically relevant substances was conducted. The majority of samples (64%) had an alcohol content between 35% vol. and 40% vol., being in accordance with the typical strength of legal spirits in Europe. Three samples containing significantly higher concentrations of alcohol above 60% vol. were found to be unrecorded alcohol products, defined as any alcohol that is outside of legal and taxed production. Screening analysis showed that those samples contained various flavourings, including the hepatotoxic substance coumarin, at concentrations above the legal limit for foods. All other substance classes under study were found to be at levels of no toxicological concern. Although some problems with the quality of the alcohol samples were found, there is insufficient evidence from this pilot study to conclude that alcohol quality has an influence on health as reflected in alcohol-attributable mortality rates. Given the extent of alcohol-attributable disease burden in central and eastern European countries, future research should focus on collection of large, representative samples, particularly of unrecorded sources, which was the most problematic product group in our study.

  6. laboratory production of alcohol from rice and maize chaffs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdulrahman Issa Muse

    2010-09-22

    Sep 22, 2010 ... The alcohol content of the samples were determined by distillation method. ... and cosmetics. It serves as a .... Reducing sugar production was determined .... did not lead to a decrease in water activity (aw) as it was noticed by ...

  7. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  8. Production of biosolid fuels from municipal sewage sludge: Technical and economic optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Małgorzata; Tańczuk, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The article presents the technical and economic analysis of the production of fuels from municipal sewage sludge. The analysis involved the production of two types of fuel compositions: sewage sludge with sawdust (PBT fuel) and sewage sludge with meat and bone meal (PBM fuel). The technology of the production line of these sewage fuels was proposed and analysed. The main objective of the study is to find the optimal production capacity. The optimisation analysis was performed for the adopted technical and economic parameters under Polish conditions. The objective function was set as a maximum of the net present value index and the optimisation procedure was carried out for the fuel production line input capacity from 0.5 to 3 t h(-1), using the search step 0.5 t h(-1). On the basis of technical and economic assumptions, economic efficiency indexes of the investment were determined for the case of optimal line productivity. The results of the optimisation analysis show that under appropriate conditions, such as prices of components and prices of produced fuels, the production of fuels from sewage sludge can be profitable. In the case of PBT fuel, calculated economic indexes show the best profitability for the capacity of a plant over 1.5 t h(-1) output, while production of PBM fuel is beneficial for a plant with the maximum of searched capacities: 3.0 t h(-1). Sensitivity analyses carried out during the investigation show that influence of both technical and economic assessments on the location of maximum of objective function (net present value) is significant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using the MixAlco™ process at a pilot-plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian; Dunkleman, John; Chaudhuri, Swades K.; Bond, Austin; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Texas A and M University has built a MixAlco™ pilot plant that converts biomass to hydrocarbons (i.e., jet fuel, gasoline) using the following steps: fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign. The focus was to produce sufficient jet fuel to be tested by the U.S. military. Because the scale was relatively small, energy-saving features were not included in the pilot plant. Further, the equipment was operated in a manner to maximize productivity even if yields were low. During the production campaign, a total of 6.015 Mg of shredded paper and 120 kg of chicken manure (dry basis) were fermented to produce 126.5 m 3 of fermentation broth with an average concentration of 12.5 kg m −3 . A total of 1582 kg of carboxylate salts were converted to 587 L of raw ketones, which were distilled and hydrogenated to 470 L of mixed alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. These alcohols, plus 300 L of alcohols made by an industrial partner (Terrabon, Inc.) were shipped to an independent contractor (General Electric) and transformed to jet fuel (∼100 L) and gasoline (∼100 L) byproduct. - Highlights: • We produce hydrocarbons from paper and chicken manure in a pilot-scale production using the MixAlco™ process. • About 100 L of jet fuel were produced for military testing. • High production rates and good product quality were preferred rather than high yields or energy efficiency. • The MixAlco™ process converted successfully lignocellulosic biomass to hydrocarbons and viable for commercial-scale production

  10. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  11. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  12. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  13. Alcohol or feed product from rotten sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T

    1956-06-25

    Rotten sweet potatoes were mixed with the same weight of a pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash, and the mixture was cooked and fermented with amylo stock mash under semisolid conditions for five days. The fermented mash was steam-distilled to recover ethanol, and a solid residue was dried to give a nutrient feed product.

  14. A crop production ecology (CPE) approach to sustainable production of biomass for food, feed and fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Conijn, J.G.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid increase in demand for agricultural products for food, feed and fuel, concerns are growing about sustainability issues. Can agricultural production meet the needs of increasing numbers of people consuming more animal products and using a larger share of crops as fuel for transport,

  15. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  16. Going the distance with ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    If all had gone according to plan, ethyl alcohol would be in the driver's seat now, cruising down the highway and getting ready to speed into high gear. Instead, this renewable fuel, chemical reagent and solvent is navigating a complex obstacle course, watching warily for sharp turns and mixed signals. Globally, the supply and demand for all grades of ethyl alcohol is awry. Production of industrial-grade material is running at full throttle and prices are going up. Much of the upheaval over ethanol can be traced to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) of the Clean Air Act. Under ROS, 15% of oxygenates used in gasoline sold this year was to be derived from a renewable source. Next month, that percentage was to have been doubled to 30%. Enticed by projections of upwards of 2 billion gal/yr of fermentation alcohol to comply with ROS, producers rushed to expand capacity. But to the producers' dismay, EPA was forced to backpedal on ROS. When representatives of the petroleum industry filed suit and won a stay, EPA rescinded its ROS regulation and ethanol producers were left in the lurch. High prices for corn is also putting the squeeze on inventories of industrial alcohol. Synthetic ethanol production, from ethylene for example, is booming, however. This paper discusses the ethanol market factors

  17. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed...

  18. Production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in chronic alcoholism: relationship with ethanol intake and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Francisco Javier; Vaquero, José Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Marcos, Miguel; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) by PB monocytes was analyzed at the single level by flow cytometry in chronic alcoholics without liver disease and active ethanol (EtOH) intake (AWLD group), as well as in patients with alcohol liver cirrhosis (ALC group), who were either actively drinking (ALCET group) or with alcohol withdrawal (ALCAW group). A significantly increased spontaneous production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha was observed on PB monocytes among AWLD individuals. Conversely, circulating monocytes form ALCET patients showed an abnormally low spontaneous and stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. No significant changes were observed in ALCAW group as regards production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha. Our results show an altered pattern of production of inflammatory cytokines in PB monocytes from chronic alcoholic patients, the exact abnormalities observed depending on both the status of EtOH intake and the existence of alcoholic liver disease. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Products and mechanism of the reaction of Cl atoms with unsaturated alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana; Rodríguez, Diana; Soto, Amparo; Bravo, Iván; Diaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Notario, Alberto; Aranda, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    The products of the chlorine atom initiated oxidation of different unsaturated alcohols were determined at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, in a 400 L teflon reaction chamber using GC-FID and GC-MS for the analysis. The major products detected (with molar yields in brackets) are: chloroacetaldehyde (50 ± 8%) and acrolein (27 ± 2%) from allyl alcohol; acetaldehyde (77 ± 11%), chloroacetaldehyde (75 ± 18%), and methyl vinyl ketone (17 ± 2%) from 3-buten-2-ol; acetone (55 ± 4%) and chloroacetaldehyde (59 ± 8%) from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol; chloroacetone (18 ± 1%) and methacrolein (8 ± 1%) from 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol; acetaldehyde (20 ± 1%), crotonaldehyde (6 ± 3%), 3-choloro-4-hydroxy-2-butanone (2 ± 2%) and 2-chloro-propanal (4 ± 5%) from crotyl alcohol; and acetone (24 ± 3%) from 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol. The experimental data suggests that addition of Cl to the double bond of the unsaturated alcohol is the dominant reaction pathway compared to the H-abstraction channel.

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  1. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  2. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  3. FREVAP-6, Metal Fission Products Release from HTGR Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The FREVAP type of code for estimating the release of longer-lived metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements has been developed to take into account the combined effects of the retention of metallic fission products by fuel particles and the rather strong absorption of these fission products by the graphite of the fuel elements. Release calculations are made on the basis that the loss of fission product nuclides such as strontium, cesium, and barium is determined by their evaporation from the graphite surfaces and their transpiration induced by the flowing helium coolant. The code is devised so that changes of fission rate (fuel element power), fuel temperature, and graphite temperature may be incorporated into the calculation. Temperature is quite important in determining release because, in general, both release from fuel particles and loss by evaporation (transpiration) vary exponentially with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. NESC0301/02: This version differs from the previous one in the following points: The source and output files were converted from BCD to ASCII coding. 2 - Method of solution: A problem is defined as having a one-dimensional segment made up of three parts - (1) the fission product source (fuel particles) in series with, (2) a non-source and absorption part (element graphite) and (3) a surface for evaporation to the coolant (graphite-helium interface). More than one segment may be connected (possibly segments stacked axially) by way of the coolant. At any given segment, a continuity equation is solved assuming equilibrium between the source term, absorption term, evaporation at coolant interface and the partial pressure of the fission product isotope in the coolant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5 isotopes; 10 time intervals for time-dependent variable; 49 segments (times number of isotopes); 5 different output print time-steps

  4. Elucidation of oxidation and degradation products of oxygen containing fuel components by combined use of a stable isotopic tracer and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Marcella; Besser, Charlotte; Allmaier, Günter; Dörr, Nicole

    2017-11-15

    In order to reveal the degradation products of oxygen-containing fuel components, in particular fatty acid methyl esters, a novel approach was developed to characterize the oxidation behaviour. Combination of artificial alteration under pressurized oxygen atmosphere, a stable isotopic tracer, and gas chromatography electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) was used to obtain detailed information on the formation of oxidation products of (9Z), (12Z)-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (C18:2 ME). Thereby, biodiesel simulating model compound C18:2 ME was oxidized in a rotating pressurized vessel standardized for lubricant oxidation tests (RPVOT), i.e., artificially altered, under 16 O 2 as well as 18 O 2 atmosphere. Identification of the formed degradation products, mainly carboxylic acids of various chain lengths, alcohols, ketones, and esters, was performed by means of GC-EI-MS. Comparison of mass spectra of compounds under both atmospheres revealed not only the degree of oxidation and the origin of oxygen atoms, but also the sites of oxidative attack and bond cleavage. Hence, the developed and outlined strategy based on a gas-phase stable isotopic tracer and mass spectrometry provides insight into the degradation of oxygen-containing fuels and fuel components by means of the accurate differentiation of oxygen origin in a degradation product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  6. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de, E-mail: mcostac@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  7. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de

    2017-01-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  8. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  9. The state-of-the-art and forecasts for alcoholic fermentation in Brazil; Estado atual e perspectivas da fermentacao alcoolica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossell, Carlos Eduardo Vaz; Carvalho Macedo, Isaias de [Centro de Tecnologia Copersucar, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    The state-of-the-art of the alcoholic fermentation for fuel alcohol production in Brazil shows that besides the great increase in production in the last twelve years, a significant advance in technology was achieved, both in the traditional batch fermentation (increased yields and productivity) and in the new large-scale multi-stage continuous fermentations. Large differences in technology level among distilleries show the need for improving technology transfer rates. Examples are presented and analyzed. (author) 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Study of a Fuel Supply Pump with a Piezoelectric Effect for Microdirect Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Kang Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design for an ethanol injection system has been proposed, which consists of one pump chamber, two valves, and one central-vibrating piezoelectric device. The system uses a microdiaphragm pump with a piezoelectric device for microdirect alcohol fuel cells. The diameters of the pump chamber are 31 mm and 23 mm, and the depths of the chamber are 1 mm and 2 mm. When the piezoelectric device actuates for changing pump chamber volume, the valves will be opened/closed, and the ethanol will be delivered into DAFC system due to the pressure variation. The chamber dimensions, vibrating frequencies of the piezoelectric device, and valve thickness are used as important parameters for the performance of the novel ethanol injection system. The experimental results show that the ethanol flow rate can reach 170 mL/min at a vibrating frequency of 75 Hz. In addition, the ethanol flow rate is higher than the water flow rate.

  11. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  12. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  13. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  14. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  15. Actinide production in different HTR-fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Hecker, R.; Mirza, N.; Rueckert, M.

    1978-01-01

    At the 'Institut fuer Reaktorentwicklung der Kernforschungsanlage Juelich' the production of α-activities in the following HTR-OTTO cycle concepts were studied: 1. standard HTR cycle (U-Th); 2. low enriched HTR cycle (U-Pu); 3. near breeder HTR cycle (U-Th); 4. combined system (conventional and near breeder HTR). The production of α-activity in HTR Uranium-Thorium fuel cycles has been investigated and compared with the standard LWR cycles. The production of α-activity in HTR Uranium-Thorium fuel cycles has been investigated and compared with the standard LWR cycles. The calculations were performed by the short depletion code KASCO and the well-known ORIGEN program

  16. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  18. Electronuclear fissile fuel production. Linear accelerator fuel regenerator and producer LAFR and LAFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1978-04-01

    A linear accelerator fuel generator is proposed to enrich naturally occurring fertile U-238 or thorium 232 with fissile Pu-239 or U-233 for use in LWR power reactors. High energy proton beams in the range of 1 to 3 GeV energy are made to impinge on a centrally located dispersed liquid lead target producing spallation neutrons which are then absorbed by a surrounding assembly of fabricated LWR fuel elements. The accelerator-target design is reviewed and a typical fuel cycle system and economic analysis is presented. One 300 MW beam (300 ma-1 GeV) linear accelerator fuel regenerator can provide fuel for 3 to 1000 MW(e) LWR power reactors over its 30-year lifetime. There is a significant saving in natural uranium requirement which is a factor of 4.5 over the present LWR fuel requirement assuming the restraint of no fissile fuel recovery by reprocessing. A modest increase (approximately 10%) in fuel cycle and power production cost is incurred over the present LWR fuel cycle cost. The linear accelerator fuel regenerator and producer assures a long-term supply of fuel for the LWR power economy even with the restraint of the non-proliferation policy of no reprocessing. It can also supply hot-denatured thorium U-233 fuel operating in a secured reprocessing fuel center

  19. Spectroscopic Analyses of the Biofuels-Critical Phytochemical Coniferyl Alcohol and Its Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Adams, Paul; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Anup

    2011-07-13

    Lignin composition (monolignol types of coniferyl, sinapyl or p-coumaryl alcohol) is causally related to biomass recalcitrance. We describe multiwavelength (220, 228, 240, 250, 260, 290, 295, 300, 310 or 320 nm) absorption spectroscopy of coniferyl alcohol and its laccase- or peroxidase-catalyzed products during real time kinetic, pseudo-kinetic and endpoint analyses, in optical turn on or turn off modes, under acidic or basic conditions. Reactions in microwell plates and 100 mu L volumes demonstrated assay miniaturization and high throughput screening capabilities. Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts along with hyperchromicity or hypochromicity accompanied enzymatic oxidations by laccase or peroxidase. The limits of detection and quantitation of coniferyl alcohol averaged 2.4 and 7.1 mu M respectively, with linear trend lines over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Coniferyl alcohol oxidation was evident within 10 minutes or with 0.01 mu g/mL laccase and 2 minutes or 0.001 mu g/mL peroxidase. Detection limit improved to 1.0 mu M coniferyl alcohol with Km of 978.7 +/- 150.7 mu M when examined at 260 nm following 30 minutes oxidation with 1.0 mu g/mL laccase. Our assays utilized the intrinsic spectroscopic properties of coniferyl alcohol or its oxidation products for enabling detection, without requiring chemical synthesis or modification of the substrate or product(s). These studies facilitate lignin compositional analyses and augment pretreatment strategies for reducing biomass recalcitrance.

  20. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  1. Industrial alcohol production via whey and grain fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, B A; Cunningham, M L; Shahani, K M

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of a trained lactose fermenting Kluyveromyces yeast were examined for their ability to utilise lactose in sweet-whey permeate. All strains of K. fragilis tested reduced the concentration of the 5.1% lactose, initially present in whey permeate, to 0.1-0.2% within 48h. Periodic adjustment to maintain the pH during fermentation did not alter the lactose utilisation. The fermentation efficiency of K. fragilis was then compared with that of a mixture of K. fragilis and the classical alcohol fermenter Saccharomyces cerevisiae to verify that no unfavourable interactions occurred in the mixed culture. There were no differences in lactose utilisation or ethanol production between the two groups; both produced approximately 2% ethanol within 24h. This represented approximately 80% of the alcohol which theoretically could be produced from the 5.1% lactose present in the permeate. Whey permeate was also incorporated into the classical grain fermentation by substitution for one-half the water normally added to produce the mash. Fermentation was nearly complete by 36h and alcohol levels ranged from 9.7% for the mixed culture to 9.4% for the K. fragilis and 9.3% for the S. cerevisiae. Since the whey provided significant levels of fermentable sugars, studies were also conducted in which undiluted whey permeate was substituted for all of the water in the mash and the amount of grain was reduced by 20%. At the end of 36h K. fragilis produced 10.9% alcohol and at 60 h of fermentation the level had reached 12.2%. When whole sweet-whey was used, similar levels of alcohol were produced. (Refs. 20).

  2. Improving the characteristics of liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakan, T

    1983-02-04

    In order to improve the operational characteristics of a light boiler fuel (LKT) (based on analogous characteristics for a fuel for an internal combustion engine (DVS)) it is proposed to add ether and alcohol to it. The additive of ether improves the viscosity of the fuel, but reduces the heat creating capability. The addition of ether and alcohol (a 3 to 1 ratio by volume) increases the stability of the mixture. With mixing of 75 total percent of the light boiler fuel (a heat creativity of 9,500 kilocalories per liter and a viscosity of 10 centistokes per 30 degrees) with 25 total percent ether produced a fuel with a heat producing capability of 8,690 kilocalories per liter and a viscosity of 2.3 centistokes. With mixing of 70 total percent light boiler oil and 18 total percent ether and 7 total percent alcohol a fuel with a heat creativity of 8,640 kilocalories per liter and a viscosity of 2.7 centistokes was produced.

  3. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    faster development of metabolically engineered strains that can be used for production of fuels and chemicals. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials. Through metabolic engineering of this yeast a number of novel industrial...... as for metabolic design. In this lecture it will be demonstrated how the Design-Build-Test cycle of metabolic engineering has allowed for development of yeast cell factories for production of a range of different fuels and chemicals. Some examples of different technologies will be presented together with examples......Metabolic engineering relies on the Design-Build-Test cycle. This cycle includes technologies like mathematical modeling of metabolism, genome editing and advanced tools for phenotypic characterization. In recent years there have been advances in several of these technologies, which has enabled...

  4. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  5. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from thes...

  6. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  7. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  8. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  9. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  10. The quality of alcohol products in Vietnam and its implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions) were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  11. Production de méthanol et d'alcools supérieurs à partir de gaz via (CO + H2 Production of Methanol and Higher Alcohols from Gas via (Co + H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre des procédés en développement pour la synthèse d'alcools à partir de syngas (CO + H2, ce mémoire présente certains résultats récents de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France et Idemitsu Kosan (Japon. La première démonstration du procédé, sous programme R et D du RAPAD-Japon, a confirmé les performances et la faisabilité. Les alcools sélectivement produits, après fractionnement, présentent de bonnes propriétés pour l'usage carburant. L'optimisation de l'ensemble constitué par la production du syngas, la synthèse, le fractionnement des alcools, a permis une simplification sensible du procédé, une optimisation spécifique des performances, ce qui conduit à des données économiques plus favorables. Within the framework of processes being developed for alcohol synthesis from syngas, this article describes some recent results obtained by Idemitsu-Kosan (Japan and Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France. The first demonstration of the process as part of the RAPAD-Japan R & D program has confirmed both its performances and feasibility. The alcohols selectively produced, after suitable fractionation, present good properties as a blend for motor fuels. The optimization of the overall process for syngas production, alcohol synthesis and alcohol fractionation has led to a significant simplification of the process and to the optimization of its performances, leading to better economics.

  12. Nuclear fuel particle and method of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Loffler, M.

    1975-01-01

    The core consisting of fuel oxide (UO 2 or Th or Pu oxide) of a fuel particle coated with carbon-contained material is enriched with a small addition (max 6 wt.%) of a Ba or Sr compound (atomic ratio for nuclear fuel oxide Ba being 5 - 10 : 1) which is to prevent fission products breaking the protective carbon and/or silicon carbide coating; the Ba or Sr molybdate generated is to reduce the pressure of the carbon dioxide produced. Methods to manufacture such nuclear fuel particles are proposed where 1) an agglomerisation and shaping of the spheres in a fast cycling bowle and 2) a formation of drops from a colloidal solution which are made to congeal in a liquid paraffin column, take place followed by the pyrolytic coating of the particles. (UWI/LH) [de

  13. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  14. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... X PBA 3000[dash]P X X PBA 3000C X X Alcohol Data Sensor X X Phoenix X X Phoenix 6.0 X X EV 30 X X FC...-0016] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement... 71480) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol...

  15. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  16. Economic consequences of QA and QC in fuel and fuel assembly production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The planning of quality control and quality assurance programs for fuel fabrication must balance the cost of the programs, their effectiveness, and the economic consequences of failure to meet the product specifications. The cost of fuel failures can be very high in comparison to the cost of quality control, and this provides considerable economic justification for increasing the level of quality control if its effectiveness in reducing failure potential can be demonstrated. Typical costs and examples are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Thermophysical properties of the products of low-grade fuels thermal recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the work is caused by reorientation of the modern power engineering to use of local low grade fuel resources. Some types of low grade fuels (peat, brown coal, sapropel, wood chips are considered in this work. Thermotechnical characteristics of the investigated fuels and products of their thermal recycling are determined. Thermal recycling process is accompanied by release of fuel dissociation heat (0.33-3.69 MJ/kg. The results of thermal low grade fuel recycling are solid carbonaceous product (semi-coke with a calorific value higher in 1.5-7 times than the value of natural fuels; pyrolysis resin with calorific value 29.4-36.8 MJ/kg; combustible gas with calorific value 15.16-19.06 MJ/m3.

  18. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

  19. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport

  20. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum. Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, M W; Veeger, C; van Berkel, W J

    1995-11-15

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyphenylglycols and a series of catecholamines. These compounds are converted to the corresponding ketones. Both enantiomers of (nor)epinephrine are substrates for vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, but the R isomer is preferred. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase is most active with chavicol and eugenol. These 4-allylphenols are converted to coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol, respectively. Isotopic labeling experiments show that the oxygen atom inserted at the C gamma atom of the side chain is derived from water. The 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol products and the substrate analog isoeugenol are competitive inhibitors of vanillyl alcohol oxidation. The binding of isoeugenol to the oxidized enzyme perturbs the optical spectrum of protein-bound FAD. pH-dependent binding studies suggest that vanillyl-alcohol oxidase preferentially binds the phenolate form of isoeugenol (pKa < 6, 25 degrees C). From this and the high pH optimum for turnover, a hydride transfer mechanism involving a p-quinone methide intermediate is proposed for the vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase-catalyzed conversion of 4-allylphenols.

  1. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., battery powered device with a semiconductor sensor. (2) Alcohol Countermeasure Systems Corp., submitted...-0062] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in... Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids dated, March 31, 2008 (73 FR 16956). DATES: Effective...

  2. Fission product release from HTGR coated microparticles and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Deryugin, A.I.; Lyutikov, R.A.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of fission products release from microparticles with UO 2 core and five-layer HII PyC- and SiC base protection layers of TRICO type as well as from spherical fuel elements based thereon. It is shown that relative release of short-lived xenon and crypton from microparticles does not exceed (2-3) 10 -7 . The release of gaseous fission products from fuel elements containing no damaged coated microparticles, is primarily determined by the contamination of matrix graphite with fuel. An analytical dependence is derived, the dependence described the relation between structural parameters of coated microparticles, irradiation conditions and fuel burnup at which depressurization of coated microparticles starts

  3. Mixed alcohols production from syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R.; Conway, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for selectively producing mixed alcohols from synthesis gas comprising contacting a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalytic amount of a catalyst containing components of (1) a catalytically active metal of molybdenum or tungsten, in free or combined form; (2) a cocatalytic metal or cobalt or nickel in free or combined form; and (3) a Fischer-Tropsch promoter of an alkali or alkaline earth series metal, in free or combined form; the components combined by dry mixing, mixing as a wet paste, wet impregnation, and then sulfided, the catalyst excluding rhodium, ruthenium and copper, at a pressure of at least about 500 psig and under conditions sufficient to form the mixed alcohols in at least 20 percent CO/sub 2/ free carbon selectivity, the mixed alcohols containing a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 2-5/ alcohol weight ratio of less than about 1:1

  4. Plant design aspects of catalytic biosyngas conversion to higher alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsonios, K.; Christodoulou, Ch.; Koytsoumpa, E.-I.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Kakaras, Em.

    2013-01-01

    Although biomethanol production has attracted most of the attention in the past years, there is a current trend for the synthesis of higher alcohols (i.e. ethanol, plus C 3 –C 4 ) from biomass gasification. These compounds could be used directly as fuel or fuel additives for octane or cetane number enhancement. These also serve as important intermediates for the chemical industry. In this paper a comparison is performed between the different process configurations a higher alcohols production plant from biomass gasification can take. These options are modelled in Aspenplus™; all steps and important unit operations are presented with the aim to correctly evaluate the peripheral energy requirements and conclude with the overall thermodynamic limitations of the processes. The differentiation between black liquor and solid biomass gasification, the type of catalyst employed, and the effect of the recycling scheme adopted for the reutilization of unreacted syngas are evaluated. The design has to cope with the limited yields and poor selectivity of catalysts developed so far. The gas cleaning is different depending on the different requirements of the catalysts as far as H 2 S purity. The process modelling results reveal that the hydrogenation of CO to higher alcohols is favoured by high pressure, temperature around 325 °C and high reactor residence times. A biorefinery using modified Fisher–Tropsch (FT) catalysts (MoS 2 ) prevail over modified MeOH catalyst (Cu–Zn based) for HA production. The efficiency of HA production in HHV terms can reach up to 25%. -- Graphical abstract: Process flow diagrams of different biorefinery systems derived from a) woody biomass and b) black liquor. Highlights: ► An integrated gasification/gas-cleaning/synthesis system was modelled in Aspenplus. ► HA production from wood and black liquor gasification is compared. ► Modified FT catalysts prevail over modified methanol catalyst for HA production. ► HA productivity is

  5. Behavior of solid fission products in irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Kim, Hee Moon; Yoo, Byun Gok; Kim, Do Sik; Choo, Yong Sun; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2004-01-01

    Many fission products are generated by fission events in UO 2 fuel under irradiation in nuclear reactor. Concentration of each fission product is changed by conditions of neutron energy spectrum, fissile material, critical thermal power, irradiation period and cooling time. Volatile materials such as Cs and I, the fission products, degrade nuclear fuel rod by the decrease of thermal conductivity in pellet and the stress corrosion cracking in cladding. Metal fission products (white inclusion) make pellet be swelled and decrease volume of pellet by densification. It seems that metal fission products are filled in the pore in pellet and placed between UO 2 lattices as interstitial. In addition, metal oxide state may change structural lattice volume. Considering behavior of fission products mentioned above, concentration of them is important. Fission products could be classified as bellows; solid solution in matrix : Sr, Zr, Nb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm - metal precipitates : Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Te - oxide precipitates : Ba, Zr, Nb, Mo, (Rb, Cs, Te) - volatile and gases : Kr, Xe, Br, I, (Rb, Cs, Te)

  6. Research on in-pile release of fission products from coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Iwamoto, K.

    1985-01-01

    Coated particle fuels fabricated in accordance with VHTR (Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) fuel design have been irradiated by both capsules and an in-pile gas loop (OGL-1), and data on the fission products release under irradiation were obtained for loose coated particles, fuel compacts and fuel rods in the temperature range between 800 deg. C and 1600 deg. C. For the fission gases, temperature- and time dependences of the fractional release(R/B) were measured. Relation between release and failure fraction of the coated particles was elucidated on the VHTR reference fuels. Also measured was tritium concentration in the helium coolant of OGL-1. In-pile release behavior of the metallic fission products was studied by measuring the activities of the fission products adsorbed in the graphite sleeves of the OGL-1 fuel rods and the graphite fuel container of the sweep gas capsules in the PIE. Investigation on palladium interaction with SiC coating layer was included. (author)

  7. Production of leu high density fuels at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freim, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A large number of fuel elements of all types are produced for both international and domestic customers by Nuclear Fuel Division of Babcock and Wilcox. A brief history of the division, included previous and present research reactor fuel element fabrication experience is discussed. The manufacturing facilities are briefly described. The fabrication of LEU fuels and economic analysis of the production are included. (A.J.)

  8. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  9. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  10. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I..., without recourse to the Government, for the settlement and satisfaction of all contractual and...

  11. Technical development of fuel alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Research and development of a technology for biologically manufacturing alcohol from agricultural and forestry wastes has been conducted according to an eight year-program beginning in 1983. This paper presents the findings in FY 1987 and the future schedule. Exploration and breeding of superior bacteria are the basic subject through the eight years. In FY 1987, preparation and evaluation of hybrid plasmids into which Zymomonas, BETA-glucosidase gene and CM case gene are inserted, improvement of variation to enhance the salt resistance of Zymomonas and screening of Cm-and Sm-resistant bacteria to develop thermophilic, anaerobic cellulose were made. In addition, the total process combining the cell adhesion method as the immobilization technique with the flash technique is continuously studied. Improvement of the salt-resistance of Zymomonas by increasing the density with photosetting resin, the upper concentration of alcohol and effect of pulverzing treatment in a small apparatus were investigated. A test plant was designed and constructed. (3 photos.)

  12. Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Meyer, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. (author)

  13. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to the...

  14. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  15. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport. Refs, figs, tabs.

  16. Fission product release as a function of chemistry and fuel morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; Osetek, D.J.; Petti, D.A.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the consequences of severe reactor accidents requires knowledge of the location and chemical form of fission products throughout the accident sequence. Two factors that strongly influence the location and chemical form of fission products are the chemistry within the core and the morphology of the fuel or fuel-bearing debris. This paper reviews the current understanding of the these factors garnered from integral and separate effect experiments and the TMI-2 accident, and provides perspective on the significance of contributing phenomena for the analysis of severe accidents, particularly during the in-vessel phase. Information has been obtained recently on phenomena affecting the release of fission products from fuel and the reactor vessel during the in-vessel melt progression phase of a severe accident. The influence of a number of these phenomena will be reviewed, including fuel chemistry, H 2 /H 2 O ratio, fuel liquefaction, molten pools, and debris beds. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Quality control in the fuel elements production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic-Popovic, J.; Spasic, Z.; Djuricis, Lj.

    1977-01-01

    Recently great attention has been paid at the international level to the analysis of production processes and quality control of fuel and fuel elements with the aim to speed up activity of proposing and accepting standards and measurement methods. IAEA also devoted great interest to these problems appealing to more active participation of all users and producers fuel elements in a general effort to secure successful work of nuclear plants. For adequate and timely participation in future in the establishment and analysis of general requirements and documentation for the control of purchased or self produced fuel elements in out country it is necessary to be well informed and to follow this activity at the international level. (author)

  18. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  19. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  20. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  1. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiongxiao Wu

    2012-12-15

    consequently on the catalytic activity. (3) Addition of 3 mol % CO{sub 2} to the H2/CO feed stream leads to a significant loss of activity for the Cu-Ni/SiO2 catalyst contrary to the case for the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. DFT calculations show in accordance with previous surface science studies that oxygen on the surface could lead to an enrichment of the Ni-content in the surface. (4) Silica supported bimetallic Cu-Ni catalysts with different ratios of Cu to Ni have been prepared by impregnation. In situ reduction of Cu-Ni alloys with combined synchrotron XRD and XAS reveal a strong interaction between Cu and Ni, resulting in improved reducibility of Ni as compared to monometallic Ni. At high nickel concentrations silica supported Cu-Ni alloys form a homogeneous solid solution of Cu and Ni, whereas at lower nickel contents, copper and nickel are separately aggregated and form metallic Cu and Cu-Ni alloy phases. At the same reduction conditions, the particle sizes of reduced Cu-Ni alloys decrease with increasing in Ni content. A maximum methanol productivity of 0.66 kg kgcat-1 h-1 with methanol selectivity up to 99.2 mol % has been achieved for a Cu-Ni/SiO2 catalyst prepared by the deposition-co-precipitation method. There is no apparent catalyst deactivation observed during the tested time on stream (40-100 h), contrary to the observation for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. For higher alcohol synthesis, the main work has been performed on CO hydrogenation over supported Mo2C. Mo2C supported on active carbon, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide, and promoted by K2CO3, has been prepared and tested for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas. At optimal conditions, the activity and selectivity to alcohols (methanol and higher alcohols) over supported Mo2C are significantly higher compared to bulk Mo2C. The CO conversion reaches a maximum, when about 20 wt % Mo2C is loaded on active carbon. The selectivity to higher alcohols increases with increasing Mo2C loading on active

  2. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed

  3. Highlights from the IAEA coordinated research programme on fuel performance and fission product data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabielek, H.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

    1996-01-01

    Seven countries are cooperating with the objectives (i) to document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel performance and fission product behaviour; (ii) to verify and validate methods in fuel performance and fission product retention prediction. These countries are China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, USA and the UK. Duration of the programme is 1993-96. The technology areas addressed in this IAEA Coordinated Research Programme are: Fuel design and manufacture, Normal operation fuel performance and fission product behaviour, Accident condition fuel performance and fission product behaviour, -core heatup, -fast transients, -oxidising conditions (water and air ingress), Plateout, re-entrainment of plateout, fission product behaviour in the reactor building, and Performance of advanced fuels. Work performed so far has generated a 300-page draft document with important information for normal operations (Germany, Japan, China, Russia) and accident conditions (USA, Japan, Germany, Russia) and, additionally, a special chapter on advanced fuels (Japan). (author)

  4. Hydrogen production with fully integrated fuel cycle gas and vapour core reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Smith, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of a conceptual design study involving gas and vapour core reactors (G/VCR) with a combined scheme to generate hydrogen and power. The hydrogen production schemes include high temperature electrolysis as well as two dominant thermochemical hydrogen production processes. Thermochemical hydrogen production processes considered in this study included the calcium-bromine process and the sulphur-iodine processes. G/VCR systems are externally reflected and moderated nuclear energy systems fuelled by stable uranium compounds in gaseous or vapour phase that are usually operated at temperatures above 1500 K. A gas core reactor with a condensable fuel such as uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) or a mixture of UF 4 and other metallic fluorides (BeF 2 , LiF, KF, etc.) is commonly known as a vapour core reactor (VCR). The single most relevant and unique feature of gas/vapour core reactors is that the functions of fuel and coolant are combined into one. The reactor outlet temperature is not constrained by solid fuel-cladding temperature limits. The maximum fuel/working fluid temperature in G/VCR is only constrained by the reactor vessel material limits, which is far less restrictive than the fuel clad. Therefore, G/VCRs can potentially provide the highest reactor and cycle temperature among all existing or proposed fission reactor designs. Gas and vapour fuel reactors feature very low fuel inventory and fully integrated fuel cycle that provide for exceptional sustainability and safety characteristics. With respect to fuel utilisation, there is no fuel burn-up limit for gas core reactors due to continuous recycling of the fuel. Owing to the flexibility in nuclear design characteristics of cavity reactors, a wide range of conversion ratio from completely burner to breeder is achievable. The continuous recycling of fuel in G/VCR systems allow for complete burning of actinides without removing and reprocessing of the fuel. The only waste products at the back

  5. A New Concept of Dual Fuelled SI Engines Run on Gasoline and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Zdzisław

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses tests results of dual-fuel spark ignition engine with multipoint injection of alcohol and gasoline, injected in area of inlet valve. Fuelling of the engine was accomplished via prototype inlet system comprising duplex injectors controlled electronically. Implemented system enables feeding of the engine with gasoline only or alcohol only, and simultaneous combustion of a mixture of the both fuels with any fraction of alcohol. The tests were performed on four cylinders, spark ignition engine of Fiat 1100 MPI type. The paper presents comparative results of dual-fuel engine test when the engine runs on changing fraction of methyl alcohol. The tests have demonstrated an advantageous effect of alcohol additive on efficiency and TCH and NOx emission of the engine, especially in case of bigger shares of the alcohol and higher engine loads.

  6. Pyro-electrochemical reprocessing of irradiated MOX fast reactor fuel, testing of the reprocessing process with direct MOX fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormilitzyn, M.V.; Vavilov, S.K.; Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Tselichshev, I.V

    2000-07-01

    One of the advanced technologies for fast reactor fuel recycle is pyro-electrochemical molten salt technology. In 1998 we began to study the next phase of the irradiated oxide fuel reprocessing new process MOX {yields} MOX. This process involves the following steps: - Dissolution of irradiated fuel in molten alkaline metal chlorides, - Purification of melt from fission products that are co-deposited with uranium and plutonium oxides, - Electrochemical co-deposition of uranium and plutonium oxides under the controlled cathode potential, - Production of granulated MOX (crushing,salt separation and sizing), and - Purification of melt from fission products by phosphate precipitation. In 1998 a series of experiments were prepared and carried out in order to validate this process. It was shown that the proposed reprocessing flowsheet of irradiated MOX fuel verified the feasibility of its decontamination from most of its fission products (rare earths, cesium) and minor-actinides (americium, curium)

  7. Pyro-electrochemical reprocessing of irradiated MOX fast reactor fuel, testing of the reprocessing process with direct MOX fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitzyn, M.V.; Vavilov, S.K.; Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Tselichshev, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    One of the advanced technologies for fast reactor fuel recycle is pyro-electrochemical molten salt technology. In 1998 we began to study the next phase of the irradiated oxide fuel reprocessing new process MOX → MOX. This process involves the following steps: - Dissolution of irradiated fuel in molten alkaline metal chlorides, - Purification of melt from fission products that are co-deposited with uranium and plutonium oxides, - Electrochemical co-deposition of uranium and plutonium oxides under the controlled cathode potential, - Production of granulated MOX (crushing,salt separation and sizing), and - Purification of melt from fission products by phosphate precipitation. In 1998 a series of experiments were prepared and carried out in order to validate this process. It was shown that the proposed reprocessing flowsheet of irradiated MOX fuel verified the feasibility of its decontamination from most of its fission products (rare earths, cesium) and minor-actinides (americium, curium)

  8. Contribution of metallic fission product inclusions to axial fuel motion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, P.; Cronenberg, A.; Stevenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the analysis of postulated nuclear reactor accidents, axial fuel motion within the fuel pin prior to cladding failure can have an important mitigating effect. The question of primary importance is whether or not metallic inclusions have the potential to vaporize during an overheating event and thus contribute to fuel motion. To assess this potential, two limiting calculations were made: 1) The inclusion constituent assumed insoluble in one another and 2) The constituents assumed totally miscible in one another. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that the metallic fission products found within inclusions of fuel rods irradiated in a fast neutron spectrum, would form homogeneous solutions. Therefore, it is concluded that the metallic fission products would not enhance fuel swelling during an overheating event. 16 refs

  9. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanopa, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing multiple main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data........ Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  10. Fission Product Release from Spent Nuclear Fuel During Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.; Zino, J.F.

    1998-09-01

    The Melt-Dilute process consolidates aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel by melting the fuel assemblies and diluting the 235U content with depleted uranium to lower the enrichment. During the process, radioactive fission products whose boiling points are near the proposed 850 degrees C melting temperature can be released. This paper presents a review of fission product release data from uranium-aluminum alloy fuel developed from Severe Accident studies. In addition, scoping calculations using the ORIGEN-S computer code were made to estimate the radioactive inventories in typical research reactor fuel as a function of burnup, initial enrichment, and reactor operating history and shutdown time.Ten elements were identified from the inventory with boiling points below or near the 850 degrees C reference melting temperature. The isotopes 137Cs and 85Kr were considered most important. This review serves as basic data to the design and development of a furnace off-gas system for containment of the volatile species

  11. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin’e; Lin, Bin-Le; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×10 5 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×10 5 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  12. Microprobe study of fission product behavior in high-burnup HTR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    Electron microprobe analysis of irradiated coated particles with high burnup (greater than 50 percent fima) gives detailed information on the chemical state and the transport behavior of the fission products in UO 2 and UC 2 kernels and in the coatings. In oxide fuel kernels, metallic inclusions and ceramic precipitations are observed. The solubility behavior of the fission products in the fuel matrix has been investigated. Fission product inclusions could not be detected in carbide fuel kernels; post irradiation annealed UC 2 kernels, however, give information on the element combinations of some fission product phases. Corresponding to the chemical state in the kernel, Cs, Sr, Ba, Pd, Te and the rare earths are released easily and diffuse through the entire pyrocarbon coating. These fission products can be retained by a silicon carbide layer. The initial stage of a corrosive attack of the SiC coating by the fission products is evidenced

  13. Optimization of alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Caillaud, J.M.; Galzy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke extracts by yeasts with inulinase activity is possible, without prior hydrolysis or sterilization, if carried out at pH 3.5. For semi-continuous production, a small amount of the yeast harvested at the end of the previous fermentation can be used as the subsequent inoculant. Up to 75 hl of alcohol per ha can be obtained by this process under favorable energetic conditions. A partial inhibition of the fermentation was detected in extracts obtained from tubers harvested too early; this inhibition seems unrelated to the extent of polymerization of sugars.

  14. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  15. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  16. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion...... of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant...... faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...

  17. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  18. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh....... Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  19. Review of Biojet Fuel Conversion Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Batan, Liaw [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Biomass-derived jet (biojet) fuel has become a key element in the aviation industry’s strategy to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. Researchers from the oil-refining industry, the aviation industry, government, biofuel companies, agricultural organizations, and academia are working toward developing commercially viable and sustainable processes that produce long-lasting renewable jet fuels with low production costs and low greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, jet fuels must meet ASTM International specifications and potentially be a 100% drop-in replacement for the current petroleum jet fuel. The combustion characteristics and engine tests demonstrate the benefits of running the aviation gas turbine with biojet fuels. In this study, the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels, categorized by alcohols-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet pathways, are reviewed. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.

  20. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages......Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  1. Performance and fuel conversion efficiency of a spark ignition engine fueled with iso-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimescu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Iso-butanol use in a port injection spark ignition engine. ► Fuel conversion efficiency calculated based on chassis dynamometer measurements. ► Combined study of engine efficiency and air–fuel mixture temperature. ► Excellent running characteristics with minor fuel system modifications. ► Up to 11% relative drop in part load efficiency due to incomplete fuel vaporization. -- Abstract: Alcohols are increasingly used as fuels for spark ignition engines. While ethanol is most commonly used, long chain alcohols such as butanol feature several advantages like increased heating value and reduced corrosive action. This study investigated the effect of fueling a port injection engine with iso-butanol, as compared to gasoline operation. Performance levels were maintained within the same limits as with the fossil fuel without modifications to any engine component. An additional electronic module was used for increasing fuel flow by extending the injection time. Fuel conversion efficiency decreased when the engine was fueled with iso-butanol by up to 9% at full load and by up to 11% at part load, calculated as relative values. Incomplete fuel evaporation was identified as the factor most likely to cause the drop in engine efficiency.

  2. Application of impedance spectroscopy method for analysis of benzanol fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamykin A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed a method for express control of three component «gasoline-alcohol-water» fuel mixtures based on the spectral impedance investigation of benzanol mixture in the frequency range of 500 Hz — 10 kHz. A correlation dependence between the dielectric constant and the specific resistance of the fuel mixture on content of ethanol and water in the mixture has been found. On the basis of this dependence a calibration nomogram to quantify the gasoline and water-alcohol components content in the test benzanol fuel in the actual range of concentrations has been formed. The nomogram allows determining the water-alcohol and gasoline parts in the analyzed fuel with an error of no more than 1% vol., while the strength of water-alcohol solution is determined with an error of no more than 0.8% vol. The obtained nomogram can also give information about critical water content in the benzanol fuel to prevent its eventual phase separation. It is shown that the initial component composition of different gasoline brands has no significant effect on the electrical characteristics of the studied benzanol fuels, which makes the evaluation of alcohol and water content in the fuel sufficiently accurate. for practical applications.

  3. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, M; Sanli, H

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel, which is a new, renewable and biological origin alternative diesel fuel, has been receiving more attention all over the world due to the energy needs and environmental consciousness. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using food-grade vegetable oils is not economically feasible since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. Waste cooking oils, restaurant greases, soapstocks and animal fats are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, to produce fuel-grade biodiesel, the characteristics of feedstock are very important during the initial research and production stage since the fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock properties. This review paper presents both biodiesel productions from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

  4. Biomass and alcohol production potential of over-ripe plantains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedures for alcohol and protein-rich biomass production from over-ripe plantains and their peels are described. Chemical analyses indicated a significantly (P < 0.05) higher content of moisture, crude fat and protein; as well as potassium, sodium, calcium, iron and magnesium in ripe plantains than in their peels.

  5. Biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols in an ultrasonic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanh, Hoang Duc; Okitsu, Kenji; Nishimura, Rokuro; Maeda, Yasuaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Dong, Nguyen The [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2009-03-15

    The biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol and decanol was investigated at molar ratio 6:1 (alcohol:triolein) and 25 C in the presence of base catalysts (NaOH and KOH) under ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) and mechanical stirring (1800 rot/min) conditions. It was found that the rate of the alkyl ester formation under the ultrasonic irradiation condition was higher than that under the stirring condition. In addition, it was confirmed that the rate depended upon the kind of alcohols; as the number of carbon in alcohol increased, the rate of the ester formation tended to decrease. On the other hand, the secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 2-hexanol, and 2-octanol showed little ester conversion, suggesting that the steric hindrance strongly affected the transesterification of triolein. (author)

  6. Studies on the fission products behavior during dissolution process of BWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Nakai, E.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In order to obtain basic data on fission products behavior in connection with the head end process of fuel reprocessing, especially to obtain better understanding on undissolved residues, small scale dissolution studies were performed by using BWR spent fuel rods which were irradiated as monitoring fuel rods under the monitoring program for LWR fuel assembly performance entitled PROVING TEST ON RELIABILITY OF FUEL ASSEMBLY . The Zircaloy-2 claddings and the fuel pellets were subjected individually to the following studies on 1) release of fission products during dissolution process, 2) characterization of undissolved residues, and 3) analysis of the claddings. This paper presents comprehensive descriptions of the fission products behavior during dissolution process, based on detailed and through PIE conducted by JNFS under the sponsorship of MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry)

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  8. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  9. Fission product release measured during fuel damage tests at the Power Burst Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid quench and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations are offered for the probable reasons for the observed differences and recommendations for further studies are given

  10. Fission product release by fuel oxidation after water ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of data obtained by a literature search, a computer code has been established for the calculation of the degree of oxidation of the fuel in the damaged fuel particles, and hence of the fission product release as a function of the time period of steam ingress. (orig.) [de

  11. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  12. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The ....... Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  13. Secondary products and consumption of sugar during continuous alcoholic fermentation of starchy media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhmanovich, B M; Yarovenko, V L; Makeev, D M; Belov, E M

    1976-01-01

    Continuous alcohol fermentation in different media containing starch as the carbon source and final analysis of products indicated that 93.3% glucose is converted into ethanol and CO/sub 2/, 2.78% metabolized by the yeast cells, 2.4% converted into glycerol, 0.036% into acetic acid, 0.25% into lactic acid, and a nonsignificant percentage was changed into other organic acids and higher alcohols.

  14. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    fuel in NATO countries will have some amount of FAME present. There is some work being done on hydrocarbon alternatives but the regulatory structure ... synthesis or hydrotreatment – Requirements and test methods.” According to the specification, paraffinic diesel fuel does not meet the current requirements...or international specification for triglyceride based fuel oils (straight vegetable oil / raw vegetable oil). The same holds true for alcohol-based

  15. Artificial photosynthesis for production of hydrogen peroxide and its fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    The reducing power released from photosystem I (PSI) via ferredoxin enables the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, which is essential in the Calvin-Benson cycle to make sugars in photosynthesis. Alternatively, PSI can reduce O2 to produce hydrogen peroxide as a fuel. This article describes the artificial version of the photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from water and O2 using solar energy. Hydrogen peroxide is used as a fuel in hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to make electricity. The combination of the photocatalytic H2O2 production from water and O2 using solar energy with one-compartment H2O2 fuel cells provides on-site production and usage of H2O2 as a more useful and promising solar fuel than hydrogen. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--The design and engineering of electronc transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Release of fission products from irradiated aluminide fuel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Toshikazu; Kanda, Keiji; Mishima, Kaichiro; Tamai, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Snelgrove, James L.; Stahl, David; Matos, James E.; Travelli, Armando; Case, F. Neil; Posey, John C.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiated uranium aluminide fuel plates of 40% U-235 enrichment were heated for the determination of fission products released under flowing helium gas at temperatures up to and higher than the melting point of fuel cladding material. The release of fission products from the fuel plate at temperature below 500 deg. C was found negligible. The first rapid release of fission products was observed with the occurrence of blistering at 561±1 deg. C on the plates. The next release at 585. C might be caused by melting of the cladding material of 6061-Al alloy. The last release of fission product gases was occurred at the eutectic temperature of 640 deg. C of U-Al x . The released material was mostly xenon, but small amounts of iodine and cesium were observed. (author)

  17. Release of fission products from irradiated aluminide fuel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, T.; Kanda, K.; Mishima, K.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiated uranium aluminide fuel plates of 40% U-235 enrichment were heated for the determination of fission products released under flowing helium gas at temperatures up to and higher than the melting point of fuel-cladding material. The release of fission products from the fuel plate at temperature below 500 0 C was found negligible. The firist rapid release of fission products was observed with the occurrence of blistering at 561 +- 1 0 C on the plates. The next release at 585 0 C might be caused by melting of the cladding material of 6061-Al alloy. The last release of fission product gases was occurred at the eutectic temperature of 640 0 C of U-Al/sub x/. The released material was mostly xenon, but small amounts of iodine and cesium were observed

  18. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  19. Production logistic for an attack nuclear submarine squadron fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  20. Yeast physiology and flavour formation during production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.

    1999-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer is performed with immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. uvarum . In the reactor, combined stress factors such as low temperature (0-4°C) and anaerobic conditions limit cell

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  4. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    A base case flow sheet for the production of higher alcohols from coal derived synthesis gas has been completed, including an economic analysis. The details of the flow sheet and economics are in Appendix 1. The pay back period for the capital investment for the plant has been calculated as a function of the market price of the product, and this figure is also shown as Figure I in Appendix 1. The estimated installed cost is almost $500 MM, and the estimated annual operating cost is $64 MM. At a price in the vicinity of $1.00/gal for the alcohol product, the pay back period for construction of the plant is four years. These values should be considered preliminary, since many of the capital costs were obtained from other paper studies sponsored by DOE and TVA and very few values could be found from actual plants which were built. This issue is currently being addressed. The most expensive capital costs were found to be the gasifier, the cryogenic air separation plant, the steam/power generation plant and the acid gas/sulfur removal processes taken as a whole. It is planned to focus attention on alternatives to the base case. The problem is that it is less expensive to make syngas from natural gas. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the cost of syngas from coal. This is where the energy park concept becomes important. In order for this process to be economical (at current market and political conditions) a method must be found to reduce the cost of syngas manufacture either by producing energy or by-products. Energy is produced in the base case, but the amount and method has not been optimized. The economic arguments for this concept are detailed in Appendix 2.

  5. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Juergen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  6. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  7. A techno-economic analysis of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince-Richard, S.; Whale, M.; Djilali, N.

    2000-01-01

    Fueling is a central issue in the development of fuel cell systems, especially for transportation applications. Which fuels will be used to provide the necessary hydrogen and what kind of production / distribution infrastructure will be required are key questions for the large scale market penetration of fuel cell vehicles. Methanol, gasoline and hydrogen are currently the three most seriously considered fuel options. Primarily because of economic considerations, these energy currencies would all be largely produced from fossil fuel sources in the near future. One problem in using fossil fuel sources as a feedstock is their associated emissions, in particular greenhouse gases. This paper presents some elements of a study currently underway to assess the techno-economic prospects of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

  8. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    The energy consumption around the globe is on the rise due to the exponential population growth and urbanization. There is a need for alternative and non-conventional energy sources, which are CO{sub 2}-neutral, and a need to produce less or no environmental pollutants and to have high energy efficiency. One of the alternative approaches is hydrogen economy with the fuel cell (FC) technology which is forecasted to lead to a sustainable society. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is recognized as a potential fuel and clean energy carrier being at the same time a carbon-free element. Moreover, H{sub 2} is utilized in many processes in chemical, food, metallurgical, and pharmaceutical industry and it is also a valuable chemical in many reactions (e.g. refineries). Non-renewable resources have been the major feedstock for H{sub 2} production for many years. At present, {approx}50% of H{sub 2} is produced via catalytic steam reforming of natural gas followed by various down-stream purification steps to produce {approx}99.99% H{sub 2}, the process being highly energy intensive. Henceforth, bio-fuels like biomass derived alcohols (e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-glycerol), can be viable raw materials for the H{sub 2} production. In a membrane based reactor, the reaction and selective separation of H{sub 2} occur simultaneously in one unit, thus improving the overall reactor efficiency. The main motivation of this work is to produce H{sub 2} more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way from bio-alcohols with a high H{sub 2} selectivity, purity and yield. In this thesis, the work was divided into two research areas, the first being the catalytic studies using metal decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalysts in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) at low temperatures (<450 deg C). The second part was the study of steam reforming (SR) and the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions in a membrane reactor (MR) using dense and composite Pd-based membranes to produce high purity H{sub 2}. CNTs

  9. Production, characterization and acceptability of pineapple liqueurs prepared with different alcoholic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Resende Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters and the acceptability of liquors pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merri, produced with different alcoholic bases: rum, flavored with pineapple peel and rum doubly distilled grain alcohol, were performed in this study. We conducted analyzes of alcoholic strength, density, pH, soluble solids, total fixed and volatile acidity, dry, and sensory analysis through the affective test of acceptability with 100 judges using 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate the attributes color, flavor , odor and overall impression, and purchase intent test. The average alcohol content found for all treatments was 25% v / v, a value that lies within the limits of the Brazilian law. The values of dry matter, fixed acidity, density and L * is not distinguished between treatments. The color parameters L *, a *, b *, chroma and H °, and the results of the analysis of the total acidity, soluble solid showed up only statistically different for liquor-based grain alcohol. The average pH differed for rum-based liqueur. All liquors showed good acceptability, averaging above 6 and 49% of the panelists claimed that the product would probably buy pineapple liqueur made with different alcoholic bases. The liquor made of only rum was the most accepted as the global average of items analyzed.

  10. Recoil release of fission products from nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical approximation is developed for calculating recoil release from nuclear fuel into gas filled interspaces. This expression is evaluated for a number of interspace geometries and shown to be generally accurate to within about 10% by comparison with numerical calculations. The results are applied to situations of physical interest and it is demonstrated that recoil can be important when modelling fission product release from low temperature CAGR pin failures. Furthermore, recoil can contribute significantly in experiments on low temperature fission product release, particularly where oxidation enhancement of this release is measured by exposing the fuel to CO 2 . The calculations presented here are one way of allowing for this, other methods are suggested. (orig.)

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  12. Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozbas, Kahraman

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

  13. Carbon-Supported PtRuMo Electrocatalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L.G. Fierro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The review article discusses the current status and recent findings of our investigations on the synthesis and characterization of carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In particular, the effect of the carbon support and the composition on the structure, stability and the activity of the PtRuMo nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of CO, methanol and ethanol have been studied. Different physicochemical techniques have been employed for the analysis of the catalysts structures: X-ray analytical methods (XRD, XPS, TXRF, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, as well as a number of electrochemical techniques like CO adsorption studies, current-time curves and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Furthermore, spectroscopic methods adapted to the electrochemical systems for in situ studies, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS, have been used to evaluate the oxidation process of CO, methanol and ethanol over the carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts.

  14. Ceria-thoria pellet manufacturing in preparation for plutonia-thoria LWR fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drera, Saleem S., E-mail: saleem.drera@scatec.no [Thor Energy AS, Karenslyst allé 9C, 0278 Oslo (Norway); Björk, Klara Insulander [Thor Energy AS, Karenslyst allé 9C, 0278 Oslo (Norway); Sobieska, Matylda [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Nuclear Materials, Os allé 5, NO-1777, Halden (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    Thorium dioxide (thoria) has potential to assist in niche roles as fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). One such application for thoria is its use as the fertile component to burn plutonium in a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Thor Energy and an international consortium are currently irradiating plutonia-thoria (Th-MOX) fuel in an effort to produce data for its licensing basis. During fuel-manufacturing research and development (R&D), surrogate materials were utilized to highlight procedures and build experience. Cerium dioxide (ceria) provides a good surrogate platform to replicate the chemical nature of plutonium dioxide. The project’s fuel manufacturing R&D focused on powder metallurgical techniques to ensure manufacturability with the current commercial MOX fuel production infrastructure. The following paper highlights basics of the ceria-thoria fuel production including powder milling, pellet pressing and pellet sintering. Green pellets and sintered pellets were manufactured with average densities of 67.0% and 95.5% that of theoretical density respectively. - Highlights: • High quality Ce−Th fuel production can be accomplished by utilizing powder metallurgical procedures. • Powder morphology is key to obtaining high density fuels. • Optimal pellet pressing is obtained when 3.5–4 tons of force is applied by the pellet press for powder compaction. • Pellet sintering is accomplished effectively in an Air oxidizing atmosphere. • Based on this surrogate work, expected (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel density is 95.5% of theoretical density.

  15. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  16. Fission product release from high gap-inventory LWR fuel under LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fission product release tests were performed with light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod segments containing large amounts of cesium and iodine in the pellet-to-cladding gap space in order to check the validity of the previously published Source Term Model for this type of fuel. The model describes the release of fission product cesium and iodine from LWR fuel rods for controlled loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) transients in the temperature range 500 to 1200 0 C. The basis for the model was test data obtained with simulated fuel rods and commercial fuel irradiated to high burnup but containing relatively small amounts of cesium and iodine in the pellet-to-cladding gap space

  17. Optimization of alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Caillaud, J.M.; Galzy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke extracts by yeasts with inulinase activity is possible, without prior hydrolysis or sterilization, if carried out at pH 3.5. For semi-continuous production, a small amount of the yeast harvested at the end of the previous fermentation can be used as the subsequent inoculant. Up to 75 hl of alcohol per ha can be obtained by this process under favorable energetic conditions. A partial inhibition of the fermentation was detected in extracts obtained from tubers harvested too early; this inhibition seems unrelated to the extent of polymerization of sugars. (Refs. 9).

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  19. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  20. Enzymatic production of alkyl esters through alcoholysis: A critical evaluation of lipases and alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Deng; Xu, Xuebing; Gudmundur G, Haraldsson

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on a detailed evaluation of commercially available immobilized lipases and simple monohydric alcohols for the production of alkyl esters from sunflower oil by enzymatic alcoholysis. Six lipases were tested with seven alcohols, including straight and branched-chain primary...... in an increased degree of conversion for all lipases except Novozym 435. The secondary alcohol 2-propanol significantly reduced the alcoholysis reaction with all lipases; however, the branch-chain isobutanol was more advantageous than linear 1-butanol for Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM, and Lipase PS-C. Many...

  1. Development of the alcohol waste processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kiyoshi; Ooyama, Etsuo; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Oohara, Norikazu

    2004-01-01

    In the experimental fast Reactor JOYO, gripper of Fuel Handling Machine and Ex-Vessel Transfer Machine that the sodium adhered is being washed with alcohol. This radioactive alcohol waste that was used to the washing is stored to the tank. If it is able to separate the alcohol and sodium in the alcohol waste it becomes possible to dispose of the alcohol waste. Japan Nuclear Institute and Fuji Electric Systems CO., LTD. Developed the device that adds carbonic acid gas to the alcohol waste and cause the sodium in the alcohol waste separated as carbonate and remove this carbonate by using the thin film evaporator. (author)

  2. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  3. An integrated approach for safer, productive and reliable PHWR fuel manufacturing at NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2013-01-01

    India has been pursuing three-stage nuclear power programme and has developed comprehensive capabilities in all aspects of nuclear power and fuel cycle and is now recognized as a country with advanced nuclear technologies in the comity of nations. The first stage of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) based on natural uranium has reached a state of maturity. In view of civilian nuclear safeguards agreement with NSG and IAEA, Nuclear Power Reactors in India and associated fuel manufacturing facilities at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) are grouped into IAEA safeguarded and out-of-safeguarded facilities. The civilian nuclear energy generation has to be accelerated for achieving energy security for the country. NFC has pioneered manufacturing technologies of UO 2 fuel, fuel clad and structural components for the PHWRs 220, 540 and PHWR700. Nearly 20 GWe of nuclear energy generation is being planned through PHWR route. Several technological improvements that were carried out recently in the production lines are the key to achieve higher productivity and safety. NFC has also been pursuing capacity augmentation by adding newer equipment in the existing facility and setting up new plants both for uranium production as well as zirconium production. Flexible manufacturing systems consisting of automatic workstations and robots were introduced in the 19 and 37 element PHWR fuel assembly lines. Various safety measures were introduced right from design stage for improving radiological safety for workmen. State-of-art equipment were designed, developed and commissioned for reduction/elimination of fatigue-oriented operations. In addition to natural uranium oxide fuel, NFC has also successfully manufactured virgin slightly enriched uranium (SEU) fuel and reprocessed depleted uranium fuels which were irradiated in the operating PHWRs. The paper brings out NFC's role in Indian nuclear power program and its manufacturing capabilities for types of PHWR fuel, zircaloy structural

  4. Production of Solar Fuels by Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Irtem, Ibrahim Erdem

    2017-01-01

    Growing global emission of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) reflects the world’s energy dependence on fossil fuels. The conversion of CO2 emission into value-added products, like fuels completes a circular CO2 economy which requires a renewable energy conversion and storage system. Amongst a few, photo/electrochemistry has been particularly appealing thanks to its energy efficiency and enormous potential for industrial applications. Formic acid (HCOOH) production from CO2 reduction appears as an al...

  5. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  6. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic engineering on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols during Chinese Baijiu fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Acetate esters and higher alcohols greatly influence the quality and flavor profiles of Chinese Baijiu (Chinese liquor). Various mutants have been constructed to investigate the interactions of ATF1 overexpression, IAH1 deletion, and BAT2 deletion on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols. The results showed that the overexpression of ATF1 under the control of the PGK1 promoter with BAT2 and IAH1 double-gene deletion led to a higher production of acetate esters and a lower production of higher alcohols than the overexpression of ATF1 with IAH1 deletion or overexpression of ATF1 with BAT2 deletion. Moreover, deletion of IAH1 in ATF1 overexpression strains effectively increased the production of isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by reducing the hydrolysis of acetate esters. The decline in the production of higher alcohol by the ATF1 overexpression strains with BAT2 deletion is due to the interaction of ATF1 overexpression and BAT2 deletion. Mutants with varying abilities of producing acetate esters and higher alcohols were developed by genetic engineering. These strains have great potential for industrial application.

  7. Improvement of performance and reduction of pollutant emission of a four stroke spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen-gasoline fuel mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq; Al-Janabi, Haroun Abdul-Kadim Shahad [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emissions of a four stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. A detailed model to simulate a four stroke cycle of a spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen-ethyl alcohol-gasoline has been used to study the effect of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol blending on the thermodynamic cycle of the engine. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline S.I.E. with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. It has been found that 4% of hydrogen and 30% of ethyl alcohol blending causes a 49% reduction in CO emission, a 39% reduction in NO{sub x} emission, a 49% reduction in specific fuel consumption and increases in the thermal efficiency and output power by 5 and 4%, respectively. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporised, and this causes a reduction in both the brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  8. Design and analysis of fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, J.A.; Cardona, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Three configurations for fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol using Escherichia coli were simulated and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus, respectively. These assessments considered raw glycerol (60 wt%) purification to both crude glycerol (88 wt%) and pure glycerol (98 wt%). The highest purification cost (PC) was obtained using pure glycerol due to its higher energy consumption in the distillation stage. In addition, the remaining methanol in the raw glycerol stream was recovered and recycled, decreasing the purification costs. The E. coli strain is able to convert crude glycerol (at 10 g/L or 20 g/L), or pure glycerol (at 10 g/L) to ethanol. Among these three glycerol concentrations, the lowest bioconversion cost was obtained when crude glycerol was diluted at 20 g/L. Purification and global production costs were compared with the commercial prices of glycerol and fuel ethanol from corn and sugarcane. Purification costs of raw glycerol were lower than previously reported values due to the methanol recovery. Global production costs for fuel ethanol from glycerol were lower than the reported values for corn-based production and higher than those for cane-based production. (author)

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  10. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, J D

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered.

  11. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.D.

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered

  12. Highly Zeolite-Loaded Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel-Cell Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ya Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Having a secure and stable energy supply is a top priority for the global community. Fuel-cell technology is recognized as a promising electrical energy generation system for the twenty-first century. Polyvinyl alcohol/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (PVA/ZIF-8 composite membranes were successfully prepared in this work from direct ZIF-8 suspension solution (0–45.4 wt % and PVA mixing to prevent filler aggregation for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells (DMAFCs. The ZIF-8 fillers were chosen for the appropriate cavity size as a screening aid to allow water and suppress methanol transport. Increased ionic conductivities and suppressed methanol permeabilities were achieved for the PVA/40.5% ZIF-8 composites, compared to other samples. A high power density of 173.2 mW cm−2 was achieved using a KOH-doped PVA/40.5% ZIF-8 membrane in a DMAFC at 60 °C with 1–2 mg cm−2 catalyst loads. As the filler content was raised beyond 45.4 wt %, adverse effects resulted and the DMAFC performance (144.9 mW cm−2 was not improved further. Therefore, the optimal ZIF-8 content was approximately 40.5 wt % in the polymeric matrix. The specific power output was higher (58 mW mg−1 than most membranes reported in the literature (3–18 mW mg−1.

  13. Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin for Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders

    at higher loadings. The effect of increased reaction time was found to be beneficial for oil yields but also caused an increase in solvent consumption and so there is a trade-off where a compromise has to be found in the event of an up scaled reaction. The reactions that cause solvent consumption during......Lignocellulosic biorefineries can be an important piece of the puzzle in fighting climate change. Present, biorefineries that produce ethanol from lignocellulose are challenged in working on market terms as the two product streams ethanol and lignin are low value products. The aim of this project...... has been to increase the value of the lignin stream. Recent regulations on shipping exhaust gasses in coastal waters dictate lower sulfur emissions which require ships to use low sulfur fuels for propulsion. This opens or expands a very large market for low sulfur fuels because a shift from...

  14. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  15. Alcohol in Mayan Guatemala: consumption, distribution, production and composition of cuxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    To describe the consumption, distribution, production and chemical composition of alcohol, including cuxa (pronounced 'coo sha'), in Nahualá, a highland Mayan municipality in Guatemala. Cuxa is a sugarcane-derived spirit, in part produced clandestinely, that has been distributed in the community for several decades. Key informant interviews with alcohol distributors and consumers, cuxa producers and health professionals, as well as analyses of questionnaires from a sample of 47 spouses who came to the local health centre for problems related to their husband's drinking. Sampling and chemical analysis of cuxa from 12 of 13 identified sales points in the head-town of Nahualá and its nearby settlements (10 km radius). Fieldwork was conducted between November 2007 and March 2008. Alcohol consumption was found to be integrated culturally in this community. The overall drinking culture was marked by irregular heavy drinking occasions, especially around market days, with substantial inebriation and health problems, especially among street inhabiting drinkers. Cuxa contributed to these problems, and cuxa drinking was socially stigmatized. Cuxa was produced both clandestinely and industrially, and sold legally by taverns and illegally by clandestine distributors. The alcoholic strength of the samples was typically between 17 and 19% vol.; clandestinely produced cuxa samples showed acetaldehyde contamination. Measures should be taken to reduce the harm associated with alcohol in this community, including efforts to reduce acetaldehyde levels in cuxa.

  16. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates to liquid alkanes for transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaohui; Yang, Ruishu; Wang, Xin; Yan, Shaokang

    2018-04-01

    An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C 5 -C 20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA) can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites. After this process, the oxygen content decreased from 22.1 wt% in the oligomers of FA to 0.58 wt% in the hydrodeoxygenation products.

  17. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  18. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  19. Low fermentation pH is a trigger to alcohol production, but a killer to chain elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon eGanigué

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of organic wastes coupled to syngas fermentation allows the recovery of carbon in the form of commodity chemicals, such as carboxylates and biofuels. Acetogenic bacteria ferment syngas to mainly two-carbon compounds, although a few strains can also synthesize four-, and six-carbon molecules. In general, longer carbon chain products have a higher biotechnological (and commercial value due to their higher energy content and their lower water solubility. However, de-novo synthesis of medium-chain products from syngas is quite uncommon in bacteria. An alternative to de-novo synthesis is bioproduction of short-chain products (C2 and C4, and their subsequent elongation to C4, C6 or C8 through reversed β-oxidation metabolism. This two-step synergistic approach has been successfully applied for the production of up to C8 compounds, although, the accumulation of alcohols in these mixed cultures remained below detection limits. The present work investigates the production of higher alcohols from syngas by open mixed cultures (OMC. A syngas-fermenting community was enriched from sludge of an anaerobic digester for a period of 110 days in a lab-scale reactor. At the end of this period, stable production of ethanol and butanol was obtained. C6 compounds were only transiently produced at the beginning of the enrichment phase, during which Clostridium kluyveri, a bacterium able to carry out carbon chain elongation, was detected in the community. Further experiments showed pH as a critical parameter to maintain chain elongation activity in the co-culture. Production of C6 compounds was recovered by preventing fermentation pH to decrease below pH 4.5-5. Finally, experiments showed maximal production of C6 compounds (0.8 g/L and alcohols (1.7 g/L of ethanol, 1.1 g/L of butanol and 0.6 g/L of hexanol at pH 4.8. In conclusion, low fermentation pH is critical for the production of alcohols, although detrimental to C. kluyveri. Fine control of

  20. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels.

  1. Current developments of fuel fabrication technologies at the plutonium fuel production facility, PFPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, K.; Aono, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Deguchi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, JNC, designed, constructed and has operated the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, PFPF, at the JNC Tokai Works to supply MOX fuels to the proto-type Fast Breeder Reactor, FBR, 'MONJU' and the experimental FBR 'JOYO' with 5 tonMOX/year of fabrication capability. Reduction of personal radiation exposure to a large amount of plutonium is one of the most important subjects in the development of MOX fabrication facility on a large scale. As the solution of this issue, the PFPF has introduced automated and/or remote controlled equipment in conjunction with computer controlled operation scheme. The PFPF started its operation in 1988 with JOYO reload fuel fabrication and has demonstrated MOX fuel fabrication on a large scale through JOYO and MONJU fuel fabrication for this decade. Through these operations, it has become obvious that several numbers of equipment initially installed in the PFPF need improvements in their performance and maintenance for commercial utilization of plutonium in the future. Furthermore, fuel fabrication of low density MOX pellets adopted in the MONJU fuel required a complete inspection because of difficulties in pellet fabrication compared with high density pellet for JOYO. This paper describes new pressing equipment with a powder recovery system, and pellet finishing and inspection equipment which has multiple functions, such as grinding measurements of outer diameter and density, and inspection of appearance to improve efficiency in the pellet finishing and inspection steps. Another development of technology concerning an annular pellet and an innovative process for MOX fuel fabrication are also described in this paper. (author)

  2. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  3. Device for measuring the alcohol concentration in alcohol/petroleum mixtures. Vorrichtung zur Messung von Alkoholkonzentration in Alkohol-Benzin-Gemischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, G

    1983-09-01

    In a device for measuring the alcohol concentration in alcohol/petroleum mixtures, a selective diaphragm for polar and/or non-polar components of the fuel mixture is provided. This diaphragm covers the opening of the tank or the fuel pipe with one surface. It is closed by a chamber on the other side. The chamber has a fresh air inlet and is connected to a subpressure pipe to draw off the gas mixture formed in the chamber. A sensor with connected signal processing is provided near the subpressure pipe in the chamber.

  4. Alcohol: view 2000 - comparative analysis gasoline versus alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Vasconcelos, C.R. de

    1990-01-01

    The comparative analysis between alcohol and gas reveals the pros and the cons of the use of each one of those energy sources, taking as a basis an analysis of the world supply and demand of oil, and of PETROBRAS sceneries, including price expectancies for next decade, and the repercussion of PROALCOOL during its existence in the country. Regarding competitiveness, gas and the energy substitute hydrous alcohol are analyzed jointly, as an energy policy for carburetant fuels, taking into account aspects related with both the direct and the indirect cost of each energy source, as well as the benefits provided by then both. (author)

  5. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  6. 78 FR 26849 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... requirements, and asked whether the Model Specifications should limit sensor technology to alcohol-specific sensors (such as fuel cell technology based on electrochemical oxidation of alcohol) or other emerging... have demanded alcohol- specific sensor technology. [Interlocks that] are not alcohol-specific...

  7. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  8. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  9. Production of 15N for nitride type nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Nitride nuclear fuel is the choice for advanced nuclear reactors and ADS, considering its favorable properties as: melting point, excellent thermal conductivity, high fissile density, lower fission gas release and good radiation tolerance. The application of nitride fuels in different nuclear reactors requires use of 15 N enriched nitrogen to suppress 14 C production due to (n,p) reaction on 14 N. Nitride fuel is a promising candidate for transmutation in ADSs of radioactive minor actinides, which are converted into nitrides with 15 N for that purpose. Taking into account that at present the world wide 15 N market is about 20 - 40 Kg 15 N/y, the supply of that isotope for nitride type nuclear fuel, would demand an increase in production capacity by a factor of 1000. For an industrial plant producing 100 t/y 15 N at 99 at. % 15 N concentration, using present technology of 15 N/ 14 N isotopic exchange in Nitrox system, the first separation stage of the cascade would be fed with 10M HNO 3 solution at a 600 m 3 /h flow-rate. If conversion of HNO 3 into NO, NO 2 , at the enriching end of the columns, would be done with gaseous SO 2 , for an industrial plant of 100 t/y 15 N a consumption of 4 million t SO 2 /y and a production of 70 % H 2 SO 4 waste solution of 4.5 million m 3 /y are estimated. The reconversion of H 2 SO 4 into SO 2 in order to recycle SO 2 is a problem to be solved to compensate the cost of sulfur dioxide and to diminish the amount of sulfuric acid waste solution. It should be taken into consideration an important price reduction of 15 N in order to make possible its utilization for industrial production of nitride type nuclear fuel. (authors)

  10. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  11. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jarboe, Laura R.; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Moore, Jonathan C.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibito...

  12. Microbial amylases in the production of alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H J

    1970-01-01

    This book is based on experiments carried out in the experimental distillery of the University of Hohenheim on the use of microbial enzyme preparations for processing wheat and maize, with particular reference to comparison of green and cured malts. The subject is divided into the following chapters: introduction (pp. -14); raw materials (pp. 5-6); enzymic dextrinizing and saccharification agents (pp. 6-10); technology of alcohol production with microbial amylses (pp. 11-27); experiments into, results of and discussion on special problems of the mashing and fermentation process with reference to application of microbial amylases (pp. 28-45); Analytical methods (pp. 46-51); and Resume (pp. 5254).

  13. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia; Tian, Xiao-Fei; He, Song-Gui; Wei, Yun-Lu; Peng, Bin; Wu, Zhen-Qiang

    2018-05-23

    To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs) were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID). The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE) on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB) showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  14. Petroleum, alcohol, and energy substitution in Brazil: Theoretical and empirical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biller, D.

    1991-01-01

    As in other Latin American nations, the petroleum industry has always been surrounded by controversy in Brazil. Issues related to exploration, exploitation, and import of crude have received special attention by Brazilian decision makers. In the past decade, an additional relevant issue was brought into play by the oil crisis. An import substitution program for energy was implemented by the development of alternative indigenous energy sources. Among these sources, sugarcane was viewed as a reliable renewable resource for the production of fuel alcohol and, very recently, of electricity. Brazil engaged in a gigantic program of fuel substitution, which is now facing severe problems due to the fall of petroleum prices. This study analyzes the recent energy import substitution program in Brazil, specifically concentrating on microeconomic and environmental aspects of fuel substitution

  15. Fission product release in conditions of a spent fuel pool severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Depending on the residence time, fuel burnup, and fuel rack configuration, there may be sufficient decay heat for the fuel clad to heat up, swell, and burst in case of a loss of pool water. Initiating event categories can be: loss of offsite power from events initiated by severe weather, internal fire, loss of pool cooling, loss of coolant inventory, seismic event, aircraft impact, tornado, missile attack. The breach in the clad releases the radioactive gases present in the gap between the fuel and clad, what is called 'gap release'. If the fuel continues to heat up, the zirconium clad will reach the point of rapid oxidation in air. This reaction of zirconium and air, or zirconium and steam is exothermic. The energy released from the reaction, combined with the fuel's decay energy, can cause the reaction to become self-sustaining and ignite the zirconium. The increase in heat from the oxidation reaction can also raise the temperature in adjacent fuel assemblies and propagate the oxidation reaction. Simultaneously, the sintered UO 2 pellets resulting from pins destroying are oxidized. Due to the self-disintegration of pellets by oxidation, fission gases and low volatile fission products are released. The release rate, the chemical nature and the amount of fission products depend on powder granulation distribution and environmental conditions. The zirconium burning and pellets self-disintegration will result in a significant release of spent fuel fission products that will be dispersed from the reactor site. (author)

  16. Energy System Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis cells for Synthetic Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    When restricting energy production to renewable energy sources, biomass, sun and wind energy are the pillars of 100% renewable energy system after implementing energy savings. Biomass resources are limited and the sustainable use of them needs to be prioritized. Future energy systems will require...... that require high energy density fuels or reused for power generation. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production cost for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, and comparable costs of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas....

  17. Trial production of fuel pellet from Acacia mangium bark waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirta, R.; Anwar, T.; Sudrajat; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel pellet is one of the innovation products that can be produced from various sources of biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry and also wood industries including wood bark. Herein this paper, the potential fuel pellet production using Acacia mangium bark that abundant wasted from chip mill industry was studied. Fuel pellet was produced using a modified animal feed pellet press machine equipped with rotating roller-cylinders. The international standards quality of fuel pellet such as ONORM (Austria), SS (Sweden), DIN (Germany), EN (European) and ITEBE (Italy) were used to evaluate the optimum composition of feedstock and additive used. Theresults showed the quality offuel pellet produced were good compared to commercial sawdust pellet. Mixed of Acacia bark (dust) with 10% of tapioca and 20% of glycerol (w/w) was increased the stable form of pellet and the highest heating value to reached 4,383 Kcal/kg (calorific value). Blending of Acacia bark with tapioca and glycerol was positively improved its physical, chemical and combustion properties to met the international standards requirement for export market. Based on this finding, production of fuel pellet from Acacia bark waste biomass was promising to be developed as an alternative substitution of fossil energy in the future.

  18. The synthesis of higher alcohols from CO2 hydrogenation with Co, Cu, Fe-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qinqin

    2017-01-01

    CO 2 is a clean carbon source for the chemical reactions, many researchers have studied the utilization of CO 2 . Higher alcohols are clean fuel additives. The synthesis of higher alcohols from CO hydrogenation has also been studied by many researchers, but there are few literatures about the synthesis of higher alcohols from CO 2 hydrogenation, which is a complex and difficult reaction. The catalysts that used for higher alcohols synthesis need at least two active phases and good cooperation. In our study, we tested the Co. Cu. Fe spinel-based catalysts and the effect of supports (CNTs and TUD-1) and promoters (K, Na, Cs) to the HAS reaction. We found that catalyst CuFe-precursor-800 is beneficial for the synthesis of C2+ hydrocarbons and higher alcohols. In the CO 2 hydrogenation, Co acts as a methanation catalyst rather than acting as a FT catalyst, because of the different reaction mechanism between CO hydrogenation and CO 2 hydrogenation. In order to inhibit the formation of huge amount of hydrocarbons, it is better to choose catalysts without Co in the CO 2 hydrogenation reaction. Compared the functions of CNTs and TUD-1, we found that CNTs is a perfect support for the synthesis of long-chain products (higher alcohols and C2+ hydrocarbons). The TUD-1 support are more suitable for synthesis of single-carbon products (methane and methanol).The addition of alkalis as promoters does not only lead to increase the conversion of CO 2 and H 2 , but also sharply increased the selectivity to the desired products, higher alcohols. The catalyst 0.5K30CuFeCNTs owns the highest productivities (370.7 g.kg -1 .h -1 ) of higher alcohols at 350 C and 50 bar. (author) [fr

  19. Determination of the fuel component in the cost price of the energy production in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakov, M.; Velev, V.

    1997-01-01

    An approach is proposed for the determination of the fuel component in the cost price of the nuclear units production with regards of the difference between the time of the fuel consumption and the energy production. This method gives the opportunity for fuel consumption prognostication, as well as an optimization of both short and long term fueling regimes. This approach permits current update of the economic conditions and the pre-history of the investments. It can be used both for the determination of the fuel component and the full cost price of the energy production in NPPs.(author)

  20. Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Akar, Sertac; Ugurlu, Berkin

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000

  1. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomy, Catherine; Thonier, Gregoire; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mhiri, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  2. Optimization through experiment planning for determination of experimental conditions which guarantees the metrological reliability for analysis of chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol; Otimizacao via planejamento de experimento para determinar as condicoes experimentais que garantam confiabilidade metrologica para analise de cloreto e sulfato em alcool combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza e Silva, Renata; Araujo, Thiago de Oliveira [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: rsouza@inmetro.gov.br, toaraujo@inmetro.gov.br; Aguiar, Paula Fernandes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: pfaguiar@ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a method of analysis to determine chloride and sulfate in fuel alcohol which allowed eliminate or minimized the matrix effect in sample of fuel alcohol, using the Doehlert planning for the stage of optimization.

  3. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies. Se l'agricoltore semina il gasolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabasso, L.

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards.

  4. Transport of volatile fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective fuel elements during normal and reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Bonin, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been used to model the vapour transport of radioactive fission products released into the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective nuclear fuel elements. The model accounts for both diffusive and bulk-convective transport. Convective transport becomes important as a result of a significant release of gaseous fission products into the gap during a high-temperature reactor accident. However, during normal reactor operation, diffusion is shown to be the dominant process of transport. The model is based on an analysis of several in-reactor tests with operating defective fuel elements, and high-temperature annealing experiments with irradiated fuel specimens. ((orig.))

  5. Production of sugar and alcohol: financial and operational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the construction of an optimization model to define the product portfolio of a sugarcane mill, taking into account operational and financial aspects. It is considered that the revenue earned by a producer comes from the sale of sugar and alcohol in the physical market and the results obtained through hedging in the derivatives market of sugar. Employing CVaR (Conditional Value-at-Risk, as the risk measure, the model allows the construction of an efficient frontier and, according to the producer's risk tolerance, defines the optimal strategy of production (production mix and activity in the derivatives market (hedge ratio. Through the model the article also seeks to analyze the advantage of using the options market in the construction of financial hedging strategies in agricultural commodities markets.

  6. Process for the production of fuel combined articles for addition in block shaped high temperature fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a process for the production of fuel compacts consisting of an isotropic, radiation-resistant graphite matrix of good heat conductivity having embedded therein coated fuel and/or fertile particles for insertion into high temperature fuel elements by providing the coated fuel and/or fertile particles with an overcoat of molding mixture consisting of graphite powder and a thermoplastic resin binder. The particles after the overcoating are provided with hardener and lubricant only on the surface and subsequently are compressed in a die heated to a constant temperature of about 150 0 C, hardened and discharged therefrom as finished compacts

  7. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of C max , t max , area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β 60 ) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also t max (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (C max , t max, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β 60 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  9. Method of manufacturing gadolinium oxide-incorporated nuclear fuel sintering products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira; Seki, Makoto; Omori, Sadayuki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To manufacture nuclear fuel sintering products excellent in burning property and mechanical property. Constitution: In the manufacturing step for nuclear fuel sintering products, specific metal oxides are added for promoting the growth of crystal grains in the sintering. Those metal oxides melted at a temperature lower than the sintering temperature of a mixture of nuclear fuel oxide powder and oxide power, or those metal oxides causing eutectic reaction are used as the metal oxide. Particularly, those compounds having oxygen atom - metal atom ratio (O/M) of not less than 2 are preferably used. As such metal oxides usable herein transition metal oxides, e.g., Nb 2 O 5 , TiO 2 , MoO 3 and WO 3 are preferred, with Nb 2 O 3 and TiO 2 being preferred particularly. (Seki, T.)

  10. Concepts for fusion fuel production blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of the fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the DT fusion reaction is converted into useable product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. Blankets will involve new materials, conditions and processes. Several recent fusion blanket concepts are presented to illustrate the range of ideas

  11. Cost Analysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stacks for Mass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francesco Sgroi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are very promising technologies for efficient electrical energy generation. The development of enhanced system components and new engineering solutions is fundamental for the large-scale deployment of these devices. Besides automotive and stationary applications, fuel cells can be widely used as auxiliary power units (APUs. The concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC is based on the direct feed of a methanol solution to the fuel cell anode, thus simplifying safety, delivery, and fuel distribution issues typical of conventional hydrogen-fed polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs. In order to evaluate the feasibility of concrete application of DMFC devices, a cost analysis study was carried out in the present work. A 200 W-prototype developed in the framework of a European Project (DURAMET was selected as the model system. The DMFC stack had a modular structure allowing for a detailed evaluation of cost characteristics related to the specific components. A scale-down approach, focusing on the model device and projected to a mass production, was used. The data used in this analysis were obtained both from research laboratories and industry suppliers specialising in the manufacturing/production of specific stack components. This study demonstrates that mass production can give a concrete perspective for the large-scale diffusion of DMFCs as APUs. The results show that the cost derived for the DMFC stack is relatively close to that of competing technologies and that the introduction of innovative approaches can result in further cost savings.

  12. Breaking Bad in Mississippi: Do County-Level Alcohol Sale Bans Encourage Crystal Methamphetamine Production and Consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granger Maury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If alcohol has substitutes, changes in its relative price can encourage the production and consumption of other illicit and harmful drugs. This paper considers if county-level bans on the sale of alcohol in the state of Mississippi encourage the production and consumption of crystal methamphetamine. We estimate the parameters of a drug production function in which the inputs are the density of people and firms, underscoring the importance of learning and knowledge spillovers to production and consumption. Poisson and Negative Binomial parameter estimates reveal that county-level bans on hard liquor sales; but not on beer and wine, increase the number of crystal methamphetamine labs. In the absence of such laws, there would be approximately 308 fewer crystal methamphetamine labs in the state of Mississippi. Our findings suggest that in Mississippi, which is the least healthiest state in the nation, county-level bans on hard liquor sales are not welfare improving as they encourage substitution for a drug that is potentially more harmful to individual health than alcohol.

  13. GC of catalytic reactions products involved in the promising fuel synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheivot, V.; Sazonova, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Boreskov Inst. of Catalysis

    2012-09-15

    Catalytic reactions involved in the synthesis of the promising kinds of novel fuel and products formed in these reactions were systematized according to the resulting fuel type. Generalization of the retention of the substances comprising these products is presented. Chromatograms exhibiting their separation on chromatographic materials with the surface of different chemical properties are summarized. We propose procedures for gas-chromatographic analysis of the catalytic reactions products formed in the synthesis of hydrogen, methanol, dimethyl ether and hydrocarbons as a new generation of fuel alternative to petroleum and coal. For partial oxidation of methane into synthesis gas, on-line determination of the components obtained in the reaction was carried out by gas chromatography and gas analyzer based on different physicochemical methods (IR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods). Similarity of the results obtained using these methods is demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Influence of Uranium and Polivinyl Alcohol Concentration in the Feed of Sol Gel Process on the Gel Spherical Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indra Suryawan; Endang Susiantini

    2007-01-01

    The gel particles have been made at various uranium and polyvinyl alcohol concentration in the sol gel process. The variables of uranium concentration were 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 0.9; 1.1; 1.3; 1.5; 1.7; 1.9 and 2.1 M The variables of polyvinyl alcohol concentration were 0.3; 0.6; 0.9; 1.2; 1.5; 1.8; 2.1 and 2.4 M After drying the sol gel process products were heated at 300, 500 and 750°C during 4 hours. The gel particles were characterized using an optic microscope to know the shape and condition morphology of gel. From experimental result using uranium concentration of 0.3 until 2.1 M and polyvinyl alcohol of 1.8 until 2.4 M spherical and gel was formed elastic, after heating at 750°C it was unbreakable. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.3 to 0.5 M, the gel product was soft and broken after being dried. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.6 to 0.8 M, the dried gel product was not perfect. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.9 to 1.7 M, the gel product of gelation process was spherical and it was broken after being heated up to 300°C. (author)

  15. New technologies in the production of motor fuels from renewable materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnađević Borivoj K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents resources of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina available for bioethanol and motor fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel from sustainable resources: corn-stalks, straw, sweet sorghum, pork fat. The physicochemical basis for novel processes for motor fuel production is coupling microwave pyrolysis of oil shale and catalytic cracking of purified pyrolysis oil, hydrothermal liquefaction of algae and swine manure. The effects of the degree of purification of crude pyrolysis oil and oil shale on the degree of their conversion to gasoline and diesel fuel, as well as the product distribution are investigated. The effects of the duration and temperature of hydrothermal liquefaction of microalga, Botryoccocus braunii, and swine manure on their degrees of conversion into bio-oil and its thermal properties are investigated. The development of novel strategy of biofuel in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is presented.

  16. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  17. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  18. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend membranes for fuel cell applications - Surface energy characteristics and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakasabai, P.; Vijay, P.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Varughese, Susy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2011-02-01

    Ionic polymers, their blends and composites are considered potential candidates for application as electrolytes in fuel cells. While developing new materials for membranes, it is important to understand the interactions of these electrolytic materials with electrodes/catalysts and with reactants/products. Some of these interactions can be understood by estimating the surface energy and wettability of the membrane materials. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol with varying degrees of sulfonation and its blend with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) are prepared and studied for their wettability characteristics using goniometry. The surface energy and its components are estimated using different approaches and compared. Properties such as the ion-exchange capacity, the proton conductivity and the water sorption/desorption behaviour are also investigated to understand the relationship with wettability and surface energy and its components. Among the different methods, the van Oss acid-base and the modified Berthelot approaches yield comparable estimates for the total surface energy. (author)

  19. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID. The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  20. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  1. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-06-17

    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  2. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu; Niemann, Ulrich; Selim, Hatem; Cattolica, Robert J.; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  3. 21 CFR 328.10 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 328.10 Section 328.10 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Ingredients § 328.10 Alcohol. (a) Any over-the-counter (OTC) drug product intended for oral ingestion shall not contain alcohol...

  4. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  5. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  6. Micro-structured nuclear fuel and novel nuclear reactor concepts for advanced power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    Many applications (e.g. terrestrial and space electric power production, naval, underwater and railroad propulsion and auxiliary power for isolated regions) require a compact-high-power electricity source. The development of such a reactor structure necessitates a deeper understanding of fission energy transport and materials behavior in radiation dominated structures. One solution to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions and delay the catastrophic events' occurrences may be the development of massive nuclear power. The actual basic conceptions in nuclear reactors are at the base of the bottleneck in enhancements. The current nuclear reactors look like high security prisons applied to fission products. The micro-bead heterogeneous fuel mesh gives the fission products the possibility to acquire stable conditions outside the hot zones without spilling, in exchange for advantages - possibility of enhancing the nuclear technology for power production. There is a possibility to accommodate the materials and structures with the phenomenon of interest, the high temperature fission products free fuel with near perfect burning. This feature is important to the future of nuclear power development in order to avoid the nuclear fuel peak, and high price increase due to the immobilization of the fuel in the waste fuel nuclear reactor pools. (author)

  7. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates to liquid alkanes for transportation fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C5–C20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites. After this process, the oxygen content decreased from 22.1 wt% in the oligomers of FA to 0.58 wt% in the hydrodeoxygenation products.

  8. Effects of Maillard reaction products in a glucose-glycine alcoholic solution on antioxidative and antimutagenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Chang, Wen-Chang; Zeng, Yi-Ming; Lin, Ru-Hai; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2018-04-12

    Marinating meat with alcohol, such as wine and beer, is a common culinary practice in cultures worldwide. This study we use a model marination solution comprising 0.2 M glucose-0.2 M glycine buffered to pH 4.3 containing either 0% or 50% ethanol and mimicked the cooking process by heating for 12 h. Antioxidative and antimutagenic characteristics of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated. Reducing power, antioxidant activity (Fe 2+ chelating ability) and free radical neutralization ability generated from DPPH and ABTS were determined. Ames testing was performed. Results indicate that MRPs from aqueous and alcoholic solution exhibit four antioxidative assays in a dose-dependent manner from 0.16 to 10.00 mg mL -1 . However, MRPs from the alcoholic model was superior. In Ames testing, MRPs from both models are neither toxic nor mutagenic at the test concentrations of 0.63-10.00 mg plate -1 . However, MRPs from the alcoholic model exhibited a higher inhibitory effect on the direct-acting mutagen 4-NQNO compared to the aqueous model. This result is consistent with the observation that MRPs with higher antioxidative capacity exhibit superior antimutagenic activity, suggesting that there are more different products in the alcoholic model. Our results add to the current knowledge about the antioxidative and antimutagenic properties of Maillard reaction products arising when food is cooked in the presence of ethanol. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel formula for lighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.

    1982-04-10

    A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.

  10. Cooperative electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation with electron-proton-transfer mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, Artavazd; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2016-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of alcohols is a major focus of energy and chemical conversion efforts, with potential applications ranging from fuel cells to biomass utilization and fine-chemical synthesis. Small-molecule electrocatalysts for processes of this type are promising targets for further development, as demonstrated by recent advances in nickel catalysts for electrochemical production and oxidation of hydrogen. Complexes with tethered amines that resemble the active site of hydrogenases have been shown both to catalyse hydrogen production (from protons and electrons) with rates far exceeding those of such enzymes and to mediate reversible electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation with enzyme-like performance. Progress in electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation has been more modest. Nickel complexes similar to those used for hydrogen oxidation have been shown to mediate efficient electrochemical oxidation of benzyl alcohol, with a turnover frequency of 2.1 per second. These compounds exhibit poor reactivity with ethanol and methanol, however. Organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine N-oxyl), are the most widely studied electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. These catalysts exhibit good activity (1-2 turnovers per second) with a wide range of alcohols and have great promise for electro-organic synthesis. Their use in energy-conversion applications, however, is limited by the high electrode potentials required to generate the reactive oxoammonium species. Here we report (2,2‧-bipyridine)Cu/nitroxyl co-catalyst systems for electrochemical alcohol oxidation that proceed with much faster rates, while operating at an electrode potential a half-volt lower than that used for the TEMPO-only process. The (2,2‧-bipyridine)Cu(II) and TEMPO redox partners exhibit cooperative reactivity and exploit the low-potential, proton-coupled TEMPO/TEMPOH redox process rather than the high-potential TEMPO/TEMPO+ process. The results show how

  11. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning wood fuels production was 36. The main goals of the research are to develop new production methods for wood fuels in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels (100 km distance). The second goal is to decrease the small scale production costs by 20 % as compared with the 1992 technology level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the programme. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 in this programme are presented in this publication. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research areas because they seem to be most promising. Most of the projects are focused in the wood fuel production from first thinnings and from final fellings. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. The follow up project of Evaluation-drum chipper was completed with good fuel quality and productivity results. Also the large Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was completed. The project was a significant technology transfer and information dissemination project. (orig.)

  12. The use of ultrasound for the fabrication of fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollet, Bruno G. [PEM Fuel Cell Research Group, Centre for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Road, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reviews the use and advantages of ultrasound for the preparation of fuel cell materials which is currently an emerging research area. The review also focuses on recent studies of ultrasonic, sonochemical and sonoelectrochemical production of noble metals and fuel cell electrocatalysts, carbon supported electrocatalysts, fuel cell electrodes and membranes. It is shown that ultrasound can be used as an effective method for producing nanosize mono- and bi-metallics (<10 nm) in the absence and presence of surfactants and alcohols. In most cases, the formation of nano-metallics is attributed to radical species (H. and OH.) generated by water sonolysis induced by cavitation whereby the nano-metallic size strongly depends upon the ultrasonic frequency and time, the type of surfactant, alcohol and atmospheric gas. It is also shown that the sonochemical production of carbon-supported mono- and bi-metallic catalysts gives excellent electrochemical activity due to surface functionalisation of the support and better dispersion induced by ultrasound. These observations are mainly due to enhanced mass-transfer caused by asymmetrical collapse of cavitation bubbles at the surface support leading to the formation of high velocity jets of liquid being directed toward its surface. This jetting, together with acoustic streaming, is thought to lead to random punctuation and disruption of the mass-transfer at the surface. (author)

  13. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2001-01-01

    and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper...... substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing, in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a variety of sugars......With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fue