WorldWideScience

Sample records for fucus vesiculosus extract

  1. Extraction, characterization and application of antioxidants from the Nordic brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun

    investigated the possibilities of using extracts from Nordic F. vesiculosus as natural antioxidants in food and skin care products. All tested food products were fortified with fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The fish oil was added specifically in order to examine the effectiveness.......g. in the formulation of functional foods enriched with fish oil.......Marine algae are a huge underutilized resource in the Nordic countries with a potential to be used in the development of new natural ingredients for the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Such ingredients can act as natural preservatives and prevent product deterioration during storage...

  2. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Geisen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1. Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application.

  3. Antioxidant Potential of Extracts Obtained from Macro- (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and Micro-Algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis Assisted by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Agregán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural antioxidants, which can replace synthetic ones due to their potential implications for health problems in children, have gained significant popularity. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of extracts obtained from three brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata and two microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using ultrasound-extraction as an innovative and green approach was evaluated. Methods: Algal extracts were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction using water/ethanol (50:50, v:v as the extraction solvent. The different extracts were compared based on their antioxidant potential, measuring the extraction yield, the total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant activity. Results: Extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (AN and Bifurcaria bifurcata (BB showed the highest antioxidant potential compared to the rest of the samples. In particular, BB extract presented the highest extraction (35.85 g extract/100 g dry weight (DW and total phenolic compounds (TPC (5.74 g phloroglucinol equivalents (PGE/100 g DW yields. Regarding the antioxidant activity, macroalgae showed again higher values than microalgae. BB extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the ORAC, DPPH and FRAP assays, with 556.20, 144.65 and 66.50 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, respectively. In addition, a correlation among the antioxidant activity and the TPC was noted. Conclusions: Within the obtained extracts, macroalgae, and in particular BB, are more suitable to be used as sources of phenolic antioxidants to be included in products for human consumption. The relatively low antioxidant potential, in terms of polyphenols, of the microalgae extracts studied in the present work makes them useless for possible industrial applications compared to macroalgae, although further in vivo studies evaluating the real impact of antioxidants from both macro- and micro-algae at the cellular level should be

  4. Seasonal Variations in Surface Metabolite Composition of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rickert

    Full Text Available Perennial macroalgae within the genus Fucus are known to exude metabolites through their outer thallus surface. Some of these metabolites have pro- and/or antifouling properties. Seasonal fluctuations of natural fouling pressure and chemical fouling control strength against micro- and macrofoulers have previously been observed in Fucus, suggesting that control strength varies with threat. To date, a study on the seasonal composition of surface associated metabolites, responsible for much of the fouling control, has not been done. We sampled individuals of the two co-occurring species F. vesiculosus and F. serratus at monthly intervals (six per species and month during a one-year field study. We analysed the chemical composition of surface associated metabolites of both Fucus species by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS to describe temporal patterns in chemical surface composition. Additionally, we correlated abiotic and biotic parameters recorded monthly within the sampled habitat with the variation in the chemical surface landscape of Fucus. Our study revealed that the chemical surface composition of both Fucus species exhibits substantial seasonal differences between spring/summer and autumn/winter months. Light and temperature explained most of the seasonal variability in surface metabolite composition of both Fucus species. A strong summerly up-regulation of eighteen saccharides and two hydroxy acids in F. vesiculosus as well as of four fatty acids and two saccharides in F. serratus was observed. We discuss how these up-regulated molecules may have a complex effect on associated microfoulers, both promoting or decreasing fouling depending on metabolite and bacterial identity. These seasonal shifts in the surface metabolome seem to exert a compound control of density and composition of the Fucus associated biofilm.

  5. [Fucus vesiculosus induced hyperthyroidism in a patient undergoing concomitant treatment with lithium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaizar, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus is a marine alga rich in iodine, which is being used in alternative medicine as a laxative, diuretic, and as a complement for weight loss diets. We report the case of a 60-year old male patient, diagnosed with bipolar disorder and under treatment with lithium concomitantly with a herbal preparation, including Fucus vesiculosus, as a laxative. He developed hyperthyroidism that remitted once the herbal preparation was withdrawn. Fucus vesiculosus may cause hyperthyroidism given its high iodine content. Herbal preparations should be taken in account when treating a patient due to the possibility of adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.

  6. Development and characterization of 35 single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canovas, Fernando; Mota, Catarina; Ferreira-Costa, Joana; Serrao, Ester; Coyer, Jim; Olsen, Jeanine; Pearson, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We characterized 35 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. Based on existing Fucus Expressed Sequence Tag libraries for heat and desiccation-stressed tissue, SNPs were developed and confirmed by re-sequencing cDNA from a diverse panel of individuals. SNP

  7. Seasonal variation of technetium-99 in Fucus vesiculosus and its application as an oceanographic tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of 99Tc was determined in archived time series seaweed samples collected at Klint (Denmark). The results demonstrate a significantly seasonal variation of 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus with maximum values in winter and minimum values in summer. The mechanism driving t...... of (1.9 0.5) 105 L/kg, were obtained. This indicates that F. vesiculosus can be used as a reliable bioindicator to monitor 99Tc concentration in seawater....

  8. The Application of Fucus vesiculosus as a Bioindicator of 60Co Concentrations in the Danish Straits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of 60Co in the Danish Straits is investigated by applying the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus as a bioindicator. In order to describe different dispersion situations, three areas have been studied separately: the North Sea, where it is possible to measure 60Co from sources in France and...... of distance from Barsebäck. Problems of uncertainty related to differences in environmental parameters are discussed and new investigations to improve the use of Fucus as a bioindicator are suggested....

  9. Fucoidan from Sargassum sp. and Fucus vesiculosus reduces cell viability of lung carcinoma and melanoma cells in vitro and activates natural killer cells in mice in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    Fucoidan is known to exhibit crucial biological activities, including anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined the influence of crude fucoidan extracted from Sargassum sp. (MTA) and Fucus vesiculosus (SIG) on Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LCC) and melanoma B16 cells (MC). In vitro studies we...

  10. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the accumulation of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Lena.

    1990-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus has been used as an indicator for the occurrence of radionuclides in the marine environment. A prerequisite in using biological organisms as indicators is that the autecology of the organisms in question be well known. Growth, reproduction and individual biomass changes of tissues of different ages were studied in a Fucus vesiculosus population from the Oeresund, southern Sweden. The new vegetative fronds grown during the year accounted for about 80% of the total plant biomass in the autumn and this could affect the total activity concentration of long-lived radionuclides measured in whole plants of F. vesiculosus. Thus, a discharge of long-lived radionuclides during winter or spring gives a higher increase than a discharge during autumn. Differences in uptake and release of 54 Mn and 60 Co were observed between F. vesiculosus and its epiphytes but also between different tissues within the Fucus plant. Highest uptake and release were measured for the filamentous epiphyte Pilayella littoralis followed by the new vegetative fronds of F. vesiculosus after transplantation in situ from an area outside Barsebaeck nuclear power station, southern Sweden, to an area with low concentration of the radionuclides studied and vice versa. Salinity effects on the accumulation of radionuclides in F. vesiculosus were studied experimentally. Accumulation of 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 60 Co was significantly higher in algae grown at 8 permille than at 15 and 24 permille, respectively. Most pronounced salinity effects were observed for 137 Cs. The impact of the Chernobyl accident was investigated in the Baltic Sea using F. vesiculosus. The Chernobyl accident contributed to the radioactivity in the Baltic Sea primarily concerning radiocaesium. (author)

  11. Evolution and diversification within the intertidal brown macroalgae Fucus spiralis/F. vesiculosus species complex in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J. A.; Hoarau, G.; Costa, J. F.; Hogerdijk, B.; Serrao, E. A.; Billard, E.; Valero, M.; Pearson, G. A.; Olsen, J. L.

    We examined 733 individuals of Fucus spiralis from 21 locations and 1093 Fucus vesiculosus individuals from 37 locations throughout their northern hemisphere ranges using nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Three genetic entities of F. spiralis were recovered. In northern and sympatric populations,

  12. Oxidative stability and microstructure of 5% fish-oil-enriched granola bars added natural antioxidants derived from brown algaFucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadağ, Ayşe; Hermund, Ditte Baun; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to; 1) investigate the ability of Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation in granola bars fortified with fish oil-in-water emulsion; 2) investigate whether addition of the seaweed extracts affected the physical microstructure...... efficacy of these two extracts was among other related to an improved incorporation of the fish oil-in-water emulsions in the bars, high total phenolic content, high radical scavenging activity together with high interfacial affinity of phenolic compounds and probably regeneration of tocopherol. Practical...... applications: The work showed the application potential of Fucus vesiculosus extracts as a natural antioxidant in low-moisture foods such as granola bars. These findings implied that the multi-functional nature of these extracts provides not only oxidative stability of the food but also a physical stability....

  13. Animal diversity in Baltic rocky shore macroalgae: can Cladophora glomerata compensate for lost Fucus vesiculosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Salovius, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The substitution of canopy-forming perennial algae by annual filamentous algae is a common phenomenon on eutrophicated rocky shores with potential consequences for marine biodiversity. In the upper littoral of the northern Baltic Sea, this process is exemplified by decreased occurrence of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and increased amounts of filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis). In this study, macrofauna communities of F. vesiculosus and C. glomerata during summer have been compared and the effects on littoral macroinvertebrates of a total or partial replacement of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata have been estimated. The animal abundance and biomass were higher in C. glomerata than in corresponding amounts of F. vesiculosus (g dwt). Similar results were also obtained when animal abundance and biomass were extrapolated to algal cover per m 2 rocky substrate in the study area. Margalef's species richness was, on the other hand, higher in F. vesiculosus, whereas the Shannon-Wiener diversity was the same. The results indicate that C. glomerata maintains a high diversity of macroinvertebrates in the upper littoral zone of the northern Baltic Sea during summer. A possible substitution of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata does not immediately affect macroinvertebrate diversity negatively in the littoral zone, although, it is difficult to assess the full consequences due to lack of comparable algal data at wider temporal and spatial scales.

  14. Uptake and release of 54Mn and 60Co in Fucus vesiculosus L. and its epiphytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Lena

    1990-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus with epiphytic Pilayella littoralis was collected at a locality with low contamination of 54 Mn and 60 Co and transplanted at a locality in the vicinity of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in the Oeresund, southern Sweden and vice versa. The highest uptake of the radionuclides discharged from the nuclear power plant was observed in the filamentous epiphytic P. littoralis and difference in uptake of 60 Co was also observed between tissues of different ages in F. vesiculosus, with slightly higher uptake in the new vegetative fronds. P. Littoralis was succeded as epiphyte by Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora sp. and the highest uptake of both radionuclides was observed in Cladophora sp. Compared with the native Fucus plants at Barsebaeck, the transplanted Fucus plants showed about the same activity concentrations of 54 Mn while the 60 Co concentrations in the transplanted plants were higher than in the native plants after about four months. The release of 54 Mn and 60 Co was most rapid in the epiphytic P. littoralis. Biological half-lives calculated from an exponential relation were found to be about 10 days for p. littoralis and about 40 days for new vegetative fronds of F vesiculosus. Longer half-lives were found for 1-year-old tissues of F. vesiculosus: about 95 and 165 days for 54 Mn and 60 Co, respectively. One year after transplantation about 30% of the initial activity concentration of 60 Co was still present in the older part of the F. vesiculosus plants. The differences in uptake of 54 Mn and 60 Co between the algal species illustrates the difficulties encountered in comparing results from different algal species. (author)

  15. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermund, Ditte B; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Jónsdóttir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae are rich in polyphenolic compounds, phlorotannins, which have been found to possess high in vitro antioxidant capacity, especially DPPH radical scavenging activity, due to the high number of hydroxyl groups. Whereas, the overall antioxidant capacity of brown algae extracts has been widely studied, the antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins has been rarely explored. The aim of this study was to determine the structure dependant antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus. The antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins was determined by an on-line method using liquid chromatography and an electrochemical detector followed by quadrupole Time of Flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS). Tentative structural elucidation of 13 phlorotannin isomers from EAF was obtained by LC-DAD-QTOFMS, ranging from 374 to 870Da. On-line determination of antioxidant capacity of the individual phlorotannins generally showed that low molecular phlorotannins exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and that the capacity decreased with polymerisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis of the Intertidal Brown Seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in Response to Abiotic Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, Gareth A.; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrao, Ester T. A.; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat

  17. Uptake and release of 54Mn and 60Co in Fucus vesiculosus L. and its epiphytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus L. with epiphytic Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjelm, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link and Cladophora sp, was collected at a swedish locality where contamination by 54 Mn and 60 Co was relatively low and then transplanted to a locality in the vicinity of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in the Oeresund, Southern Sweden. The reverse process was also carried out. Differences in uptake and release of 54 Mn and 60 Co were studied in the various species and in tissues of different ages. (Author)

  18. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-J. Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2 above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland, we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time: after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (offline of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in a chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to those of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of ~20–30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new-particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low tide and their widespread distribution.

  19. Interannual changes in δ15N values in Fucus vesiculosus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballeira, Carlos; Rey-Asensio, Ana; Carballeira, Alejo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isotopic values change along the thallus of F. vesiculosus. • δ 15 N values along the thallus are different between control and polluted sites. • δ 15 N values are temporally unstable at polluted sites. - Abstract: The natural abundance of 15 N (δ 15 N) has been widely used to detect anthropogenically derived N loads in environmental impact studies. The present study involved retrospective analysis of subsamples of Fucus vesiculosus L. collected during a period of three years (2008–2010) from two sites: a control site, within a coastal reference area, and an area affected by the effluents of a marine land-based fish farm. The isotopic signal in different subsamples of the macroalgae thalli (tissue that has grown during the same period) varied depending on the age of the tissue. Moreover, the isotopic signal decreased significantly with the age of the frond to within a certain range. The δ 15 N of F. vesiculosus is temporally unstable; therefore, measurement of the δ 15 N of macroalgal tissues does not allow reliable retrospective biomonitoring of environmental pollution. Further knowledge about the growth and other biological aspects of this species is required

  20. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur

    2010-01-01

    washed cod muscle and protein isolates, phlorotannin-enriched ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed higher inhibitory effect than crude 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract. The addition of oligomeric phlorotannin-rich subfraction (LH-2) separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, completely inhibited...... similar level of TPC and chemical antioxidant activities as oligomeric subfraction LH-2, it was far less efficient in model systems. These results suggest that other factors rather than the intrinsic reactivity toward radicals could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of phlorotannins on lipid...

  1. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Y.N.; Blazquez, M.L.; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd ∼ Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups

  2. Gold(III) biosorption and bioreduction with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Y.N.; Torres, E.; Blazquez, M.L.; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the bioreduction of Au(III) to Au(0) using biomass of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was investigated. The recovery and reduction process took place in two stages with an optimum pH range of 4-9 with a maximum uptake obtained at pH 7. In the first stage, an induction period previous to gold reduction, the variation of pH, redox potential and gold concentration in solution was practically negligible and no color change was observed. In the second stage, the gold reduction was followed by a sharp decrease of gold concentration, pH and redox potential of solution and a color change from yellow to reddish purple. Hydroxyl groups present in the algal polysaccharides were involved in the gold bioreduction. Metallic gold was detected as microprecipitates on the biomass surface and in colloidal form as nanoparticles in the solution. Bioreduction with F. vesiculosus could be an alternative and environmentally friendly process that can be used for recovering gold from dilute hydrometallurgical solutions and leachates of electronic scraps, and for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different size and shape.

  3. Effects of salinity on the uptake of radionuclides by Fucus vesiculosus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.; Erlandsson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the effects of salinity on the uptake of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L.: one experiment with algae and seawater from three localities off the Swedish west and south coasts and one experiment with algae taken from one locality and then exposed to seawaters of different salinities. Both experiments showed the greatest difference for uptake of 137 Cs. For algae and seawater from the same localities, the authors found approximately 2.5 and 4 times higher activity concentrations at 8 per mille relative to 15 and 24 per mille, respectively. For 54 Mn and 65 Zn, no differences in uptake were observed between 13 and 24 per mill. In the algae from a single locality exposed to seawaters of different salinities, uptake was similar for the first few days, beyond which the algae in the medium salinity water showed the highest uptake for 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 60 Co. There are thus differences in radionuclide accumulation in F. vesiculosus from areas of different salinity regimes and in algae grown at different salinities. (author)

  4. Gold(III) biosorption and bioreduction with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Y N; Torres, E; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2009-07-30

    In this paper, the bioreduction of Au(III) to Au(0) using biomass of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was investigated. The recovery and reduction process took place in two stages with an optimum pH range of 4-9 with a maximum uptake obtained at pH 7. In the first stage, an induction period previous to gold reduction, the variation of pH, redox potential and gold concentration in solution was practically negligible and no color change was observed. In the second stage, the gold reduction was followed by a sharp decrease of gold concentration, pH and redox potential of solution and a color change from yellow to reddish purple. Hydroxyl groups present in the algal polysaccharides were involved in the gold bioreduction. Metallic gold was detected as microprecipitates on the biomass surface and in colloidal form as nanoparticles in the solution. Bioreduction with F. vesiculosus could be an alternative and environmentally friendly process that can be used for recovering gold from dilute hydrometallurgical solutions and leachates of electronic scraps, and for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different size and shape.

  5. Proximate Composition and Nutritional Value of Three Macroalgae: Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content and nutritional value (fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile of three macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcate were studied. Chemical composition was significantly (p < 0.001 different among the three seaweeds. In this regard, the B. bifurcata presented the highest fat content (6.54% of dry matter; whereas, F. vesiculosus showed the highest protein level (12.99% dry matter. Regarding fatty acid content, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were the most abundant followed by saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. On the other hand, the three seaweeds are a rich source of K (from 3781.35 to 9316.28 mg/100 g, Mn (from 8.28 to 1.96 mg/100 g, Na (from 1836.82 to 4575.71 mg/100 g and Ca (from 984.73 to 1160.27 mg/100 g. Finally, the most abundant amino acid was glutamic acid (1874.47–1504.53 mg/100 dry matter, followed by aspartic acid (1677.01–800.84 mg/100 g dry matter and alanine (985.40–655.73 mg/100 g dry matter.

  6. Modelling 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the north-east Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawakowski, Claire; Nicholson, Michael D.; John Kershaw, Peter; Leonard, Kinson S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1994 there were substantial increases in the quantity of 99 Tc discharged into the north-east Irish Sea from BNFL Sellafield (UK), concomitant with improvements in waste treatment procedures. As a consequence, the concentration of 99 Tc observed in seawater and biota samples, taken from the Irish Sea coastline, increased significantly. Elevated concentrations were also reported in Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Arctic waters in subsequent years. In the present study a simple numerical model was developed and applied to time-series data of 99 Tc concentrations in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, collected from three UK sites in the vicinity of Sellafield (St. Bees, Heysham, Port William). The model considered site-specific scaling effects, lag times, previous discharge history and potential seasonal variation in uptake. In general, there was a good fit between predicted and observed concentrations, but the degree of uncertainty varied inversely with the frequency of sampling. We did not observe a significant seasonal variation. The modelled lag times to the three sites were consistent with transport times based on observations of the water column distribution of 99 Tc. The model was applied to a variety of discharge scenarios, reflecting current discussion on the future management of 99 Tc releases. Concentrations in Fucus reached asymptotic values in 3-10 years, depending on the scenario and sampling site under consideration

  7. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  8. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Ardehed

    Full Text Available Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a

  9. Seasonal variation of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L. from the Oresund, Southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.; Erlandsson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 54 Mn, 137 Cs, 40 K) in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus of different ages, and also in tissues of different ages from the same plant were investigated in the vicinity of the Barseback nuclear power plant in southern Sweden. Activity concentration differed between the tissues of different age of the plants, depending on the radionuclide as well as the time of year. The highest concentrations of 60 Co and 54 Mn were measured in the older parts of the plants in spring and summer, while the activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were highest in receptacles and new vegetative fronds. The discharge of radionuclides from the nuclear power plants was reflected in the measured activity concentration in the algae. For 60 Co, the response seemed to be smoothed out when considering the whole plant, while the new vegetative tissue better reflected the discharge during the autumn. Thus it is important to have knowledge about the autecology of the organism when it is used as an indicator for radionuclides. (author)

  10. Seasonal variation of radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus L. from the Oeresund, southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Lena; Erlandsson, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 54 Mn, 137 Cs, 40 K) in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus of different ages and also in tissues of different ages from the same plants were investigated in the vicinity of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in southern Sweden. Activity concentration differed between the tissues of different age of the plants, depending on the radionuclide as well as the time of year. The highest concentration of 60 Co and 54 Mn was measured in the older parts of the plants in spring and summer, while the activity concentration of 137 Cs and 40 K was highest in receptacles and new vegetative fronds. The discharge of radionuclides from the nuclear power plant was reflected in the measured activity concentration in the algae. For 60 Co the response seemed to be smoothed out when considering the whole plant, while the new vegetative tissue better reflected the discharge during the autumn. Thus, it is important to have knowledge about the autecology of the organism when it is used as an indicator for radionuclides. (authors)

  11. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Radionuclides in IAEA-446 Baltic Sea Seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco has been providing quality products and services for the past forty years, including the organization of interlaboratory comparisons, the production of reference and certified reference materials and the provision of training. More than 45 reference materials have been produced, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide participating laboratories with the opportunity to test the performance of their analytical methods on a seaweed sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Baltic Sea region. The material used in the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seaweed was the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus). It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a certified reference material for analysing radionuclides in seaweed. The participating laboratories were informed that the IAEA publication would contain a list of the laboratories and the results and descriptions of the interlaboratory comparisons, but that the results would not be attributed to individual laboratories

  12. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Radionuclides in IAEA-446 Baltic Sea Seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco has been providing quality products and services for the past forty years, including the organization of interlaboratory comparisons, the production of reference and certified reference materials and the provision of training. More than 45 reference materials have been produced, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide participating laboratories with the opportunity to test the performance of their analytical methods on a seaweed sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Baltic Sea region. The material used in the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seaweed was the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus). It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a certified reference material for analysing radionuclides in seaweed. The participating laboratories were informed that the IAEA publication would contain a list of the laboratories and the results and descriptions of the interlaboratory comparisons, but that the results would not be attributed to individual laboratories.

  13. Uptake and release of [sup 54]Mn and [sup 60]Co in Fucus vesiculosus L. and its epiphytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, L. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Marine Ecology)

    1994-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus L. with epiphytic Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjelm, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link and Cladophora sp, was collected at a swedish locality where contamination by [sup 54]Mn and [sup 60]Co was relatively low and then transplanted to a locality in the vicinity of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in the Oeresund, Southern Sweden. The reverse process was also carried out. Differences in uptake and release of [sup 54]Mn and [sup 60]Co were studied in the various species and in tissues of different ages. (Author).

  14. Defence Chemistry Modulation by Light and Temperature Shifts and the Resulting Effects on Associated Epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B.; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds - dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline – were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C. PMID:25360717

  15. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  16. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Saha

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were (1 to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2 to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%, respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP, fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  17. Sorption of fluorescent polystyrene microplastic particles to edible seaweed Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbæk, Kasper Bjerrum; Due Würtzner Koch, Ida; Greve Villaro, Clara

    2018-01-01

    .65 mg L−1 (corresponding to 597 particles per mL) in filtrated seawater (50 mL) to treat F. vesiculosus distal tips in blue cap flasks (100 mL) placed in a rotary box for 2 h. Results showed sorption of PS microplastic particles to F. vesiculosus analysed by microscopy and a significant reduction...

  18. Antioxidant effect of water and acetone extracts of Fucus vesiculosuson oxidative stability of skin care emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poyato, Candelaria; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hermund, Ditte Baun

    2017-01-01

    A water and an acetone extract of the Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated as potential natural sources of antioxidant compounds in skin care emulsions. To assess their efficacy in inhibiting lipid oxidation caused by photo- or thermoxidation, they were stored in darkness and room...... temperature. High temperature also caused greater increments in the droplet size of the emulsions. The analysis of the tocopherol content, peroxide value and volatile compounds during the storage revealed that, whereas both water and acetone extracts showed (at 2 mg/g of emulsion) protective effect against...

  19. Modelling the biological half-life and seasonality of 14C in Fucus vesiculosus from the east coast of Ireland: Implications for the estimation of future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keogh, S.M.; Cournane, S.; Leon Vintro, L.; McGee, E.J.; Mitchell, P.I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Carbon-14 levels measured in Fucus vesiculosus collected on the east coast of Ireland. → Numerical model applied to estimate transit times from Sellafield source. → Mean availability time of 14 C in seaweed also calculated. → Inclusion of model parameter accounts for potential seasonal variability of C-14. → Levels reduced to background within 2.5 years of discharges being set to zero. - Abstract: Radiocarbon levels were recorded in Fucus vesiculosus samples collected on a monthly basis over a three-year period at a site on the east coast of Ireland. The resulting data was analysed using a numerical model which estimates the transit times from the Sellafield plant to the sampling location, and the mean availability time of 14 C in seaweed. With the inclusion of a model parameter allowing for seasonal variability in uptake by the Fucus, good correlation was observed between the predicted and measured concentrations. Future temporal trends of 14 C Fucus concentrations along the eastern Irish coastline were modelled with the application of three possible prospective discharge scenarios, predicting 14 C Fucus concentrations to reduce to ambient background levels within 2.5-years of discharges being set to zero. Such projections may prove helpful in assessing the consequences of discharge management and policy making in the context of the OSPAR convention.

  20. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbia, Daniela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Bogialli, Sara; Caputi, Valentina; Albertoni, Laura; Marsilio, Ilaria; Paccagnella, Nicola; Carrara, Maria; Giron, Maria Cecilia; De Martin, Sara

    2017-02-15

    Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose ( p NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  1. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gabbia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM. This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose (p < 0.05 in mice fed with normal diet, without changing the area under the blood glucose curve (AUC. In the model of NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  2. Characterisation and antioxidant evaluation of Icelandic F. vesiculosus extracts in vitro and in fish-oil-enriched milk and mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Yesiltas, Betül; Honold, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from Fucus vesiculosus were extracted and their antioxidant efficacy in fish-oil-enriched foods was evaluated. Water extract (WE) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) were obtained and characterised. Furthermore, WE and EAF were added to fish-oil-enriched milk or mayonnaise....... Oxidation during storage was evaluated. EAF showed highest phenolic and pigment contents compared with WE. Antioxidant efficacy was found to be dependent on the concentration in the foods. Furthermore, high antioxidant activity in the foods was related to high radical scavenging, high or moderate metal...

  3. Proteomic analyses for profiling regulated proteins/enzymes by Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan in B16 melanoma cells: A combination of enzyme kinetics functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Zheng, Li; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kang, Yani; Park, Yong-Doo

    2018-06-01

    Fucoidans are complex sulfated polysaccharides that have a wide range of biological activities. Previously, we reported the various effects of Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan on tyrosinase and B16 melanoma cells. In this study, to identify fucoidan-targeted proteins in B16 melanoma cells, we performed a proteomics study and integrated enzyme kinetics. We detected 19 candidate proteins dysregulated by fucoidan treatment. Among the probed proteins, the enzyme kinetics of two candidate enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as an upregulated protein and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a downregulated enzyme, were determined. The enzyme kinetics results showed that Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan significantly inhibited LDH catalytic function while it did not affect SOD activity even at a high dose, while only slightly decreased activity (up to 10%) at a low dose. Based on our previous and present observations, fucoidan could inhibit B16 melanoma cells growth via regulating proteins/enzymes expression levels such as LDH and SOD known as cell survival biomarkers. Interestingly, both expression level and enzyme catalytic activity of LDH were regulated by fucoidan, which could directly induce the apoptotic effect on B16 melanoma cells along with SOD downregulation. This study highlights how combining proteomics with enzyme kinetics can yield valuable insights into fucoidan targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    Brown algae are rich in polyphenolic compounds, phlorotannins, which have been found to possess high in vitro antioxidant capacity, especially DPPH radical scavenging activity, due to the high number of hydroxyl groups. Whereas, the overall antioxidant capacity of brown algae extracts has been...... was determined by an on-line method using liquid chromatography and an electrochemical detector followed by quadrupole Time of Flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS). Tentative structural elucidation of 13 phlorotannin isomers from EAF was obtained by LC-DAD-QTOFMS, ranging from 374 to 870 Da. On...

  5. Season exerts differential effects of ocean acidification and warming on growth and carbon metabolism of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus in the western Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eGraiff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Warming and acidification of the oceans as a consequence of increasing CO2-concentrations occur at large scales. Numerous studies have shown the impact of single stressors on individual species. However, studies on the combined effect of multiple stressors on a multi-species assemblage, which is ecologically much more realistic and relevant, are still scarce. Therefore, we orthogonally crossed the two factors warming and acidification in mesocosm experiments and studied their single and combined impact on the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus associated with its natural community (epiphytes and mesograzers in the Baltic Sea in all seasons (from April 2013 to April 2014. We superimposed our treatment factors onto the natural fluctuations of all environmental variables present in the Benthocosms in so-called delta-treatments. Thereby we compared the physiological responses of F. vesiculosus (growth and metabolites to the single and combined effects of natural Kiel Fjord temperatures and pCO2 conditions with a 5 °C temperature increase and/or pCO2 increase treatment (1100 ppm in the headspace above the mesocosms. Responses were also related to the factor photoperiod which changes over the course of the year. Our results demonstrate complex seasonal pattern. Elevated pCO2 positively affected growth of F. vesiculosus alone and/or interactively with warming. The response direction (additive, synergistic or antagonistic, however, depended on season and daylength. The effects were most obvious when plants were actively growing during spring and early summer. Our study revealed for the first time that it is crucial to always consider the impact of variable environmental conditions throughout all seasons. In summary, our study indicates that in future F. vesiculosus will be more affected by detrimental summer heat-waves than by ocean acidification although the latter consequently enhances growth throughout the year. The mainly negative influence of rising

  6. Protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on liver fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway-mediated inhibition of extracellular matrix and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Li,1 Kan Chen,1 Sainan Li,1 Jiao Feng,1 Tong Liu,1 Fan Wang,1 Rong Zhang,1,2 Shizan Xu,1,2 Yuqing Zhou,1,3 Shunfeng Zhou,1,3 Yujing Xia,1 Jie Lu,1 Yingqun Zhou,1 Chuanyong Guo1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2The First Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 3Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Liver fibrosis is a dynamic reversible pathological process in the development of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis. However, the current treatments are not administered for a long term due to their various side effects. Autophagy is initiated to decompose damaged or excess organelles, which had been found to alter the progression of liver fibrosis. In this article, we hypothesized that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus may attenuate liver fibrosis in mice by inhibition of the extracellular matrix and autophagy in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-induced animal models of liver fibrosis. The results were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Fucoidan from F. vesiculosus could inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the formation of extracellular matrix and autophagosomes, and its effect may be associated with the downregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1/Smads pathways. Fucoidan, as an autophagy and transforming growth factor beta 1 inhibitor, could be a promising potential therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis. Keywords: liver cirrhosis, hepatic stellate cells, bile duct ligation

  7. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  8. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Modulating Inflammatory Mediators in Mice and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dae Lim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  9. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre Erwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. Results The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including

  10. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  11. Investigation of the possibility of producing sodium alginate from the product of processing fucus algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Sokolan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of making sodium alginate from a by-product (fucus semifinished product, obtained by producing an extract from brown algae of the Fucus family – fucus bubbly (F.vesiculosus, has been studied. It has been found that up to 80% of the alginic acids contained in the feedstock remain in the fucus semi-finished product, which can also be isolated and used. The principal technology of sodium alginate from the fucus semifinished product is developed, consisting of the following main stages: preparation of raw materials, reduction, pretreatment, extraction of alginates, isolation of alginic acid, production of sodium alginate, drying. The parameters of the technological scheme close to optimal parameters were determined (the duration of extraction of alginates by sodium carbonate solution is 3 hours, the active acidity value for the isolation of alginic acids is 6M hydrochloric acid: pH = 3. As a result of optimization of the technological scheme, it was possible to increase the yield and improve the quality of the product: the yield of sodium alginate was 4.5% (which is 20% higher than the original, the content of alginic acids increased by 7% and was 92% in terms of dry matter, kinematic the viscosity increased almost twofold - its value reached a value of 500 cSt. Investigations carried out by the Fourier method of IR spectroscopy on the Shimadzu IR Tracer-100 (Japan showed that the sodium alginate obtained from the fucus semifinished by optimized technology is not inferior in quality to sodium alginate produced from laminaria (Sigma Aldrich (USA. Sodium alginate, made from the fucus semi-finished product, can be used as one of the components of gelling fillings for the production of canned fish in jellies. A technological scheme for processing algae is proposed.

  12. Antioxidant effect of seaweed extracts in food emulsion systems enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. In this presentation we will discuss results from our ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains...... such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different extracts of F. Vesiculosus in a range of different food models...

  13. Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich Extracts from Marine Macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Helen Fitton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to measure the effect of the extracts on enzyme inhibition, glycation, antioxidant activity and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 protein expression. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were also conducted to measure soothing, protection, wrinkle depth, brightness and skin spot intensity. Both extracts demonstrated marked inhibitory effects on processes linked to skin aging, including the increased expression of SIRT1 in vitro. Clinical testing established the efficacy of the extracts in a range of the tested applications, relative to placebo. The Fucus vesiculosus extract with high polyphenol content demonstrated additional in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as improved efficacy in skin brightening applications, relative to placebo. The major effects of the Undaria pinnatifida extract aided skin immunity, soothing and protection, while the Fucus vesiculosus extract most significantly affected age spot reduction and increased brightness, soothing and protection.

  14. Technetium-99 in Fucus and seawater samples in the Finnish coastal area of the Baltic Sea, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Vartti, V.P.; Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.

    2002-01-01

    Liquid discharges of 99 Tc from the Sellafield nuclear facilities increased largely in the mid 90's. These releases are transported to the Nordic sea areas by the ocean currents. Results of the 99 Tc activities along the Norwegian coastal areas and in the North Sea have been reported but then again, the spreading of 99 Tc into Baltic Sea has not been studied thoroughly. Fucus vesiculosus and seawater samples were collected in the summer 1999 from the Finnish coastal areas for measuring 99 Tc in the Baltic Sea area. A modified analytical method for measuring 99 Tc in the environmental samples was developed at that time. The method based on extraction chromatography and liquid scintillation measurement of 99 Tc. The 99 Tc concentration in the Fucus vesiculosus in the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea varied from 1.6 to 11.6 Bq/kg (dry weight) being highest at the most northern sampling sites. These values were considerable lower than those in the Danish and Norwegian coasts. The variation in the concentrations observed are probably due to biological factors. The 99 Tc concentration in the Baltic Sea water studied was below 0.2 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  15. Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Kuznetsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6, as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS.

  16. Radioactivity of Focus vesiculosus along the Finnish coast in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Sjoeblom, K.-L.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.

    1988-05-01

    Samples of Fucus vesiculosus were collected along the west and south coast of Finland at 25 stations in June-October 1987. More detailed surveys were conducted in the marine areas surrounding the nuclear power stations at Olkiluoto and Loviisa. The samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and partly also for 90 Sr and transuranic elements. From the twelve gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the Focus samples, 40 K, 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were found in nearly all samples. 54 Mn and 65 Zn were almost regularly detected in the samples from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa areas and commonly also along the whole coast, whereas 60 Co was rarely found at the coastal stations outside the immediate vicinities of the power stations. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs varied in the Fucus samples from 80 to 670 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest values were found in the Loviisa area and in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and the lowest in the Archipelago Sea. The values reflect differences in the amounts of local fallout and runoff, but also the transport of radionuclides by river waters and currents in the sea. The results provide evidence of the indicator value of Fucus vesiculosus in the monitoring of radioactive substances, both in the environs of the nuclear power stations and also in studies regarding the dispersion and behaviour of fallout nuclides in the marine environment. Among the great number of samples taken in the Finnish monitoring programme, Fucus was the most sensitive bioindicator of 60 Co and 65 Zn, and thus enabled detection of these radionuclides in the fallout from Chernobyl

  17. Antioxidant Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Vitro and in Food Emulsion Systems Enriched With Fish Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. Bioactive components like polyphenols have been identified in marine algae. In this presentation we will discuss results from our...... ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary...... antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different...

  18. Sexual reproduction in species of the brown seaweed, Fucus, to assess damage and recovery from the World Prodigy oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thursby, E.; Tagliabue, M.; Sheehan, C.; Steele, R.

    1990-01-01

    On Friday, June 23, 1989, the oil tanker World Prodigy ran aground on Brenton Reef off Newport, Rhode Island, USA, spilling No. 2 fuel oil into the mouth of Narragansett Bay. This paper reports that a shoreline survey of the intertidal and upper subtidal macroalgae was begun on June 24th as part of a larger effort to document the fate and effect of the oil. There was little evidence of necrotic tissue among the attached plants at most of the site visited. However, several species of the brown alga, Fucus, showed inhibition of sexual reproduction. Reproductive material of F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis or F. spiralis var. limitaneus was collected from various sites for later laboratory assessment of viability. Viability was determined by germination rate of embryos. Summer is not the optimal reproductive time for Fucus, and embryos of F. spiralis var. limitaneus never germinated at a rate greater than 25%, even from clean sites. Fucus spiralis plants were collected at Narragansett Pier, before arrival of oil from the spill. Embryos at this site had a germination rate of 63%. There was essentially no germination by either F. vesiculosus or F. spiralis at any oil sites visited during the first collections. However, by July 5th at some sites, and by July 13th at all sites, the germination rate of these two species averaged from 60 to 88%

  19. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villares, Ruben; Real, Carlos; Fernandez, Jose Angel; Aboal, Jesus; Carballeira, Alejo

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type

  20. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villares, Ruben; Real, Carlos [Area de Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Fernandez, Jose Angel; Aboal, Jesus; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type. (author)

  1. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, R. J.; Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Venables, Dean S.; Ceburnis, D.; Ho, K. F.; Chen, Jun; Vogel, A. L.; Küpper, F. C.; Smyth, P. P. A.; Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, D. B.; Berresheim, H.; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2) above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed) beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland), we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high sour...

  2. Glacial refugia and recolonization pathways in the brown seaweed Fucus serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, G; Coyer, J A; Veldsink, J H; Stam, W T; Olsen, J L

    2007-09-01

    The last glacial maximum (20,000-18,000 years ago) dramatically affected extant distributions of virtually all northern European biota. Locations of refugia and postglacial recolonization pathways were examined in Fucus serratus (Heterokontophyta; Fucaceae) using a highly variable intergenic spacer developed from the complete mitochondrial genome of Fucus vesiculosus. Over 1,500 samples from the entire range of F. serratus were analysed using fluorescent single strand conformation polymorphism. A total of 28 mtDNA haplotypes was identified and sequenced. Three refugia were recognized based on high haplotype diversities and the presence of endemic haplotypes: southwest Ireland, the northern Brittany-Hurd Deep area of the English Channel, and the northwest Iberian Peninsula. The Irish refugium was the source for a recolonization sweep involving a single haplotype via northern Scotland and throughout Scandinavia, whereas recolonization from the Brittany-Hurd Deep refugium was more limited, probably because of unsuitable soft-bottom habitat in the Bay of Biscay and along the Belgian and Dutch coasts. The Iberian populations reflect a remnant refugium at the present-day southern boundary of the species range. A generalized skyline plot suggested exponential population expansion beginning in the mid-Pleistocene with maximal growth during the Eems interglacial 128,000-67,000 years ago, implying that the last glacial maximum mainly shaped population distributions rather than demography.

  3. Effect of tuna skin gelatin-based coating enriched with seaweed extracts on the quality of tuna fillets during storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Vala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, consumers demand high quality food products with an extended shelf-life without chemical additives. Edible coatings (EC containing natural compounds are a promising preservation technology for raw seafood without compromising fresh-like appeal and nutritional content.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Thunnus obesus skin gelatin-based EC containing Codium spp. or Fucus vesiculosus extracts on raw tuna preservation. Three gelatin-based EC (gelatin (5 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Codium spp. (1 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Fucus vesiculosus (1 % + glycerol (25 % were applied directly on the surface of tuna fillets. Functional properties of gelatin and gelatin-based EC containing seaweed extracts were also studied. The gelatin was extracted by an acid-swelling process in the presence/absence of pepsin, followed by subsequent heating/refrigeration, after a pre-treatment with NaOH. The type of acid, temperature and concentration of NaOH greatly influence the process yield. The higher extraction yield was achieved using acetic acid in the presence of pepsin by subsequent refrigeration, especially when skins were previously treated with NaOH (0.2 M. Tuna quality was assessed over 12 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C in terms of chemical and microbial indices. Results showed that tuna skin gelatin-based EC avoids tuna deterioration. Microbial growth, assessed by total viable counts, and total volatile basic nitrogen were maintained below the maximum limits recommended, contrarily to the control. Additionally, the use of EC increased the stability of red colour during storage. 

  4. The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in marine food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Geirsdóttir, Margrét; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y; Jamnik, Polona; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in haemoglobin-fortified washed cod mince and iron-containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. The progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as loss of redness and protein carbonyls in the cod system. The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had a high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro-oxidants present. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Biosorption of Zn(II) from industrial effluents using sugar beet pulp and F. vesiculosus: From laboratory tests to a pilot approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laura; Blázquez, M Luisa; González, Felisa; Muñoz, Jesús A; Ballester, Antonio

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the application of biosorption in the treatment of metal polluted wastewaters through the development of several pilot plants to be implemented by the industry. The use as biosorbents of both the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and a sugar beet pulp was investigated to remove heavy metal ions from a wastewater generated in an electroplating industry: Industrial Goñabe (Valladolid, Spain). Batch experiments were performed to study the effects of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration on metal biosorption. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of the biosorbents strongly depended on the pH, increasing as the pH rises from 2 to 5. The adsorption kinetic was studied using three models: pseudo first order, pseudo second order and Elovich models. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the brown alga F. vesiculosus showed higher metal uptake than the sugar beet pulp. The biomasses were also used for zinc removal in fixed-bed columns. The performance of the system was evaluated in different experimental conditions. The mixture of the two biomasses, the use of serial columns and the inverse flow can be interesting attempts to improve the biosorption process for large-scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Smyth, Thomas J; Soler-Vila, Anna; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2013-12-01

    To date, numerous studies have reported on the antidiabetic properties of various plant extracts through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. The objective of this research was to evaluate extracts of seaweeds for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Cold water and ethanol extracts of 15 seaweeds were initially screened and from this, five brown seaweed species were chosen. The cold water and ethanol extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum had the strongest α-amylase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 53.6 and 44.7 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extracts of Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus were found to be potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.49 μg/ml. The observed effects were associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts, and the concentrations used were below cytotoxic levels. Overall, our findings suggest that brown seaweed extracts may limit the release of simple sugars from the gut and thereby alleviate postprandial hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Iodine 129 measurements by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. Results in seaweeds (Fucus serratus et laminaria digitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, D.; Hebert, D.; Gandon, R.; Solier, L.

    1999-01-01

    A iodine selective radiochemistry method was developed to measure 129 I(period 1,57 x 10 10 7 years) by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. This method avoids using neutron activation analysis or accelerator mass spectrometry. The method is based on iodine extraction from samples in order to obtain an aqueous matrix with no attenuation agent except 127 I(stable isotope). The parallel determination of 127 I allows to correct 129 I measurements for self attenuation and also monitor seasonal changes in iodine metabolism in biological species. Measurements were performed in two seaweed species (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) samples in the area of La Hague reprocessing plant discharge between January and February 1997). Samples from stations close to the point of release (Goury and Herquemoulin), showed 129 I activities around 60 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and around 300 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 300 km away from the realize point, 129 I activities were 10 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and 171 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 127 I concentrations were between 547 and 1,232 mg kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and between 6,624 and 14,296 mg kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. (authors)

  8. Screening of antimicrobial activity of macroalgae extracts from the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Wahidi, M; El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Bamhaoud, T

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is the screening of the antimicrobial activity of seaweed extracts against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of ten marine macroalgae collected from the Moroccan's Atlantic coast (El-Jadida) was tested against two Gram+ (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram- (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) human pathogenic bacteria, and against two pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) using the agar disk-diffusion method. Seven algae (70%) of ten seaweeds are active against at least one pathogenic microorganisms studied. Five (50%) are active against the two studied yeast with an inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm for Cystoseira brachycarpa. Six (60%) seaweeds are active against at least one studied bacteria with five (50%) algae exhibiting antibacterial inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm. Cystoseira brachycarpa, Cystoseira compressa, Fucus vesiculosus, and Gelidium sesquipedale have a better antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum antimicrobial and are a potential source of antimicrobial compounds and can be subject of isolation of the natural antimicrobials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  10. Expressed sequence tag-derived polymorphic SSR markers for Fucus serratus and amplification in other species of Fucus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J. A.; Hoarau, G.; Beszteri, B.; Pearson, G.; Olsen, J. L.

    The seaweed genus Fucus is a dominant component of intertidal shores throughout the North Atlantic and North Pacific and has been the focus of considerable developmental, ecological, and evolutionary research for the past century. Here, we present details of 21 expressed sequence tag-derived simple

  11. Glacial refugia and recolonization pathways in the brown seaweed Fucus serratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoarau, G.G.; Coyer, J.A.; Veldsink, J.H.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    The last glacial maximum (20 000-18 000 years ago) dramatically affected extant distributions of virtually all northern European biota. Locations of refugia and postglacial recolonization pathways were examined in Fucus serratus (Heterokontophyta; Fucaceae) using a highly variable intergenic spacer

  12. Potential seaweed-based food ingredients to inhibit lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2016-01-01

    Brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has a high potential as a source of natural antioxidants due to a high diversity of bioactive compounds in its composition. In this study, four extracts were characterized with respect to composition of bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant properties and their...

  13. Comparison Uptake of Cadmium (II from Aqueous Solution, onto Algae Brown Fucus Serratus and Cystoseira Indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium metal not only has detrimental effects on the nervous system, the kidneys, and the human fetus but is also lethal because of its carcinogenic effects. Biological absorption of cadmium has a number of advantages over conventional methods that include high removal efficiency for eliminating heavy metals from dilute solutions, availability and abundance of the required materials in nature, and reproducibility and reusability of the materials. In this study, the biosorption of cadmium (II ions onto the dry biomass of two brown algae, Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, was investigated. Cystoseira indica was collected from the coastal areas of the Oman Sea and Fucus serratus was collected from the coastal area of the Atlantic Ocean. The algae were first dried, washed three times with tap water, and finally washed with distilled water without ions before they were isolated in pieces 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter. In all the experiments, distilled water was used to which known amounts of cadmium were added before the algae were introduced into the solution. The metal ion concentrations in the solution were measured using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after the metal came into contact with the algae. The optimum pH for the adsorption of cadmium was found to be 3/0 ± 5/6 and 3/0 ± 5/5 for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, respectively. The maximum metal uptakes by both algae were observed in acidic pH conditions. The time required for the biosorption of the metal to reach equilibrium was 360 minutes for Cystoseira indica and 300 minutes Fucus serratus. The adsorption capacities for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus using the Langmuir isotherm were determined as 44/58 and 54/95 mg /g, respectively. Moreover, the functional groups involved in cadmium uptake in both algae were identified. Finally, the results of this study showed that Fucus serratus algae had a higher capacity for adsorbing cadmium ions than did

  14. Determination by INAA of trace elements in Fucus sample (IAEA-0140)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Rusu, C.; Scarlat, A.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, V, Zn) in the marine algae Fucus sp. was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. This paper presents our contribution to an intercomparison exercise organized by IAEA. The results obtained in our laboratory, excepting Hg, are in very good or in good agreement with the intercomparison values

  15. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hee Young; Cruz, Joana; Treitschke, Michaela; Wahl, Martin; Molis, Markus

    2007-09-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown ( Dictyopteris membranacea, Fucus vesiculosus) and two red seaweeds ( Gelidium sesquipedale, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius) from São Rafael and Ria Formosa, Portugal. Bioassays conducted with live algal pieces and agar-based food containing lipophilic algal extracts were used to detect changes in palatability after exposure to amphipod attacks (=treatment phase). Fucus vesiculosus was the only species significantly reducing palatability in response to direct amphipod-attacks. This pattern was observed in live F. vesiculosus pieces and agar-based food containing a lipophilic extract, suggesting that lipophilic compounds produced during the treatment phase were responsible for the repulsion of grazers. Water-borne cues of grazed F. vesiculosus as well as non-grazing amphipods also reduced palatability of neighbouring conspecifics. However, this effect was only observed in live tissues of F. vesiculosus. This study is the first to show that amphipods, like isopods, are capable to induce anti-herbivory defences in F. vesiculosus and that a seasonally variable effectiveness of chemical defences might serve as a dynamic control in alga-herbivore interactions.

  16. Temporal and spatial responses of the bioindicator Fucus to discharges of 99Tc in the eastern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Busby, R.G.; McCartney, M.

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99 is a radioactive isotope discharged under authorisation to the Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels plc Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria via a marine pipeline. An increase in 99 Tc discharges from Sellafield in recent years has provided an ideal opportunity to undertake a more detailed investigation of its environmental behaviour. Here, the temporal and spatial response of Fucus sp. to the increased discharges has been investigated and its role as a bioindicator assessed. Initial investigations in 1995, have confirmed the expectation that Fucus does act as an effective bioindicator of 99 Tc, with easily detectable 99 Tc concentrations (1 - 15 kBq kg -1 wet weight) being encountered, providing a time integrated signal of 99 Tc discharges. Analysis of subsequent samples collected during 1996, however, have shown significant short-term peaks in Fucus 99 Tc concentrations close to Sellafield (up to 90 kBq kg -1 wet weight) and this can be related to peaks in 99 Tc seawater concentrations. This type of response suggests that Fucus has a means of rapidly accumulating 99 Tc, although the rate at which this accumulated component may be eliminated remains unclear. This effect was only observed at sites close to Sellafield (within 15 km). Relatively constant 99 Tc concentrations in Fucus were found at more distant sites (50 - 150 km). (author)

  17. Convergent adaptation to a marginal habitat by homoploid hybrids and polyploid ecads in the seaweed genus Fucus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, James A.; Hoarau, Galice; Pearson, Gareth A.; Serrao, Ester A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2006-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidy are two major sources of genetic variability that can lead to adaptation in new habitats. Most species of the brown algal genus Fucus are found along wave-swept rocky shores of the Northern Hemisphere, but some species have adapted to brackish and salt marsh habitats.

  18. Post-ice age recolonization and differentiation of Fucus serratus L. (Phaeophyceae; Fucaceae) populations in Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J.A.; Peters, A.F.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    The seaweed Fucus serratus is hypothesized to have evolved in the North Atlantic and present populations are thought to reflect recolonization from a southern refugium since the last glacial maximum 18 000-20 000 years bp. We examined genetic structure across several spatial scales by analysing

  19. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Baelen, J.; Hurtger, C.; Cogneau, M.; Van der Ben, D.; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95m-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography

  20. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Baelen, J. van; Hurtgen, C.; Cogneau, M.; Ben, D. van der; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography. (author)

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...

  2. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    at high light depended on community density. Therefore, while the determination of the production of individual algal thalli is useful for evaluating differences in acclimatisation and adaptation between species and stands, it is not useful for evaluating production rates for entire plants and communities......Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...... studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...

  3. Oxidative Stability of Granola Bars Enriched with Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion in the Presence of Novel Brown Seaweed Based Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermund, Ditte B; Karadağ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-11-09

    Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate-chitosan. The bars were stored at 20 °C and evaluated over a period of 10 weeks by measuring the development of primary and secondary oxidation products. The samples prepared with secondary emulsion system developed less oxidation products probably due to increased interfacial layer thickness that would act as a barrier to the penetration and diffusion of molecular species that promote oxidation. The positive charge of oil droplets in the secondary emulsion may also inhibit iron-lipid interaction through electrostatic repulsion. Additional protection against lipid oxidation was obtained when fish oil emulsions were added to the granola bars especially in combination with acetone and ethanol extracts of Fucus vesiculosus.

  4. Aryl sulfate formation in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) ingesting marine algae (Fucus distichus) containing 2,6-dimethylnapthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malins, D.C.; Roubal, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of tritiated 2,6-dimethylnapthalene (2,6-DMN) was studied in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) feeding on marine algae (Fucus distichus). The Fucus accumulated this hydrocarbon from sea water without converting it to metabolites. Most of the tritium accumulated by the sea urchins (e.g., 70.8% after 3 days) from feeding on 2,6-DMN-exposed Fucus was present in the exoskeleton (shell and spines). Moreover, after 3 days feeding, about 90% of the tritium in the total metabolite fraction of the gonads and digestive tract of the sea urchin was present as sulfate derivatives. These metabolites were identified through hydrolysis with aryl sulfatase, followed by thin-layer chromatography of the products. After 14 days of feeding, the tritium associated with the sulfate derivatives decreased in the gonads and digestive tract to 61 and 65%, respectively, of the total metabolite fraction. Hydroxy compounds from sulfatase hydrolysis were chromatographed using multiple elutions with toluene. The hydroxy isomers were separated and the R/sub f/ values were compared to those of pure reference compounds. The data indicated that 80% of the 2,6-dimethylnaphtyl sulfate contained the sulfate on the 1 and/or 3 position of the aromatic ring. Moreover, 6-methyl-2-naphthalenemethanol was not detected, which implies that sea urchins, unlike fish, metabolize alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons primarily through aromatic ring oxidations

  5. Trans-Pacific and trans-Arctic pathways of the intertidal macroalga Fucus distichus L. reveal multiple glacial refugia and colonizations from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, James A.; Hoarau, Galice; Van Schaik, Jaap; Luijckx, Pepijn; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    Aim We examined the phylogeography of the cold-temperate macroalgal species Fucus distichus L., a key foundation species in rocky intertidal shores and the only Fucus species to occur naturally in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Location North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans (42

  6. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g/kg of ext...

  7. Data on the variability of technetium 99 levels in fucus and sea water under the influence of physical and physiological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.; Patti, F.

    1991-09-01

    Our results on the variability of 99 Tc levels as a function of certain physical and physiological factors in fucus algae and seawater are presented together with the distribution of 99 Tc values on fucus from the Channel shore and southern North sea. Measurements of 99 Tc carried out during several years in effluents, fucus and seawater collected at Goury, near the La Hague plant outlet, demonstrated that the levels were highest in 1985, and they decreased from 1986 to 1989. For a release of 99 Tc of 1 GBq.d -1 , the mean seawater activity, calculated over 6 years, was 0.33mBq.1 -1 , which allows a rough approximation of the release knowing the seawater level and vice versa [fr

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  9. Pronounced gradients of light, photosynthesis and O2 consumption in the tissue of the brown alga Fucus serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Kühl, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Macroalgae live in an ever-changing light environment affected by wave motion, self-shading and light-scattering effects, and on the thallus scale, gradients of light and chemical parameters influence algal photosynthesis. However, the thallus microenvironment and internal gradients remain underexplored. In this study, microsensors were used to quantify gradients of light, O2 concentration, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and O2 consumption as a function of irradiance in the cortex and medulla layers of Fucus serratus. The two cortex layers showed more efficient light utilization compared to the medulla, calculated both from electron transport rates through photosystem II and from photosynthesis-irradiance curves. At moderate irradiance, the upper cortex exhibited onset of photosynthetic saturation, whereas lower thallus layers exhibited net O2 consumption. O2 consumption rates in light varied with depth and irradiance and were more than two-fold higher than dark respiration. We show that the thallus microenvironment of F. serratus exhibits a highly stratified balance of production and consumption of O2 , and when the frond was held in a fixed position, high incident irradiance levels on the upper cortex did not saturate photosynthesis in the lower thallus layers. We discuss possible photoadaptive responses and consequences for optimizing photosynthetic activity on the basis of vertical differences in light attenuation coefficients. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. World-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of trace elements in Fucus sample IAEA-140. Report no. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Horvat, M.; Azemard, S.

    1997-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine samples is fundamental to pollution assessment in coastal and marine environments. Analyses of sea plants are important to investigate the uptake of toxic elements along the trophic chain and sea plants may be used as indicators for water pollution and to compare the levels of contamination of different aquatic environments. IAEA. together with UNEP and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) work closely with other producers of Reference Materials in order to assure a continuous supply of these vital compounds for quality assurance procedures. A full catalogue of materials is published regularly. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace elements for over twenty years as part of its contribution to IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service, UNEP's Regional Seas Programme. and, occasionally, in association with the IOC GIPME (Global Investigation of the Pollution in the Marine Environment) programme. This report describes the performance of laboratories in one intercomparison run conducted during 1996 that was organized for the determination of trace elements in a marine macro algae (Fucus sp.) sample. This study was intended to give laboratories responsible for trace element analyses of marine materials an opportunity for checking their analytical performance

  11. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  12. Oxidative Stability of Granola Bars Enriched with Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion in the Presence of Novel Brown Seaweed Based Antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Karadaǧ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    as a barrier to the penetration and diffusion of molecular species that promote oxidation. The positive charge of oil droplets in the secondary emulsion may also inhibit iron-lipid interaction through electrostatic repulsion. Additional protection against lipid oxidation was obtained when fish oil emulsions......Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate...

  13. Distribution and Genetic Structure of Fucus distichus Linnaeus 1953 (formerly F. gardneri within Central San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Whitaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss3art4Fucus distichus, a rockweed common to the mid-intertidal shoreline within the San Francisco Estuary (previously known as F. gardneri, was injured during the Cosco Busan oil spill in November 2007 and subsequent clean-up actions. Restoration planning activities are underway to help recover F. distichus at sites within central San Francisco Bay where damage occurred. As a first step, we conducted shoreline surveys during the summers of 2012–2013 to map the occurrence of this rockweed. Of the 151.73 km of rocky shoreline within the central bay, F. distichus covered 32.16 km of shoreline. The alga generally occurred in narrow bands but formed expansive beds at locations with natural, flat bedrock benches. We also observed F. distichus on artificial substrata such as seawalls and riprap, but not on pilings. Samples of F. distichus from 11 sites throughout the central / east San Francisco Bay were genetically analyzed (microsatellite genotyping. The populations analyzed (1 had low genetic diversity, (2 the frequency of homozygotes was higher than expected (suggesting high inbreeding, and (3 also displayed geographic population structure, in part driven by very small differences in the midst of extremely low within-population genetic diversity. However, these genetic data do not raise concerns for restoration methods in terms of choosing donor populations and mixing F. distichus from different sites within the central bay. The choice of donor populations should be based on practical criteria for effective restoration; individuals will nonetheless be taken from locations as nearby to donor sites as possible. Various locations throughout the central San Francisco Bay are composed of cobble or small riprap that are populated with F. distichus, which could provide efficient means of translocating rockweed for future restoration activities.

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus: a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M Araújo

    Full Text Available Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental

  15. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus): a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rita M; Serrão, Ester A; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Åberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s)) of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s) much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity) of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s) that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental variability and

  16. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  17. Profiling of the Molecular Weight and Structural Isomer Abundance of Macroalgae-Derived Phlorotannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Heffernan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4–12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs. These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds.

  18. Contribution to investigations on trace elements transport in the Channel: spatial distribution of industrial tracers in mytilus edulis and fucus serratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Masson, M.; Baron, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of artificial tracers - gamma emitters - has been studied in biological indicator species, mussels and fucus, along the french and english Channel shores in order to gain a better knowledge of trace elements transports in the Channel coastal areas. The main conclusions are supplied by 106 Ru-Rh and 60 Co. Extension of species labelling is larger eastwards than westwards, and the differences recorded between french and english shores show weak exchanges between south and north Channel; in the norman-breton gulf and in the Seine river bay, the distribution of radioactive tracers demonstrates complex current processes. The results are compared to the hydrodynamical studies carried out through models and follow-up of radioactive tracers in sea-water. Particular processes have been observed, corresponding to areas where the decay gradient from the source term is not respected (western Cotentin shore, western Seine Bay, Caux aerea). They are discussed in relation with fresh - sea water mixing, current and physico-chemical problems [fr

  19. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of bismuth in the coastal environment using three species of macroalga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, James; Turner, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly defined. In this study, we exposed three different species of macroalga (the chlorophyte, Ulva lactuca, the phaeophyte, Fucus vesiculosus, and the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus) to different concentrations of Bi (up to 50 μg L −1 ) under controlled, laboratory conditions. After a period of 48-h, the phytotoxicity of Bi was measured in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and adsorption and internalisation of Bi determined by ICP after EDTA extraction and acid digestion, respectively. For all algae, both the internalisation and total accumulation of Bi were proportional to the concentration of aqueous metal. Total accumulation followed the order: F. vesiculosus > C. crispus > U. lactuca; with respective accumulation factors of about 4200, 1700 and 600 L kg −1 . Greatest internalisation (about 33% of total accumulated Bi) was exhibited by C. crispus, the only macroalga to display a phytotoxic response in the exposures. A comparison of the present results with those reported in the literature suggests that Bi accumulation by macroalgae is significantly lower than its accumulation by marine plankton (volume concentration factors of 10 5 to 10 7 ), and that the phytotoxicity of Bi is low relative to other heavy metals like Ag and Tl. - Highlights: • Very little is understood about the biogeochemistry of bismuth. • We exposed three species of coastal macroalga to variable concentrations of Bi. • Greatest accumulation was exhibited by Fucus vesiculosus. • Greatest internalisation was exhibited by Chondus crispus. • C. crispus was the only macroalga to display a toxic response. - Bismuth is accumulated by three species of marine macroalga but exhibits only moderate toxicity to the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus.

  20. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  1. {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratio in marine alga Fucus virsoides from the North Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterc, Andrej [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stibilj, Vekoslava [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: vekoslava.stibilj@ijs.si

    2008-04-15

    The only stable iodine isotope is {sup 127}I and the natural {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the biosphere has increased from 10{sup -15}-10{sup -14} to 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9}, mainly due to emissions from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In Europe they are located at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (England), where the ratio of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I is up to 10{sup -4}. The marine environment, i.e. the oceans, is the major source of iodine with average concentrations of around 60 {mu}g L{sup -1} iodine in seawater. Brown algae accumulate iodine at high levels of up to 1.0% of dry weight, and therefore they are an ideal bioindicator for studying the levels of {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I in the marine environment. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) method, developed at our laboratory, was used for {sup 129}I determination in the brown alga Fucus virsoides (Donati) J. Agardh, and the same technique of RNAA was used for total {sup 127}I determination. The samples were collected along the coast of the Gulf of Trieste and the West coast of Istria in the North Adriatic Sea in the period from 2005 to 2006. Values of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio up to 10{sup -9} were found, which is in agreement with the present average global distribution of {sup 129}I. The levels of stable iodine found were in the range from 235 to 506 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the levels of {sup 129}I from 1.7 to 7.3 x 10{sup -3} Bq kg{sup -1} (2.6-10.9 x 10{sup -7} {mu}g g{sup -1}), on a dry matter basis.

  2. The Effect of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Fucus evanescence on the Activity of α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase of Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bakunina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.49 (alpha-NaGalase catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactoside residues from non-reducing ends of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. It is known that human cancer cells express an alpha-NaGalase, which accumulates in the blood plasma of patients. The enzyme deglycosylates the Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF and inhibits macrophage activity acting as an immunosuppressor. The high specific activity 0.033 ± 0.002 μmol mg−1 min−1 of the enzyme was found in human colon carcinoma cells DLD-1. The alpha-NaGalase of DLD-1 cells was isolated and biochemical characterized. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity at pH 5.2 and temperature 55 °C. The Km is 2.15 mM, Vmax–0.021 μmol min−1 mL−1, kcat–1.55 min−1 and kcat/Km–0.72 min−1 mM−1 at 37 °C, pH 5.2. The effects of fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus evanescence on the activity of alpha-NaGalase in human colon carcinoma DLD-1 cells and on the biosynthesis of this enzyme were investigated. It was shown that fucoidan did not inhibit free alpha-NaGalase, however, it reduced the expression of the enzyme in the DLD-1 cells at IC50 73 ± 4 μg mL−1.

  3. The Effect of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Fucus evanescence on the Activity of α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase of Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunina, Irina; Chadova, Oksana; Malyarenko, Olesya; Ermakova, Svetlana

    2018-05-10

    α- N -acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.49) (alpha-NaGalase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N -acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactoside residues from non-reducing ends of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. It is known that human cancer cells express an alpha-NaGalase, which accumulates in the blood plasma of patients. The enzyme deglycosylates the Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and inhibits macrophage activity acting as an immunosuppressor. The high specific activity 0.033 ± 0.002 μmol mg −1 min −1 of the enzyme was found in human colon carcinoma cells DLD-1. The alpha-NaGalase of DLD-1 cells was isolated and biochemical characterized. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity at pH 5.2 and temperature 55 °C. The K m is 2.15 mM, V max ⁻0.021 μmol min −1 mL −1 , k cat ⁻1.55 min −1 and k cat / K m ⁻0.72 min −1 mM −1 at 37 °C, pH 5.2. The effects of fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus evanescence on the activity of alpha-NaGalase in human colon carcinoma DLD-1 cells and on the biosynthesis of this enzyme were investigated. It was shown that fucoidan did not inhibit free alpha-NaGalase, however, it reduced the expression of the enzyme in the DLD-1 cells at IC 50 73 ± 4 μg mL −1 .

  4. Development of a radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure for determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Lucanikova, M.; Czech Technical Univ., Prague

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation procedures using liquid-liquid extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from 1M HCl and solid extraction with ALIQUAT 336 incorporated in a polyacrylonitrile binding matrix from 0.1M HCl were developed for accurate determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at the sub-ng x g -1 level. Concentrations of Re in the range of 0.1 to 2.4 ng x g -1 were determined in several botanical reference materials (RM), while in a RM of road dust a value of ∼ 10 ng x g -1 was found. Significantly elevated values of Re, up to 90 ng x g -1 were found in seaweed (brown algae). Results for Re in the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus in which elevated 99 Tc values had previously been determined suggested possible competition between Re and Tc in the accumulation process. (author)

  5. Determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Mizera, J.; Randa, Z.; Byrne, A.R.; Lucanikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation procedures using liquid-liquid extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from 1 M HCl and solid extraction with ALIQUAT 336 incorporated in a polyacrylonitrile binding matrix from 0.1 M HCl were developed for accurate determination of rhenium in biological and environmental samples at the sub-ng.g -1 level. Concentrations of Re in the range of 0.1 to 2.4 ng.g -1 were determined in several botanical reference materials (RM), while in a RM of road dust a value of approx. 10 ng.g -1 was found. Significantly elevated values of Re, up to 90 ng.g -1 , were found in seaweed (brown algae). Results for Re in the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus in which elevated 99 Tc values had previously been determined suggest possible competition between Re and Tc in the accumulation process. (author)

  6. The role of chemical antifouling defence in the invasion success of Sargassum muticum: A comparison of native and invasive brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schwartz

    Full Text Available Competition and fouling defence are important traits that may facilitate invasions by non-indigenous species. The 'novel weapons hypothesis' (NWH predicts that the invasive success of exotic species is closely linked to the possession of chemical defence compounds that the recipient community in the new range is not adapted to. In order to assess whether chemical defence traits contribute to invasion success, anti-bacterial, anti-quorum sensing, anti-diatom, anti-larval and anti-algal properties were investigated for the following algae: a the invasive brown alga Sargassum muticum from both, its native (Japan and invasive (Germany range, b the two non- or weak invasive species Sargassum fusiforme and Sargassum horneri from Japan, and c Fucus vesiculosus, a native brown alga from Germany. Crude and surface extracts and lipid fractions of active extracts were tested against common fouling organisms and zygotes of a dominant competing brown alga. Extracts of the native brown alga F. vesiculosus inhibited more bacterial strains (75% than any of the Sargassum spp. (17 to 29%. However, Sargassum spp. from Japan exhibited the strongest settlement inhibition against the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and zygotes of the brown alga F. vesiculosus. Overall, extracts of S. muticum from the invasive range were less active compared to those of the native range suggesting an adaptation to lower fouling pressure and competition in the new range resulting in a shift of resource allocation from costly chemical defence to reproduction and growth. Non-invasive Sargassum spp. from Japan was equally defended against fouling and competitors like S. muticum from Japan indicating a necessity to include these species in European monitoring programs. The variable antifouling activity of surface and crude extracts highlights the importance to use both for an initial screening for antifouling activity.

  7. Technetium-99 in the Irish marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Ryan, T.P

    2001-07-01

    Technetium-99 activity concentrations in seawater and biota from Irish coastal waters are presented. Time series measurements of {sup 99}Tc in seawater and Fucus vesiculosus from the western Irish Sea show that activity concentrations have increased in line with the increase in discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield. The peak in activity concentrations in both seawater and Fucus vesiculosus occurred in 1997 approximately two years after the peak in {sup 99}Tc discharges. The highest activity concentration recorded in Fucus vesiculosus showed a 29-fold increase over the mean concentration for the period 1988-1993. Technetium-99 activity concentrations were measured in fish, lobsters, prawns, mussels and oysters landed at major fishing ports on the east and northeast coasts of Ireland between 1996 and 1998. Concentration factors for {sup 99}Tc in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and certain species of fish, crustaceans and molluscs from the Irish Sea were estimated. In general, these concentration factors were higher than those in the literature which were derived from laboratory studies, but agreed well with values which were based on field studies. The mean committed effective doses to Irish typical and heavy seafood consumers due to {sup 99}Tc in the period 1996-1998 were 0.061 and 0.24 {mu}Sv, respectively.

  8. Comparison of a static and a dynamic in vitro model to estimate the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Pb and Hg from food reference materials Fucus sp. (IAEA-140/TM) and Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Denis, Sylvain; Blanquet-Diot, Stephanie [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Calatayud, Marta [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Barrios, Laura [Departamento de Informatica Cientifica (SGAI-CSIC), C/ Pinar 19, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Dinoraz, E-mail: deni@iata.csic.es [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Alric, Monique [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Montoro, Rosa [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccessibility, the fraction of an element solubilized during gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption, is a factor that should be considered when evaluating the health risk of contaminants from food. Static and dynamic models that mimic human physiological conditions have been used to evaluate bioaccessibility. This preliminary study compares the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in two food certified reference materials (CRMs) (seaweed: Fucus sp., IAEA-140/TM; Lobster hepatopancreas: TORT-2), using two in vitro gastrointestinal digestion methods: a static method (SM) and a dynamic multicompartment method (TIM-1). There are significant differences (p < 0.05) between the bioaccessible values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg obtained by SM and TIM-1 in the two CRMs. The specific form in which the elements studied are present in the CRM may help to explain the bioaccessibility values obtained. - Research Highlights: {yields}Data are reported for As, Cd, Pb and Hg bioaccessibility from food CRMs. {yields}The static and TIM-1 methods give significantly different bioaccessibility values. {yields}The possible influence of speciation on bioaccessibility is discussed. {yields}To improve bioaccessibility quality data, food reference materials are needed.

  9. Comparison of a static and a dynamic in vitro model to estimate the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Pb and Hg from food reference materials Fucus sp. (IAEA-140/TM) and Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia; Denis, Sylvain; Blanquet-Diot, Stephanie; Calatayud, Marta; Barrios, Laura; Velez, Dinoraz; Alric, Monique; Montoro, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccessibility, the fraction of an element solubilized during gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption, is a factor that should be considered when evaluating the health risk of contaminants from food. Static and dynamic models that mimic human physiological conditions have been used to evaluate bioaccessibility. This preliminary study compares the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in two food certified reference materials (CRMs) (seaweed: Fucus sp., IAEA-140/TM; Lobster hepatopancreas: TORT-2), using two in vitro gastrointestinal digestion methods: a static method (SM) and a dynamic multicompartment method (TIM-1). There are significant differences (p < 0.05) between the bioaccessible values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg obtained by SM and TIM-1 in the two CRMs. The specific form in which the elements studied are present in the CRM may help to explain the bioaccessibility values obtained. - Research Highlights: →Data are reported for As, Cd, Pb and Hg bioaccessibility from food CRMs. →The static and TIM-1 methods give significantly different bioaccessibility values. →The possible influence of speciation on bioaccessibility is discussed. →To improve bioaccessibility quality data, food reference materials are needed.

  10. Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucales Characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Approaches to Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Capacity and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process. PMID:23222802

  11. Sensory Evaluation and Oxidative Stability of a Suncream Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense (NW Spain and Sargassum muticum Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Balboa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component, and the algal extract was added as an antioxidant instead of using synthetic preservatives in the cosmetic formula. The emulsion was tested for lipid oxidation during a period of 9 months and for consumer acceptance by performing a sensory test on controls and blanks. Further, color parameters were considered, and a pH determination was performed. The S. muticum extract protected from primary and secondary oxidation as efficiently as Fucus sp. or α-tocopherol extracts. In addition, the sensorial test revealed that consumers preferred suncreams prepared with the S. muticum extract and with thermal spring water from O Tinteiro and A Chavasqueira. The pH of the suncreams varied with the selection of the ingredients, and no oscillations in colorimetric values were visually observed. Our results indicate that the algal extract and the thermal spring waters from Ourense are potential cosmetic ingredients, since they showed effectiveness as antioxidant ingredients, and the suncreams were well accepted by consumers.

  12. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  13. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Can Phlorotannins Purified Extracts Constitute a Novel Pharmacological Alternative for Microbial Infections with Associated Inflammatory Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Graciliana; Sousa, Carla; Silva, Luís R.; Pinto, Eugénia; Andrade, Paula B.; Bernardo, João; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections and the emerging multidrug resistance are driving interest in fighting these microorganisms with natural products, which have generally been considered complementary to pharmacological therapies. Phlorotannins are polyphenols restricted to brown seaweeds, recognized for their biological capacity. This study represents the first research on the antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of phlorotannins purified extracts, which were obtained from ten dominant brown seaweeds of the occidental Portuguese coast. Phlorotannins content was determined by the specific dimethoxybenzaldehyde (DMBA) method and a yield between 75 and 969 mg/Kg phloroglucinol units (dry matter) was obtained. Fucus spiralis ranked first, followed by three Cystoseira species. The anti-inflammatory potential of the purified extracts was assessed via inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, Cystoseira tamariscifolia being the one showing promising activity for the treatment of inflammation. NO scavenging ability was also addressed in cell free systems, F. spiralis being the species with highest capacity. The antimicrobial potential of the extracts was checked against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi strains, that commonly colonize skin and mucosa and are responsible for food contamination. The different extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis being the most susceptible species. Concerning antifungal activity, Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive species. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood, the results obtained turn phlorotannins purified extracts a novel and potent pharmacological alternative for the treatment of a wide range of microbial infections, which usually also present an inflammatory component. In addition to the biological

  15. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  16. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  17. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  18. Algae as bioindicators for radionuclides in Nordic coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Notter, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the later part of the 1970's NKS decided to introduce the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) as a suitable organism for monitoring radionuclides in Nordic coastal waters. During the past few years studies on this subject have been going on to a varying extent in the different Nordic countries. At this miniseminar the participants described different ongoing studies and projects. The lectures are summarized in the abstracts in the appendix, in which the speakers themselves are responsible for their contributions. (au)

  19. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  20. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  1. Positive and negative effects of habitat-forming algae on survival, growth and intra-specific competition of limpets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of environmental change on the distribution and abundance of strongly interacting organisms, such as intertidal macroalgae and their grazers, needs a thorough knowledge of their underpinning ecological relationships. Control of grazer-plant interactions is bi-directional on northwestern European coasts: grazing by limpets structures populations of macroalgae, while macroalgae provide habitat and food for limpets. Scottish shores dominated by the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus support lower densities and larger sizes of limpets Patella vulgata than shores with less Fucus. These patterns may be due to differences in inter-size-class competitive interactions of limpets among shores with different covers of Fucus. To examine this model, densities of small and large limpets were manipulated in plots with and without Fucus. Amounts of biofilm were measured in each plot. The presence of Fucus increased survival but hindered growth of small (15 mm TL limpets, which were negatively affected by the presence of large limpets (31 mm TL. In contrast, large limpets were not affected by the presence of Fucus or of small limpets. This suggests the occurrence of asymmetric inter-size-class competition, which was influenced by the presence of macroalgae. Macroalgae and increased densities of limpets did not influence amounts of biofilm. Our findings highlight the role of interactions among organisms in generating ecological responses to environmental change.

  2. Pathways and estimated consequences of radionuclide releases from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats.

    1981-03-01

    The radioactive corrosion products 60 Co, 58 Co, 54 Mn, 65 Zn, 51 Cr and 110 Agsp(m) which are released from Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) into the marine environment have been studied. The brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has been found to be excellent bioindicator for these radionuclides. The distribution of activation products along the west coast of Sweden has been studied and can very well be described with a power function. Uptake and retention of the activation products in Fucus have been studied and results are reported. The activity concentration in Fucus well reflects the disharge rate from the power plant. Other bioindicators have been studied ; mainly the crustaceans Idothea and Gammarus. A simulation of 131 I-release following a fictious BWR 1 accident is described as well as a model for estimation of the individual and collective dose equivalents arising from intake of contaminated milk. (Author)

  3. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  4. Extraction of essential oils from native plants and algae from the coast of Peniche (Portugal: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly complex and dynamic ecosystem of interface between land, sea and atmosphere, which also suffer biotic influences. These areas play several important ecological functions, and here we can find an enormous biodiversity. The coastline of Portugal features a high number of endemic flora and vegetation with the potential to provide functional compounds that may provide physiological benefits at nutritional and therapeutic levels, as sources of bioactive substances with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, antitumalr and anti-inflammatory activity. Among these compounds, we find essential oils, also known as volatile oils, which are a result of secondary metabolism of aromatic plants, containing a large number of substances with varied chemical composition that can be obtained by different methods of extraction. The aim of this study was to extract essential oils of native plants and seaweeds from the coast of Peniche by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus, with optimization of the purification process. Extracted essential oils were tested as to their ability as antibacterial and antifungal agents, and also as antioxidants. The plants studied for this purpose were Inula chritmoides L., Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata (Guss. Nyman, Daucus carota spp. halophilus and the seaweeds Fucus spiralis L., Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Stypocaulon scoparium (Linnaeus Kützing and Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus P.S.Dixon. The antimicrobial ability was tested in two bacteria species, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using standard procedures. The antioxidant potential was evaluated and from the results obtained, we can conclude that the essential oils extracted by the hydrodistillation method of plants and algae contain bioactive compounds present in its constitution with interesting bio-activity that can offer significant benefits and biotechnological relevance.

  5. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  6. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparative study on metal biosorption by two macroalgae in saline waters: single and ternary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Paula; Henriques, Bruno; Teixeira, Ana; Lopes, Cláudia B; Reis, Ana T; Monteiro, Rui J R; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A; Pereira, E

    2016-06-01

    The biosorption capability of two marine macroalgae (green Ulva lactuca and brown Fucus vesiculosus) was evaluated in the removal of toxic metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) from saline waters, under realistic conditions. Results showed that, independently of the contamination scenario tested, both macroalgae have a remarkable capacity to biosorb Hg and Pb. In single-contaminant systems, by using only c.a. 500 mg of non-pre-treated algae biomass (size macroalgae exhibited a similar selectivity toward the target metals: Hg > Pb> > Cd, although Pb removal by U. lactuca was more inhibited than that achieved by F. vesiculosus. Under the experimental conditions used, none of the macroalgae was effective to remove Cd (maximum removal of 20 %). In all cases, the kinetics of biosorption was mathematically described with success. Globally, it became clear that the studied macroalgae may be part of simple, efficient, and cost-effective water treatment technologies. Nevertheless, Fucus vesiculosus has greater potential, since it always presented higher initial sorption rates and higher removal efficiencies.

  8. Uptake and distribution of technetium in several marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Myttenaere, C.; Van Baelen, J.; Cogneau, M.; van der Ben, D.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake or chemical form of technetium in different marine algae (Acetabularia, Cystoseira, Fucus) has been examined and a simple model to explain the uptake of technetium in the unicellular alga, Acetabularia, has been conceptualized. At low concentrations in the external medium, Acetabularia can rapidly concentrate technetium. Concentration factors in excess of 400 can be attained after a time of about 3 weeks. At higher mass concentrations in the medium, uptake of technetium by Acetabularia becomes saturated resulting in a decreased concentration factor (approximately 10 after 4 weeks). Approximately 69% of the total radioactivity present in /sup 95m/Tc labelled Acetabularia is found in the cell cytosol. In Fucus vesiculosus, labelled with /sup 95m/Tc, a high percentage of technetium is present in soluble ionic forms while approximately 40% is bound, in this brown alga, in proteins and polysaccharides associated with cell walls. In the algal cytosol of Fucus vesiculosus, about 45% of the /sup 95m/Tc appears to be present as anionic TcO - 4 and the remainder is bound to small molecules. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  9. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extracts Avaliação de atividade antifúngica de extratos de macroalgas marinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Fernandes Peres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.As macroalgas marinhas, por estarem sujeitas a numerosas interações biológicas e, por vezes, a condições abióticas extremas, desenvolveram, entre outros mecanismos de defesa, a capacidade de produzir substâncias biologicamente ativas. Assim, esses organismos produzem, principalmente, terpenos e fen

  10. Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    quantitatively. Acute toxicity study of the extract was conducted, and diabetic rats induced using alloxan (80 mg/kg ... Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality and ..... (2011): Phytochemical screening and extraction - A review.

  11. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  12. using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Supercritical CO2 extraction technology was adopted in this experiment to study the process of extraction of volatile oil from Polygonatum odoratum while gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer ..... Saponin rich fractions from.

  13. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  14. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values...... for 12 other radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation...

  15. APLICAÇÃO DE METODOLOGIA ANALÍTICA PARA A DETERMINAÇÃO DE ADULTARENTES SINTÉTICOS EM FORMULAÇÕES FITOTERÁPICAS EMAGRECEDORAS NO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana de Mattos Falcão

    2011-01-01

    O problema da adulteração de medicamentos na atualidade não se limita apenas aos casos de formulações sintéticas (medicamentos industrializados). A presença de drogas sintéticas adicionadas ilegalmente a formulações fitoterápicas, principalmente as utilizadas no tratamento da obesidade, também é recorrente. Os emagrecedores denominados naturais mais empregados para este fim no Brasil atualmente são a Caralluma Fimbriata, Cáscara Sagrada, Fucus Vesiculosus, Centella Asiática ...

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  17. Temperature effects on seaweed-sustaining top-down control vary with season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Franziska J; Graiff, Angelika; Matthiessen, Birte

    2016-03-01

    Rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations (ocean acidification) represent two of the most influential factors impacting marine ecosystems in the face of global climate change. In ecological climate change research, full-factorial experiments performed across seasons in multispecies, cross-trophic-level settings are essential as they permit a more realistic estimation of direct and indirect effects as well as the relative importance of the effects of both major environmental stressors on ecosystems. In benthic mesocosm experiments, we tested the responses of coastal Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus communities to elevated seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations across four seasons of one year. While increasing [CO2] levels had only minor effects, warming had strong and persistent effects on grazers, and the resulting effects on the Fucus community were found to be season dependent. In late summer, a temperature-driven collapse of grazers caused a cascading effect from the consumers to the foundation species, resulting in overgrowth of Fucus thalli by epiphytes. In fall/winter (outside the growing season of epiphytes), intensified grazing under warming resulted in a significant reduction in Fucus biomass. Thus, we were able to confirm the prediction that future increases in water temperatures will influence marine food-web processes by altering top-down control, but we were also able to show that specific consequences for food-web structure depend on the season. Since F. vesiculosus is the dominant habitat-forming brown algal system in the Baltic Sea, its potential decline under global warming implies a loss of key functions and services such as provision of nutrient storage, substrate, food, shelter, and nursery grounds for a diverse community of marine invertebrates and fish in Baltic Sea coastal waters.

  18. Radioecological studies of activation products released from a nuclear power plant into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.; Nilsson, M.; Holm, E.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1967 samples of Fucus serratus and Fucus vesi--culosus from the Swedish west-coast were collected for analysis of the concentration of fallout products, natural actinides and products released by the nuclear industry. During this time two nuclear power stations were built and began operation in this area, ''Ringhals'' in 1974 and ''Barseback'' in 1975. When detectable concentrations of Co-60 and other activation products were found in Fucus, the sampling program was intensified, both in the vicinity of ''Barseback'' and at localities up to 150 km north. Our studies have shown that measurements on Fucus can be used to map the distribution of various radionuclides from a nuclear power station in the marine environment. Knowledge of this distribution and of factors affecting it are needed to construct a radioecological model for the estimation of individual and collective dose equivalent commitment arising from intake of food and water from the marine environment of the south-west of Sweden. (H.K.)

  19. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G M; Wilke, G; Stahl, E

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this book derives from a symposium on the 5th and 6th of June 1978 in the ''Haus der Technik'' in Essen. Contributions were made to separation with supercritical gases, fluid extraction of hops, spices and tobacco, physicochemical principles of extraction, phase equilibria and critical curves of binary ammonia-hydrocarbon mixtures, a quick method for the microanalytical evaluation of the dissolving power of supercritical gases, chromatography with supercritical fluids, the separation of nonvolatile substances by means of compressed gases in countercurrent processes, large-scale industrial plant for extraction with supercritical gases, development and design of plant for high-pressure extraction of natural products.

  20. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME...

  1. Purification and the Secondary Structure of Fucoidanase from Fusarium sp. LD8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qianqian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fucoidanase from Fusarium sp. (LD8 was obtained by solid-state fermentation. The fermented solid medium was extracted by citric acid buffer, and the extracts were precipitated by acetone and purified by Sephadex G-100 successively. The results showed that the specific fucoidanase activity of purified enzyme was 22.7-fold than that of the crude enzyme. The recovery of the enzyme was 23.9%. The purified enzyme gave a single band on SDS-PAGE gel, and the molecular weight of fucoidanase was about 64 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.5. The enzyme properties were also studied. The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH were 60°C and 6.0, respectively; the temperature of half inactivation was 50°C, and the most stable pH for the enzyme was 6.0. KM, and the Vmax  of the enzyme was 8.9 mg·L−1 and 2.02 mg·min−1·mL−1 by using fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus as substrate. The compositions of the secondary structure of fucoidanase were estimated by FTIR, the second derivative spectra, and the curve-fitting analysis of the amide I bands in their spectra. The results showed that β-sheet was the dominant component (58.6% and α-helix was the least (12%; the content of β-turn and random coil were 15.39% and 14.5%, respectively.

  2. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  3. AGS slow extraction improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.W.; Smith, G.A.; Sandberg, J.N.; Repeta, L.; Weisberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    Improvement of the straightness of the F5 copper septum increased the AGS slow extraction efficiency from approx. 80% to approx. 90%. Installation of an electrostatic septum at H2O, 24 betatron wavelengths upstream of F5, further improved the extraction efficiency to approx. 97%

  4. Extraction of metal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, R F

    1988-10-19

    Metal values (especially uranium values) are extracted from aqueous solutions of metal oxyions in the absence of halogen ion using an imidazole of defined formula. Especially preferred extractants are 1-alkyl imidazoles and benzimidazoles having from 7 to 25 carbon atoms in the alkyl group.

  5. (Lamiaceae) root extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of 10 solvent extracts of Mentha spicata root. Methods: Ten solvent extracts were investigated for their total flavonoid and phenolic content and screened for larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal activities. The total phenolic ...

  6. Extraction chromatography of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    1978-01-01

    Extraction chromatography of actinides in the oxidation state from 2 to 6 is reviewed. Data on using neutral (tbp), basic (substituted ammonium salts) and acidic [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA)] extracting agents ketones, esters, alcohols and β-diketones in this method are given. Using the example of actinide separation using D2EHPA, discussed are factors influencing the efficiency of their chromatography separation (nature and particle size of the carrier materials, extracting agents amount on the carrier, temperature and elution rate)

  7. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  8. The organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaoul, B.; Attou, M.; Azzouz, A.

    1989-07-01

    This work consists in a bibliographic review dealing with phosphorus and organophosphorus compounds chemistry and especially with the main extracting agents used in uranium ore treatment. In this context, a special interest is devoted to TBP, D 2 EHPA and TOPO. The content of this work is based on a large bibliography including cca. One hundred references related to many aspects concerning as well the nomenclature, the classification and the chemical structures of the organophosphorus compounds as synthesis methods, purification and analysis of the main extracting agents used in uranium extraction

  9. Substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus is described. Phosphorus was extracted in the form of ternary compounds such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, 8-hydroxyquinolinium phosphomolybdate, tetraphenylarsonium phosphomolybdate and tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate. Consequently, phosphorus was extracted substoichiometrically by the addition of a substoichiometric amount of molybdenum for the four phosphomolybdate compounds. On the other hand, phosphorus could be separated substoichiometrically with a substoichiometric amount of tetraphenylarsonium chloride or tri-n-octylamine. Stoichiometric ratios of these ternary compounds obtained substoichiometrically were 1:12:3 for phosphorus, molybdenum and organic reagent. The applicability of these compounds to phosphorus determination is also discussed. (author)

  10. The typification of Fucus cartilagineus L. and F. corneus Huds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, Peter S.

    1967-01-01

    The following notes refer to the typification of the two oldest species names applied in the genus Gelidium, including also comments on other related topics. Gelidium is probably the most confused genus, both nomenclaturally and taxonomically, of the Rhodophyta. This investigation began in an

  11. STRESS ECOLOGY IN FUCUS : ABIOTIC, BIOTIC AND GENETIC INTERACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahl, Martin; Jormalainen, Veijo; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Coyer, James A.; Molis, Markus; Schubert, Hendrik; Dethier, Megan; Karez, Rolf; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Pearson, Gareth; Rohde, Sven; Wikstrom, Sofia A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Lesser, M

    2011-01-01

    Stress regimes defined as the synchronous or sequential action of abiotic and biotic stresses determine the performance and distribution of species. The natural patterns of stress to which species are more or less well adapted have recently started to shift and alter under the influence of global

  12. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  13. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure ... Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and partitioned in .... about 15 minutes indicated the presence of saponins.

  14. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  15. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash University, Physics Department (Australia)

    1998-12-15

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed.

  16. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed

  17. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  18. The opportunities for obtaining of the biogas on methane fermentation from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jachniak Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to try to obtain of the biogas on a laboratory scale from marine algae biomass and water plant biomass. The research was conducted in 2016 year and samples were taken from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. In laboratory work, algae and plant species were first identified. The next, in order to subject them to methane fermentation processes and to obtain biogas,partial mechanical treatment of the biomass was conducted. Dry matter content and dry organic matter content were also determined. The research has shown different production of the biogas depending on the various species of the algae and plants. The percentage composition of the biogas was also determined (% CO2 and % CH4. In this research some kinds and species of algae and aquatic plants were distinguished: Scytosiphon cf. S. tortilis, Fucus vesiculosus, Cladophora, Audouinella, Potamogeton perfoliatus. Production of biogas from selected algae and water plants oscillated between 0.023 dm3·g-1 and 0.303 dm3·g-1. The highest content of the methane in biogas was obtained from the mixture of Ectocarpus from spring and autumn harvest (values oscillated from 80.7 % to 81.2 %, while the highest percentage share of carbon dioxide in the biogas was characterized by the mixture Fucus vesiculosus and Audouinella (22 %. Due to a small amount of the research in this field, more research is needed.

  19. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.; Batavia, IL)

    1985-01-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper (1) summarizes performance

  20. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

    1985-06-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance

  1. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  3. Substoichiometric extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1980-01-01

    Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1-2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6-2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1-6.4 for the DDDC chelate and 3.9-4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0+-0.02 ppm and 2.6+-0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate are also discussed. (author)

  4. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  5. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2013-01-01

    as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...... electrophoresis (CE). In that way the sample preparation performed by nano-EME was coupled directly with a CE separation. Separation performance of 42,000-193,000 theoretical plates could easily be obtained by this direct sample preparation and injection technique that both provided enrichment as well...

  6. Uranium extraction at Rossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, S.B.; Fahrbach, D.O.E.

    1982-01-01

    Rossing Uranium Ltd. operates a large open pit uranium mine and extraction plant at a remote site in the Namib desert. Production started at the plant in 1978. A ferric leach process was introduced later, and the new leach plant began commissioning in October 1981. The process has proved to be reliable and easily controlled. Ferric iron is supplied through recovery from the acid plant calcine, and levels can be maintained above the design levels. Leach extractions were increased more than expected when this process was adopted, and the throughput has been considerably reduced, allowing cost savings in mining and milling

  7. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  8. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  9. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  10. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  11. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  12. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  13. Concepts for immobilized extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cleaning actinides from geomedia. In the past actinides were often released to the ground because of their tendency to bind tightly to forms of geomedia, and in addition spills have occurred over time. To remediate these areas involves finding ways to either guarantee the retention of the actinides in the geomedia, or finding ways to extract them and leave the soils clean. One possible way to clean soils is to wash them, which in order to extract actinides means the use of ligands which bind competitively with actinides in the presence of soil fractions. An array of organic ligands is known which bind with actinides, but the larger problem of handling these ligands in a manner which allows concentration of the actinides is still open. The author addresses work to bind such ligands to different types of matrices which can then be used in packed extraction columns to remove actindes from flow streams, and finally concentrated, by using minimal volume backflushing to extract the actinides from the column

  14. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Anthropogenic nitrogen input traced by means of {delta} {sup 15}N values in macroalgae: Results from in-situ incubation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Barbara [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: barbara.deutsch@io-warnemuende.de; Voss, Maren [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    The macroalgae species Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyta), Polysiphonia sp., and Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta) originally grown at an unpolluted brackish site of the southern Baltic Sea were incubated for 10 and 14 days at 12 stations along a salinity gradient in a highly polluted estuary. We have expected an adaptation of the initially low {delta} {sup 15}N values to the higher ones within the incubation period. In addition to the macroalgae the {delta} {sup 15}N values of NO{sub 3} {sup -} were measured to evaluate fractionation processes of the source nitrate. Inside the estuary, {delta} {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} values were 6.2-9.7 per mille , indicating anthropogenic nitrogen sources. The red macroalgae adequately reflected the nitrate isotope values in the surrounding waters, whereas for F. vesiculosus the results were not that clear. The reasons were assumed to be higher initial {delta} {sup 15}N values of F. vesiculosus and presumably a too slow nitrogen uptake and growth rate. The method of macroalgae incubations seems suitable as a simple monitoring to study the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen loading in an estuarine environment.

  16. Anthropogenic nitrogen input traced by means of δ 15N values in macroalgae: Results from in-situ incubation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, Barbara; Voss, Maren

    2006-01-01

    The macroalgae species Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyta), Polysiphonia sp., and Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta) originally grown at an unpolluted brackish site of the southern Baltic Sea were incubated for 10 and 14 days at 12 stations along a salinity gradient in a highly polluted estuary. We have expected an adaptation of the initially low δ 15 N values to the higher ones within the incubation period. In addition to the macroalgae the δ 15 N values of NO 3 - were measured to evaluate fractionation processes of the source nitrate. Inside the estuary, δ 15 N-NO 3 - values were 6.2-9.7 per mille , indicating anthropogenic nitrogen sources. The red macroalgae adequately reflected the nitrate isotope values in the surrounding waters, whereas for F. vesiculosus the results were not that clear. The reasons were assumed to be higher initial δ 15 N values of F. vesiculosus and presumably a too slow nitrogen uptake and growth rate. The method of macroalgae incubations seems suitable as a simple monitoring to study the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen loading in an estuarine environment

  17. A physicochemical study of Al(+3) interactions with edible seaweed biomass in acidic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Pablo; López-García, Marta; Herrero, Luz; Barriada, José L; Herrero, Roberto; Cremades, Javier; Bárbara, Ignacio; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E

    2012-09-01

    In this article, a study of the Al(+3) interactions in acidic waters with biomass of different edible seaweeds: brown (Fucus vesiculosus, Saccorhiza polyschides), red (Mastocarpus stellatus, Gelidium sesquipedale, Chondrus crispus), and green (Ulva rigida, Codium tomentosum), has been performed. The influence of both, the initial concentration of metal and the solution pH, on the Al-uptake capacity of the biomass has been analyzed. From preliminary tests, species Fucus vesiculosus and Gelidium sesquipedale have been selected for a more exhaustive analysis. Sorption kinetic studies demonstrated that 60 min are enough to reach equilibrium. The intraparticle diffusion model has been used to describe kinetic data. Equilibrium studies have been carried out at pH values of 1, 2.5, and 4. Langmuir isotherms showed that the best uptake values, obtained at pH 4, were 33 mg/g for F. vesiculosus and 9.2 mg/g for G. sesquipedale. These edible seaweeds have been found particularly effective in binding aluminum metal ions for most of the conditions tested. Physicochemical data reported at these low pH values could be of interest, not only in modeling aluminum-containing antacids-food pharmacokinetic processes produced in the stomach (pH values 1 to 3) but in remediation studies in acidic waters. Aluminum is thought to be linked to neurological disruptions such as Alzheimer's disease. In this article, the adsorption ability of different types of edible seaweeds toward aluminum has been studied. The choice of low pH values is due to the fact that stomach region is acidic with a pH value between 1 and 3 as a consequence of hydrochloric secretion; so physicochemical data reported in this study could be of interest in modeling drug-food interactions, in particular those referring to aluminum-containing antacids-food pharmacokinetic processes produced in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  19. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  20. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  1. Solid phase extraction membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  2. Gold and uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution

  3. Extractive metallurgy. Recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed technical information derived from patents issued since 1975 on extractive metallurgy is presented. In part one, concerning copper, the major areas covered are: smelting and roasting; acid leaching; ammonia leach processes; cuprous chloride and ferric chloride; and recovery of copper values from solution. Part two covers other metals, including: nickel and cobalt; ocean floor nodules; lead, zinc, molybdenum and manganese; precious metals; and uranium titanium, tantalum, rhenium, gallium, and other metals

  4. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  5. Influence of Extraction Parameters on Hydroalcohol Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameter that had the greatest influence on extraction process was alcohol concentration ... rules and processing steps [2]. As part .... Table 1: Extractive batch nnumbers with the respective factors and levels studied in the factorial design.

  6. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  9. Solvent extraction of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Yoon, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of zirconium(VI) from an aqueous solution of constant ionic strength with versatic acid-10 dissolved in benzen was studied as a function of pH and the concentration of zirconium(VI) and organic acid. The effects of sulphate and chlorine ions on the extraction of the zirconium(VI) were briefly examined. It was revealed that (ZrOR 2 .2RH) is the predominant species of extracted zirconium(VI) in the versatic acid-10. The chemical equation and the apparent equilibrium constants thereof have been determined as follows. (ZrOsup(2+))aq+ 2(R 2 H 2 )sub(org) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)+2(H + )aq Ksub(Zr) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)(H + ) 2 /(ZrOsup(2+))sub(aq)(R 2 H 2 )sup(2)sub(org) = 3.3 x 10 -7 . The synergistic effects of TBP and D2EHPA were also studied. In the mixed solvent with 0.1M TBP, the synergistic effect was observed, while the mixed solvent with D2EHPA showed the antisynergistic effect. (Author)

  10. EXTRACTION OF MONOAZO DYES BY HYDROPHILIC EXTRACTANTS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mono azo dyes E102, E122, E110, E124, E129 from aqueous solutions with hydrophilic solvents (alcohols, esters, ketones and polymers (poly-N-vinylamides, polyethylene glycol was studied. The main regularities of extraction are established. The distribution coefficients and degree of extraction of dyes was estimate. The influence of the nature of solvents and polymers on the extraction of dyes from aqueous solutions are established.

  11. Understanding extractive bleed : wood extractives: distribution, properties, and classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Burke; Norm Slavik; Tony Bonura; Dennis Connelly; Tom Faris; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; Sam Williams; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Color, odor, and natural durability of heartwood are characteristics imparted by a class of chemicals in wood known collectively extractives. Wood is converted by the tree from sapwood to heartwood by the deposition of extractives, typically many years after the growth ring undergoing this change was formed by the tree. Extractives are thus not a part of the wood...

  12. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    sensitivity tests of crude extract fractions of the plant extracts using ethanol, chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether, water and ethyl acetate were investigated on nine bacterial isolates. .... These were obtained by punching the filter paper with.

  13. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  14. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Myers

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stephen P Myers1,2, Joan O’Connor1,2, J Helen Fitton3, Lyndon Brooks4, Margaret Rolfe4, Paul Connellan5, Hans Wohlmuth2,5,6, Phil A Cheras1,2, Carol Morris51NatMed-Research, 2Centre for Health and Wellbeing, 4Graduate Research College, 5Centre for Phytochemistry and Pharmacology, 6Medicinal Plant Herbarium, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia; 3Marinova Pty Ltd, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaBackground: Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of anti-inflammatory effects.Purpose: This present study tested a Maritech® extract formulation, containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae, plus nutrients in an open label combined phase I and II pilot scale study to determine both acute safety and efficacy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients and methods: Participants (n = 12, five females [mean age, 62 ± 11.06 years] and seven males [mean age, 57.14 ± 9.20 years] with a confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to either 100 mg (n = 5 or 1000 mg (n = 7 of a Maritech® extract formulation per day. The formulation contained Maritech® seaweed extract containing Fucus vesiculosis (85% w/w, Macrocystis pyrifera (10% w/w and Laminaria japonica (5% w/w plus vitamin B6, zinc and manganese. Primary outcome was the average comprehensive arthritis test (COAT score which is comprised of four sub-scales: pain, stiffness, difficulty with physical activity and overall symptom severity measured weekly. Safety measures included full blood count, serum lipids, liver function tests, urea, creatinine and electrolytes determined at baseline and week 12. All adverse events were recorded.Results: Eleven participants completed 12 weeks and one completed 10 weeks of the study. Using a multilevel linear model, the average COAT score was reduced by 18% for the 100 mg treatment and 52% for the 1000 mg dose at the end of the study. There was a clear dose response effect

  15. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  16. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  17. On extraction reagents for hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental requirements to the extractants are considered. Ways of obtaining selective extractants are discussed in particular on the basis of coordination chemistry achivements. Attention is drawn to expediency of study (as extractants) of flotation reagents, additions to the oil, pesticides, accelerators of caoutchouc vulcanization

  18. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  19. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  20. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  1. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  2. Resinous constituent extracting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayer, W F

    1947-10-07

    The method of recovering oily constituents from coal or oil shale comprising the saturation of coal or oil shale in a sealed vessel with an organic solution having a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of not exceeding 220/sup 0/C, elevating the temperature within the vessel to a temperature below the cracking temperature of the constituents and maintaining the pressure within the vessel below 51 pounds, to extract the oily material from the coal or oil shale and subsequently separating the solvent from the oily material.

  3. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  4. Carcinogenicity of soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbak, N P

    1970-01-01

    A total of 270 3-mo-old mice, hybrids of the C57BL and CBA strains which are highly susceptible to carcinogens, were painted on the skin (2-3 admin./week) with 3-4 drops of (1) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken near a petroleum refinery with a 3,4 benzpyrene (BP) content of 0.22%; (2) a 0.22% soln of pure BP in benzene; (3) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken from an old residential area of Moscow (BP content 0.0004%); (4) a 0.0004% BP soln in benzene; and (5) pure benzene. Only mice in the first 2 groups developed tumors. In group (1), 8 mice had papillomas, 46 had skin cancer, 1 had a sarcoma and 2 had plasmocytomas. In group (2) all 60 animals had skin cancer. Lung metastases were present at autopsy in 5 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2); in some cases, these tumors were multiple. Lymph node metastases were found in 6 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2). Tumors developed more slowly in group (1) than in group (2).

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  6. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  7. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  8. Uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Influence of Extraction Parameters on Hydroalcohol Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the influence of alcohol concentration (50, 70 and 90 % v/v), extraction time (2, 6 and 10 h), and particle size of the herbal drug (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm) on the pH, dry residue and myrsinoic acid B (MAB) content of hydroalcoholic extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: For the extracts, ...

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  11. Membrane extraction instead of solvent extraction - what does it give

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    1989-01-01

    Membrane extraction, i.e. separation in double-emulsion systems, is analyzed theoretically as a three-phase distribution process. Its efficiency is evaluated from the point of view of chemical equilibria and diffusion transport kinetics. The main advantages of membrane extraction as compared with solvent extraction are in higher yields (for preconcentration) and higher capacity for recovery of solutes. A pertraction factor and multiplication factor were defined. They are convenient parameters for numerical characterization of solute distribution, system capacity, process economics, and separation kinetics (both at a linear and non-linear extraction isotherm). 17 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  14. Unsymmetrical phosphate as extractant for the extraction of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, R.H.; Jayaram, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was first used as an extractant in 1944, during Manhattan project for the separation of actinides and further explored by Warf in 1949 for the extraction of Ce(IV) from aqueous nitric acid. TBP was further used as an extractant in the Plutonium Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process. To meet the stringent requirements of the nuclear industry TBP has been extensively investigated. In spite of its wide applicability, TBP suffers from various disadvantages such as high aqueous solubility, third phase formation, chemical and radiation degradation leading to the formation of undesired products. It also suffers from incomplete decontamination of the actinides from fission products. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems associated with TBP by way of using higher homologues of TBP such as Tri-iso amyl phosphate (TiAP), Tri-secondary butyl phosphate (TsBP), Tri amyl phosphate (TAP). It was found that in some cases the results were considerably better than those obtained with TBP for uranium/thorium extraction. The extraction of nitric acid by TBP and its higher homologues which are symmetrical are well documented. However, no solvent has emerged clearly superior than TBP. Here in we report the extraction of nitric acid with neutral unsymmetrical phosphates and study them as extractants for the extraction of nitric acid. Dibutyl secbutyl phosphate, dibutyl pentyl phosphate and dibutyl heptyl phosphate were synthesised for this purpose and the extraction of nitric acid was studied in n-dodecane. The results indicate that the substitution of one of the alkyl groups of the symmetrical phosphate adjacent to the phosphoryl (P=O) group of the phosphate does not have any pronounced effect on the extraction capacity of nitric acid. (author)

  15. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  16. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  17. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  18. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Uranium being strategic material, its separation and purification is of utmost importance in nuclear industry, for which solvent extraction is being employed. During solvent extraction significant quantity of radioactive liquid waste gets generated which is of environmental concern. In recent decades supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has emerged as promising alternative to solvent extraction owing to its inherent advantage of reduction in liquid waste generation and simplification of process. In this paper a brief overview of research work carried out so far on SFE of uranium by BARC has been given

  20. Sterically hindered solvent extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solka, J.L.; Reis, A.H. Jr.; Mason, G.W.; Lewey, S.M.; Peppard, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Di-t-pentylphosphinic acid, [C(CH 3 ) 2 (CH 2 CH 3 )] 2 PO(OH), H[Dt-PeP], has been shown by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to be dimeric in the solid state. H[Dt-PeP] crystallizes in the centro-symmetric orthorhombic space group, Cmca, with unit cell parameters, a = 17.694(7), b = 11.021(4), and c = 13.073(5) A, and Z = 8, indicating that the molecule must conform to a crystallographic mirror plane or 2-fold axis. A measured density of 1.088 g/cm 3 is in good agreement with a calculated value of 1.074 g/cm 3 for a unit cell volume of 2549.3(A) 3 and a formula weight of 206.25 g. A total of 646 three-dimensional X-ray data were collected on an automated XRD-490 G.E. diffractometer. The structure was solved using a combination of direct methods, Patterson, Fourier, and least-squares refinement techniques. Refinement of the data indicates that H[Dt-PeP] is dimeric, and contains a mirror plane in which the hydrogen-bonded, eight-membered ring lies. A structural disorder involving principally the ethylene carbon but affecting the methyl carbons as well precluded a precise determination of the carbon positions and severely reduced the precision of the final refinement. In the liquid-liquid extraction system consisting of a solution of H[Dt-PeP] in benzene vs an acidic aqueous chloride phase, the extraction of UO 2 2+ follows the stoichiometry: UO 2 sub(A) 2+ + 2(HY) 2 subO = UO 2 (HY 2 ) 2 sub(O) + 2Hsub(A) + where (HY) 2 represents the dimer of H[Dt-PeP] and A and O represent the mutually equilibrated aqueous and organic phases. The expression for the distribution ratio, k, for UO 2 2+ is given. (author)

  1. Plutonium and americium extraction studies with bifunctional organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Neutral bifunctional organophosphorus extractants, such as octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (CMP), are under study at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) to remove plutonium and americium from the 7M nitric acid waste. These compounds extract trivalent actinides from strong nitric acid, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organiphosphorus reagents. Furthermore, the reagents extract hydroytic plutonium (IV) polymer which is present in the acid waste stream. The compounds extract trivalent actinides with a 3:1 stoichiometry, whereas tetra- and hexavalent actinides extract with a stoichiometry of 2:1. Preliminary studies indicate that the extracted plutonium polymer complex contains one to two molecules of CMP per plutonium ion and the plutonium(IV) maintains a polymeric structure. Recent studies by Horwitz and co-workers conclude that the CMPO and CMP reagents behave as monodentate ligands. At RFP, three techniques are being tested for using CMP and CMPO to remove plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste streams. The different techniques are liquid-liquid extraction, extraction chromatography, and solid-supported liquid membranes. Recent tests of the last two techniques will be briefly described. In all the experiments, CMP was an 84% pure material from Bray Oil Co. and CMPO was 98% pure from M and T Chemicals

  2. determination of lipophilic extractives in ionic liquid extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Chem. 9: 63-69. Freire CSR, Pinto PCR, Santiago AS,. Silvestre AJD, Evtuquin DV and Neto. CP 2006a Comparative study of lipophilic extractives of hardwoods and corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps. BioResources. 1: 3-17. Freire CSR, Silvestre AJD and Neto CP. 2005. Lipophilic extractives in. Eucalyptus globulus.

  3. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  4. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Manjón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden.

  5. Study on the extraction kinetics of U(IV) extraction with neutral phosphoric extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhou; Liao Shishu; Li Zhou

    1995-04-01

    The extraction kinetics of U(IV) in the diisooctyl isobutylphosphonate system has been studied by using the single drop method. The effects of the concentrations of U(IV), HCl and extractant on the extraction rate have been examined. In a certain HCl concentration, the extraction rate equation has been acquired and in the condition of various HCl concentration the extraction rate of U(IV) is proportional to [HCl 1.51 . The effect of operation temperature was also examined, and the calculated apparent activation energy is equal to 23.24 kJ/mol. From the experimental results, the extraction reaction process and the rate-controlling step have been deduced. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  6. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  7. Extraction systems of the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    A pair of prototype septum magnets for the extraction systems of the SPS. Each of the two extraction systems will contain eighteen of these septum magnets (eight with a 4 mm septum and ten with a 16 mm septum) mounted in pairs in nine vacuum tanks.

  8. [Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R

    1984-06-29

    Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.

  9. Extractive separation of tellurium(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawali, S.B.; Shinde, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the extraction of tellurium (4) from hydrobromic acid media using 4-methyl-2-pentanol as an extractant. The method affords the determination of tellurium after its separation from Se, Au, Cu, Pb, Fe, Os, V and Al. (author)

  10. Solids recycling in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    In an extraction process for extracting values from a first stream into a substantially immiscible second stream using a multi-compartmental rotary contactor, unwanted solids formed in the contactor and discharged at least partly with the the first stream are separated and re-entered into the contactor intermediate the points at which the streams are discharged. (author)

  11. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  12. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  13. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  14. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  15. Selective extraction of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshov, M.; Starshov, I.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed in the field of natural bitumen extraction is aimed at maximum separation of organic phase. On treating bituminous rocks with solvents, the associated metals are extracted together with the organic phase and may further exert a negative effect on refining of natural bitumen. the authors propose a simplified two stage technique for the extraction of bitumen which enables to utilize V and Ni contained in the concentrate of the second stage extraction (Table). At the first stage, negative bitumen is extracted with the summary content of metals not exceeding 0.005%. This allows to avoid de metallization of native bitumen and subject it to treatment by catalytic cracking. during this stage gasoline and kerosene fractions, different oil distillates and condensates can be used as solvents. at the second stage, aromatic and halo id compounds bearing wastes and by-products, i.e. cheap and non deficient reagents, serve as solvents. The technology was tested under laboratory conditions using Tatar bituminous sands. It is also possible to use one solvent only, however, on condition that at first the oil product with the summary metal content below 0.005%, and then the remaining product is extracted. The proposed technology has proved so universal that it can be applied to refining any type of raw material to be found in the territory of the Tatar republic, using surface extraction complexes. (author). 9 refs., tab

  16. Mineral extraction and transport device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, K.

    1991-08-21

    A device for the extraction and transport of stratified mineral deposits notably coal, having a transport run with lengths of transport troughing, an extraction run with lengths of extraction troughing, and a power-driven traction chain guided round return devices and carrying extraction bodies together with optional transport units. The transport and extraction troughing have guide members on which the extraction bodies and the transport units are guided with the aid of guide formations. Each extraction body consists of a headpiece having two laterally protruding guide formations, and an endpiece having two laterally protruding guide formations and a centrepiece. The headpiece and the endpiece are swivellably linked to the centrepiece through an axis running substantially at right angles to the traction axis of the traction chain and substantially at right angles to the floor of the lengths of transport troughing in the transport run. The centrepiece has an additional articulation about an axis substantially orthogonal to the swivel axis of the headpiece and the endpiece. Guide members are additionally provided in the vicinity of the return devices whereby the guide formations on each headpiece and endpiece receive continued guidance.

  17. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  18. Extraction of uranium with emulsion membrane process use tributylphosphate extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuki, K.T.; Sudibyo, R.; Bambang EHB; Muhadi, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (Kd eksU ) 57 %, and (Kd strippU ) 87 %, Kd eksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)

  19. Actinides complexes in solvent extraction. The amide type of extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Condamines, N.; Charbonnel, M.C.; Hubert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The N,N-dialkylamides and the N,N'-tetraalkyl. 2-alkyl 1,3-diamide propane are two promising classes of extractants which could replace advantageously the organophosphorus molecules for the separations of the actinide. The main advantages of the amides lie in their complete incinerability and the small interference of their radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation products for the processes. The actinide extraction chemistry with various amides is reviewed in this paper

  20. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  1. Novel Fluorinated Tensioactive Extractant Combined with Flotation for Decontamination of Extractant Residual during Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Chang, Zhidong; Liu, Yao; Choe, Chol Ryong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent-extraction is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the amphiphilic character, a large amount of extractant remains in water phase, which causes not only loss of reagent, but also secondary contamination in water phase. Novel fluorinated extractants with ultra-low solubility in water were regarded as effective choice to reduce extractant loss in aqueous phase. However, trace amount of extractant still remained in water. Based on the high tensioactive aptitude of fluorinated solvent, flotation was applied to separate fluorinated extractant remaining in raffinate. According to the data of surface tension measurement, the surface tension of solution was obviously decreased with the addition of fluorinated extractant tris(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl) phosphate (FTAP). After flotation, the FTAP dissolved in water can be removed as much as 70%, which proved the feasibility of this key idea. The effects of operation time, gas velocity, pH and salinity of bulk solution on flotation performance were discussed. The optimum operating parameters were determined as gas velocity of 12ml/min, operating time of 15min, pH of 8.7, and NaCl volume concentration of 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, adsorption process of FTAP on bubble surface was simulated by ANSYS VOF model using SIMPLE algorithm. The dynamic mechanism of flotation was also theoretically investigated, which can be considered as supplement to the experimental results.

  2. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  3. Combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, U; Hinzpeter, E N

    1977-04-01

    A short film showing our technique of combined penetrating keratoplasty and intracapsular cataract extraction was shown, and the postoperative results in 72 eyes after an average of 3 years were reported.

  4. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, M.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanujam, A.; Nadkarni, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    An extractive spectrophotometric method has been standardized for the analysis of 0.2 to 1.6 milligrams of thorium present in nitric acid solutions. The method involves the extraction of thorium from nitric acid solutions into 0.5 M thenoyl trifluoro acetone (HTTA) in benzene and its direct estimation from the organic extract by spectrophotometry as Thoron colour complex. In this method, interference due to iron upto 5 milligrams can be suppressed by adding ascorbic acid in the ratio of 1:2 prior to HTTA extraction. Uranium(VI) does not interefere even when present in 2000 times the amount of thorium. Plutonium and cerium do not interfere at one milligram level whereas zirconium interferes in this method. The overall error variation and precision of this method has been determined to be +- 3.5%. (author)

  5. Extraction chromatography of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevie-Svendsen, M.; Goon, K.

    1978-01-01

    Various cases of using extraction chromatography during analysis of fission products are reviewed. The use of the extraction chromatography method is considered while analysing reprocessed products of nuclear fuel for quantitative radiochemical analysis and control of fission product and actinoide separation during extraction and their chemical state in production solutions. The method is used to obtain pure fractions of typical burnup monitors (neodymium, molybdenum, cerium, cesium, europium, lanthanides) during determination of nuclear fuel burnup degree. While studying the nature of nuclear reactions the method is used to separate quickly short-life isotopes, to purify β-radiator fractions before measuring their half-life periods, to enrich isotopes forming with low output during fission. Examples of using extraction chromatography are given to separate long half-life or stable fission products from spent solutions, to control environment object contamination

  6. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  7. Scenario Customization for Information Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yangarber, Roman

    2001-01-01

    Information Extraction (IE) is an emerging NLP technology, whose function is to process unstructured, natural language text, to locate specific pieces of information, or facts, in the text, and to use these facts to fill a database...

  8. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  9. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  10. aqueous root extract on spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four groups were gavaged with the whole plant or root aqueous extract in low or high doses. The male ... motility and morphology as well as chromatin integrity were evaluated. Results: Serum ... Treatment of disease began long ago with the.

  11. Bio technologies in extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The bio technologies processes used (or used in the future) in extractive metallurgy are presented. The most advanced one is the degradation of the metals sulfides (bacteria catalyzing the sulfides oxidation of Au, Cu, U). Two other applications outside the extractive metallurgy are also described: metals fixation by living or dead organic matter and the biological destruction of organic reactants such as cyanides. (A.B.)

  12. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  13. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  14. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic and heter......The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...

  15. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Abeed Sarker; Diego Molla; Cecile Paris

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medic...

  16. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.M.; Patterson, E.L.; Tisone, G.C.; Moreno, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF 6 -HI or SF 6 -C 2 H 6 and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H 2 and F 2 mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF 6 -HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H 2 -F 2 fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H 2 and F 2 mixtures. For an input intensity of 10 7 W/cm 2 , 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF 6 -C 2 H 6 spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature

  17. The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system and equipment for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palyska, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system has been worked out. The equipment designed for that process has been also subject of the patent. The interesting component is extracted first to intermediate phase consists of magnetic solvent keeping two extracting phases separately. The intermediate magnetic liquid has been kept in its position using a stable magnet maintained on the surface of the extraction vessel. Then the component pass from intermediate phase to the third phase as a result of back extraction. Mixing in the extraction and back extraction zones is organized by means of rotating shaft going along the whole apparatus. The extraction and back extraction processes occur simultaneously as a result of continuous flow of solvent in their zones. The single extraction back extraction facilities can be joined in larger batteries. 3 figs

  18. Chemical speciation analysis and environmental behaviour of 127I and 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Violeta

    2011-10-01

    the released 129 I. This means that geochemical models based on stable iodine behavior may not necessarily be able to predict the present behavior of I-129. Concentrations of 129 I and 127 I in archived Fucus Vesiculosus samples collected between 2002 - 2010 at Romoe (German Bight), Klint (Kattegat) and Bornholm were analysed. Since previous investigations have shown that iodine speciation differ between the sites a comparison between 129 I/ 127 I ratios in seaweed relative to water at the three sites were done in order to evaluate if uptake was independent on speciation. The 129 I/ 127 I (seaweed) relative 129 I/ 127 (seawater) were found to be 0.5 for the North Sea (2005), 0.7 (2006) for Southern Kattegat and 0.97 (2007) for Bornholm. In spite of the very different iodine speciation at the three sites the concentration ratio seaweed to water is more or less the same indicating that Fucus Vesiculosus can be used as a bio-indicator for iodine-129 in the marine environment. The results shows however that iodide is somewhat more efficient accumulate than iodate in Fucus. A rapid on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for direct speciation analysis of 127 I (as iodide and iodate) in water samples was developed. The method was further used for the speciation analysis of 127 I in freshwater and seawater (following dilution). The results demonstrate that the on-line HPLC - ICP - MS method developed in this study is reliable and efficient for accurate assay for speciation analysis of stable iodine in water samples. Due to the low concentrations of 129 I in the environment the HPLC-ICPMS method cannot be applied for speciation analysis of this isotope in environmental samples but can be applied for water samples highly contaminated with 129 I. (Author)

  19. Extraction and characterization of galactomannan extracted from Prosopis juliflora seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Oliveira, Williara Q. de; Gallao, Maria Izabel; Azeredo, Henriette M. C de

    2015-01-01

    Different seeds are rich in polysaccharides, which are widely used in research and in industry. The objective was to extract galactomannan from mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora) and evaluate their chemical properties for future application in edible films. To test the feasibility of using the polysaccharide, the yield was obtained and the material analyzed by Thermal Analysis (TGA-Thermogravimetric Analysis and Calorimetry Differential Scanning-DSC), Spectroscopy Infrared Region Fourier Transform (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). According to the results, the galactomannan was equivalent with the polysaccharides extracted from other sources except for the low yield (6.6%). (author)

  20. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Sousa Dias Cartaxana, Paulo Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area...... spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick...... macroalgae, like Codium tomentosum or Fucus vesiculosus, the contribution of the far-red emission fluorescence peak was more significant, most probably due to re-absorption of the emitted red Chl a fluorescence within the dense photosynthetic layer. Similarly, an increase in the number of layers of the thin...

  1. Sea-to-land transfer of technetium-99 through the use of contaminated seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Shona; Salt, Carol A.; Howard, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner gives rise to a potential pathway for the transfer of Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) from marine to terrestrial ecosystems and thence to man. However, to date there is little information on the extent of the release of 99 Tc from seaweed into soil and the mechanisms involved. This pot experiment has shown that 99 Tc is released fairly rapidly from Fucus vesiculosus into a sandy coastal soil. Despite low temperature conditions, 60% of the 99 Tc added with the seaweed had accumulated in the soil 15 weeks after addition. Concurrent CO 2 monitoring (used as a measure of microbial decomposition or catabolism) suggested that the initial 99 Tc release (up to 40% in the first 8 weeks) was due to leaching from the seaweed and that microbial decomposition was responsible for the release of the remaining 99 Tc in the latter phase (12-15 weeks)

  2. Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldre, I.A.; Itra, A.R.; Paal' me, L.P.; Kukk, Kh.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Kaesmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  3. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report on intercomparison IAEA/AG-B-1 of radionuclide measurements in marine algae sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report includes results of the intercomparison exercise organized to enable analysts involved in measurements to check the analytical performance of their measuring methods on homogeneous seaweed material and also to establish reference values for radionuclides 40 K, 54 Mn, 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 238 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 232 Th, 228 Ra and 228 Th for the advantage of all those who need well-characterized standard material for calibration purposes. The sample of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus from the coastal area of the Southwest Baltic near the Swedish nuclear plant at Barseback was made available for intercalibration in 47 laboratories in 26 countries. The results were obtained by gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and beta counting

  5. NMR investigation of coal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, I; Sebor, G [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Hornicky Ustav; Sebor, G Jr; Hajek, M; Mostecky, J [Vysoka Skola Chemicko-Technologicka, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-07-01

    Proton NMR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of 10% coal extract solutions in deuterated pyridine. Four types of Czechoslovak coal were analyzed. Agreement was found between the aromaticity of coal extracts calculated from /sup 1/H NMR data using Brown's method and Ladner's and Williams' method and the characterization of an average molecule of the coal extract by the number of non-bridge carbon atoms of aromatic rings, by the overall number of aromatic ring carbon atoms and the number of aromatic rings, determined by the Williams and Ferris methods. The methods for calculating carbon distribution from /sup 1/H NMR data, however, contain some constants theoretically estimated or experimentally found using the method which still remain to be verified.

  6. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  7. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  8. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  9. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  10. Photochemical separation and extraction device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yukio; Morimoto, Kyoichi.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for separating neptunium and plutonium from highly radioactive liquid wastes, in which valance control by irradiation of UV rays and extraction operation by using an organic solvent can be conducted simultaneously in the same reaction vessel. Namely, a step of irradiating UV rays to the liquid in the reaction vessel to control the valence of predetermined materials and a step of separating the materials by conducting solvent-extraction while stirring with a solvent are conducted simultaneously or successively. Then, facilities for the separation method can be reduced and the operation steps can be simplified. (N.H.)

  11. 11. Russian Conference on Extraction. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of fundamental and applied investigations in the region of chemistry of extraction, technology and analytical chemistry are presented. Modern state of theoretical and experimental investigations in the region of thermodynamics and kinetics of extraction by organic phosphorus compounds, organic nitrogen compounds and their mixtures are described. Date on mass exchange, extraction process simulation, extraction apparatuses are given

  12. Adaptive traits are maintained on steep selective gradients despite gene flow and hybridization in the intertidal zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo I Zardi

    Full Text Available Gene flow among hybridizing species with incomplete reproductive barriers blurs species boundaries, while selection under heterogeneous local ecological conditions or along strong gradients may counteract this tendency. Congeneric, externally-fertilizing fucoid brown algae occur as distinct morphotypes along intertidal exposure gradients despite gene flow. Combining analyses of genetic and phenotypic traits, we investigate the potential for physiological resilience to emersion stressors to act as an isolating mechanism in the face of gene flow. Along vertical exposure gradients in the intertidal zone of Northern Portugal and Northwest France, the mid-low shore species Fucus vesiculosus, the upper shore species Fucus spiralis, and an intermediate distinctive morphotype of F. spiralis var. platycarpus were morphologically characterized. Two diagnostic microsatellite loci recovered 3 genetic clusters consistent with prior morphological assignment. Phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 protein coding regions unambiguously resolved 3 clades; sympatric F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis, and the allopatric (in southern Iberia population of F. spiralis var. platycarpus. In contrast, the sympatric F. spiralis var. platycarpus (from Northern Portugal was distributed across the 3 clades, strongly suggesting hybridization/introgression with both other entities. Common garden experiments showed that physiological resilience following exposure to desiccation/heat stress differed significantly between the 3 sympatric genetic taxa; consistent with their respective vertical distribution on steep environmental clines in exposure time. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that F. spiralis var. platycarpus is a distinct entity in allopatry, but that extensive gene flow occurs with both higher and lower shore species in sympatry. Experimental results suggest that strong selection on physiological traits across steep intertidal exposure gradients

  13. Extraction of copper zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of different extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhivkova, Svetlana [Institute of Chemical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of copper, zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions has been studied. The experiments have been carried out using various solvents, involving different extraction mechanisms – solvating, anion-exchange, cation-exchange, bifunctional . Mixtures of these extractants have been also used. The extraction properties of these extractant mixtures toward copper, zinc and iron, the effect of used modifiers and diluents have been also investigated. Key words: Copper, Zinc, Iron, Extraction, Extractant, Modifier, Diluent.

  14. Noble metal extraction and sorption concentrating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, O.M.; Malofeeva, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    Works performed in the USSR Academy of Sciences GEOCHI laboratory of extraction methods and devoted to selectivity problems of extraction and sorption methods of platinum metal, cadmium and indium concentrating in analytical chemistry are discussed. On choosing complexino. reagent main attention is paid to the selectivity variation based on different stability of metal complexes. Platinum metals are extracted in the form of ion associates when usinq hard, mainly oxyqen-containing, extractants. Coordination-solvated metal complexes are extracted white usinq extractants containing sulfur, trivalent phosphorus and aromatic nitroqen as donor anions. Selectivity is maximum for sulfur- and nitroren-containinq extractants and sorbents. In case of the group extraction of platinum metals sorption is preferable and in case of selective extraction of individual metals, especially, in case of need of relative concentratinq extraction is preferable

  15. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  16. Feature extraction using fractal codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Paul M. de Zeeuw

    1999-01-01

    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  17. Feature Extraction Using Fractal Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Schouten (Ben); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    htmlabstractFast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can

  18. Extraction of Proteins with ABS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, R.K.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, there has been an increasing trend in research on the extraction and purification of proteins using aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) formed by polymers, e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG). In general, when dealing with protein purification processes, it is essential to maintain their

  19. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  20. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  1. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  2. Development of new natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction behaviour of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Organic compounds present in polymeric matrices such as neoprene, surgical gloves and PVC were co-extracted during the removal of uranium using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique. Hence SFE studies of these matrices were carried out to establish the extracted species using HPLC, IR and mass spectrometry techniques. The initial study indicated that uranium present in the extract could be purified from the co-extracted organic species. (author)

  5. Chromatographic analysis of wheatgrass extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Shah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wheatgrass (WG is the shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. belongs to the family Gramineae, and possess high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers etc., It has been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, antioxidant, and anti-arthritic activity due to the presence of biologically active compounds, and minerals. Therefore, in the present study, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis have been proposed, which will help in quality evaluation of wheat grass extract. Materials and Methods: Samples for analysis were prepared in methanol and water simply by sonication. These were applied on pre-coated silica plate and chromatograms were developed using toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid. HPLC analysis was done on Waters HPLC system using water, methanol, and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Merck C18 column has been used. Results: HPTLC finger printing of alcoholic extracts of WG was carried out and found 10–11 spots at different wavelengths 254, 366, and 435 nm. HPLC fingerprinting produced 22 peaks at 256 nm. Quantitative HPTLC analysis was done to determine the gallic acid content, and was found to be 0.077% w/w in aqueous extract. By HPLC, the content of gallic acid and rutin was found to be 0.07%, and 0.04% w/w in aqueous extract of WG. Conclusion: The developed HPLC and HPTLC fingerprinting method can be used for the quality control, and standardization of WG and its extracts used as nutritional supplement.

  6. Solvent extraction of aurocyanide by extractant CTMAB and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wenfei; Zhang Tianxi; Wu Jinguang

    2000-01-01

    A novel extraction system using KAu(CN) 2 -CTMAB as aqueous phase and 30% TBP-dodecane as organic phase is studied by 198 Au radioactive tracer and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results show that the organic phase separates into two phases, when the gold concentration is bigger than 20 g/L. From the analysis of FT-IR it is seen that the most of gold is in the lower organic phase

  7. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  8. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations in concentration factors in NW European seas - secondary use of monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Mcmahon, C.A.; Rudjord, A.L.; Smedley, C.; Nawakowski, C.; Leonard, K.S. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents new data on concentration factors (CFs: concentration kg-1 biota/concentration l-1 seawater) for several marine species-radionuclide pairs, in three regions: coastal waters of Ireland, eastern Irish Sea, coastal waters of Norway. The CFs were estimated using data from long-term monitoring programmes, obtained for radiological protection purposes. The practical constraints of using such data sources are discussed. CFs were obtained for Mytilus edulis (mussels), Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster/Dublin Bay prawn/scampi), Pleuronectes platessa (plaice), Cancer pagurus (edible crab), Littorina littoria (winkles) and Fucus vesiculosus, for one or more of the following radionuclides: {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. In general, there was a relatively high degree of variability in the values obtained, and it was not possible to discern systematic regional or time-dependent differences. However, for two datasets in the eastern Irish Sea ({sup 137}Cs in winkles and crabs) there was a statistically-significant increase in the CF over the 40 year monitoring period. In several cases the range of values obtained exceeded the range recommended by the IAEA. In 2002, the average {sup 99}Tc CF for F. vesiculosus from the eastern Irish Sea coastline was 26, significantly lower than the IAEA recommended valve (1 x 10{sup 3} - 1 x 10{sup 5}).The results are discussed in relation to the influence of contemporaneous discharges and the possible impact of re-mobilised radionuclides. (author)

  10. Influence of thermal loading on the ecology of intertidal algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadas, R.L.; Keser, M.; Rusanowski, P.c.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal effluents from the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (operating intermittently from October 1972 to December 1974) increased water temperatures in the discharge area by 7 to 15 0 C. Plant operation and the removal of a causeway increased mixing and salinities in Montsweag Bay. Four small red algae immigrated into the area, but no species were lost from the system. Distribution and abundance patterns of the dominant algae, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, were altered by the thermal discharge. The cover of F. vesiculosus decreased, whereas that of A. nodosum increased in 1973 but declined significantly in 1974. Reductions in biomass and percent cover were accompanied by changes in the growth dynamics of A. nodosum. Growth and survival in the discharge area were enhanced in 1973 but reduced in 1974. Growth was initiated earlier at all sites affected by the warm water. Plants at experimental sites not directly in the discharge channel grew at accelerated rates during the two years, but stressed plants in the discharge produced few or no viable apexes in 1974. The net effect has been a compression and reduction of intertidal algae into a narrower and less dense band

  11. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 2. Interactive effects on phenolic pool and assessment of metal binding capacity of phlorotannin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, Solene, E-mail: solene.connan@gmail.com [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Stengel, Dagmar B., E-mail: dagmar.stengel@nuigalway.ie [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to establish in laboratory experiments a quantitative link between phenolic pool (production, composition and exudation) in Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus and their potential to bind metals. Additionally, the copper binding capacity of purified phlorotannin was investigated. A reduction in salinity decreased total phenolic contents, altered phenolic composition by increasing proportion of cell-wall phenolics, and also increased phenolic exudation of the two seaweed species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, the inhibition of photosynthesis observed previously for A. nodosum coincided with the high exudation of phenolic compounds into the surrounding water of the seaweed tips which resulted in a significant reduction of phenolic contents. Increased copper concentration also reduced total phenolic contents, changed phenolic composition (increase in proportion and level of cell-wall phenolics), and positively affected phenolic exudation of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus. A decrease in salinity enhanced the copper toxicity and caused the earlier impact on the physiology of seaweed tips. An involvement of phlorotannins in copper binding is also demonstrated; purified phlorotannins from A. nodosum collected from a site with little anthropogenic activity contained all four metals tested. When placed in copper-enriched water, as for the seaweed material, copper contents of the phenolics increased, zinc and cadmium contents decreased, but no change in chromium content was observed. The use of cell-wall phenolic content as biomarker of copper contamination seems promising but needs further investigation.

  12. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  13. The extraction neptunium by trilaurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, J.; Chesne, A.

    1964-01-01

    The extraction by trilaurylamine of neptunium (IV) from nitric acid and sulfuric acid-nitric acid media has been studied with the aim of developing a purification process for this element. Relative to the plutonium-neptunium separation, conditions are given for the oxidation of neptunium (IV) in sulfuric acid-nitric acid medium and data are presented on the stabilisation of the + 4 oxidation state by the organic solvent. Two procedures have been developed for the simultaneous purification of the two actinides. Both are based on the trilaurylamine extraction of the tetravalent nitrate species. The first utilises a constant redox potential fixed by Fe +++ /Fe ++ couple, while in the second, valencies are determined by successive addition of nitrite and ferrous ions. Gram quantities of neptunium 237 has been recovered from plutonium process solution. Alternate procedures are suggested for the chemical processing of irradiated Np 237 . (authors) [fr

  14. Amine synergism in uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinelli, G.; Abbruzzese, C.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial products based on C 8 to C 12 tertiary amine mixtures are now widely used in the solvent extraction of uranium from sulphuric pregnant solutions. The satisfactory results generally obtained have never required an analysis of the synergistic effects of amine combinations similar to that carried out for the organo-phosphorus compounds. In the research described the increase in the extraction power of an organic phase composed of an amine binary mixture was studied with regard to an aqueous solution from the sulphuric acid treatment of uranium ore. On the basis of the experimental results obtained, it is possible to select the best composition of the amine mixture to ensure a percentage increase in uranium recovery. Bearing in mind the tendency for the yellow-cake price to rise, the study is considered to be a useful contribution in the context of commercial products currently available on the market. (author)

  15. Biopolymer chitin: extraction and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Sania M.B. de; Ladchumananandasivam, Rasiah

    2011-01-01

    The biopolymers are materials made from renewable sources such as soybean, corn, cane sugar, cellulose and chitin. Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer found in nature, after cellulose. The chemical structure of chitin is distinguished by the hydroxyl group, of structure from cellulose, located at position C-2, which in the chitin is replaced by acetamine group. The objective of this study was to develop the chitin from exoskeletons of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, which are discarded as waste, causing pollutions, environmental problems and thus obtain better utilization of these raw materials. It also, show the extraction process and deacetylation of chitosan. The extraction of chitin followed steps of demineralization, desproteinization and deodorization. Chitin and chitosan were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the thermals properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). (author)

  16. Extractive metallurgy of the beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Neusa; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    1995-01-01

    A bibliographic review is performed on the beryllium extractive metallurgy. The work describes the main type of ores and processes applied to the metallic beryllium production, beryllium oxide production using fluoride, sulfide and direct chlorination. The thermodynamic consideration are made on beryllium reduction processes, discussing the viability of the beryllium oxide and hallide reduction processes. Under the technological viewpoint, the Cu-Be alloys main production processes are discussed, and the main toxicity problems related with beryllium are mentioned

  17. Metals extraction from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssostomidis, C.; Larue, G.J.; Morgan, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    A method and system for continuously extracting metals from sea water by deploying adsorber sheets in a suitable current of sea water, recovering the adsorber sheets after they become loaded with metal and eluting the metal from the recovered sheets. The system involves the use of hollow, perforated bobbins on which the sheets are rolled as they are recovered and through which elutant is introduced

  18. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  19. Extraction of sulfuric acid with TOPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuyun, Xue; Yonghui, Yang; Yanzhao, Yang; Sixiu, Sun; Borong, Bao

    1998-01-01

    A study on solvent extraction of sulfuric acid by tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-heptane has been made. Extraction coefficients of H 2 SO 4 as a function of H 2 SO 4 concentration in aqueous phase, and extractant concentrations in organic phase have been studied. The composition of extracted species, equilibrium constants of extraction reaction have been evaluated. These results are important for interpreting extraction equilibrium data of uranium(VI) or other metal ions with TOPO in sulfuric acid media. (author)

  20. Extraction of substances assisted by ultrasound (UAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuola, Rocio; Vargas, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Different compounds present in vegetables with functional or technological properties, have gained great importance in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic markets. Efficient methods, economical and environment friendly are sought for the extraction of these substances. A literature review has been performanced of recent publications on different extraction methods and their comparison to the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) to assess their effectiveness and industrial viability. The ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) has been found to be more efficient than traditional mining methods, and cheaper and easier than non-traditional extraction methods such as microwave-assisted extraction, so it checks its industrial viability. (author) [es

  1. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of anthocyanins from red onion: A study on extraction and degradation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Erik V.; Liu Jiayin; Sjoeberg, Per J.R.; Danielsson, Rolf [Uppsala University, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 599, SE-751 24, Uppsala (Sweden); Turner, Charlotta, E-mail: Charlotta.Turner@kemi.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 599, SE-751 24, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-03-17

    Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) is a quick, efficient and environmentally friendly technique for extractions. However, when using PHWE to extract thermally unstable analytes, extraction and degradation effects occur at the same time, and thereby compete. At first, the extraction effect dominates, but degradation effects soon take over. In this paper, extraction and degradation rates of anthocyanins from red onion were studied with experiments in a static batch reactor at 110 deg. C. A total extraction curve was calculated with data from the actual extraction and degradation curves, showing that more anthocyanins, 21-36% depending on the species, could be extracted if no degradation occurred, but then longer extraction times would be required than those needed to reach the peak level in the apparent extraction curves. The results give information about the different kinetic processes competing during an extraction procedure.

  2. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  3. Sequence complexity and work extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhav, Neri

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified version of a solvable model by Mandal and Jarzynski, which constructively demonstrates the interplay between work extraction and the increase of the Shannon entropy of an information reservoir which is in contact with a physical system. We extend Mandal and Jarzynski’s main findings in several directions: first, we allow sequences of correlated bits rather than just independent bits. Secondly, at least for the case of binary information, we show that, in fact, the Shannon entropy is only one measure of complexity of the information that must increase in order for work to be extracted. The extracted work can also be upper bounded in terms of the increase in other quantities that measure complexity, like the predictability of future bits from past ones. Third, we provide an extension to the case of non-binary information (i.e. a larger alphabet), and finally, we extend the scope to the case where the incoming bits (before the interaction) form an individual sequence, rather than a random one. In this case, the entropy before the interaction can be replaced by the Lempel–Ziv (LZ) complexity of the incoming sequence, a fact that gives rise to an entropic meaning of the LZ complexity, not only in information theory, but also in physics. (paper)

  4. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  5. Stability of extraction space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Bressane, Larissa Borges; Janson, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and long-term behavior of extraction space reopening in patients with Class I malocclusion and to identify some associated factors. A sample of 43 patients met the inclusion criteria. Dental casts at the onset of treatment, after treatment, and 1 and 5 years after debonding were used. Initial and final cephalometric radiographs were used to measure the amount of incisor retraction. Cochran tests were used to compare the numbers of open and closed extraction spaces after treatment and at 1 and 5 years after debonding (P space reopening with t tests. Of the sample, 30.23% had extraction space reopening. The frequency of open spaces significantly increased between the final and the 1-year posttreatment dental casts and decreased between the casts at 1 and 5 years posttreatment. Patients with space reopening had less initial anterior crowding and greater amounts of mandibular incisor retraction during treatment. There was a high prevalence of space reopening 1 year after treatment. However, these spaces tended to decrease by 5 years after treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  7. Digital extraction of interference fringe contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastin, G.A.; Ghiglia, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two basic techniques for extracting interferogram contours have been discussed. The first is a global contour extracton technique based on the fast Fourier transform. The second extracts individual contours with a thinning algorithm using logical neighborhood transformations

  8. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  9. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ... induced cell death by inhibiting oxidative stress and ROS generation. Keywords: ... culture medium; therefore the stock solutions of ... acetic acid (1 %) and ethanol (50 %) to extract.

  10. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS FROM Tapinanthus dodone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides ethanolic leaf extract from ... of Chemistry, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. P.M.B. 3244, Kano ... ethanolic leaf extract from Tapinanthus dodoneifolius grown ee. Results obtained for ...

  11. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  12. Transductive Pattern Learning for Information Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    .... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...

  13. Uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Golynko, Z.Sh.

    1981-01-01

    The process of uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores in the South Africa is considered. Flowsheets of reprocessing gold-uranium conglomerates, pile processing and uranium extraction from the ores are presented. Continuous counter flow ion-exchange process of uranium extraction using strong-active or weak-active resins is noted to be the most perspective and economical one. The ion-exchange uranium separation with the succeeding extraction is also the perspective one.

  14. Solvent extraction studies of RERTR silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, Anthony P.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicide fuels, which are candidate RERTR fuel compositions, may require special considerations in solvent extraction reprocessing. Since Savannah River Plant may be reprocessing RERTR fuels as early as 1985, studies have been conducted at Savannah River Laboratory to demonstrate the solvent extraction behavior of this fuel. Results of solvent extraction studies with both unirradiated and irradiated fuel are presented along with the preliminary RERTR solvent extraction reprocessing flow sheet for Savannah River Plant. (author)

  15. Equipment for extracting and conveying stratified minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, G.; Kunzer, H.; Plaga, K.

    1991-08-14

    This invention relates to equipment for extracting stratified minerals and conveying the said minerals along the working face, comprising a trough shaped conveyor run assembled from lengths, a troughed extraction run in lengths matching the lengths of conveyor troughing, which is linked to the top edge of the working face side of the conveyor troughing with freedom to swivel vertically, and a positively guided chain carrying extraction tools and scrapers along the conveyor and extraction runs.

  16. Accelerated Solvent Extraction: An Innovative Sample Extraction Technique for Natural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Azfar Hanif Abd Aziz; Rosniza Razali

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is one of the novel techniques that have been developed for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield and enhance the quality of extracts. This technique combines elevated temperatures and pressure with liquid solvents. This paper gives a brief overview of accelerated solvent extraction technique for sample preparation and its application to the extraction of natural products. Through practical examples, the effects of operational parameters such as temperature, volume of solvent used, extraction time and extraction yields on the performance of ASE are discussed. It is demonstrated that ASE technique allows reduced solvent consumption and shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields are even higher than those obtained with conventional methods. (author)

  17. Biomonitoring of thallium availability in two estuaries of southwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Turner, Deborah; Braungardt, Charlotte

    2013-04-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly understood. We measured Tl in sediments, macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) and deposit-feeding invertebrates (Hediste diversicolor, Arenicola marina and Scrobicularia plana) from two estuaries of south west England (Plym and Fal) draining mineralised catchments. In the Plym, and for a given sample type, concentrations of Tl were rather invariant between sample locations and averaged about 500 μg kg(-1) for sediment, 30 μg kg(-1) for macroalgae and 10 μg kg(-1) for the invertebrates. In the Fal, respective concentrations were of a similar order of magnitude but exhibited greater variation between sample locations. Normalisation of Tl concentrations to K, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl(+), revealed bioenrichment of about 20 for all organisms in the Plym and bioenrichment ranging from about 3 (H. diversicolor) to 170 (F. ceranoides) in the Fal. Despite the low bioaccumulation of Tl relative to other metals measured concurrently, it is recommended that Tl be more closely monitored and better studied in the estuarine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokn, T.L. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Moy, F.E. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Murray, S.N. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    1993-12-31

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 30.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  19. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokn, T.L.; Moy, F.E.; Murray, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 μg L -1 and 30.1 μg L -1 ) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 μg L -1 ) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of the contamination of marine algae (seaweed) from the St. Lawrence River and likely to be consumed by humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, D.; Cote, I.; Dumas, P.; Ferron, L.A.; LeBlanc, A. [CHUQ, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the contamination of marine algae (seaweeds) growing in the St. Lawrence River estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and to evaluate the risks to human health from the consumption of these algae. Algae were collected by hand at low tide. A total of 10 sites on the north and south shores of the St. Lawrence as well as in Baie des Chaleurs were sampled. The most frequently collected species of algae were Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria Longicruris, Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, and Fucus distichus. Alga samples were analyzed for metals iodine, and organochlorines. A risk assessment was performed using risk factors. In general, concentrations in St. Lawrence algae were not very high. Consequently, health risks associated with these compounds in St. Lawrence algae were very low. Iodine concentration, on the other hand, could be of concern with regard to human health. Regular consumption of algae, especially of Laminaria sp., could result in levels of iodine sufficient to cause thyroid problems. For regular consumers, it would be preferable to choose species with low iodine concentrations, such as U. lactuca and P. palmata, in order to prevent potential problems. Furthermore, it would also be important to assess whether preparation for consumption or cooking affects the iodine content of algae. Algae consumption may also have beneficial health effects. Scientific literature has shown that it is a good source of fiber and vitamins, especially vitamin B{sub 12}.

  1. Long-term fluctuations in intertidal communities in an Irish sea-lough: Limpet-fucoid cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Colin; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.; Pilling, Graham M.; Stirling, Penny; Morritt, David; Williams, Gray A.

    2017-09-01

    Long-term cyclical changes in rocky shore community structure were documented over two decades at sheltered shores in Lough Hyne Marine Reserve, County Cork, Ireland. Three peaks of abundance were recorded for the limpet, Patella vulgata (1990-5, 2002-6 and 2010-14) with oscillations that varied in amplitude and frequency among sites. The cover of the fucoid Fucus vesiculosus varied inversely with limpet abundance and showed the strongest negative correlation with a lag time of 0-2 years. The species complex Fucus spiralis/guiryi showed a weaker correlation with a lag time of 1-2 years. Two other fucoid species showed no such negative correlations despite their close proximity to limpets within the lough's compressed tidal range. There was no relationship between overall barnacle cover (dominated by Austrominius modestus) and the limpet-fucoid cycles, suggesting that the shelter provided by A. modestus for algae to escape from limpet grazing pressure may not be necessary for these cycles to occur on wave-sheltered shores.

  2. Extraction chromatogrpahy of actinides, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1975-01-01

    This review on extraction chromatography of actinides emphasizes the important usage of neutral (Tributylphosphate), basic (substituted ammonium salts), and acidic (HDEHP) extractants, and their application to separations of actinides in the di-to hexavalent oxidation state. Furthermore, the actinide extraction by ketones, ethers, alcohols and β-diketones is discussed

  3. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilisation abilities are also discussed. (author)

  4. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  5. Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from the fruit paste of Ziziphus abyssinica and Tamarindus indica . ... Methodology and results: The methods used included cold and soxhlet extraction using methanol as the solvent and hot extraction using distilled water. To determine the efficiency in which ...

  6. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  7. Organization of extracting molecules of the diamide type: link with the extracting properties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meridiano, Y.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of these studies is to establish a link between the different organizations of diamide extractants (used in the DIAMEX process) and their extracting properties. The effects of the key parameters leading the liquid-liquid extraction (concentration of extractant, nature of solute, activity of the aqueous phase, nature of the diluent and temperature) are studied: 1) at the supramolecular scale, with the characterization of the extractant organizations by vapor-pressure osmometry (VPO) and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) experiments; 2) at the molecular scale, with the quantification of the extracted solutes (water, nitric acid, metal nitrate) and the determination of extracted complexes stoichiometries by electro-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments. The DMDOHEMA molecule acts as a classical surfactant and forms aggregates of the reverse micelle type. Taking into account the established supramolecular diagrams, a quantitative link between the extractants structures and their extracting properties has been brought to light. To model the europium nitrate extraction, two approaches have been developed: - an approach based on mass action laws. Extractions equilibria have been proposed taking into account the supramolecular speciation; - an innovative approach considering the extracted ions as adsorbed on a specific surface of the extractant molecule which depends on the extractant organization state. The ion extraction can be considered as a sum of isotherms corresponding to the different states of organization. This approach allows to compare the extraction efficiency of an extracting molecule as a function of its organization state. (author)

  8. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...

  9. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D. [University of Lubumbashi, Zaire, Gecamines Metallurgical Research Centre, Likasi, Zaire, c/o Gecamines Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-15

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  10. PSR extraction kicker system improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    A program to improve the reliability of hardware required to operate the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring has been under way for the past three years. The extraction kicker system for the PSR was identified as one candidate for improvement. Pulse modulators produce 50kV pulses 360 nsec in length at up to 24-Hz pulse repetition rate and drive two 4-meter-long stripline electrodes. Sources of difficulty with this system included short width switch tube lifetime, drive cable electrical breakdown, high-voltage connector failure, and occasional electrode breakdown. This paper discusses modifications completed on this system to correct these difficulties. 2 refs., 3 figs

  11. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  12. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied

  13. Keyword extraction by nonextensivity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ali; Darooneh, Amir H

    2011-05-01

    The presence of a long-range correlation in the spatial distribution of a relevant word type, in spite of random occurrences of an irrelevant word type, is an important feature of human-written texts. We classify the correlation between the occurrences of words by nonextensive statistical mechanics for the word-ranking process. In particular, we look at the nonextensivity parameter as an alternative metric to measure the spatial correlation in the text, from which the words may be ranked in terms of this measure. Finally, we compare different methods for keyword extraction. © 2011 American Physical Society

  14. Primary metals extraction by liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of copper and uranium by liquid membranes is presented. The recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid is described. The development of this process has progressed through three stages, firstly the chemistry of uranium extraction as it pertains to liquid membrane systems. This was followed by continuous extraction tests on fresh black acid and on aged acid. Results on a 1 litre/minute pilot plant demonstrated that the process could be operated with a minimum of feed pretreatment and about 90% of uranium could be extracted. The extraction of copper from copper leach liquors is also described. (U.K.)

  15. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  16. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  17. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  18. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  19. DESIGNING AN EVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond BENEDEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.

  20. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  4. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  5. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  6. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  7. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  8. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  9. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  10. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  11. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from tissue paper matrix using organic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Direct extraction of dried uranyl nitrate from tissue paper matrix was carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol solutions of extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-hexyl octanamide (DHOA)). The effects of temperature, pressure, extractant and nitric acid concentration on the extraction of uranyl ion were investigated. (author)

  14. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben

    2006-08-01

    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  15. Clinical evaluation of postradiation dental extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusukawa, Jingo; Ohisi, Shinichiro; Kameyama, Tadamitsu; Yoshizumi, Munehiro; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-one patients who had undergone postradiation dental extraction were evaluated clinically. All patients had received irradiation for primary head and neck malignancies at doses ranging from 8 to 60 Gy (mean, 51.6 Gy). Time to dental extraction after irradiation ranged from 8 to 156 months (mean, 57.9 months). Of the 21 patients (80 teeth extracted, including 33 maxillary teeth and 47 mandibular teeth), one had delayed healing after wisdom tooth extraction due to postextraction irradiation. Thus, osteoradionecrosis after dental extraction did not develop. These results suggest that dental extraction after radiation is not contraindicated. To prevent complications, patients who have received radiation and require extractions should be cared for by oral and maxillofacial surgeons in close association with radiation oncologists. (author)

  16. Solvent extraction of noble metals by formazans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, M.; Hueppe, U.; Kettrup, A.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction properties of ion-pairs composed of quaternary ammonium cations and a sulphonated formazan were compared with those of an unsulphonated formazan, for various solvent media. In dichloromethane the combined system behaves as a 'coloured anion-exchanger', with displacement of the sulphonated formazan, whereas in toluene Pd(II) and Ag(I) are extracted as the metal formazan chelates from aqueous medium. The rates of extraction are remarkably higher than with the simple extractants. Because of the higher stability only the simple chelating extraction systems afford satisfactory separation of Pd(II) from excess of Pt(IV) and of Ag(I) from Cu(II). The extracted metals can be stripped and the extractant regenerated. (author)

  17. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  18. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  19. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Quality Parameters of Curcuma Longa L. Extracts by Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee; Siti Hafsah Mohd Shah; Khudzir Ismail; Nooraain Hashim; Wan Iryani Wan Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is one of the prominently use herbal plants due to its diverse beneficial effects especially in Indian medicine. The rhizome part of the turmeric contains valuable compounds which have been said to owe its antimicrobial effects, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and enhance wound healing. Due to its short-life span and perishable properties, the conversion of the rhizome into turmeric extract is desirable. Several methods have been used for extraction such as Soxhlet extraction and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). However, these techniques are tedious, laborious, time consuming and involves the usage of toxic organic solvent, of which safeness of the end product is doubtful. In this study, a rapid, reliable and green extraction method of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) were used. SFE without modifier has resulted in 0.0006 mg/ 100 g of curcuminoids concentration and 5.62 % of yield (dry weight basis). UAE using ethanol was able to produce significantly the highest yield (6.40 %, dry weight basis) and the highest curcuminoids concentration (0.1020 mg/ 100 g). However, SFE was able to produce extract that contain significantly higher major volatile compounds; tumerone, ar-turmerone and curlone. Therefore, this study proves that both extraction methods were able to produce high quality turmeric extract. (author)

  1. Prezygotic barriers to hybridization in marine broadcast spawners: reproductive timing and mating system variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Monteiro

    Full Text Available Sympatric assemblages of congeners with incomplete reproductive barriers offer the opportunity to study the roles that ecological and non-ecological factors play in reproductive isolation. While interspecific asynchrony in gamete release and gametic incompatibility are known prezygotic barriers to hybridization, the role of mating system variation has been emphasized in plants. Reproductive isolation between the sibling brown algal species Fucus spiralis, Fucus guiryi (selfing hermaphrodite and Fucus vesiculosus (dioecious was studied because they form hybrids in parapatry in the rocky intertidal zone, maintain species integrity over a broad geographic range, and have contrasting mating systems. We compared reproductive synchrony (spawning overlap between the three species at several temporal scales (yearly/seasonal, semilunar/tidal, and hourly during single tides. Interspecific patterns of egg release were coincident at seasonal (single peak in spring to early summer to semilunar timescales. Synthesis of available data indicated that spawning is controlled by semidiurnal tidal and daily light-dark cues, and not directly by semilunar cycles. Importantly, interspecific shifts in timing detected at the hourly scale during single tides were consistent with a partial ecological prezygotic hybridization barrier. The species displayed patterns of gamete release consistent with a power law distribution, indicating a high degree of reproductive synchrony, while the hypothesis of weaker selective constraints for synchrony in selfing versus outcrossing species was supported by observed spawning in hermaphrodites over a broader range of tidal phase than in outcrossers. Synchronous gamete release is critical to the success of external fertilization, while high-energy intertidal environments may offer only limited windows of reproductive opportunity. Within these windows, however, subtle variations in reproductive timing have evolved with the potential to

  2. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 μg g -1 dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition, and

  3. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  4. Chemical Profiling of Acalypha Indica Obtained from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Surangkana Chaichoowong; Jan Bernd Bol; Pornprapa Bol; Thomas Gamse; Malinee Sriariyanun

    2017-01-01

    Acalypha indica is a weed that grows in South-East Asia. It contains several valuable compounds that can be used for curing various diseases such as rheumatism, skin infection and blood dysentery. Here, the extraction of A. indica using Soxhlet extraction with two different solvents and supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE) with two different temperatures (40 and 60°C) was performed. In Soxhlet extraction, ethanol solvent provided the highest extraction yield of 34.36%. For SCE, the increased te...

  5. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  6. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  7. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  8. Adaptive web data extraction policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provetti, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Web data extraction is concerned, among other things, with routine data accessing and downloading from continuously-updated dynamic Web pages. There is a relevant trade-off between the rate at which the external Web sites are accessed and the computational burden on the accessing client. We address the problem by proposing a predictive model, typical of the Operating Systems literature, of the rate-of-update of each Web source. The presented model has been implemented into a new version of the Dynamo project: a middleware that assists in generating informative RSS feeds out of traditional HTML Web sites. To be effective, i.e., make RSS feeds be timely and informative and to be scalable, Dynamo needs a careful tuning and customization of its polling policies, which are described in detail.

  9. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  10. Extractive {sup 90}Y generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodina, G.E. [State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Giophysics; Korpusov, G.V.; Filyanin, A.T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The generator for {sup 90}Y production is made up of two units - an extractive unit and a unit for deep purification. Contrary to the well-known methods of {sup 90}Y separation two mineral acids are used in the developed technology. The solutions of nitric acid are used for preliminary separation of {sup 90}Y and the solutions of hydrochloric acid are used for the deep purification of {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr and stripping. The optimum conditions for carrying out this technology were found. The following results are reported: the carry-over of the stationary phase is excluded in this generator; the separation time is 30-60 minutes; the yield of the final product is not less than 95%; impurity of {sup 90}Sr is not more than 10{sup -9-}-{sup -10}%; the content of the chemical (nonactive) impurities is not more than the allowed one for radiopharmaceuticals 4 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave...... or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  12. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects.

  13. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  14. Extraction of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, M.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power generation is thought to be very important in Japan. However, known domestic uranium resources in Japan are very rare. So, extraction of uranium from sea water have been carried out since 1962 at Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Corporation. There are a number of results obtained also by Kyoto University, Shikoku Govenment Industrial Research Institute, Tokyo University and others. In order to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of extraction of uranium and other resources from sea water, a research program was started in fiscal 1975, sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry with the budget of about $440,000. In this program, the conceptional design of two types of model plants, the ''column type'' and the ''tidal type'' was drawn on the design bases set up with available information. It was found that there has been several problems waiting solution, but there were no technically fatal problems. Adsorption tests were carried out with adsorbents of more than eleven types, including titanium hydroxide, and it was found that titanium hydroxide made by titanyl surphate and urea had the largest adsorption capacity of uranium among them. Elution experiments were performed only with ammonium carbonate and the efficiency at the temperature of 60 0 C showed three times higher than that of 20 0 C. A few long term column operation was conducted, mainly with the adsorbent of granulated titanium hydroxide for 15-60 days. The maximum yield of uranium throughout the adsorption and elution operation was over 20% and macimum concentration of uranium in eluate was 7 ppm

  15. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  16. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A hybrid approach for robust multilingual toponym extraction and disambiguation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    Toponym extraction and disambiguation are key topics recently addressed by fields of Information Extraction and Geographical Information Retrieval. Toponym extraction and disambiguation are highly dependent processes. Not only toponym extraction effectiveness affects disambiguation, but also

  19. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  20. New extraction chromatographic material for rhenium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucanikova, M.; Czech Technical University, Prague; Kucera, J.; Czech Technical University, Prague; Sebesta, F.

    2008-01-01

    Three types of the extraction chromatographic materials, composed from Aliquat R 336 deposited in the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads and prepared by different procedures, were compared for extraction of rhenium. The best properties were exhibited when the solid extractant was prepared by impregnation of the ready-made PAN beads. Solid extractant prepared by direct coagulation of the beads from the suspension of Aliquat R 336 in solution of PAN in nitric acid differs only by lower capacity in dynamic conditions. Material prepared from the PAN solution in dimethylsulfoxide was the worst because Aliquat R 336 was washed out from the beads during coagulation of the polymer and the extraction capacity was low. As it is shown, the first two solid extractants are fully comparable with the commercial TEVA Resin. (author)

  1. Extraction of scandium by organic substance melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.P.; Lobanov, F.I.; Zebreva, A.I.; Andreeva, N.N.; Manuilova, O.A.; Il'yukevich, Yu.A.

    1984-01-01

    Regularities of scandium extraction by the melts of octadecanicoic acid, n-carbonic acids of C 17 -C 20 commerical fraction and mixtures of tributylphosphate (TBP) with paraffin at (70+-1) deg C have been studied. The optimum conditions for scandium extraction in the melt of organic substances are determined. A scheme of the extraction by the melts of higher carbonic acids at ninitial metal concentrations of 10 -5 to 10 -3 mol/l has been suggested. The scandium compound has been isolated in solid form, its composition having been determined. The main advantages of extraction by melts are as follows: a possibility to attain high distribution coefficients, distinct separation of phases after extraction, the absence of emulsions, elimination of employing inflammable and toxic solvents, a possibility of rapid X-ray fluorescence determinatinon of scandium directly in solid extract

  2. Extraction of fluoride metal complexes by octanols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanova, I.V.; Nikolaev, A.I.; Il'in, E.G.; Majorov, V.G.

    2005-01-01

    The extraction of niobium(V) and tantalum(V) by octanols, including 1-octanol, 2-octanol, and iso-octanol (2-ethylhexanol), was studied. The composition of the octanols and their solubility in various aqueous solutions were evaluated. The capacity of the octanols for tantalum(V) and niobium(V), the extraction properties of the octanols, the viscosity of extracts under conditions of metal fluoride extraction, and the temperature dependence of the viscosity of the octanols were studied. The composition of the extracted complexes was studied by IR and NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis, and the hydration-solvation mechanism of the extraction of tantalum(V) and niobium(V) was supported [ru

  3. Recent solvent extraction experience at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Gray, J.H.; Hodges, M.E.; Holt, D.L.; Macafee, I.M.; Reif, D.J.; Shook, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate-based solvent extraction processes have been used at Savannah River for more than 30 years to separate and purify thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. This report summarizes the advancement of solvent extraction technology at Savannah River during the 1980's. Topics that are discussed include equipment improvements, solvent treatment, waste reduction, and an improved understanding of the various chemistries in the process streams entering, within, and leaving the solvent extraction processes

  4. Extraction of scandium by aromatic carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenev, V.F.; Fadeeva, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Extraction of complex compounds af scandium with salicylic, phenyl- and diphenylacetic acids with chloroform solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate as a donor-active additive in relation to the pH and reagent concentration has been studied. Extraction of salicylates of some elements (Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo) by solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate in chloroform has been investigated, and the possibility of their extraction separation from scandium is shown

  5. Resource Extraction in a Political Economy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszka, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    We analyze resource extraction in a political economy setting by introducing a political leader who optimizes both his own and the society's welfare function. We find that accounting for the private utility of a political elite, its higher discount rate and a different time horizon generally speeds up extraction. The higher than optimal resource extraction is not only relevant in welfare terms, but also regarding possible consequences with respect to climate change. The effect of higher extra...

  6. Extraction chromatography of lanthanides, ch. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekierski, S.; Fidelis, I.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction of lanthanides by chelate formation with acidic organophosphorous extractants, by solvation of salts, and in the form of ion pairs is reviewed. The double-double effect and its significance for the lanthanide as well as the actinide separation is discussed. A short survey of the existing data on the enthalpies of lanthanide extraction and on the influence of temperature on their separation factor is given. The resolution ability of columns used for the separation of lanthanides is briefly surveyed

  7. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  8. Investigations on bark extracts of Picea abies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissmann, G

    1981-01-01

    Successive extraction of the bark with solvents of increasing polarity yielded about 60% of soluble material. The alcohol and water extracts contained principally simple polyphenols and their glycosides, tannins, mono-and disaccharides, soluble hemicelluloses and pectins. Hot water extracts are suitable for production of adhesives by reaction with formaldehyde, but their polyphenol content is only 50%. The polyphenols and their glycosides, and glucosides of hydroxystilbenes, were investigated in detail.

  9. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguta, I.V.; Fesenko, T.V.; Stavinskaya, O.N.; Shpak, L.M.; Dzyuba, O.I.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Stevia rebaudiana extracts. It is shown that the rate of nanoparticles formation is affected by plant cultivation conditions. It is found that, in the presence of the extract from callus, the formation of nanoparticles occurs faster than in the presence of extracts from plants grown under conditions of ex situ and in vitro. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were studied by UV and IR spectroscopies

  11. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hua Wong; Hwee Wen Lau; Chin Ping Tan; Kamariah Long; Kar Lin Nyam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxi...

  12. Extraction and Characterization of Cottonseed (Gossypium) Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Efomah Andrew Ndudi; Orhevba Bosede Adelola

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction and characterization of cottonseed oil using solvent extraction method. Normal hexane was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the chemical, physical and proximate compositions of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined are viscos...

  13. Extraction of scandium by aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenev, V F; Fadeeva, V I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1977-04-01

    Extraction of complex compounds af scandium with salicylic, phenyl- and diphenylacetic acids with chloroform solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate as a donor-active additive in relation to the pH and reagent concentration has been studied. Extraction of salicylates of some elements (Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo) by solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate in chloroform has been investigated, and the possibility of their extraction separation from scandium is shown.

  14. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  15. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neuropharmacological efficacy of the leaf and root 70 % methanol extract of Cissus cornifolia was studied in mice. The extractive values of the leaf and root methanol extract was found to be 31.5 g with yield of 12.6 %(w/w) and 37.8 g with the yield of 15.12 %(w/w) respectively. The acute toxicity (LD50) values ...

  16. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  17. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  18. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorovarov, D.I.; Chumakova, G.M.; Rusin, L.I.; Ul'anov, V.S.; Sviridova, R.A.; Sviridov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C 7 -C 9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  19. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  20. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  1. Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharidestimulated BV2 Microglial Cells by Downregulating NF-kB via Inhibition of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

  2. A novel perspective on pectin extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria

    optimization is a long process because the evaluation of the final product quality is accomplished at the end of the procedure, employing time-consuming off-line laboratory tests. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbohydrate microarrays, combined with chemometrics, were evaluated...... determined the optimal extraction time for both the enzymatic and acidic extraction processes. The combined results suggested major differences in the crude pectin extract traits of enzymatically vs. acidically extracted pectin with respect to the degree of esterification, purity, and abundance...

  3. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  5. Extraction of scandium salicylate by tetraethyldiamidoheptyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenev, V F; Fadeeva, V I; Zyk, N V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Analiticheskoj Khimii

    1976-11-01

    Scandium salicylate is extracted with chloroform in a narrow pH range 3-4 and at the maximum concentration of salicylic acid (H/sub 2/A) in an organic phase, the distribution coefficient reaches 0.1. In the presence of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate (DAHP) the zone of maximum extraction grows and the distribution coefficient increases. The ratio of the components in the complex extracted is Sc:H/sub 2/A:DAHPh=1:3:2. The extraction constant is Ksub(ex)=(2.00+-0.02).

  6. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  7. Extraction of Rose Bengal into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Vecernik, J.; Krtil, J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the extraction of Rose Bengal (RB)into chloroform. A radiometric method with the aid of 131 Ilabelled RB was used. The efficiency of the extraction in dependence on pH and RB concentration was studied. For the interpretation of the extraction data the values of pK 1 and pK 2 of RB were determined spectrophotometrical-ly and potentiometrically. A mechanism for the RB extraction into chloroform on the basis of IR measurements is proposed. (author)

  8. Parameter extraction with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

    1998-06-01

    In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs

  9. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat Teong, Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  10. RED WINE EXTRACT OBTAINED BY MEMBRANE-BASED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION: PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to obtain an extract from red wine by using membrane-based supercritical fluid extraction. This technique involves the use of porous membranes as contactors during the dense gas extraction process from liquid matrices. In this work, a Cabernet Sauvignon wine extract was obtained from supercritical fluid extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide as solvent and a hollow fiber contactor as extraction setup. The process was continuously conducted at pressures between 12 and 18 MPa and temperatures ranged from 30 to 50ºC. Meanwhile, flow rates of feed wine and supercritical CO2 varied from 0.1 to 0.5 mL min-1 and from 60 to 80 mL min-1 (NCPT, respectively. From extraction assays, the highest extraction percentage value obtained from the total amount of phenolic compounds was 14% in only one extraction step at 18MPa and 35ºC. A summarized chemical characterization of the obtained extract is reported in this work; one of the main compounds in this extract could be a low molecular weight organic acid with aromatic structure and methyl and carboxyl groups. Finally, this preliminary characterization of this extract shows a remarkable ORAC value equal to 101737 ± 5324 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE per 100 g of extract.

  11. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  12. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  13. ECTOPIC LENS EXTRACTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ectopia lentis continues to be a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. It can occur as an isolated condition, after ocular trauma, in association with other ocular disorders, as part of a systemic mesodermal disease or a complication of general metabolic disorders. Minimal subluxation of the lens may cause no visual symptoms, but in more advanced cases serious optical disturbances arise. The most important is amblyopia. Surgical treatment options include iris manipulation, lens discission, aspiration, intracapsular or extracapsular extraction, and pars plana lensectomy. The choice of surgical technique remains controversial, in part because of the historically poor visual results and high rate of perioperative complications, including vitreous loss and retinal detachment.Methods. We describe a surgical technique based on the use of the Cionni endocapsular tension ring, dry irrigation aspiration of lens material, centration of the capsular bag and foldable intraocular lens implantation into the bag. With mentioned surgical technique 8 patients were operated; 4 boys and 4 girls, together 11 eyes.Results. The final BCVA after follow up period improved in 9 eyes and it remained the same as before operation in one eye. Statistical comparison of preoperative and postoperative visual acuities showed significant improvement. On the other hand there was no correlation between preoperative and postoperative visual acuity.Conclusions. This surgical procedure is an alternative approach in solving this challenging cases of ectopia lentis with good postoperative visual rehabilitation.

  14. Extraction of Tetravalent Uranium by Certain Acidic Organophosphorus Extractants from Phosphate Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, J.A.; Zeid, M.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction of U(IV) by octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in kerosene from phosphoric acid was carried out. The effect of extractant, phosphoric acid, uranium, Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentration on the extraction process was separately investigated. The effect of different reagents and temperature on the stripping of U(IV) was also investigated. The results obtained for the extraction of U(IV) by HDEHP showed that the extraction with the increase in HDEHP and Fe(III) concentration while it decreases with the increase in phosphoric acid, uranium and Fe(II) concentration. In case of extraction with OPAP, the extraction of U(IV) was found to decrease with the phosphoric acid, Fe(II) and initial uranium concentration while the increase in OPAP concentration slightly affected the extraction. The use of high phosphoric acid concentration as stripper at low temperature was found to give the best stripping results

  15. Effective extractants for the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkina, G.A.; Zanina, A.S.; Shergina, S.I.; Sokolov, I.E.; Kotlyarevskii, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction power of newly obtained pure methoxy-1,3-diketones in diluents and in their mixtures with electron-donating additives during the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium was investigated. High separation factors were obtained; no appreciable amounts of sodium and potassium were found in the extract after total extraction of the lithium. 9 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Sustainable extraction of molecules for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, GianPaolo; Ferri, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Since several years, the ENEA Innovation Laboratory for Agro-Industrial, proposed activities of research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), focusing on sustainability characteristics of the process. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, has a low energy consumption and requires a lower number of process steps compared to conventional extractions. The process also responds to the requirements imposed by the legislation for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical extracts. [it

  17. Sustainable extraction of molecules for potable alcohol, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Gian Paolo; Ferri, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Since many years the Laboratory of Agro-Industrial Innovation (UTAGRI-INN) ENEA proposed research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), aiming on the sustainability of the process characteristics. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, It has reduced energy consumption and requires a number of process step lower than the extractions traditional. The process also responds to the requirements required by the regulations for food use, cosmetics and pharmaceutical extracts. [it

  18. leaves extract on mild steel in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The volume of the cathodic hydrogen gas evolved was also plotted as a .... prevent the escape of hydrogen gas. The volume .... Clivia nobilis leaves extract on the flow of current ... behaviour of ethanol extract of Piper guinensis as a green ...

  19. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  20. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fats. The alkaline alcohol or aqueous extracts may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate..., methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and...

  1. Automated extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...

  2. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  3. Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction using Deep Learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available components, such as image enhancement. We pose minutiae extraction as a machine learning problem and propose a deep neural network – MENet, for Minutiae Extraction Network – to learn a data-driven representation of minutiae points. By using the existing...

  4. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fracti...

  5. ( Asteraceae ) methanol extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol vehicle did not affect H. pylori growth. Conclusion: The observed antibacterial effect of G. glutinosum extracts may be of benefit as an adjuvant treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori. Key words: Gymnosperma glutinosum, Helicobacter pylori, methanol extract, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  6. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  7. Immunostimulant activity of standardised extracts of Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the immunomodulating activity of Mangifera indica. (MI) and Curcuma domestica (CD) extracts in mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely, vehicle, untreated, MI and CD groups (n = 6). They were treated with MI (160 mg/kg) or CD (200 mg/kg) extracts, and vehicle for control ...

  8. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov

    2014-01-01

    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  9. Mastering aesthetics in post-extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goené, R.J.; van Daelen, A.C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients increasingly seek implant-supported restorations that can be delivered as quickly and non-invasively as possible. Many also prefer to avoid wearing a removable prothesis after tooth extraction. Implants that are placed immediately in fresh extraction sockets and provisionalized immediately

  10. Extraction, Isolation And Characterization Of Bioactive Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the ... The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic ...

  11. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  12. Extraction of molybdenum VI by alpha benzoinoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achache, M.; Meklati, M.

    1990-06-01

    The concentration of molybdenum, was studied using alpha benzoinoxime dissolved in chloroform. Several acids and salt at different levels of concentration were investigated as well as other parameters such as (mixing time, extractant to metal ratio, temperature etc.) The molybdenum stippling was also studied in alkaline medium with the subsequent recovery of the extractant and solvent

  13. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  14. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  15. Comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract concentrations in a ...

  16. EXTRACT OF COMBRETUM MICRANTHUM AS CORROSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... methanol extract CM is a good adsorption inhibitor for the corrosion of Al-Si-Mg in 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Tafel polarization analysis indicates that the studied plant extract is a mixed ..... (2008). [2] Shreir, L. L., Jarman, R. A. and Burstein, G. T.. Corrosion ... [6] Maqsood Ahmad Malik, Mohammad Ali Hashim,.

  17. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...

  18. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Keywords; Anacardium occidentale, aqueous extract, gastric acid secretion, rats, intragastric. *Address for correspondence: . esajibola@yahoo.com. Revised version accepted: March 2010. INTRODUCTION. The plant, Anacardium occidentale. L belongs to the. Family; Anacardiaceae. It is popularly called cashew. Extracts ...

  19. ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied in mice. O.sanctum leaf extract produced significant anxiolytic activity in plus – maze and open field behaviour test models. The effect was compared with diazepam, a standard antianxiety drug.

  20. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent)

  1. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  2. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  3. Recent patents on the extraction of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented during the last decade related to the extraction of carotenoids from various forms of organic matter (fruit, vegetables, animals), with an emphasis on the methods and mechanisms exploited by these technologies, and on technical solutions for the practical problems related to these technologies. I present and classify 29 methods related to the extraction processes (physical, mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic). The large number of processes for extraction by means of supercritical fluids and the growing number of large-scale industrial plants suggest a positive trend towards using this technique that is currently slowed by its cost. This trend should be reinforced by growing restrictions imposed on the use of most organic solvents for extraction of food products and by increasingly strict waste management regulations that are indirectly promoting the use of extraction processes that leave the residual (post-extraction) matrix substantially free from solvents and compounds that must subsequently be removed or treated. None of the reviewed approaches is the best answer for every extractable compound and source, so each should be considered as one of several alternatives, including the use of a combination of extraction approaches.

  4. Bibliography of extraction chromatography, ch. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.; Drent, W.

    1975-01-01

    A bibliography of reviews, books and publications dealing with laminar extraction chromatography is given. A tabular survey of experimental data on column extraction chromatographic investigations, stationary phases and support materials is presented. An author index and corporative author index are included. This bibliography refers to various publications relevant to nuclear interest

  5. Chemical speciation analysis and environmental behaviour of 127I and 129I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Violeta

    2011-10-15

    fraction of the released 129I. This means that geochemical models based on stable iodine behavior may not necessarily be able to predict the present behavior of I-129. Concentrations of 129I and 127I in archived Fucus Vesiculosus samples collected between 2002 - 2010 at Romoe (German Bight), Klint (Kattegat) and Bornholm were analysed. Since previous investigations have shown that iodine speciation differ between the sites a comparison between 129I/127I ratios in seaweed relative to water at the three sites were done in order to evaluate if uptake was independent on speciation. The 129I/127I (seaweed) relative 129I/127I (seawater) were found to be 0.5 for the North Sea (2005), 0.7 (2006) for Southern Kattegat and 0.97 (2007) for Bornholm. In spite of the very different iodine speciation at the three sites the concentration ratio seaweed to water is more or less the same indicating that Fucus Vesiculosus can be used as a bio-indicator for iodine-129 in the marine environment.

  6. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  7. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  8. Indium extraction by an acidic extractant associated or not with synergetic agents: importance of inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz-Grandmont, G.; Taheri, M.; Brunette, J.P.; Leroy, M.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are presented for indium extraction from low acidity media (pH value between 1 and 4) and at low concentration by a chelating extractant alone or associated to a solvatant or a lipophylic ammonium salt. Modifications in the nature and/or concentration of inorganic anions can transform the extraction process and allow to change metal distribution between phases [fr

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  10. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  11. Supercritical CO2 extraction of raw propolis and its dry ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Paviani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of propolis extract were prepared and analyzed with respect to their global extraction yields and with respect to the concentration of the following markers: 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid; 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 4-methoxy-3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone. The extract EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis was obtained by the conventional method from raw propolis using ethanol as solvent. The extracts (SFE were obtained by supercritical solvent extraction from the raw propolis using supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2, with and without the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent. The fractionated supercritical extracts (FSCE were obtained by fractionation (extract and raffinate of the dry EEP with sc-CO2. EEP yields of 39.5% were obtained and maximum global extraction yields were 7.3% for SFE with no co-solvent, 51% for SFE with 15% ethanol and 18% for the FSCE extract fraction. The concentrations of the markers in the different extracts differed as a function of the operational parameters, indicating that the addition of co-solvent and the selectivity of sc-CO2 could be manipulated so as to obtain extracts with the yields and concentrations of interest.

  12. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S.M. Al-Nimer

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient, of comfrey extracted with methanol whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 280-283

  13. Data Extraction Based on Page Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yichao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The information we need has some confusing problems such as dispersion and different organizational structure. In addition, because of the existence of unstructured data like natural language and images, extracting local content pages is extremely difficult. In the light of of the problems above, this article will apply a method combined with page structure analysis algorithm and page data extraction algorithm to accomplish the gathering of network data. In this way, the problem that traditional complex extraction model behave poorly when dealing with large-scale data is perfectly solved and the page data extraction efficiency is also boosted to a new level. In the meantime, the article will also make a comparison about pages and content of different types between the methods of DOM structure based on the page and HTML regularities of distribution. After all of those, we may find a more efficient extract method.

  14. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  15. Research for actinides extractants from various wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Cuillerdier, C.; Condamines, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the actinides solvent extraction research undertaken in Fontenay-aux-Roses. Two kinds of extractants are investigated; those usable for the improvement of the nowadays nuclear fuels reprocessing and those necessary for advanced fuels cycles which include the minor actinides (Np, Am) recovery for a further elimination through nuclear reactions. In the first class the mono and diamides, alternative to the organophosphorus extractants, TBP and polyfunctional phosphonates, showed promising properties. The main results are discussed. For the future efficient extractants for trivalent actinides-lanthanides group separations are suitable. The point about the actinides (III) - lanthanides (III) group separation chemistry and the development of some of these extractants are given

  16. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  17. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  18. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  19. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  20. Biomechanical considerations in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Dasari, Arun Kumar; Sinojiya, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction can be regarded as a valuable treatment option in certain malocclusions to obtain excellence in orthodontic results in terms of function, aesthetics and stability. This treatment alternative is indicated in clinical situations like mild to moderate class III malocclusion, mild anterior mandibular tooth size excess, periodontally compromised teeth, ectopic eruption of mandibular incisor and minimal openbite tendencies. Unlike in premolar extraction cases, space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases is unique in which the extraction space will be in the middle of the arch. The end result of space closure in these cases should be well aligned, upright, anterior teeth with parallel roots and the goal can be achieved with the bodily tooth movement through proper application of biomechanics. The purpose of this article is to explain the biomechanics of space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

  1. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  2. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  4. Comparative synergistic (technetium-actinide) extraction chemistry by tributylphosphate and some amide extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condamines, N.; Musikas, C.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, technetium (TcO 4 - ) leads to bad interferences in the extractions, being synergistically co-extracted with different actinide cations as Uranium (VI), Plutonium (IV) and Zirconium (IV). It destroys the hydrazine in the reductive partition of U and Pu, it decreases the decontamination of U and Pu from fission products. Thus, its extraction behaviour with new extractants as N,N-diakylamides is useful to be known. TcO 4 - extraction in nitric acid media is compared for TBP and different amides. The influence of nitric acidity is related to the amides formula

  5. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Using Ultrasound and Its Process Extraction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqing Liao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the intensification of extraction process of glycyrrhizic acid (GA from Glycyrrhiza uralensis using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. Various process parameters such as ultrasonic power, ultrasonic frequency, extraction temperature, and extraction time which affect the extraction yield were optimized. The results showed that all process parameters had exhibited significant influences on the GA extraction. The highest GA yield of 217.7 mg/g was obtained at optimized parameters of 125 W, 55 kHz, 25 °C, and 10 min. Furthermore, the extraction kinetics model of this process was also investigated based on Fick’s first law available in the literature. Kinetic parameters such as equilibrium concentration (Ce and integrated influence coefficient (λ for different ultrasonic powers, ultrasonic frequencies, and extraction temperatures were predicted. Model validations were done successfully with the average of relative deviation between 0.96% and 4.36% by plotting experimental and predicted values of concentration of GA in extract. This indicated that the developed extraction model could reflect the effectiveness of the extraction of GA from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and therefore serve as the guide for comprehending other UAE process.

  6. Selective and Efficient Solvent Extraction of Copper(II Ions from Chloride Solutions by Oxime Extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kaboli Tanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxime extractants 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde oxime (HL1 and 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde oxime (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Suitable lipophilic nature of the prepared extractants allowed examining the ability of these molecules for extraction-separation of copper from its mixture with normally associated metal ions by performing competitive extraction experiments of Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II ions from chloride solutions. Both ligands transfer selectively the copper ions into dichloromethane by a cation exchange mechanism. Conventional log-log analysis and isotherm curves showed that Cu(II ions are extracted as the complexes with 1:2 metal to ligand ratio by both extractants. Verification of the effect of the organic diluent used in the extraction of copper ions by HL1 and HL2 demonstrated that the extraction efficiency varies as: dichloromethane ~ dichloroethane > toluene > xylene > ethylacetate. Time dependency investigation of the extraction processes revealed that the kinetics of the extraction of copper by HL2 is more rapid than that of HL1. The application of the ligands for extraction-separation of copper ions from leach solutions of cobalt and nickel-cadmium filter-cakes of a zinc production plants was evaluated.

  7. Enzyme assisted extraction of biomolecules as an approach to novel extraction technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Rao, Priyanka; Rathod, Virendra K

    2018-06-01

    An interest in the development of extraction techniques of biomolecules from various natural sources has increased in recent years due to their potential applications particularly for food and nutraceutical purposes. The presence of polysaccharides such as hemicelluloses, starch, pectin inside the cell wall, reduces the extraction efficiency of conventional extraction techniques. Conventional techniques also suffer from low extraction yields, time inefficiency and inferior extract quality due to traces of organic solvents present in them. Hence, there is a need of the green and novel extraction methods to recover biomolecules. The present review provides a holistic insight to various aspects related to enzyme aided extraction. Applications of enzymes in the recovery of various biomolecules such as polyphenols, oils, polysaccharides, flavours and colorants have been highlighted. Additionally, the employment of hyphenated extraction technologies can overcome some of the major drawbacks of enzyme based extraction such as longer extraction time and immoderate use of solvents. This review also includes hyphenated intensification techniques by coupling conventional methods with ultrasound, microwave, high pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide. The last section gives an insight on application of enzyme immobilization as a strategy for large scale extraction. Immobilization of enzymes on magnetic nanoparticles can be employed to enhance the operational performance of the system by multiple use of expensive enzymes making them industrially and economically feasible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of urinary cortisol excretion by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da; Mendonca, B.B. de; Nicolau, W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It used Gamma Coat 125 cortisol Kit provided by Clinical Assays, Incstar, USA, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. It was performed 32 assays from which it was obtained from 0.1 to 0.47 u g/d l of sensitivity. The intra-run precision was varied from 8.29 +- 3.38% and 8.19 +-4.72% for high and low levels, respectively for non-extracted cortisol, and 9.72 +- 1.94% and 9.54 +- 44% for high and low levels, respectively, for extracted cortisol. The inter-run precision was 15.98% and 16.15% for high level of non-extracted cortisol, respectively. For the low level it obtained 17.25% and 18.59% for non-extracted and extracted cortisol respectively. It was evaluated 24-hour urine basal samples from 43 normal subjects, and 53 obese (body mass index > 30) and 53 Cushing's syndrome patients. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98.1% for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively) and the specificity was the same for both methods (100%). It was noticed a positive correlation between the two methods in all the groups studied (p s syndrome. (author)

  9. Potential of mangrove Avicennia rumphiana extract as an antioxidant agent using multilevel extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmartiwi, L.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Jariyah

    2018-04-01

    Avicennia rumphiana is one of abundant mangrove found in Indonesia. Multilevel extraction methods were simultaneously conducted to screen the antioxidant activity from mangrove. The leaves, fruits and barks were consequently extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The presence of phenolic, flavonoids and tannins compounds were characterized by quantitative and qualitative phytochemical assay as well as the antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH-free radical scavenging assay. The phytochemical test revealed that all of the extracts showed positive result. The fruits extract exhibited the highest phenolic, flavonoid and tannin (23.86 mg/g, 13.77 mg/g and 74.63 mg/g), respectively. The extracts were further confirmed for antioxidant using IC50 value and revealed that ethyl acetate extract has antioxidant activity better than n-hexane and ethyl acetate extract. Furthermore, this study indicated that mangrove Avicennia rumphiana could be subsequently explored for other biological activities due to their potential secondary metabolites.

  10. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. One-step extraction of polar drugs from plasma by Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilařová, Veronika; Sultani, Mumtaz; Ask, Kristine Skoglund

    2017-01-01

    in the pores of a thin polymeric membrane, a well-known extraction principle also used in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME). However, the new PALME technique offers a more user-friendly setup in which the supported liquid membrane is incorporated in a 96 well plate system. Thus, high......The new microextraction technique named parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was introduced as an alternative approach to liquid-liquid extraction of charged analytes from aqueous samples. The concept is based on extraction of analytes across a supported liquid membrane sustained...... for extraction of polar basic drugs was developed in the present work. The basic drugs hydralazine, ephedrine, metaraminol, salbutamol, and cimetidine were used as model analytes, and were extracted from alkalized human plasma into an aqueous solution via the supported liquid membrane. The extraction...

  12. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  13. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  14. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  15. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Drmić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many novel and innovative techniques are nowadays researched and explored in order to replace or improve classical, thermal processing technologies. One of newer technique is technique of minimal food processing, under what we assume ultrasound processing. Ultrasound technology can be very useful for minimal food processing because transmission of acoustic energy through product is fast and complete, which allows reduction in total processing time, and therefore lower energy consumption. Industrial processing is growing more and more waste products, and in desire of preservation of global recourses and energy efficiency, several ways of active compounds extraction techniques are now explored. The goal is to implement novel extraction techniques in food and pharmaceutical industry as well in medicine. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds offers increase in yield, and reduction or total avoiding of solvent usage. Increase in temperature of treatment is controlled and restricted, thereby preserving extracted bioactive compounds. In this paper, several methods of ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials are shown. Ultrasound can improve classic mechanisms of extraction, and thereby offer novel possibilities of commercial extraction of desired compounds. Application of sonochemistry (ultrasound chemistry is providing better yield in desired compounds and reduction in treatment time.

  16. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  17. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  18. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, S.M.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  20. First beam extracted from the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    On the 25th July 1986 the first 2,8 μA 66 MeV proton beam was successfully extracted from the separated sector cyclotron (SSC) at the National Accelerator Centre at Faure, South Africa. The beam has now also been transported for the first time down the high-energy beamline up to the last Faraday cup in front of the neutron therapy vault. A brief description of the extraction system of the SSC, consisting of an electrostatic extraction channel and two septum magnets is given

  1. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  2. Software for Extracting 3D - MSSTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Kreiborg, Sven

    2003-01-01

    The deep structure of an image is investigated, and a Multi-Scale Singularity Tree (MSST) is constructed based on the pair-wise annihilations of critical points. This report contains two main contributions. Firstly, we describe a fast, simple, and robust method of extracting feature lines from data...... sets of up to four dimen- sions, which we apply in order to extract critical paths from scale-spaces. Secondly, we investigate the extracting of MSSTs using either support regions or extrema partitions. Given an image, both methods produce a binary tree that mathematically represents the topological...

  3. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  4. Newer methods of extraction of teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHendra Chandha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic extraction methods are deemed to be important to minimize alveolar bone loss after tooth extraction. With the advent of such techniques, exodontia is no more a dreaded procedure in anxious patients. Newer system and techniques for extraction of teeth have evolved in the recent few decades. This article reviews and discusses new techniques to make simple and complex exodontias more efficient with improved patient outcomes. This includes physics forceps, powered periotome, piezosurgery, benex extractor, sonic instrument for bone surgery, lasers.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Gentiana lutea L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikin, Katarina; Menković, Nebojsa; Zdunić, Gordana; Stević, Tatjana; Radanović, Dragoja; Janković, Teodora

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of flowers and leaves of Gentiana lutea L., together with the isolated compounds mangiferin, isogentisin and gentiopicrin, were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant. A variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the yeast Candida albicans has been included in this study. Both extracts and isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.12-0.31 mg/ml. Our study indicated that the synergistic activity of the pure compounds may be responsible for the good antimicrobial effect of the extracts. Quantification of the secondary metabolites was performed using HPLC.

  6. Solvent extraction in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, H.; Naylor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction techniques have been used in the uranium nuclear fuel cycle in three main areas; concentration of uranium from ore leach liquor, purification of ore concentrates and fuel reprocessing. Solvent extraction has been extended to the removal of transuranic elements from active waste liquor, the recovery of uranium from natural sources and the recovery of noble metals from active waste liquor. Schemes are presented for solvent extraction of uranium using the Amex or Dapex process; spent fuel reprocessing and the Purex process. Recent and future developments of the techniques are outlined. (UK)

  7. Extraction products of solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-04

    A method is described for the manufacture of liquid products from pressure extracts of solid carbon-containing material by destructive hydrogenation, characterized in that the pressure extracts are hydrogenated in admixture with products of high-molecular weight formed during a previous destructive hydrogenation of another part of the same or other pressure extract and which has been collected as liquid without extensive cooling of the hot products of the reaction, which came from the reaction chamber where the previous destructive hydrogenation took place.

  8. Extraction of latent images from printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Vladislav; Fedoseev, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic technology for extraction of latent images from printed media such as documents, banknotes, financial securities, etc. This technology includes image processing by adaptively constructed Gabor filter bank for obtaining feature images, as well as subsequent stages of feature selection, grouping and multicomponent segmentation. The main advantage of the proposed technique is versatility: it allows to extract latent images made by different texture variations. Experimental results showing performance of the method over another known system for latent image extraction are given.

  9. Spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Sequential extraction of uranium metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, M.M.; Spitz, H.B.; Connick, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Samples of uranium contaminated dirt collected from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill were analyzed for uranium using a sequential extraction protocol involving a series of five increasingly aggressive solvents. The quantity of uranium extracted from the contaminated dirt by each reagent can aid in predicting the fate and transport of the uranium contamination in the environment. Uranium was separated from each fraction using anion exchange, electrodeposition and analyzed by alpha spectroscopy analysis. Results demonstrate that approximately 77 % of the uranium was extracted using NH 4 Ac in 25 % acetic acid. (author)

  11. Actinide extractants for the nuclear industry of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Morisseau, J.C.; Hoel, P.; Guillaume, B.

    1987-06-01

    Non organo-phosphorus extractants properties regarding the extractions of actinides in nuclear fuels reprocessing are presented. N,N-dialkylamides are proposed as alternatives to TBP.N,N'-tetraalkylamides or pentaalkyl propane diamides properties are reported. They show that those bidentate extractants are alternatives to bidentate organophosphorus extractants for actinides (III) extraction from concentrated nitric acid. 11 figs, 15 refs

  12. Pain and chewing sensitivity during fixed orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gulsilay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in pain perception and chewing sensitivity between extraction and non-extraction patients. Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males, 19 females) were included in this study who were classified as extraction (n=15; 6 males, 9 females) and non-extraction patients (n=15; 7 males, 8 females). The mean age of patients were 15.10±1.83 years in non-extraction group and 15.44±0.75 years in extraction group. The patients were asked to complete the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire and they were asked to mark the presence or absence of sensitivity during 7 days after the first arch wire placement. Pain intensity comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Friedman test was used to analyze within-group differences over time. There were no significant differences in pain scores between the groups. Pain levels significantly decreased between day 1 and day 3 in both the groups. No differences were found in the chewing sensitivity between the non-extraction and extraction groups. No difference in the pain perception was observed between the extraction and non-extraction patients during the 7 days after arch wire placement.

  13. PAIN AND CHEWING SENSITIVITY DURING FIXED ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT IN EXTRACTION AND NON-EXTRACTION PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşilay SAYAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in pain perception and chewing sensitivity between extraction and non-extraction patients. Subjects and Methods: Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males, 19 females were included in this study who were classified as extraction (n=15; 6 males, 9 females and non-extraction patients (n=15; 7 males, 8 females. The mean age of patients were 15.10±1.83 years in non-extraction group and 15.44±0.75 years in extraction group. The patients were asked to complete the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS questionnaire and they were asked to mark the presence or absence of sensitivity during 7 days after the first arch wire placement. Pain intensity comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Friedman test was used to analyze within-group differences over time. Results: There were no significant differences in pain scores between the groups. Pain levels significantly decreased between day 1 and day 3 in both the groups. No differences were found in the chewing sensitivity between the non-extraction and extraction groups. Conclusion: No difference in the pain perception was observed between the extraction and non-extraction patients during the 7 days after arch wire placement.

  14. Antioxidant activities of extracts from five edible mushrooms using different extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphaphit Boonsong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractions were performed of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of five edible mushroom samples—Lentinus edodes, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus eous, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Auricularia auricular—using three different extractants. Among the three different extractants, 50% (volume per volume; v/v ethanol was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction from the mushroom samples. The 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes contained higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than in the other mushroom extract samples. The antioxidant activities of 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of dried L. edodes showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay (64.34% compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. The ethanolic extract showed a lower reducing power of 0.10 compared to BHA and α-tocopherol at 500 μg/mL. Moreover, the L. edodes ethanolic extract also had the highest chelating ability (66.28% which was lower than for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at 500 μg/mL and showed the strongest superoxide radical-scavenging activity (64.17% compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Therefore, the 50% (v/v ethanolic extract of L. edodes could be used as a potential natural antioxidative source or as an ingredient in the fish and fishery product industries.

  15. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  16. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  17. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  18. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S M; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Comfrey extracts (1% w/v) were prepared using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. They were exposed to wavelengths of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C for 10 min. The principal peak on the UV-spectroscopy scanning, the flavonoids, reducing power, and the allantoin levels were determined before and after irradiation. UV irradiation reduces the magnitude of the principle peak at 355 nm wavelength of the aqueous infusion and methanol extracts. It improves the levels of flavonoids and reducing power of the aqueous extracts and increases the levels of allanotoin in aqueous and methanol extracts. UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient of comfrey extracted with methanol, whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power, and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols.

  19. Technology Corner: Automated Data Extraction Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Flor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of Facebook’s popularity, law enforcement agents often use it as a key source of evidence. But like many user digital trails, there can be a large amount of data to extract for analysis. In this paper, we explore the basics of extracting data programmatically from a user’s Facebook via a Web app. A data extraction app requests data using the Facebook Graph API, and Facebook returns a JSON object containing the data. Before an app can access a user’s Facebook data, the user must log into Facebook and give permission. Thus, this approach is limited to situations where users give consent to the data extraction.

  20. Extracting pronunciation rules for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Various automated techniques can be used to generalise from phonemic lexicons through the extraction of grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets. These techniques are particularly useful when developing pronunciation models for previously unmodelled languages...